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CHAPTER I THE PROJECT AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction Nowadays, environment offers abundant renewable sources of energy for the consumption of human society. Heat, wind, chemical, hydroelectric and solar energy are just few examples. However, most of the environmentalists stressed out that solar energy as a source of energy is the most environmental friendly. Solar Power has a lot of promise, but until recently there has not been an adequate way to store the energy that the sun produces. Scientists have come up with a new fuel cell process that mimics the way plants store the sun rays that are both efficient and inexpensive. Without getting too technical, the system uses sunlight to separate waters hydrogen and oxygen atoms and then puts them back together in fuel cell, providing energy. This means that the limitless supply of clean energy might be available just a few years away. With the daily economic meltdown and fluctuation of energy prices, many are thinking of installing an alternate source of energy that will contribute to energy needs and reduction of power bills. The development of science and civilization is closely linked to the availability of energy in useful forms. Modern society consumes vast amounts of energy in all forms: light, heat, electrical, mechanical, chemical and nuclear. The rate at which energy is produced or consumed is called power, although this term is sometimes used in common

speech synonymously with energy. Sources of energy have evolved from human and animal power to fossil fuels, uranium, water power, wind, and the sun; they are mainly the renewable energy and the non-renewable energy. But the demand for energy has increased steadily, not only because of the growing population but also because of the greater number of technological goods available and the increased affluence that has brought these goods within the reach of a larger proportion of the population. A non- renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused on a scale which sustains its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can recreate them. However, renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or firm heat generated deep within the earth which includes solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels. On the other hand there are five principal renewable sources of energy that found in the environment such as the sun, the wind, the flowing water, the biomass and the heat from within the earth. Solar energy is energy that comes directly from the sun. The sun is a constant natural source of heat and light, and its radiation can be converted to electricity. Solar energy can be converted to useful work or heat by using a collector to absorb solar radiation, allowing much of the suns radiant energy to be converted to heat. This heat can be used directly in residential,

industrial, and agricultural operations; converted to mechanical or electrical power, or applied in chemical reactions for production of fuels and chemicals. Conversion of solar energy to electrical energy will not be possible without Photovoltaic system, it is considered as one of the most versatile solar technologies, because of modularity. Moreover, it was designed for power needs ragging from milliwatts to megawatts. It can be used also to provide power for applications as small as a wristwatch and as to large as an entire community. Furthermore, it can be used in centralized system, such as a generator in a power plant, or in dispersed applications, such as in remote areas not readily accessible to utility grid lines. A trainer as an instructional aid for instruction is important for the students taking up Electrical Technology subject as same with the Electrical Technology students in a laboratory works that needs training facilities in performing laboratory exercises especially in Basic Electricity subject. The theories and concepts acquired can be put into practice or apply in real situation. In application of the acquired knowledge, it is necessary to have a trainer for the students to be familiarized when it comes to alternative source of energy. Discussion of theories with the aid of books in Basic Electrical subject can be more interesting and significant if this will be shown in an actual manner. The trainer enables the students to have enough practical learning situations which in turn gathered further understanding of the different sources of energy.

That is why, the researchers aim to design and construct a trainer that would be used for instruction purposes. More so, this study aim also to develop a new source of energy that comes from a natural source. This is focused specifically in the solar energy. In line with this vision, the researchers will conduct a design and development of Prototype Solar Power Trainer (PSPT). The PSPT offers the world pollution-free energy abundance for everyone. It promises the appearance of free energy technology in the public domain, which is the beginning of a truly civilized age. Thus, a device can provide electricity having less negative impact to the environment. In addition, the design and development of Solar Power Trainer is not only beneficial to both technology education and the students of BatsStateU, but it also serve as a new source of energy. The PSPT can be used as an alternative energy source to supplement a primary power source and to enhance the reliability of the overall system and prevent power interruptions.

Objectives of the Study The study aims to design and develop a Prototype Solar Power Trainer (PSPT). Specifically, the study aims to obtain the following: 1. Identification of the projects requirements and considerations in terms of 1.1. function/utility; and 1.2. strength/safety.

2. Preparation of the project plan which includes: 2.1. layouts/schematic diagram; and 2.2. determination of suitable materials. 3. Bill of materials and specifications. 4. Fabrication and assembly of the Prototype Solar Power Trainer based on the designed layout. 5. Evaluation of the prototype Solar Power Trainer through actual testing.

Scope Limitation and Delimitation of the Study This study is focused primarily on the construction of Prototype Solar Power Trainer intended for laboratory purposes and applicable for power generation through light coming from the sun. This trainer will absorb sunlight and with the use of solar panels it will be converted into electricity. The study will cover the determination of different system components such as projects design, voltage regulator, solar battery unit, voltmeter, ammeter, switches, solar panel and loads which are four led lights to be installed in the trainer. Fabrication of the trainer will be based on the design layout and schematic diagram, estimation of cost of construction of the equipment and evaluation of effectiveness of the trainer through actual testing. The trainer will be utilized during sunny days and this will be positioned to a place where sunlight strikes for a long period of time. This means that the solar tracker will not be included.

This trainer can produce a maximum of 9V, but due to the limited resources; this study will not includes the determination of actual solar radiation and mathematical solution data.

Significance of the Study Now that global warming and adverse nature phenomenon get serious, usage of non-renewable resources must be reduced or avoided as much as possible, even in recharging gadget batteries, the design and development of solar power trainer would be beneficial to the following: First, this is beneficial to the society. The researchers believed that the construction of Solar Power Trainer would be very helpful to minimize the consumable electricity of house hold. PSPT will serve as a new source of energy that can provide electricity having less negative impact to the society. It is a new type of energy generating device which is environmental friendly. Second, this is beneficial to BatStateU - Malvar. The trainer can be used as a teaching means for the students to fully understand the actual operation and application of the trainer. It will help them to study and to analyze the performance and significance of different sources of energy which are very important in the field of electrical technology. This is also beneficial to the Electrical Technology Students of BatStateU Malvar Campus. Through this study, the students can grasp knowledge in a very

simple way and only for a short period of time. This may encourage the students to study and to learn more about different sources of energy. Lastly, this is beneficial to the future researchers. This study may serve as a reference of their study. Moreover, it will give them important information that could enhance their capabilities in making a similar study.