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The government is the main provider of public health services. 5.

5 billion ringgit or 5% of the social sector development budget is being allocated in the 8th Malaysian Plan i.e. increase of 4.75% from the 7th Malaysian Plan. 95% of the allocation finance the ongoing construction and equipping of new hospitals and clinics - WHO report (2003) The Government had allocated RM460 million under the Seventh Malaysia Plan and RM862 million under the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) for rural health development, that is for 425 projects. - Materia Medica Malaysiana: ..hospitals were at first expressions of a new pride in public provision and egalitarian care, but they increasingly became prey to bureaucratic standards and norms, due to both the understandable emphasis on safety and the need for public accountability. As medical science progressed, hospitals also became dominated increasingly by technical issues, an ever larger portion of their budget being spent on services and medical equipment. The dominant ideology remained fiercely scientific, the battle against the bugs being the front line. The discipline was almost military. Jones, Peter Blundell (2002) The hospital as building type.The Architectural Review Hospitals have also gradually become the places where most of the population are born and many die, yet it took a great deal of protest -mainly from women in the 1970s and '80s -- to turn the maternity hospital from an emergency ward into a place fit to celebrate a rite of passage, a normal birth being no sickness but a joy. Jones, Peter Blundell (2002) The hospital as building type.The Architectural Review

Malaysia Healthcare Scenario

Ministry of Health Malaysia Vision: To develop a nation of healthy individuals, families and communities through a health system that is equitable, affordable, technologically appropriate, environmentally adaptable, consumer friendly and which promotes individual responsibility and community participation for an enhanced quality of life.

On health standards, the minister says it is influenced by several factors which include socio-economic status, educational attainment, provision of good basic amenities as housing, water and electricity and not just the provision of health services alone.Materia Medica Malaysiana:

Problem & Issue In Healthcare HEALTH

health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity - WHO

health is a state of complete physical, psychological, social and spiritual well being - ISLAMIC
WORLDVIEW "Malaysia is to be a nation of Healthy Individual, families and communities through a health system that is equitable, affordable, efficient, technological appropriate, environmentally adaptable and consumer friendly with emphasis on quality, innovation, health promotion and respect for human dignity abd which promotes individual responsibility and community participation towards an enhanced quality of life"
Ministry Of Health


Malaysian Health Vision

The organization productivity is depends on the effectiveness and efficiency of the staff where workspace should be utilized in a dynamic manner which can caters for convenient of working environment - RICHARD C. HAINES
(2003), Maximizing Physcian Producctivity Page 17-18

Space planning is a process of space allocation for a propose user. It also a process of deciding how office space can be most efficiently and effectively being used based on a user and operational and aesthetic requirements and financial limitations.





The arrangement of the space must fully utilize with comfortable workspace. - Joel Kriesberg, DC,
integrative Madicine, Vol 6, No.6 (Dec 2007/Jan 2008), Green Madicine : An Integral Approach That Benefits Physicians, Patients, Communities and Environment




Definition Air Quality Lightings



Access to rest Areas Environment Factors Noise IT Equiptment Clinical Equiptment Office Furnitures

It is where the working department should be place in a logical and strategic sequence for a convenient for the staff and user - TOMPKINS,
AJ, White, JA Bozer, YA and Tanchoco, JMA (2003) Facilities Planning (3rd Edition ) John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ

Convenient workspace allocation with related department and also work team that are in a close proximity can create effective communication - linda A. Greenberg
RN BSN, Herman Miller For Healthcare Inc. Plannuing a Nurse Station For Clinical Function

Emergency Department Specialist Clinic Day Care (A Multidisciplinary Day Surgery & Medical Day Care) Dialysis Unit Labour and Delivery (L&D) Unit Intensive Care Unit (ICU) / High Dependency Ward (HDW) / Cardiology Rehabilitative Ward ( CRW ) Burns Unit Coronary Care Unit (CCU) Special Care Nursery/ Neonatal ICU (NICU) Infant Nutrition Unit Operating Theatre (OT) Wards CSSD/TSSU Imaging Departments Pathology Department Pharmacy Catering Transport Systems On-Call Complex / On-Call Rooms Hospital Information System (HIS)
Carpark Space requirement MOH Space guideline

a) 117 main and district government hospitals throughout the countries b) Approx 864 community polyclinics (previously known as health clinics) c) 95 maternal and child health centres d) 168 mobile clinics e) 1676 rural community health clinics (klinik desa) f) More than 10 hospitals from 28 beds to 600 over g)beds across the country in different stages of completion 2002 figures, (now more)

Public Sector "Means any premises in which one or more members of the public receive healthcare services" - Part1, Preliminary : Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 "Means any facility used or intended to be used for the provision of healthcare services established, maintained, operated or provide by the Government but excludes privatized or corporatised Government healthcare Facilities" Part1, Preliminary : Section 2. Interpretation Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998

Healthcare Facilities


Private Sector


Healthcare Statistic in Malaysia 2002

Government Healthcare Facilities

Space planning

Health care presents a different problem in every country for the way it is organised is a response to geography, climate, historical development, economic situation and social, cultural and political conditions Appreciation of these differences is fundamental to understanding of the situation which prevails in a country.
Anthony Cox, Philip Groves.1990. Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities . Gt.Britain.Butterworth & Co.


disabled, breast -feeding room and nappy change Prayer rooms Outdoor therapeutic gardens meeting room general administration office Hot Water System Drainage Fence Access Road Staff Accommodation Balai Pelawat with Cafeteria
Private hospital space requirement UK healthcare Space Guideline America Healthcare Space Guideline

Other Areas

Space in Architecture Space in architecture has many dimensions. These dimensions include the physical dimensions that define the enclosed space, the time and reasoning it was conceived, as well as the intrinsic value of culture, function, social, economics, esthetics, technical, decoration...that man, as user of that space, views them, provide the space as architectural volumegiving space as integrated reality i.e. essence of architecture, a reflection of conceptions of life, an environment to which our lives unfold (Barry (1993) p 30-32). On their (Rapoport, Watson (1972)) survey of physical standards (including environmental standards) in Western nation, India and Japan, they found out that these standards are those rules or norms institutionalised in a society that define acceptable levels of daylight, heat, noise, room and furniture size written in the form of a building codes established by government ordinance or as described in handbooks of architectural practices Rapoport, Watson (1972) further stated that to some degree these standards have been derived from ergonomic and anthropometric studies carried out by building research organization in each country as well as unconsciously, through cultural processes


"Essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technologies made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self determination" - The declaration of
Atma Ata in 1978, PAM CPD August 2008