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VOLUME

15

Northeast

BRUCE

Volume

G.

Edito,

TRIGGER

SMITHSONIAN

WASHINGTON

1978

INSTITUTION

it'

(yJ

M\ ;~:;

J\'

~

F:i:-~~~~~~::f

NORTMBAY.

OI-\T.

,,','

Algonquin

GORDON

M,

DAY

AND

BRUCE

G, TRIGGER

 

Language

 

The

name

Algonquin

bas

been

derived

fwm

the

Maliseet

elakOmkwik

'they

are

our

relatives

(or

allies)'

(Day

1972,228).

The

English

pronunciation

is eithe<

iJlga>jk-

win

oral'giiQkio

 

(or either

one

witli

n in place

of Q). Even

tlie

early

writers

extended

tbe

teno

to

denote

a wide

variety

of Algonquian-speaking

peoples

in

eastern

Can-

ada.

to

the

oonsequent

ooofnsion

of

bistorians.

Today,

the

t=

Algonquin

is

used

to

signify

a group

of clo"ly

related

bands

that

inhabited

the

Ottawa

 

valley

and

adjacent

regions

to

the

east

in

the

first

balf

of

tbe

seventeenth

century.

Voegelin

and

Voegelin

(1946,

181-182)

bave

classified

the

Algonquin

language

as

belonging.

along

witb

Ojibwa,

Ottawa,

and

Saulteaux,

to

the

"Middle

Tier"

of

Algonquian,

Tbis

Middle

Tier

is

described

as

a

single

language,

witbin

whicb

oontiguous

dialects

we<e

mutually

intelligible.

The

linguistic

defini.

tion

of Algonquin

in

tbis

group

bas

not

been

worked

 

out

The

earliest

sources

testify

to

an

,-dialect

of

Algooquin

.

o1ong

the

Saint

Law"nce

River

(JR

24.38-42:

Anony-

mons

1661:

Nioolas

1672-1674),

wbile

later

sources

indicate

an

Ottawa

and

possibly

an

Algonquin

l-dialect

fartber

west

(Andre

1688-1715:

Matbevet

1750).

Al-

though

the

"lationsbip

between

Algonquin

and

Ojibwa

is obvions,

it may

not

be

so cI=

as bas

been

assumed

on

the

basis

of

data

from

the

Lake

of

Two

Mountains

mission

(Bloomfield

1925:130).

This

mission

shelte<ed

botb

Algonquins

and

Nipissings,

but

by tbe

middle

oftbe

nineteentb

century

Algonquin

bad

disappea"d

and

tbe

well-known

published

writings

ofCuoq,

although

called

"Algonquin,"

are

in fact

Nipissing(Cuoq

1872,1).

Study

of

the

abundant

manuscriptS

in

tbe

Sulpician

arcbives

would

elucidate

tbe

Algooquin-Nipissing

"lationsbip.

Althougb

Lemoine

(19113)

thought

bisdictionary

"p"-

"nted

the

speecb

of 011 nomino1

Algonquin

band~

field

cbecks

turn

up dilfe<ences.

Geary's

data

from

the

Abitibi

"gion

bave

not

beeo

publisbed,

but

be

bas

Slated

tbat

tbis

dialect

lacks

tbe

Ojibwa

ballmark

of nasal-plus-stop

sequences

(Geary

194),308).'

'AI""q"in.,dNipi"iniwo,d",,,i"4in'h""""'p"on"~d

ro<Ojib

~v~I.bl'f Ih="oI~u.bu"',f~"""""nphon<mi,,""b,

tvoGoddatdon", ",,"ofinf_rion rromnth"n""

(Bloomfi,"1946,1951),Mod,m",o,"ni'

."

i""""

of",

.

Ojib

"""i',

Ternto!)'

Tbe

Algonquins

bad

the

Montagnais

as

their

neighbors

to

the

eas~

with

the

Saint

Maurice

Rive<

apparently

being

the

boundary

between

these

two

groups

(JR

23,303-305).

In

earlie<

times,

the

Saint

Lawrence

ho-

quoians

had

lived

to

tbe

soutb.

Culturally,

as

well

as

linguistically,

the

Algonquins

 

cl=ly

resembled

their

nearest

neighbors

to

the

wes~

the

Nipissings

and

Otta-

was.

mo"

than

the

Montagnais

 

to

the

east

It

is unclear

bow

far

north

the

Algonquins

extended,

or

wbetbe<,

at

tbe

time

of contact,

tbe

various

bands

living

in

tbe

Lake

Timiskaming

and

Abitibi

"gion

 

sbould

be

classified

ns

Algonquin,

Cree,

or

Montagnais.

 
 

From

soutb

to nortb,

the

bands

that

a"

clearly

attested

as

having

inhabited

the

Ottawa

valley

a"

the

following

(with

the

spellings

of

the

early

sources),

the

Weskarioi

(Wescarini)

or Petite

Nation,

who

lived

in

the

vicinity

of

the

Rouge,

Petite-Nation,

and

Lievre

rivers

(fig.

I):

the

Matouweskariru

in

the

Madawoska

 

Rive<

valley;

the

Keinouche

(Pike),

who

may

be

the

same

os

the

Quenon-

gebin,

or Champlain's

People

ofNibachis

in the

Muskrat

Lake

"gion;

the

Kichesipirini

(Big

Rive<

People),

wh=

main

encampment

was

on

Morrison's

Island;

and

the

Otaguottouemins

(Kolakoutouemi),

 

who

lived

in

the

upper

part

of

the

valley

 

(Champlain

1922-1936.

2,264-277,3,38:

JR

IU29,

29, 145).

Another

Algonquin

group

was

the

Onontchatawnon,

 

or

People

of

hoquet,

who

"em

to bave

lived

in the

valley

of the

South

Nation

River

in

eastern

Ontario,

and

who

mayor

may

not

have

been

part

of

the

Weskarini-

This

band.

who

are

known

only

by

their

Iroquoian

name,

we<e

"ported

to

have

inoo'J'Orated

some

of the

people

of

Hochelaga

when

the

latter

were

dispersed

from

the

Saint

Lawreoce

 

valley

(Trigger

19n77-80).

 

The

names

of

other

Algooquin

groups

have

been

reoorded.

some

of

wbom

may

have

lived

in

the

Ottawa

vo1ley

and

o1ong

the

Saint

 

Mauri"

 

River.

The

Algonquios

had

a

'pocial

interest

in

Trois

Riv-

ieres:

and

as

early

os

the

16205,

after

peace

had

been

restored

in

this

area,

a mixed

group

of Algonquins

and

Montagnais

 

"ttled

there

and

planted

crops

(Sagard-

Theodat

1866,846).

Pierre

Charievoix

recorded

 

a

tradi-

tion

that

the

Petite

Nation

were

so called

because

tbey

were

the

remoaot

of

a

larger

group,

wh=

power

had

been

broken

wben

many

of their

wamors

were

slain

in

an

 

From

The

Aborigine[Oesk

0'

r:n1(;£1(:E

SCHO7"1Xf/D

 
 

NOR"",

BAY, ONT,

 

Fig]

.

B""'of~,OI~""Il,yi"~"'dyl7'h"","ry"dAlgo"q"i",,~~,,i"1970.

encountor on tbe Becancour River nw Troi, RiviOr".

Tbi,

more e","rly di"ributtOn in tbe Saint Lawren" valley prior to European contaCt, "' do" tbe tradition of living

remembered by tbe A]gonquin, of Mani-

waki (Speck ]929i]07-]08).

by tidal watm

may bave bad a

tbat tbe Algonquim

too ,ugg""

Hi"ory

The Algonquin, fir" appw in bi"ory at Tadou_"ac in ]603 participating, witb the Montagnai, and Etcbemim, in a celebration of viCtory over the Iroquoi, (Cbamp]ain

1922-]936, li961f.). !tappea", that tbey bad been at war with the lroquoi, ,ince about 1570 (ibid., 5i78), bad begun to trade with the Frencb ,ome time before tbi, at

Tado""ac

alliance with

(Champlain

even carlier they occupied part, of tbe Saint Lawren" valley and were living in a peaceful relation,bip with the Saint Lawren" Iroquoian,. The tradition recorded by Perrot (1864i9- [2) mgg"" mcb a caexi"en" of Algon- quim and an [roquoian group at ,orne period in prebi,-

into an

(Biggar

1965047), and

bad

to opro"

en"red

!t i, po"ible

the Montagnai,

tbe [roquoi,

that

1922-1936, liI07-[09).

Cite bo,hlih" between tbe Algonquin, and tbe Ir('- quoi, may bave ari"n from tbe Iroquoi, d"ire to obtain trade good, directty from the Frencb. In 1603 the Huron' and Algonquin, were coming to Quebec by tbe nortbern

HGO"O"'"

/

lLL.L.LJ'

f"TT1.""-

"'~

ro"to ratber than along tbe Saint Lawren", but wb,,-

q"nt

defeat,

de

Cbamplain p",bed up tbe Ottawa River and left an

account of bi, vi,it to T"oouat',

hland.

dmtand, bad witbdrawn up tbe Ottawa to thi, 'trong point on account of tbe [roquoi, menace. Iroquoi, raiding parti", traveling north along the Rideau to

attack Indiam living in, or u,ing, the lower part of the Ottawa River valley, may account for tbe "ndency oftbe people living in tbi, area to loca" their mmmer camp'

along

tban to bave tbem along tbe Ottawa i"elf. Until [615 tbe Algonquim played a major role in

,upp[ying their Huron alii" witb European trade good,.

Thi, relationwip

non tribe, in wbo" "rritory con,idcrable numbc", of

Algonquin, 'pent tbe win"r, excbanging Frencb trade

good, for Huron corn.

to block tbe Saint Lawrence River, tbe Algonquin, were living a"ride wbat w", by far tbe mie" trade rou" into tbe in"rior and tbu, were aoxio", to pro"ct their role", middlemen between tbe Frencb and the trib" wbo lived

So long"' tbe [roquoi, continued

River ratber

tbe

in 1609 and [610 and to reopen

to infliCt major

Frencb

a"i"ance

belped

rou".

tbem

Champlain

on tbe lroquoi'

Saint

Lawrence

trade

Th"e

Algonquim,

In

1613 Samuel

village on Morri,on',

w", given to un-

tributari"

flowing into

tbe Ottawa

w", "pecially

cIo" with the Arendaro-

around tbe ,bore, of Lake Huron. The Kicb"ipirini, wbo were tbe mo" powerful and commercially orien"doftbe

to, prevent

A]gonquin

band"

were particularly

aoxiou,

From Tho AboriginatDa.k Of

@11l1:9{:r.SCJ{O!F11:[/lJ

NORTH

BAY, ONT.

"'93

 

Cnamplain

fmm

traveling

 

to

the

Huron

country

and

broke

the

peace

and,

by

treachery,

 

suceeeded

in

killing

oncomag;ng

the

Huron

to trade

directly

with

the

Frenoh.

Simon

Piskaret,

the

most

renowned

Algonquin

warrior,

Although

unable,

in

the

long

mn,

to prevent

the

develop-

and

killing

or capturing

two

unsuspecting

hunting

 

parties

ment

of

this

relationship

or

to

restrain

the

Huron.

who

from

Trois

Rivieres(Perrot

1864:106-109).

Thusreduced

were

more

numerous

and

powerful

than

they

were.

the

in

numbers,

the

eastern

Algonquins

sought assistance

.

~Igonquins

bitterly

 

resented

what

the

French

had

done

from

the

Attikamegues,

 

the

Montagnais,

tbe

Micmacs,

to

them.

They

therefore

took

advantage

 

of every

oppor-

and

the

Nipissings.

Nothing

came

of this

combination:

tucity

to

barass

Humn

traders

and

to

stir

up

trouble

Perrot

blamed

the

fail

on

lack

of

coordination,

 

since

between

them

and

the

Freneb.

 

TlUs,

more

than

anything

be regarded the Algonquins

as much

better

warriors

than

else, made

it necessary

for the

Freneb

tobave

their

agents

the Iroquois (Perrot 1864:109-110).

 

living

travel

In

were

with

the

Huron,

to encourage

them

to trade

and

to

Algonquin

with

the

inhibited

through

them

1620s

Iroquois

the

attacks

armed

by

against

Frenchmen

territory.

Algonquins

the

traveling

to

and

Unfortunately,

very

is

1675,

from

little

Lake

quins

their

Algonquins

between

temporary

and

dispersal

1650

retired

to

the

known

which

about

was

the

Ottawa

Saint

John

tbe

the

valley.

Algon-

period

of

reg;on

Some

and

:

I

fmm

the

Hmon

country,

and

the

Algonquins

even

were

still

therein

1710

(Rochernonteis

1904:98,

108). The

enjoyed

a certain

amount

of peace

with

the

Iroquois

until

Kichesipirinis

 

were

still

at

Morrison's

Island

in

1650

and

1627.

In

order

to

bolster

their

own

position,

the

Algon-

inspiring

respect

with

their

400

warriors.

When

the

quins

attempted

repoatedly

to

put

the

French

at

a

French

retreated

from

the

Huron

country

that

yeor,

disadvantage

by

playing

them

olf

against

the

Dutch

Tessouat

is reported

to have

had

the

superior

of the

Jesuit

traders

at

Fort

Orange,

but

on

each

occasion

Mohawk

 

ntission

suspended

by

his

armpits

because

he

refused

to

jealousy

prevented

the

Algonquins

from

achieving

their

olfer

him

the

customary

presents

for

being

allowed

to

goal.

In

1634

the

Algonquins

concluded

another

peace

travel

through

Algonquin

territory

(Perrot

1864:95).

treaty

with

the

Mohawk

that

Oumasasikweie,

one

of the

Others

joined

the

ntission

at

Siliery

and

were

mostly

headmen

of the

Kichesipirini.

and

Tessouac

the

principal

 

destroyed

by

an

epidentic

by

1676.

Still

others,

encour-

headman

of this

band,

 

hoped

would

permit

their

people

aged

by

the

French,

remained

at

Trois

Rivieres

(Rigaud

to

travel

through

 

the

Mohawk

country

to

trade

with

the

de

Vaudreuil

and

Begon1722:

Lahontan

1905:50:

JR

Dutch.

When

Oumasasikweie

and

some

of his

compan-

63:71):

and

their

settlement

at

nearby

Point-du-Lac

ions attempted

 

to

do

this,

however,

they

were

promptly

remained

unti!

 

about

1830,

when

the

last

14

fantilies,

slain

by

the

Mohawk~

 

who

had

no

desire

to

penDit

the

numbering

 

about

 

50

(Tuckerman

1821:42~

moved

to

Dutch

to

establish

trading

relations

with

these

fur-rich

Oka.

The

SuJpician

Mission

of

the

Mountain

 

was

.northern

tribes.

This

incident

led

to

a new

outbreak

of

founded

at

Montreal

in

1677,

and

some

Algonquins

war

between

the

Algonquins

and

Mohawks

that,

because

settled

there

together

 

with

Iroquois

converts.

In

1704

a

of the

gmwing

Mohawk

need

for

furs,

turned

into

a life-

separa"

Algonquin

ntission

was

founded

at

Sainte-

and-death

struggle,

 

in

which

the

greater

number

of

Anne-du-bout-de-\'iIe

 

under

Francois-Saturrtin

Lascaris

firearms

available

 

to

the

Iroquois

gradually

gave

them

d'Urfe:

and

in

1721

a new

ntission

was

formed

at

Lake

of

the

upper

hand.

By

the

early

I640s

the

Weskarinis

were

Two

Mountai~

 

where

the

Algonquins

were

brought

being

compelled

to seek

refuge

among

the

Kiebesipirini~

together

with

Iroquois

and

Nipissings

(Cuoq

1894: 170).

whose

territory

had

 

hitherto

escaped

attack

by

the

Additional

 

Algonquins

joined

this

mission

in

1742

(0.

Iroquois.

Soon,

the

Kichesipirinis

themselves

were

seek-

Maurault

1930:

 

18).

ing

refuge,

in

times

of

crisis,

at

the

French

settlements

The

Algonquins

 

who

were

apparently

frequenting

along

the

Saint

Lawrence.

In spiteofthi~

the

Algonquin

Trois

Rivieres

in

1684

aceompanied

Joseph-Antoine

Le

retained

their

reputation

for

being

pmud

and

indepen-

Febvre

de

laBarre

to

his

council

with

the

Iroquois

at

dent

 

Fort

Frontenac

 

(Lahontan

1905:50-51,733:

JR

63:67).

In

1645

the

Freneb

initiated

peace

proposals

to

the

In

the

last

quarter

of the

seventeenth

 

century,

whatever

Iroquois

and

convened

 

a

council

that

included

the

hunting

territory

the

Algonquins

may

have

had

south

of

Hurons,

Montagnais,

 

Attikamegues,

and

Algonquins

the

Saint

Lawrence

River

began

to

be

taken

over

by

and

confirmed

a

peace

that

included

a

private

deal

Abenakis.

Before

!670

Sokokis

had

settled

on

the

Saint

between

the

French

and

the

Iroquois

abandoning

 

the

Francois

 

River,

and

in

1704

Father

 

Sebastien

Rile

non-Christian

Algonquins

(JR

27:247-305,

28:149-51).

brought

eastern

Abenakis

 

from

the

Androscoggin

 

River

Some

Algonquins

moved

to the

Jesuit

ntission

at

Sil\ery

to

Becancour

(Charland

1964:

18, 37-38).

These

Abena-

after

its establishment

 

in

1637,

but

Tmis

Rivieres

seems

kis

asked

permission

of

the

Algonquitts

 

to

settle

(Speek

to

have

remained

the

focus

of the

more

easterly

Algon-

1928b:!73).

 

Algonquin

and

Abenaki

relations

were

quin

bands.

The

peace

of

1645

allowed

the

Iroquois

to

thenceforth

good,

and

at

some

point

they

made

a treaty

hunt

on

the

edges

of Algonquin

territory,

a concession

agreeing

 

to

regard

the

Saint

Lawrence

River

as

the

they

took

full

advantage

of, killing

more

than

2,000

 

deer

dividing

line

and

asserting

that

the

land

north

of the

river

. the first winter (JR 28:287). But in 1646 the Mohawks

had

aiways

been

Algonquin

country

 

(Duebesnay

 
 

nAY AND T"CC

 

From The Abo"gineLCesk

 

of

'-

@11(:E9{,[;SCilOJ'1'££/D

 

NORni BAY, ONT.

 

8:531).

Their territories extended to the Sainte-Anne-

de-Ia-Perade River on the east and north to the vicinity of Coucoucache.

After the great peace between the Iroquois

and the

French and their allies in 1701, trade, often clandestine,

was carried on between the northern Indians and Albany. It had begun for the Algonquins at Montreal at least as early as 1715 (Faillon 1850-1865, fo1.E: 173). During the frequent conflicts with the English, the Algonquins were constant allies of the French. Their warriors were at Fort

Necessity, Lake George, Monongahela, Fort Edward, Schenectady, Fort Orange, and the Plains of Abraham among other battles (0. Maurault 1930:27). In 1752 the Algonquins of Lake of Two Mountains were living with, yet distinct from, the Nipissings and Iroquois in houses of squared timbers. Together with the Nipissings they num- bered 113 warriors. They were not cultivating the land, but they were making a good living from their furs, which they obtained in the winter 250 to 300 leagues from the village. Much of their trade was with Albany at this time (Franquet 1889:42-49, 121). Sometime in the mid-eigh- teenth century, the Algonquins of Two Mountains be- came members of the so-called Seven Nations of Canada, a confederacy of French mission Indians.

. n the latter part of the eighteenth century, the Two untains Indians, continuing their hunting on the

upper Ottawa River, became involved in the activities of the fur-trading companies. One group, having settled at Golden Lake in 1807, petitioned for confirmation ofland title there and a reserve was established in 1870 (Lake 1966:157). Gradual removals of other families of Algon- t quins and Nipissings from Lake of Two Mountains to River Desert took place during the first half of the nineteenth century, and in 1854 a group removed there and a reserve was established at Maniwaki (Speck 1929:115-117). The remaining Algonquins and Nipis- sings left Lake of Two Mountains sometime after 1868 (Parent 1887:198,22 1).Other bands existing on the upper Gatineau and Ottawa rivers in the nineteenth century were the Temiskaming, Abitibi, Grand Lake Victoria, Quinze Lake, Mattawa, Kipawa, and Lake Dumoine

, (Speck 1915:3). There are also bands at Lac Simon and

~ Lac Barriere, but the history of all these bands is less well

~ known. Algonquins still regard the region of Mazinaw Lake, Otter Lake, Baptiste Lake, and the Bonnechere and Mattawa rivers as their territory south of the Ottawa River; but this land was sold by Iroquois, Mississaugas, and Ojibw~s, not by the Algonquins (Morris 1943). Nonreservation Algonquins continued to live on the Lievre and the Ottawa rivers into the twentieth century.

Culture

Evidence concerning the nature of Algonquin culture is extremely limited. Considerable information about Al- gonquin tribes is contained in Perrot (1864), Raudot

AI (',0NOUIN

(1904), and the Jesuit Relations (JR), but it is seldom

possible to assign details to the Algonquins specifically. Moreover, data obtained by anthropologists in the twen- tieth century cannot be attributed with certainty to the Algonquins of the contact period. It is likely that the various seventeenth-century bands were made up of patrilineal extended families, although it is less certain whether each band constituted a single exogamous clan of the type that Hickerson (1970:42-50) has recon- structed for the precontact Ojibwa and Ottawa. The members of these bands appear to have lived in a single community during the warmer months of the year, when fishing was good, and to have either dispersed or sent out hunting parties to obtain food during the winter. Henry (1969:23) found the classic family hunting system in strict operation among the Lake of Two Mountains Algon- quins in 1761, much as it was remembered by Speck's

and Lac

informants

Dumoine (1915:6- 7). Historical references to group

hunting

as

reactions of temporarily displaced groups exploiting a

in 1913 at Temiskaming,

can

perhaps

Kipawa,

by Algonquins

be explained

new

and

perhaps

controversial

territory

(Lahontan

1905:46; Marie de !'Incarnation

1967:315).

Although the growing season was too short for corn to provide a reliable source of food in most parts of the Ottawa valley, the seventeenth-century Algonquins prac- ticed a simple type of swidden agriculture wherever suitable soil was available. Fields were cleared by burn- ing tracts of pine forest and were then planted with corn, beans. and squash. Shortly after A.D. 1600, peas, which had been obtained from European traders, were also being grown. In general, the subsistence economy of the Algonquins resembled that of the Nipissings and Otta- was, and together these three groups represented the northernmost penetration of a marginally agricultural economy in eastern North America. The seventeenth-century Algonquins shared other traits with the Algonquian and lroquoian peoples of the less rigorous environment of the Eastern Woodlands to the south and west of them, and probably more specifical- ly with the Huron, with whom they traded. Like the Hurons, but unlike the Montagnais, the Algonquins fished through the ice by means of nets in the winter (JR 8:39). This method may have been possible because the Algonquins were able to obtain Indian hemp nets from the Hurons, who are known to have supplied them to the Nipissings and their other Algonquian-speaking neigh- bors who lived around the shores of Georgian Bay. Like the Hurons, the Algonquins also ate dogs, which the Montagnais regarded as a shameful practice (JR 9: III). The Algonquins entertained their guests in the same manner as the Hurons, with the host tending his guests but not eating any food himself. Councils were also conducted in the Huron manner with tobacco being smoked in silence before any important issue was dis-' cussed. Algonquin use of turtle-shell rattles in a curing

~Q

(I)~

~W,

iOi~~

c:",O

:

~

.2>~

>--

~<

.8 ~IX)

<wz Q)"'~ I-f:-.)o c: "" It:

E ""€<;"~

u.~ E""

795

,

.'1-,

.

Mrn

FI"3. Wlf, oodcl>lldm"ofDooS"on" '" 0 10"'YP'ofbimh""k

~"~

Edwl"T.Ad"y. obooJ1927.00Bo="h",

R=m.

M~.N""",,N~"

~ll,d ~'po"okki""'=o

'A"'oold ~"~'. PholOgmphby

rc"',

Gold""u.k,

~::;,~,~;;;;,M;;:mu:"dwomo" W"","'o<.mid,18,""",°0'

toboggan; rectangular bark buntingcamps; birchbark

containers sewed with spruce roots (fig. 4); porcupino

quillwork in the soutb; moo"hide tumplines; basswood bags, mats, and temporary tumplines; deer and moose, hide clothing; mdleboa.ds and blanket hammocks; moccasins of b"mtail and deemo" types (Hat!

.remony

also

suggests

itself

as

a

borrowing

from

the

Hurons

(Sagard-ThWat

 

1939:65).

The

Algonquins

con-

structed

longbou"s,

 

but

this

was

not

an

exclusively

Iroquoian

trait

and

even

tlie

Montagnais

meted

such

structures

in some

of their

summer

camps

along

the

Saint

Lawrence.

The

g,aves

of

prominent

individuals

were

covered

with

painted

wooden

structures

shaped

like

a

ridged

roof.

These

were

about

"ven

feet

long

and

four

feet

wide,

and

at

one

end

they

had

a

wooden

upright

beoring

a figure

that

represented

 

the

decea"d.

Franquet

(1889:48-49)

has

left

a detailed

account

of

a dance

he

witnessed

at

Two

Mountains

in

]752.

In

the

nineteenth

century,

splint

basketry

was

probably

borrowed

from

the

Iroquois

or

the

Abenaki.

 

Whatever

the

character

of

the

contact-period

Algon-

quin

culture,

twentieth-century

fieldwork

among

Algon-

quin

bands

shows

them

sharing

much

of the

inventory

of

traits characteristic

of the

other

boreal

forest

peoples

as

outlined

by Flannery

(J 946).

Among

these

are:

a supreme

being

who

is owner

of everything;

a trickster-transformer

 

culture

hero;

the

Windigo;

the

pa-kahk,

a di"mbodied

starveling; the pakwabniniwak,

a race of powerful little

m::;ts~~ma:S:n~n~:eu;~~:cgte;~e:~:'~r~~mv;~Oi~

q

.

,ry>g

.

p

.

culture :1i=" "'.k 10"POM'"' 'oy" of Ii,

11"""

"' MoHow,.0"",

m 1913

.

;:; ~-B~~~;;~~;w;;"~i~;;'~w<d,og"h"w""spill'pm" .001

w"hlhoo,hoodl,.1O,d""",fo=,dby"mpm,ow'y,","'"k

~

urely

-,

that

y

people.

of a hunttng-fishmg

Matenal

hl b"k

"'""'".

Ls"g,"

17.8 om;

ms mcluded the blrcbbark canoe (fig. 3); snowshoes;

From

Tbe

AboriglhatOesk

of

@'!F,,'EiJ(.'ESCJfOT1'££'lJ

NORTH

BAY, ONT.

DH

AND "'GG"

"

.,171-178,167-169);

bows,

preferably

of

hop

horn-

Michelson

19n

100;

Hewitt

in

Hodge

1907-1910,

1,13)

beam, Knowledge

of

plants

and

their

properties

was

whence the Itoquois designation Adirondacks

(Colden

extensive.

Maple

sugar

was

made

by

some

bands.

I 74hv);

Western

Abenaki

w"'Qg"""k(Day

1956-1973);

 

The

Algonquin

population

about

1965

was

in Quebec,

Nipissing dialect ama'mi'wininiwak

literally

'down-river

197 at Barriere

Lake,

225

at Grand

Lake

Victoria,

273"

people'

(from

Cuoq

1886,298).

They

called

them"lves

Lake

Simon,

898

at

River

Desert,

3

at

Argonau~

II

at

aniHinapd.

Hunters

Poin~

91

at

Kipawa.

247

at

Long

Poin~

389

at

Tinliskaming,

and

57 at Wolfe

Lake;

and

in Ontario,

446

SOU"""

at

Golden

Lake

and

an

unknown

 

percentage

 

of

the

Iroquois-Algonquin

band

at

Gibson.

 

To

the

total

of

The

history

of

the

Algonquios

 

begins

with

Champlain

approximately

2,500

should

be added

an

unknown

num-

(1922-1936)

and

must

be gleaned

from

the

Jesuit

Rela.

ber

of persons

of Algonquin

descent

scattered

throughout

tions

(JR

1896-1901)

and

French

historical

writmofthe

 

the

Ottawa

valley

but

unaffiliated

with

any

reserve.

The

"venteenth

century

(Sagard.Theodat

1939;

Perrot

1864).

total Algonquin

population

appears

to

be

rather

stable,

In

the

eighteenth

century

travelers

like

Franquet

(1889)

perhaps

showing

a slight

increase

since

1900,

although

and

military

men

like

Bougainvllie

(1924)

and

Mont-

direct

comparison

with

the

1900

census

is

not

possible

calm-Gozon

(1895)

recorded

ethnological

 

information.

 

(Canada.

Department

of

Indian

Alfairs

and

Northern

Aner

about

1720

the

best

sources

are

the

writings

of

Development

1965,9-10,

12).

Sulpician

missionaries

at

Oka.

most

of

which

remain

in

 

manuscript

in

the

Sulpician

archives

in

Montreal.

Some

Synouymy

 

information

may

be found

in

the

fur-trade

records

of the

 

eighteenth

and

nineteenth

centuries

(Heury

 

1969;

Long

The

earliest

form

of

the

name

was

Algoumequin,

 

1603

1791;

McLean

1932;

Mackenzie

1801).

In

the

late

nine-

(Champlain

1922-1936,

1,103).

Algonquain

appeared

as

teenth

and

early

twenrieth

centuries

several

ethnologists

 

early

as

1632

(JR

5,70).

Names

in other

languages

are

(Chamberlain

1891;

Davidson

1928,

2; Speck

 

1914,

1915,

.

ou

Aquannaque,

1632

(Sagard-Theodat

1939,

S.v.

1915

 

1927a,

1928b,

1928c,

1929;

Johnson

1928,

1930)

'oos)

or

AkSanake,

1641,

used

for

any

tribe

of

wrote

on

panicular

expre",;oos

of Algonquin

 

culture.

A'

unintelligible