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RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents


ThismanualwasproducedbytheUniversityofFloridaInstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciencesHillsboroughCountyExtensionService,with fundingfromtheFloridaDepartmentofTransportation. WrittenandeditedbyDr.MarinaDAbreau. Contributors:Dr.GaryKnox,Dr.EsenMomolandSuzanneCooper. PhotosandothergraphicscontributedbyDr.MarinaDAbreau andtheFloridaFriendlyLandscapingProgram. Firstprinting2010.
Coverphoto:RaingardenattheBetteSWalkerDiscoveryGarden,UFIFAS HillsboroughCountyExtension,Seffner,Florida.

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TableofContents
Introduction 1 3 5 12 15 18 20 25 StormwaterRunoff101 BuildingaRainGarden Construction Maintenance

SizeandPlacement

PlantChoicesandInstallation

SuggestedPlantListforRainGardens inCentralFlorida References

RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

Introduction
Afterdecadesofhearingenvironmentalmessagesandincreased educationandawareness,Floridiansarerecognizingtheneedto protectourpreciouswaterresourcesfromstormwaterpollution. Landscapingplaysamajorroleinthecaptureandfiltrationof stormwaterrunoffrainorirrigationwaterthattravelsoffour yardsintonearbysurfacepondsandstormwaterdrains. Oneinchofrainfallcanproduce16timesmorerunoffbyvolumeon a1acreparkinglotthanthesameoneinchofrainfallona completelyvegetatedareaofequalsize.Aproperlylandscapedand maintainedyardcanpotentiallyreducerunoffbyasmuchas30 percent,comparedtoayardwithbareareasofexposedsoiland patchylandscaping.Araingardenisatypeoflandscapedareawith appropriateflowers,grassesandothervegetationthatcatches rainwaterfromarooflineorguttersystemandfiltersitbackinto theground,whereitcanrechargegroundwaterresources. Sowhyareraingardensimportant?AsFloridacitiesgrowandbuild, replacinggreenspacesandnaturalareaswithmanicuredlawns, concretesidewalksandasphaltpavement,thereisanincreasein stormwaterrunoff.Thisoftenleadstoincreasedurbanflooding, increasedpollutantsfromyards,parkinglotsandstreets,and increasedcostsinmunicipalstormwatertreatmentsystems.Rain gardenshelptoreducethisstormwaterrunoff,andthemorerain gardensthatareconstructedincommunitiesandneighborhoods, themoresignificantthebenefit.Raingardensareabigpartofthe FloridaFriendlyLandscapingconcept. Basedonstudiesinotherstates,raingardenshavetheabilityto filterapproximately40%ofmetalpollutantsfromroofshingles, automobilefluidsandsoil.Approximately15%ofnitrogenfrom fertilizers,petwasteandorganicmattercanbyfilteredbyrain gardensaswell.

Raingardenshavemultiplefunctions.Theyrechargethelocal aquiferbyincreasingtheamountofwaterthatfiltersintothe ground;reducetheamountofurbanpollutantsfertilizer, pesticides,caroil,etc.thatgetcarriedawaybystormwaterrunoff andenternearbysurfacewaterbodies;providehabitatforbirds, butterflies,andbeneficialinsects;andimprovepropertyvalueby addingcurbappealtothelandscape.Unlikebioretentionareas,rain gardensallowrunofftoinfiltratethegroundwatersupply. Thepurposeofthishandbookistoprovidehomeownerswiththe toolsneededtodesign,installandmaintainaraingardenina residentiallandscape.Manyoftheconceptscanbetransferredto commercialsitesaswell,butcareisneededinareasofverylarge stormwatergenerationlikeparkinglotsandpavedareasthat mayneedfiltrationpriortoenteringaraingarden.

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RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

StormwaterRunoff101
Wateristheessenceoflife.Inanaverageyear,Floridareceives over50inchesofrainwater,especiallyduringthesummermonths. Withmorethan8,400milesoftidalshoreline,8,000lakes,20major riversandestuaries,andthelargestundergroundaquiferinthe UnitedStates,Floridahasanabundanceofwaterresources. Yet,asFloridaspopulationgrows,thedemandforthiswater continuestostrainournaturalresources.Thisis,inpart,duetoa lossofnaturalgreenspaceandanincreaseofimpervioussurfaces likerooftops,concreteandasphalt,whichpreventrainwaterfrom filteringbacktoourgroundwatersystems.Today,theleadingthreat toFloridaswaterresourcesandqualityofthisresourceisnonpoint sourcepollution. Everytimeitrains,pollutantssuchassoilparticles,pesticides, fertilizers,oil,grassclippingandotherwastetraveloveryardsand drivewaysintheformofstormwaterrunoff.Thisstormwaterrunoff contributestopollutioninoursurfacewaterways. Thegoodnews?Itcanbecontrolled. Reducingstormwaterrunofffromyourpropertyissimple.Following thesebehaviorscanmakeadifference,onestepatatime

InstallandmaintainaFloridaFriendlyLandscapethatabsorbs runoffandallowsittofilterbackintothesoil. Choosedroughttolerantplantsthatdontneedalotof irrigation. Installpracticalareasofdroughttolerantturfforplay, entertainment,pets,etc.Usegroundcoversasturfalternatives inlowtrafficareasofthelandscape. Maintain23ofmulchinplantbedstoreduceerosionand retainsoilmoisture,minimizingwateringneeds. Waterintheearlymorninghourstoavoidwaterlossfromwind andevaporation.

Followlocalwateringrestrictions,andwateronlyasneeded. ManyFloridafriendlyplants,onceestablished,cansurvivewith littlesupplementalirrigation. Installlowvolumeirrigationinplantbedstominimizeoverspray andexcesswateringofplants. Installafunctioningrainshutoffdeviceonallirrigationsystems toavoidunnecessarywatering. Usearaingaugetotrackrainfallanddetermineifsupplemental watering(onyourassignedday)isnecessary. Userainbarrelsorcisternstocollectrainwaterforlandscape irrigation.Rainbarrelscapturestormwaterrunoff,reduce erosionaroundthefoundationofthehouse,andprovideafree sourceofwaterforyourplants. Installaraingarden.

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RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

BuildingaRainGarden Step1:SizeandPlacement
Inmanypartsofthecountry,slopebecomesanissuewhen constructingaraingarden,butinFlorida,thatisrarelyaproblem. Dependingonthesizeofyourlot,araingardencanbeplacednear thehousetocatchroofrunofforfartheroutintheyardtocatch runofffromtheroofandthesurroundinglawnarea. Keepthefollowingguidelinesinmindtohelpdeterminethebest placeforyourraingarden: DOs DOplaceyourraingardenat least10feetfromthehouseto preventwaterfromseeping intothefoundation. DOplaceyourraingardenin fullsun,awayfromtreeroots. DONTs DONTplaceyourraingarden within25feetofaseptictank orwell.

DONTcutlargetreerootsto makeroomforyourrain garden.Thismayseverely damagethetree. DOchooseanexistinglowspot DONTchooseasitethathas inyouryardifitnormallydrains standingwater.Thepurposeof quicklyafteraheavyrain. araingardenistoencourage infiltration.

Beforeyoubegin,takeastrollaroundyourpropertyandmake somecasualobservationsabouttheterrain.Consideryourexisting landscapeandhowaraingardenwillfitintotheoveralldesign, whilestillbeingfunctional.Remember,araingardencanbeplaced inthefront,sideorbackyard.Itsuptoyou. InsomeFloridalots,thesideyardsarelargeandcanbedifficultto maintainwithhealthyturfgrass.Considerblurringpropertylines withyourneighborandconstructasharedraingardenthat providesbothhomeswithstormwatercapture!

Determiningthesizeofyourraingardeniscritical,andtimeand costwillalwaysbeimportantconsiderations.Atypicalresidential raingardenrangesfrom100to300ft2.Raingardenssmallerthan 100ft2willnotallowforawidediversityofplants.Ontheother hand,araingardenlargerthan300ft2willtakeaconsiderable amountoftimeandmoneytoconstruct.


Figure1.Araingardencanbe builtinthefront,sideorback yard.Pickapleasingshapefor theraingarden.

Thefactorsthatwill determinethesizeof yourraingarden include: thedepthofthe garden, thetype(s)ofsoilin whichthegardenwill beplanted,and thetotalareaof roofand/orlawnthat willdrainintothe garden.

Howdeepshouldmyraingardenbe? BecauseoftheprevalenceofsandysoilsinCentralFlorida,atypical raingardenisbetweenfourandeightinchesdeep.Ifdeeperthan eightinches,araingardenmightholdwaterfortoolongand provideabreedinggroundformosquitoes.Additionally,itmay createatrippinghazard.Araingardenmuchlessthanfourinches deepwillneedanexcessiveamountofsurfaceareatoprovide enoughwaterstoragetoinfiltratethelargerstormstypicalof Floridasrainyseason.

RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

Regardlessofthedepth,thegoalistokeepthegardenlevel.Thisis toensurethemostefficientcollectionandinfiltrationofwater withoutlosingexcessoverthesidesoftheraingarden. Theslopeoftheareashoulddeterminethedepthoftherain garden.Findtheslopeofyourlawnbyfollowingthesesteps: 1.Poundonestakeinattheuphillendofyourraingardensite (typicallythesideclosesttothehouse)andpoundtheother stakeinatthedownhillend. 2.Tieastringtothebottomoftheuphillstakeandrunthe stringtothedownhillstake. 3.Usingastringlevelorthecarpenterslevel,makethestring horizontalandtiethestringtothedownhillstakeatthatheight. 4.Measurethedistance(ininches)betweenthetwostakes. 5.Nowmeasuretheheight(ininches)onthedownhillstake betweenthegroundandthestring. 6.Dividetheheightbythedistanceandmultiplytheresultby 100tofindtheareaspercentslope.Iftheslopeisgreaterthan 12%,itsbesttofindanothersiteortalktoaprofessional landscaper.

Usingtheslopeofthearea,selectthedepthoftheraingardenfrom thefollowingoptions: Iftheslopeislessthan4%,builda3to5inchdeeprain garden. Iftheslopeisbetween5%and7%,builda6to7inchdeep raingarden. Iftheslopeisbetween8%and12%,buildan8inchdeeprain garden. Whattype(s)ofsoildoIhave? Afterchoosingyourraingardendepth,identifytheareassoiltype. Sandysoilshavethefastestinfiltration;claysoilshavetheslowest. Sinceclaysoilstakelongertoabsorbwater,raingardensinthistype ofsoilmustbelargerthanraingardensinsandorsilt.Ifthesoil feelsverygrittyandcoarse,youprobablyhavesandysoil.

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RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

Twoquicktestscanensureyoursoilwillhandlearaingarden: 1.Digaholeabout6inchesdeepwheretheraingardenwillbe locatedandfilltheholewithwater.Ifthewatertakesmore than24hourstosoakin,thesoilisnotsuitableforarain garden. 2.Takeahandfulofsoiland dampenitwithafewdropsof water.Afterkneadingthesoil inyourfingers,squeezethe soilintoaball.Ifitremainsin aball,thenworkthesoil betweenyourforefingerand thumb,squeezingitupward intoaribbonofuniform thickness.Allowtheribbonto emergeandextendoverthe forefingeruntilitbreaksfrom itsownweight.Ifthesoil formsaribbonmorethanan Source:MichiganStateUniversityExtension inchlongbeforeitbreaks,anditalsofeelsmoresmooth(clay) thangritty(sand),thesoilisnotsuitableforaraingarden. TheUSDANaturalResourceConservationDistrict(NRCS)hasan onlineWebSoilSurveytoolthatallowsyoutonarrowinonyour specificneighborhoodtodeterminethetypeofsoilthere (http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/WebSoilSurvey.aspx). However,thesoilonasmallplotofayardcanbeverydifferent fromthesoilsindicatedonthemap.Usethesimplesoiltest describedaboveforamoreaccuraterepresentationofthesoilsin thepossibleraingardenlocation.

Howlargeanareawilldrainintomyraingarden? Thenextstepinchoosingyourraingardensizeistofindthearea thatwilldraintotheraingarden.Asthesizeofthedrainagearea increases,soshouldthesizeoftheraingarden.Thereissome

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guessworkindeterminingthesizeofadrainagearea,sousethe followingsuggestionstoestimatethedrainageareawithout spendingalotoftime.

Raingardenswithin30feetfromthewatersource (usuallyadownspout) 1.Whentheraingardenisclosetothehouse,almostallthe waterwillcomefromtheroofdownspout.Walkaroundthe houseandestimatewhatpercentoftherooffeedstothat downspout.Manyhouseshavefourdownspouts,eachtaking about25%oftheroofsrunoff.

2.Calculateyourhomesfootprint,ortheareaofthefirstfloor. Ifyoudontalreadyknowit,useatapemeasuretofindyour houseslengthandwidth.Multiplythetwotogethertofindthe approximateareaofyourroof. 3.Finally,multiplytheroofareabytheestimatedpercentofthe roofthatfeedstotheraingardendownspout.Thisistheroof drainagearea.

Raingardensgreaterthan30feetfromthewatersource 1.Ifthereisasignificantareaofgrounduphillthatwillalso draintotheraingarden,addthisareatotheroofdrainagearea. Firstfindtheroofdrainageareausingthestepsaboveforarain gardentobeplacedlessthan30feetfromthedownspout. 2.Findtheareaofthegroundthatwilldraintotheraingarden. Standwhereyourraingardenwillbeandlookuptowardthe house.Estimatethepartofthelawnslopingintotherain garden. 3.Measurethelengthandwidthoftheuphillground,and multiplytofindthearea. 4.Addtheuphillareatotheroofdrainageareatofindthetotal drainagearea.

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Determiningthesizeofmyraingarden Nowthatyouvefiguredoutthedepthofthegarden,thesoiltype andthedrainagearea,youcancalculatethesurfaceareaoftherain garden.Thefirststepistodetermineyoursizefactor,basedonone ofthetwotablesbelow.


Table1:Sizefactorsforraingardenswithin30feetofthewatersource

SoilType

Sand Silt Clay

35inches deep 0.19 0.34 0.43

67inches deep 0.15 0.25 0.32

8inchesdeep 0.08 0.16 0.20

Table2:Sizefactorsforraingardensgreaterthan30feetfromthewatersource

SoilType Sand Silt Clay

SizeFactor(regardlessofdepth) 0.03 0.06 0.10

Onceyouknowyoursizefactor,multiplyitbythedrainagearea. Theresultwillbetherecommendedareaforyourraingarden.If thisnumberisgreaterthan300ft2,divideitupintosmaller,more manageableraingardens.Foreachofthesmallerraingardens, considerchoosingplantswithsimilarcolors,shapesortexturesto createharmonyinthedesignandlayoutofthegarden.

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BuildingaRainGarden Step2:Construction
Beforeyoubeginconstructionofyourraingarden,youllneedafew tools:
Tapemeasure Shovels Rakes Trowels Carpenterslevel Woodstakes(atleast2long)

Ifyouplanonbuildingyourrainbarrelinanareawithlawnor weeds,youwillfirstneedtoremovetheexistingvegetation.The mostenvironmentallyfriendlyoptionistocovertheareawithblack plasticornumerouslayersofnewspaperandgivetheplantsbelow afewmonthstodie.Thenthedeadvegetationcanbedugupand removed. Afasteroptionwouldbetosprayanherbicidecontaining glyphosatetokillthevegetationwithinafewdays.However,donot spraychemicalsifthewindisgreaterthan5mph,ifrainisforecast within24hoursorifthereisachanceofrunofftoanearbywater body. DiggingtheRainGarden Beforeyoustartdigging,maketwophonecalls.Thefirstshouldbe totheSunshineStateOneCallofFlorida,Inc.line(811)tohaveyour undergroundutilitylinesmarkedforfree.Thesecondcallshouldbe toyourfriends,askingthemtohelpwithyourraingardenproject. Beginbylayingstringorahoseinthedesiredshapeofthegarden. Next,putstakesalongtheuphillanddownhillsides,liningthemup sothateachuphillstakehasastakedirectlydownhill.Placeone stakeevery5feetalongthelengthoftheraingarden. Startatoneendoftheraingardenandtieastringtotheuphill stakeatgroundlevel.Tieittothestakedirectlydownhillsothatthe

RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

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stringislevel.Workin5footwidesections,withonlyonestringat atime. Startdiggingattheuphillsideofthestring.Measuredownfromthe stringanddiguntilyoureachthedesireddepthoftheraingarden. Iftheraingardenwillbefourinchesdeep,thendigfourinches downfromthestring. Iftheareaisalmostflat,youwillbediggingatthesamedepth throughouttheraingarden.Iftheareaissteeper,thehighendof theraingardenwillneedtobedugoutnoticeablymorethanthe lowend,andsomeofthesoilfromtheupperendcanbeusedin thelowerendtomaketheraingardenlevel.Continuediggingand fillingonesectionatatimeacrossthelengthofyourraingarden untilitisaslevelaspossible. Waterflowingintotheraingardenwillnaturallytrytorunoffthe downhilledge.Abermisneededtokeepthewaterinthegarden. Thebermisawallacrossthebottomandupthesidesoftherain garden.Thebermwillneedtobehighestatthedownhillside.Up thesidesoftheraingarden,thebermwillbecomelowerand graduallytaperoffatthetopoftheraingarden.

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Ifyouplanonmixingincomposttohelpgettheplantsestablished faster,nowisthetimetodoso.Digthegardenatleastoneinch deeperthanoriginallyplannedandaddatwoinchlayerofcompost alongtheentirebottomofthegarden.Ifhandy,useatillertomixin thecompost,butthisisnotnecessary. Compostisorganicmatter,anditisawonderfulamendmenttosoil forallplants.Organicmatterincreasesthewaterholdingcapacity aswellasthenutrientcontentinsoil,givingplantsthatextraboost forimprovedhealthandperformanceinthelandscape.

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RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

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BuildingaRainGarden Step3:PlantChoices&Installation
Thelargertheraingarden,thegreaterthediversityofplantsthat canbeused.Forgrassesandbulbs,plantononefootcenters.For largerplants,increasethespacing.Trytominimizeyourfootstepsin thegardenwhenplantingtoavoidsoilcompaction. Whenchoosingplantsforyourraingarden,itisimportantto considertheheightofeachplant,bloomtimeandcolor,andits overalltexture.Useplantsthatbloomatdifferenttimestocreatea longfloweringseason.Mixheights,shapes,andtexturestogivethe gardendepthanddimension.Thiswillkeeptheraingardenlooking interestingevenwhentheflowersarenotblooming. Tryincorporatingadiversemixtureofsedges,rushes,andgrasses withyourfloweringspecies.Thiscreatesnecessaryroot competitionthatwillallowplantstofollowtheirnormalgrowth patternsandnotoutgroworoutcompeteotherspecies.Thisalso helpstocreateathickundergroundrootmatrixthatkeepsthe entireplantcommunityinbalance. Oncetheplantsareinstalled,applyalargechip,hardwoodmulch, twotothreeinchesdeepthroughouttheentireraingarden.Ifthe raingardenisinstalledduringthedryseason,handwaterthenew plantseverydayforatleasttwoweekstogettherootsestablished. Finally,considerenhancingtheraingardenbyusinglocalorexisting stone,ornamentalfencing,trails,gardenbenches,oradditional wildflowerplantings.Thiswillhelpgivethenewgardenan intentionalandcohesivelookandprovideafeelingofneatnessthat yourneighborswillappreciate. Thefollowingpagecontainsatableofsuggestedplantstouseasa startingpointforyourraingarden.Thisisnotacompletelist,but manyoftheplantsarereadilyavailableatgardencentersandlocal nurseries.

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Table3:SomesuggestedplantsforaraingardenincentralFlorida
*IndicatesaFloridanativespecies

CommonName
AfricanIris BlueFlagIris* CannaLily

BotanicalName
Dietesiridioides Irisvirginica Cannaspp. Solidagospp. Asclepiasspp.

FLOWERS

Goldenrod* Milkweed(native&non nativespecies) Shrimpplant Swampsunflower* Floridagammagrass*

Justiciabrandegeana Helianthusangustifolius Tripscicumfloridana Muhlenbergiacapillaries Aristidastrictavar.beyrichiana Iteavirginica Cyrtomiumfalcatum Vincamajor Anthericumsanderii

GRASSES& Muhlygrass* Wiregrass* SHRUBS


VirginiaWillow* HollyFern

GROUND COVERS

Periwinkle St.BernardsLily

(Forphotosandculturalinformationabouteachoftheplantslistedabove,along withacompletecatalogofsuggestedplantsforyourraingarden,visittheplant listattheendofthispublication.)

St.Bernardslilies Anthericumsanderii

Cannalilies Cannaspp.

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Duringthefirsttwoyearsafterinstallingtheraingarden,regular maintenancewillberequiredtokeepouttheweedsandreplenish themulch.Oncetheplantsfillin,thesystemwillberelativelyself sustainable.

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BuildingaRainGarden Step4:Maintenance
Likeanyotherpartofalandscape,weedingwillbeanongoing maintenanceissueforaraingarden.Duringthefirstyearortwo,as theplantsfillinandgetestablished,handremovetheweedsto preventcompetitionwithdesiredplantsandreplenishthemulchas neededtomaintaina23layeroverthesoil.Bythethirdyear,the plantsselectedfortheraingardenshouldbematureandwill outcompetetheweeds.However,occasionalweedingofisolated patchesmaystillbenecessary.

Ifyouchooseplantsthatarealllowgrowing,likegroundcoversand spreadingperennials,aneasywaytokeepthemmaintainedwould betomowthedeadplantmaterialonceayear.Thiswillstimulate growthandhelptodeterweeds.Thismayonlybefeasibleifyour mowerbladecanberaisedtoaheightof6inchesormore.Ifnot, useastringtrimmer,weedeaterorpruningshearstocuttheplants backtoabout6or8inchestall. Evergreenplants,suchasornamentalgrasses,shouldbepruned selectivelyorcutbackattheendofthegrowingseasonandonce theriskoffrost/freezehaspassed.

Replenishmulchasneededtomaintaina23layer overthesoil.

RainGardens:AManualforCentralFloridaResidents

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Learnyourplantsandtheirgrowinghabits.Somegrasses,like muhlygrass,willneedtobecutbackinthespringonceithas finishedblooming.Spentbloomsandseedheadsshouldbe removedonanasneededbasis.Thiswillhelptomaintain aestheticsinthegarden.Additionally,removingseedsbeforethey falltothegroundandgerminatewillpreventovercrowdingand competitionamongplants. Certainplants,likeliliesandirises,mayneedtobedividedaftera fewgrowingseasons.Sharetheextraplantswithfriendsandfamily, ortransplantthemtoasuitablespotsomewhereelseinyouryard.

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SuggestedPlantListforRain GardensinCentralFlorida
FLOWERS&FLOWERINGSHRUBS
Asclepiasspp.Milkweed
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Some Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Fast MatureHeight&Spread:4x4

DietesiridioidesAfricanIris
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:No Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Slow MatureHeight&Spread:3x2

Solidagospp.Goldenrod
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Some Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:6x2

=Fullsun

=Partshade

=Fullshade

=Dry

=Wet

=Butterflies

=Birds

JusticiacarneaJacobinia,FlamingoPlant
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:No Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Slow MatureHeight&Spread:4x3

Cannaspp.CannaLily
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Some Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Fast MatureHeight&Spread:6x3

HelianthusangustifoliusSwampsunflower
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Fast MatureHeight&Spread:4x4

IrishexagonaLouisianairis
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:No Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:4x1

IrisvirginicaBlueflagiris
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:4x1

ClethraalnifoliaSweetpepperbrush
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:No Perennial:N/A GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:5x5

CephalanthusoccidentalisButtonbush
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Yes Perennial:N/A GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:upto20x8

IteavirginicaVirginiasweetspire
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Yes Perennial:N/A GrowthRate:Slow MatureHeight&Spread:6x4

GROUNDCOVERS&VININGPLANTS
OsmundacinnamomeaCinnamonfern
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Slow MatureHeight&Spread:4x4

PhylanodifloraFrogfruit
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:6xvaries

JusticabrandegeanaShrimpplant
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:No Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Fast MatureHeight&Spread:3x3

AstercarolinianusCarolinaaster
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife: Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:upto12x4

GRASSES&OTHERPLANTS
MuhlenbergiacapillarisMuhlygrass
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:5x3

Aristidastrictavar.beyrichianaWiregrass LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Fast MatureHeight&Spread:4x3

TripsacumfloridanaFloridagammagrass
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:Yes Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Medium MatureHeight&Spread:4x6

Alocasiaspp.Elephantears,Taro
LightRange: SoilMoisture: Wildlife:None Native:Some Perennial:Yes GrowthRate:Fast MatureHeight&Spread:10x10

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References
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