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3GPP Time Line and Evolution

R99

R4

R5

R6

R7

R8

R9

R10

3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA

2001

2000

UMTS
UMTS
2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA IMS DL HSPA UL
2002
2003
2004
2005
HSPA
IMS
DL
HSPA
UL

2006

2007

HSPA +
HSPA
+
MMTel
MMTel
2008 2009 Common IMS LTE EPC
2008
2009
Common
IMS
LTE
EPC
2010 2011 LTE Adv
2010
2011
LTE
Adv
3GPP Time Line and Evolution R6 R7 R10 2001 2000 UMTS 2002 2003 2004 2005 HSPA

LTE Requirement (3GPP TR 25.913)

Peak data rate 100 Mbps (DL) and 50 Mbps (UL) to 20 MHz

 

Throughput increased by 3-4 times and 2-3 times for the downlink to uplink from HSDPA Rel 6 ( DL =

14.4 Mbps , to use transmitter sites that have been used in UTRA / GERAN

 

Throughput increased by 3-4 times and 2-3 time UL = 5.7 Mbps )

 

Spectrum efficiency

by

continuing

as

for

the

downlink

to

uplink

from

HSDPA

Rel-

6 (DL = 14.4 Mbps, UL = 5.7 Mbps) Flexible use of spectrum (1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz)

 

Lower latency :

Radio access network latency ( user plane UE RNC- UE ) below 10 ms The ability of the use mobility up to 350 km / hour

 

Coverage up to a radius of approximately 5 km

Enhance MBMS ( Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service ) efficiency ( 1 bit/s/Hz)

Retaining 3GPP RAT ( Radio Access Technology ) which already exist and support internetworking with

 

him. Architecture simplification , minimization and packet based interface , full IP

LTE Architecture

LTE Architecture In the LTE network is divided into 2 basic network, namely: 1. E UTRAN

In the LTE network is divided into 2 basic network, namely:

1. E UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

2. EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

SERVICE

  • The IP Multimedia Sub-System (IMS) is a good example of service

machinery that can be used in the Services Connectivity Layer to

provide services on top of the IP connectivity provided by the lower layers.

  • For example, to support the voice service, IMS can provide Voice over IP (VoIP) and interconnectivity to legacy circuit switched networks PSTN and ISDN through Media Gateways it controls.

EPC

( Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

Functionally the EPC is equivalent to the packet switched domain of the existing 3GPP networks.

EPC consist of :

MME ( Mobility Management Entity )

SAE GW represents the combination of the two gateways, Serving Gateway (S-GW) and Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW)

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF)

EPC Con’t

  • Mobility Management Entity (MME)

MME is a controller at each node on the LTE access network. At UE in idle state (idle mode), MME is responsible for tracking and paging procedure which includes retransmission therein.

MME is responsible for selecting SGW (Serving SAE Gateway)

which will be used during initial attach EU and the EU time to do

intra - LTE handover.

Used for bearer control, a different view R99 / 4 which is still controlled by the gateway

  • Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) In order to handle QoS as well as control rating and charging, and

billing

EPC Con’t

  • Home Subscriber Server (HSS) For management and security subscriber, combination AUC and HLR

  • Serving SAE Gateway (SGW)

    • - Set the path and forwards the data in the form of packets of each user

    • - As an anchor / liaison between the UE and the eNB at the time of the inter handover

    • - As a liaison link between the 3GPP LTE technology with the technology (in this case the 2G and 3G)

  • Gateway Packet Data Network (PDN GW)

    • - Provides for the UE 's relationship to the network packet

    • - Provide a link relationship between LTE technology with technology

  • non 3GPP (WiMAX) and 3GPP2 (CDMA 20001X and EVDO)

    E-UTRAN

    (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

    • Role of Radio Access Network (RAN), namely Node B and RNC is replaced with ENB, so as to reduce operational and maintenance cost of the device other than the simpler network architecture

    • E-nodeB functions : all radio protocols, mobility management, header compression and all packet retransmissions

    • As a network, E-UTRAN is simply a mesh of eNodeBs connected to neighboring eNodeBs with the X2 interface.

    User Equipment

    • Functionally the UE is a platform for communication

    applications, which signal with the network for setting up, maintaining and removing the communication links the end user needs.

    • This includes mobility management functions such as handovers and reporting the terminals location, and in these the UE performs as instructed by the network

    FREQUENCY & BANDWIDTH IN LTE

    Key Consideration to Spectrum Selection

    Key Consideration to Spectrum Selection * Band Selection Source: 3GPP TS 36.101

    Illustration for Spectrum Selection

    Illustration for Spectrum Selection

    Channel Bandwidth Flexibility

    • LTE provides channel bandwidth flexibility for operation in differently-sized

    Channel Bandwidth Flexibility  LTE provides channel bandwidth flexibility for operation in differently-sized  LTE supports
    • LTE supports paired and unpaired spectrum on the same hardware spectrum

    Channel Bandwidth Flexibility  LTE provides channel bandwidth flexibility for operation in differently-sized  LTE supports

    Channel Bandwidth Impact

    Channel Bandwidth Impact

    OFDM

    OFDM vs Single Carrier

    OFDM vs Single Carrier Spectral efficiency of OFDM compared to classical multicarrier modulation: (a) classical multicarrier

    Spectral efficiency of OFDM compared to classical

    multicarrier modulation: (a) classical multicarrier system spectrum; (b) OFDM system spectrum.

    Motivation for OFDM Approaches

    Advantages

     

    Efficient in the use of frequencies

    Highly scalable

    Overcome delay spread, multipath & frequency selective fading, and ISI

    Weaknesses

    • Weaknesses

    Frequency Offset Nonlinear Distortion (PAPR)

    PAPR illustration

    OFDM Concept

    OFDM Concept • Multicarrier modulation/multiplexing technique • Available bandwidth is divided into several sub-channels • Data

    Multicarrier modulation/multiplexing technique

    Available bandwidth is divided into several sub-channels

    Data is serial-to-parallel converted

    Symbols are transmitted on different sub-channels

    OFDM Block Diagram (Tx)

    OFDM Block Diagram (Tx) Diagram Block Contents: • S/P  Serial to Parallel Converter Sub-Carrier Modulator

    Diagram Block Contents:

    S/P Serial to Parallel Converter Sub-Carrier Modulator IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform P/S Parallel to Serial Converter DAC Digital to Analog Converter

    OFDM Block Diagram (Rx)

    OFDM Block Diagram (Rx) Diagram Block Contents: • S/P  Serial to Parallel Converter Sub-Carrier Modulator

    Diagram Block Contents:

    S/P Serial to Parallel Converter Sub-Carrier Modulator IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform P/S Parallel to Serial Converter DAC Digital to Analog Converter

    Cyclic Prefix

    • Useful for multipath delay spread • Guard Interval (cyclic prefix) : short & long

    Cyclic Prefix • Useful for multipath delay spread • Guard Interval (cyclic prefix) : short &

    Type of Cyclic Prefix

    Type of Cyclic Prefix

    OFDMA & SC-FDMA

    OFDMA vs. SCFDMA

    • Definition

      • OFDMA is a multiple access technique based on OFDM as the

    modulation technique. It is used for DL transmission in LTE

    • SC-FDMA is a hybrid UL transmission scheme in LTE which has single-

    carrier transmission systems with the long symbol time and flexible

    frequency allocation of OFDM.

    OFDMA vs. SCFDMA  Definition  OFDMA is a multiple access technique based on OFDM as

    SC-FDMA Diagram Block

    SC-FDMA Diagram Block SC-FDMA frequency-domain transmit processing (DFT-S-OFDM) showing localized and distributed subcarrier mappings.

    SC-FDMA frequency-domain transmit processing (DFT-S-OFDM) showing localized and distributed subcarrier mappings.

    Type of OFDMA Sub-Carrier

    • Data sub-carrier

    Carry QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM symbol

    • Pilot sub-carrier

    It is used to facilitate channel estimation and coherent demodulation at the receiver

    • Null sub-carrier Guard sub-carrier DC sub-carrier

    Subcarrier Mapping

    (N pilot -2)/2
    (N pilot -2)/2
    N subcarrier data / 2
    N subcarrier data / 2
    N subcarrier data / 2 PILOT
    N subcarrier data / 2
    PILOT
    N pilot /2
    N pilot /2
    BW
    BW

    N subcarrier data See slide #19 or 3GPP TS 36.104

    N pilot N FFT-Point - N subcarrier data

    MULTI ANTENNA TECHNIQUE

    Multiple Antenna Technique

    Existing Tech

    Smart Antenna

    MIMO Antenna

    Multiple Antenna Technique Existing Tech Smart Antenna MIMO Antenna
    Multiple Antenna Technique Existing Tech Smart Antenna MIMO Antenna

    Multiple Antenna Technique

    • Two popular techniques in MIMO wireless systems:

    Multiple Antenna Technique  Two popular techniques in MIMO wireless systems: Spatial Diversity: Increased SNR •

    Spatial Diversity: Increased SNR Receive and transmit diversity mitigates fading and improves link quality

    Spatial Multiplexing: Increased rate Spatial multiplexing yields substantial increase spectral efficiency

    Spatial Diversity

    Transmit Diversity

    Space-time Code (STC): Redundant data sent over time and space

    domains (antennas). Receive SNR increase about linearity with diversity order N r N t

    Provide diversity gain to combat fading

    Optional in 802.16d (2x2 Alamouti STBC), used in 3G CDMA

    Spatial Diversity Transmit Diversity • Space-time Code (STC): Redundant data sent over time and space •

    Spatial Multiplexing

    MIMO Multiplexing Data is not redundant less diversity but less repetition Provides multiplexing gain to increase data-rate Low (No) diversity compared with STC

    Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Multiplexing Data is not redundant – less diversity but less repetition Provides multiplexing
    Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Multiplexing Data is not redundant – less diversity but less repetition Provides multiplexing

    LTE SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES

    • HARQ

    • AMC

    HARQ HARQ or retransmission scheme in LTE use stop-and- wait retransmission system.

    HARQ

    HARQ or retransmission scheme in LTE use stop-and- wait retransmission system.

    Adaptive Modulation

    Adaptive Modulation Adaptive Modulation Illustration SNR-CQI Mapping for BLER 10%

    Adaptive Modulation Illustration

    Adaptive Modulation Adaptive Modulation Illustration SNR-CQI Mapping for BLER 10%

    SNR-CQI Mapping for BLER 10%

    Constellation Diagram

    QPSK

    Constellation Diagram QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM

    16 QAM

    Constellation Diagram QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM

    64 QAM

    Constellation Diagram QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding Standard for CQI mapping
    Adaptive Modulation and Coding Standard for CQI mapping
    Adaptive Modulation and Coding Standard for CQI mapping
    Adaptive Modulation and Coding Standard for CQI mapping

    Standard for CQI mapping

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding Standard for CQI mapping

    Scheduling

    Scheduling

    Control Plane

    Control Plane (C-Plane) is use to describe the protocols that convey information from the DTE to
    Control Plane (C-Plane) is use to describe
    the protocols that convey information from the DTE to the end
    user (the control) of a node, or between nodes in the network
    to conveying required information to set,
    control and clearing the connection protocol.

    User Plane

    User plane (U-plane) is a protocol used directly in the transfer of user data from the
    User plane (U-plane) is a protocol used directly in the transfer of user
    data from the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) to the other end-users. U-
    plane provides the function of delivery or transfer user
    information, and include all relevant mechanisms of information
    transfer such as flow control and error recovery. In the user plane used
    approach layer .

    CONTROL PLANE

    CONTROL PLANE

    USER PLANE

    USER PLANE
    LTE CHANNELS
    LTE CHANNELS

    LTE CHANNELS

    LTE Layer Mapping

    LTE Layer Mapping

    Layer Function

    Radio Link Control Layer (RLC)

    > Retransmission

    > Segmentation Medium Access Control Layer (MAC)

    > Uplink and downlink scheduling at the eNodeB

    > HARQ Physical Layer (PHY) > Modulation/demodulation > Coding/decoding

    LTE Downlink Channel Mapping

    LTE Downlink Channel Mapping

    LTE Downlink Logical Channels

    Paging Control Channel ( PCCH)

    >

    A downlink channel that transfers paging information and system

     

    information change notifications.

     

    >

    This channel is used for paging when the network does not know the location cell of the UE

    Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)

    >

    Provides system information to all mobile terminals connected to the eNodeB.

    >

    A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information

    Common Control Channel (CCCH)

    >

    Channel for transmitting control information between UEs

    and

    network.

    >

    This channel is used for UEs having no RRC connection with network.

    the

    LTE Downlink Logical Channel Con’t

    Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)

    >

    A point-to-multipoint downlink channel used for transmitting MBMS

    >

    Control information from the network to the UE, for one or several

    >

    MTCHs. This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS

    Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

    >

    A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network.

    >

    Used by UEs having an RRC connection

    >

    This control channel is used for carrying user-specific control

    information, e.g. for controlling actions including power control, handover, etc..

    LTE Downlink Logical Channel Con’t

    Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)

    >

    A point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transmitting traffic data

    >

    from the network to the UE. This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS

    Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH )

    >

    A point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user information.

    >

    A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink

    LTE Downlink Transport Channel • Paging Channel ( PCH) > Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to

    LTE Downlink Transport Channel

    Paging Channel ( PCH)

    >

    Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power

    >

    saving Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell;

    >

    Mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also

     

    for traffic/other control channels.

    Broadcast Channel ( BCH )

    >

    The LTE transport channel maps to Broadcast Control

    Channel

    (BCCH)

    >

    Fixed, pre-defined transport format

    >

    Broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell

    LTE Downlink Transport Channel Con’t

    Multicast Channel ( MCH)

     

    >

    Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell;

    >

    Supports MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells;

    >

    Supports semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a

    long

     

    cyclic prefix

    Downlink Shared Channel ( DL-SCH )

     

    >

    Main channel for downlink data transfer. It is used by many logical channels.

    >

    Supports Hybrid ARQ

    >

    Supports dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power

    >

    Optionally supports broadcast in the entire cell;

    >

    Optionally supports beam forming

    >

    Supports both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation

    >

    Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving

    >

    Supports MBMS transmission

    LTE Downlink Physical Channel

    Physical Downlink Shared Channel ( PDSCH)

    >

    This channel is used for unicast and paging functions

    >

    Carries the DL-SCH and PCH

    >

    QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM Modulation

    Physical Downlink Control Channel ( PCSCH)

    >

    Informs the UE about the resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH, and Hybrid ARQ information related to DL-SCH

    >

    Carries the uplink scheduling grant

    >

    QPSK Modulation

    Uplink Physical Channels

    Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)

    >

    Used to report the Hybrid ARQ status

    >

    Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs in response to uplink transmissions.

    >

    QPSK Modulation

    Physical Braodcast Channel (PBCH)

    >

    This physical channel carries system information for UEs requiring to access the network.

    >

    QPSK Modulation

    LTE Uplink Channels

    LTE Uplink Channels

    Uplink Physical Channels

    Physical Radio Access Channel ( PRACH)

    >

    for random access functions

    Physical Uplink Shared Channel ( PUSCH)

    >

    Carries the UL-SCH

    >

    QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM Modulation

    Packet Uplink Control Channel ( PUCCH)

    >

    Sends Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs

    >

    Carries Scheduling Request (SR)

    >

    Carries CQI reports

    >

    BPSK and QPSK Modulation

    Uplink Transport Channels

    Random Access Channel (RACH)

    >

    Channel carries minimal information

    >

    Transmissions on the channel may be loss due to collisons

    Uplink Shared Channel ( ULSCH )

    >

    Optional support for beam forming

    >

    Support HARQ

    Uplink Logical Channels

    Common Control Channel ( CCCH)

     

    >

    Channel

    for

    transmitting

    control

    information

    between

    Ue

    and

     

    network.

     

    >

    This channel network.

    is

    used

    for UEs

    having no RRC connection with

    the

    Dedicated Control Channel ( DCCH)

     

    >

    A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network.

    >

    Used by UEs having an RRC connection.

     

    Dedicated Traffic Channel ( DTCH)

    >

    A point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user

    >

    information. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink.

    LTE FRAME STRUCTUR

    >

    Functions

    System can maintain synchronization and manage the different type of information that need to be carried between the eNodeB and UE

    >

    LTE frame structure consist of 1. FDD ( Frequency division duplex)

    2. TDD ( Time division duplex )

    >

    A radio frame has duration of 10 ms

    >

    A resource block spans 12 subcarriers over a slot duration of 0.5 ms

    >

    BW RB = 180 KHz

    >

    BW Subcarrier = 15 kHz

    FDD Frame structure

    FDD Frame structure

    TDD Frame Structure

    DwPTS : Downlink Pilot Time Slot GP UpPTS : Guard Period : Uplink Pilot Time Slot.
    DwPTS
    : Downlink Pilot Time Slot
    GP
    UpPTS
    : Guard Period
    : Uplink Pilot Time Slot.

    LTE TDD Sub Frame Allocations

    LTE TDD Sub Frame Allocations D : sub frame for downlink transmission :"special" sub frame used

    D : sub frame for downlink transmission

    :"special" sub frame used for a guard time U : sub frame for uplink transmission

    S

    Planning Coverage

    MAPL Calculation

     

    Downlink Link Budget LTE

     
     

    Unit

    Value

    Info

    Data Rate

    kbps

    1000

     

    Transmitter - eNodeB

         

    a. Tx Power

    dBm

    46

    a

    b. Tx Antenna Gain

    dB

    18

    b

    c. Loss System

    dB

    3

    c

    d. EIRP

    dBm

    61

    a+b+c

           

    Receiver - UE

         
    • e. Ue Noise Figure

    dB

    7

    e

    f. Thermal Noise

    dBm

    -102.7

    k*T*B

    g. SINR

    dB

    -5

    g

    h. Receiver Sensitivity

    dBm

    -100.7

    e+f+g

    i. Interference Margin

    dB

    3

    i

    j. Control Channel Overhead

    dB

    1

    j

    • k. Rx antenna gain

    dBi

    0

    k

    l. Body Loss

    dB

    0

    l

           

    MAPL

    dB

    157.7

    d-h-i-j+k-l

    Propagation Model

    LTE 700 MHz

    Okumura-Hatta

    Lp 69,55 26,16 log f 13,82 log hB - CH [44,9 6,55 log hB] log d

    LTE 2100 MHz

    Cost 231-Hatta

    L

    p

    46,3 33,9 (logf ) 13,82 logh a(h ) (44,9 6,55logh )logdC

    c

    T

    R

    T

    M

    LTE 2600 MHz

    SUI

    Lp 109.78 47.9 log (d/100)

    Pathloss SUI

    Lp = 109.78 + 47.9 log (d/100)
    Lp = 109.78 + 47.9 log (d/100)

    47.9 log( d / 100)

    Lp 109.78

    log( d / 100) (Lp 109.78) / 47.9

    (

    d

    / 100)

    10

    (

    Lp

    109.7 8) / 4 7.9

    d

    100 10

    x

    (

    Lp

    109.7 8) / 4 7.9

    d

    100 10

    x

    (157.7 109.7 8) / 4 7.9

    • d 100x10

    1.00042

    • d 1000.966 meters

    Radius Calculation

    L = 2,6 d 2 L = 1,3 . 2,6 . d 2
    L = 2,6 d 2
    L = 1,3 . 2,6 . d 2

    L = 1,95 . 2,6 . d 2

    Radius Calculation

    For Omni directional

    Radius Calculation For Omni directional L = 2,6 d L  2.6 x (1) 2 L

    L = 2,6 d 2

    • L 2.6 x (1)

    2

    • L 2.6

    km

    2

    For trisectoral

    Radius Calculation For Omni directional L = 2,6 d L  2.6 x (1) 2 L

    L = 1,95 . 2,6 . d 2

    • L 1.95 x 2.6

    • L 5.07

    km

    2

    x (1)

    2

    Number of eNodeB

    Urban Area (Trisector)

    total area 242.928

    km

    2

    N

    eNodeB

    N

    eNodeB

    242.928 / 5.07 48

    PLANNING CAPACITY

    Calculation steps:

    • 1. Number of user

    • 2. User density

    • 3. Services and Type

    • 4. Penetration : building, vehicular, pedestrian

    • 5. BHCA and call duration

    • 6. OBQ

    • 7. Site calculation

    Uo is Uo u or Uo sub
    Uo is Uo u or Uo sub

    Number of User

    Un = Uo (1 + gf) n

    Where:

    Uo u = u x UoN = sub x UoN Uo sub
    Uo u
    = u x UoN
    = sub x UoN
    Uo sub

    UoN = a x b x d x N

    Un

    : num of user on year ‘n’

    Uo

    : initial num of user (based on urban/sub-urban)

    a

    : percent of cellular user (%)

    b

    : penetration of operator A (%)

    d

    : Percent of LTE user

    N

    : num of civilian in the object area

    gf

    : num of user growth factor

    n

    : planned year

    u/sub : urban or sub-urban penetration (%)

    Customer Prediction Parameter

    Ex :

    Population

    = 1445892 people

    Cellular penetration

    = assumption 80%

    LTE penetration

    = assumption 10 %

    LTE provider A penetration

    = assumption 50 %

    Population Customer cellular (80%) Customer LTE (10%) 1445892 people 1156713 user 115671 user Customer LTE provider
    Population
    Customer cellular (80%)
    Customer LTE (10%)
    1445892
    people
    1156713
    user
    115671
    user
    Customer LTE provider A (50%)
    57835
    user

    User prediction in 5 th years U5 = 57835 ( 1 + 0.05 ) 5 assumption fp=5% = 73814 user

    Example User Calculation

    Ex :

    urban penetration

    = assumption 60 %

    suburban penetration

    = assumption 40 %

    Urban user

    = 73814 x 60 %

    = 44288 user

    Suburban user = 73814 x 40 %

    = 29525 user

    User Density

    L u = L x u
    L u = L x u

    L u

    : urban area wide

    L sub : sub-urban area wide

    L

    : object area wide

    L sub = L x sub

    C u = Un/ L u

    C u : Urban area density C sub : sub-urban area density

    C sub = Un/L sub

    Example User Density Calculation

    Ex :

    urban area penetration

    = assumption 40 %

    suburban area penetration

    = assumption 40 %

    Openarea

    = assumption 20 %

    =>

    Urban area wide (Lu)

    Sub-urban area wide (Lsub)

    : 242,928 km 2 : 242,928 km 2

    =>

    C u = 44288 / 242,928

    C sub = 29525 / 242,928

    = 182,31232 user/km 2

    = 121,54155 user/km 2

    Services and Type

    Services (Rb)

    VoIP FTP Video

    : 64 kbps

    : 1000 kbps : 384 kbps

    Type (c)

    Building

    : 50 %

    Vehicular

    : 30 %

    Pedestrian

    : 20 %

    Penetration (p) per type per service

    e.g:

    BUILDING VoIP usage penetration = 0.5 BUILDING FTP usage penetration = 0.4

    PEDESTRIAN Video usage penetration = 0.3

    BHCA (B) per type per service

    e.g:

    BUILDING VoIP usage penetration = 0.008

    BUILDING FTP usage penetration = 0.009

    PEDESTRIAN Video usage penetration = 0.008

    Call duration (h) per type per service (ms)

    e.g:

    BUILDING VoIP usage penetration = 60

    BUILDING FTP usage penetration = 50 PEDESTRIAN Video usage penetration = 50

    Penetrasi User (p) Building Pedestrian Vehicular type voip Voip Video FTP call duration (h) video 0,5
    Penetrasi User (p)
    Building
    Pedestrian
    Vehicular
    type
    voip
    Voip
    Video
    FTP
    call duration (h)
    video
    0,5
    0,5
    0,2
    0,3
    0,3
    0,2
    0,4
    0,4
    0,3
    service
    net user bit rate (Rb)
    ftp
    VoIP
    64000
    building
    60
    40
    50
    FTP
    1000000
    pedestrian
    60
    50
    70
    vehicular
    60
    40
    80
    Video
    384000
    Service
    Building
    BHCA (B)
    Pedestrian
    Vehicular
    Voip
    0,008
    0,008
    0,009
    Video
    0,007
    0,008
    0,009
    FTP
    0,009
    0,008
    0,008

    OBQ (Offered Bit Quantity)

    VoIP OBQ T = c T x C u; T x p T x Rb VoIP x B T x h T

    FTP OBQ T = c T x C u; T x p T x Rb FTP x B T x h T

    Video OBQ T = c T x C u; T x p T x Rb Vid x B T x h T

    T :

    Type (Building; Vehicular; Pedestrian)

    Note: if T= pedestrian, then “OBQ T “ is pedestrian OBQ, “B T “ is pedestrian BHCA, etc.

    OBQ cont’d

    OBQ total = OBQ VoIP + OBQ FTP + OBQ Video

    Where:

    OBQ VoIP

    = OBQ vehicular + OBQ building + OBQ pedestrian

    OBQ FTP

    = OBQ vehicular + OBQ building + OBQ pedestrian

    OBQ Video

    = OBQ vehicular + OBQ building + OBQ pedestrian

    OBQ cont’d

    OBQ Service Building Pedestrian Vehicular Voip 1,400158616 0,5600634 0,252029 Video 2,940333094 5,2505948 1,008114 FTP 16,40810878 8,1675919
    OBQ
    Service
    Building
    Pedestrian
    Vehicular
    Voip
    1,400158616
    0,5600634
    0,252029
    Video
    2,940333094
    5,2505948
    1,008114
    FTP
    16,40810878
    8,1675919
    7,000793
    20,74860049
    13,97825
    8,260936

    OBQ total = 20,74860049 + 13,97825 + 8,260936 = 42,98779

    eNodeB Capacity

    PeakBitRat e Mbps

    [

    ]

    bit

    Hz

    xN

    subcarriers

    x

    N

    symbol per subframe

    1

    ms

    Modulation Bandwidth (MHz) QPSK 1.4 2.016 Mbps 16 QAM 4.032 Mbps 3 5.04 Mbps 10.08 Mbps
    Modulation
    Bandwidth (MHz)
    QPSK
    1.4
    2.016 Mbps
    16 QAM
    4.032 Mbps
    3
    5.04 Mbps
    10.08 Mbps
    64 QAM
    6.048 Mbps
    15.12 Mbps
    5
    8.4 Mbps
    16.8 Mbps
    25.2 Mbps
    10
    16.8 Mbps
    33.6 Mbps
    50.4 Mbps
    15
    25.2 Mbps
    50.4 Mbps
    75.6 Mbps
    20
    33.6 Mbps
    67.2 Mbps
    100.8 Mbps

    Site Calculation

    Site (L)

    • L = (50.4 x 3) / OBQtotal = (50.4 x 3) / 42,98779 = 3,5172778

    km2

    50.4 Mbps ---> (asumption: using 64 QAM 1/1, BW = 10 MHz)
    50.4 Mbps ---> (asumption: using 64 QAM 1/1, BW = 10 MHz)

    Radius (d)

    • d = (L / 2.6 / 1.95) ^ 0.5 = (3,5172778 / 2.6 / 1.95) ^ 0.5 = 0,832912489 km

    Site Calculation Con’t

    Number of eNodeB (M) M = Lu / L = 242,928 km 2 / 3,5172778 km 2 = 69,06704366

    We use “Lu” JUST IN CASE we count urban capacity only
    We use “Lu” JUST IN CASE we
    count urban capacity only

    LTE Simulation Using Atoll

    Getting Started with Atoll

    New -> From a Document Template Choose LTE workspace
    New -> From a
    Document
    Template
    Choose LTE
    workspace
    Getting Started with Atoll New -> From a Document Template Choose LTE workspace

    Setting Project Area

    It is used to display the project area from the map raster. To set the coordinate
    It is used to display
    the project area
    from the map
    raster.
    To set the
    coordinate type
    and the area
    displayed on the
    worksheet.
    Setting Project Area It is used to display the project area from the map raster. To

    Import Raster Map

    raster is a contour map based on the topography of the area. Raster consist of clutter
    raster is a contour
    map based on the
    topography of the
    area. Raster
    consist of clutter
    map, height map
    and vector map
    Import Raster Map raster is a contour map based on the topography of the area. Raster

    Import Raster Map Con’t

    Clutter index -> Clutter Classes Height index -> Altitude Vector index -> Vectors
    Clutter index ->
    Clutter Classes
    Height index ->
    Altitude
    Vector index ->
    Vectors

    Frequency Band

    frequency bands and can be seen in the LTE specification 3GPP.org
    frequency bands and can be
    seen in the LTE specification
    3GPP.org
    Frequency Band frequency bands and can be seen in the LTE specification 3GPP.org
    Frequency Band frequency bands and can be seen in the LTE specification 3GPP.org

    Antenna Polarization Model

    add the appropriate antenna used
    add the
    appropriate
    antenna used
    Antenna Polarization Model add the appropriate antenna used

    Antenna Polarization Model

    Antenna Polarization Model

    Setting Feeder

    To setting feeder & connector loss at eNode B equipment
    To setting feeder &
    connector loss at
    eNode B equipment

    Setting Transmitter Frequency Band

    after determining the frequency band, set the transmitter frequency as the frequency and morpho class used
    after determining
    the frequency
    band, set the
    transmitter
    frequency as the
    frequency and
    morpho class used
    Setting Transmitter Frequency Band after determining the frequency band, set the transmitter frequency as the frequency

    Setting Transmitter Frequency Band Con’t

    Setting Transmitter Frequency Band Con’t

    Environtment

    Delete user

    Environtment Delete user Delete environtment
    Environtment Delete user Delete environtment

    Delete environtment

    Environtment Delete user Delete environtment

    Delete User Profile

    Delete service then setting service type
    Delete service then
    setting service type
    Delete User Profile Delete service then setting service type

    Services

    Delete service then setting service type
    Delete service then
    setting service type
    Services Delete service then setting service type Edit Service
    Services Delete service then setting service type Edit Service
    Edit Service
    Edit Service
    Services Delete service then setting service type Edit Service

    Service

    VoIP

    Video

    FTP

    Service VoIP Video FTP
    Service VoIP Video FTP
    Service VoIP Video FTP

    Add User Profile

    Add User Profile Assumption throughput user = 50 kbps
    Assumption throughput user = 50 kbps
    Assumption throughput user = 50 kbps
    Add User Profile Assumption throughput user = 50 kbps

    Pedestrian

    Vehicular

    Add User Profile

    Pedestrian Vehicular Add User Profile
    Pedestrian Vehicular Add User Profile

    Add Environtment

    Add Environtment

    Plotting eNode B

    eNode B can be in place based on planning calculation or the use of existing nodeB
    eNode B can be in
    place based on
    planning calculation or
    the use of existing
    nodeB or BTS
    Plotting eNode B eNode B can be in place based on planning calculation or the use

    Make a Prediction

    make predictions based on measured fill of the receiver sensitivity specification Click calculate
    make predictions
    based on
    measured
    fill of the receiver
    sensitivity
    specification
    Click calculate

    Coverage by Signal Level

    Coverage by Signal Level

    Result Histogram and CDF Chart

    Result Histogram and CDF Chart
    Result Histogram and CDF Chart

    Reference

    [1] Abdul Basit, Syed. Dimensioning of LTE Network Description of

    Models and Tool, Coverage and Capacity Estimation of 3GPP

    Long Term Evolution radio interface. 2009.

    [2] Coverage

    and

    Ericsson. 2009.

    Capacity Dimensioning Recommendation:

    [3] Holma,

    Harri and Antti Toskala. WCDMA for

    UMTS HSPA

    Evolution and LTE. John Willey and Son: 2007. [4] 3GGP. TS 36.XXX “LTE TS Group Series”. 2009.