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Submitted to: Ms.

Ailil Alvarez Eng108A

Submitted by:

Sayo, Dana Diane Solera, Sheena Rose Taguilaso, Leann Erica Tan, Shielamae Jade Templanza, Arashi

1.) a. Business Sahlman, W. A. & Wagonfeld, A.B. (October 2011). The Mission Versus the Bottom Line. Harvard Business Review, 89(10), 136-141. Should an Organic lettuce farm close a distribution center that is reaching customers but losing money? One of the primary problems of Baldwin Company is that it takes ten to fifteen days for their product to be delivered to their customers, which primarily are the retailers in East Coast. So, they come up with ECDC or East Coast Distribution Center where they store and prepare stocks of their organic lettuce. Although they were able to deliver their products faster, they also incur higher operating cost especially the cost of fuel for delivery trucks. Gretchen Cussler, the companys COO, and her team predicted that this high operating cost will be offset by higher sales, but customers were not ordering more. To solve this problem, they come up again with another idea, which is to make ECDC a center hub for other organic growers in California. It will help other organic growers to reach the East Coast retailers and at the same time the company could fill its trucks and get more organic food to more people. b. Economics Toichiro,A., Chiarella,C., Flaschel,P.,Mouakil,T.,Proano,C.,Semmler,W. (2010). Stabilizing an Unstable Economy: On the Choice of Proper Policy Measures. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Vol. 4, 2010-21

Since the Great Depression, the worlds economy has been unstable, that is why the big question that every economists have been facing, is how to stabilize the economy. The paper used a macrodynamic framework which allows the evaluation of swings in financial and real economic activity. Such framework revives the macroeconomic approach that was suggested by Tobin, building on the models depicting the interaction of labor, product and financial market. Given the complexities of these markets, the Tobin-like macroenomic portfolio approach was proposed to characterize the potential for financial market instability. Unlike previous approaches proposed, focus here is on the interrelatedness on all three markets. According to the approach pursued in the journal, it is not so much the individual behavior of economic agents (firms, households,institutions), but rather the interconnectedness of agents and markets which can produce the stabilizing or destabilizing feedback effects within the dynamic system.

c. Accounting Petrovits, C., Shakespeare, C., & Shih, A. (2011). The causes and consequences of internal control problems in nonprofit organizations. The Accounting Review, 86 (1), 325-357. Nonprofit organizations have significantly increased over the past years and along with it, findings of disclosure of internal control problems over financial reporting have also increased. This research pinpoints several causes of the internal control problems, including governments poor regulatory oversight of the organizations operations and policies, donors minimal knowledge regarding the activities of the organizations they contribute to, and the organizations lack of accountability and transparency reflected through the managers. Internal controls are established to provide assurance that operations are running effectively and that financial reporting is reliable. Having problems with internal controls

signify the opposite, posing difficulties to future operations of nonprofit organizations which rely on public trust to gain contributions and support. In line with the causes of internal control problems, this study proposed the following solutions. First, regulators should reformulate laws in an attempt to increase public confidence in the integrity of these organizations. Second, donors must also make more informed charitable decisions, starting with monitoring the organization the through analyzing its financial statements. Finally, nonprofit managers and board members need to understand the risks of failing to meet donors and government agencies expectations with regards to accountability.

2.) a. Financial Management Common stock represents shareholders ownership in the company. It carries voting rights and these shareholders are legally entitled to receive dividend payments. However, common stock returns are not contractualthey depend on the firms earnings, which in turn depend on many random factors, making their valuation more difficult. Stock valuation can be calculated using a number of different methods. Two fairly straightforward models are used to estimate stocks intrinsic ( or true) values: (1) the discounted dividend model (2) the corporate valuation model. A stock should, of course, be bought if its price is less than its estimated intrinsic value and sold if its price exceeds its intrinsic value. TOPIC The topic is about a brief introduction of common stock. It tells that common stocks represent the shareholders wealth RESTRICTION It shows its limitation by specifying rights and privileges as shareholders. They have voting rights and entitle to receive dividend payments, but these payments are contractual. ILLUSTRATION To further explain, it tells that the returns that the shareholder will receive will depend on firms earnings, which in turn depend on many factors. That is why the valuation of the stocks is difficult to calculate. ANALYSIS Generally, there are two straightforward models on how to know the intrinsic value of the stocks: the discounted dividend model and the corporate valuation model. If the stock is less than the intrinsic value you should buy it and if it is greater than intrinsic value sold it. CONCLUSION It concludes that using the two models you will be able to decide if you will buy or sell the stocks. b. Operational Management Agility refers to the ability of an organization to respond quickly to demands or opportunities. It is a strategy that involves maintaining a flexible system that can quickly respond to changes in either the volume of demand or changes in production/service offerings. This is particularly important as organizations scramble to remain competitive and cope with increasing shorter product life cycles and strive to achieve shorter development times for new or improved products and services. TOPIC The topic is about the definition of agility which refers to the ability of the organization to respond quickly to the demands and opportunities. RESTRICTION To have agility, you should maintain a flexible management system to respond quickly in any changes in demand or product and service offerings. ILLUSTRATION Agility is very important for the organization to remain competitive and cope with increasing shorter product life cycles and strive to achieve shorter development times for new or improved products and services.

c. Computer Unified Modeling Language or UML is a standard language controlled by the Object Management Group or OMG. It is simply another graphical representation of a common semantic model. UML provides a comprehensive notation for the full lifecycle of object-oriented development. It is a notation or symbolic representation used to visualize and document the elements or artifacts of an object-oriented system. This language is used to communicate between technical (e.g. System Developers) and non-technical (e.g. Managers) people to ensure that they have the same view or understanding of the system.

TOPIC The first sentence, by means of definition, shows the topic of the paragraph, which is the Unified Modeling Language or UML RESTRICTION The second and third sentences provide the limitations of the topic by labeling UML as a graphical representation used in object-oriented development. ILLUSTRATION The last two sentences in the paragraph gives further information about the topic by enumerating some functions of UML such as used to visualize and document the elements or artifacts of an object-oriented system and to communicate between technical and non-technical people.

d. Law As a general rule, future properties cannot be contributed. The very essence of the contract of partnership that the properties contributed be included in the partnership requires the contribution of things determinate. The position of a partner is like that of a donor, and donations cannot comprehend future properly. (Art. 751.) Thus, property subsequently acquired by (1) inheritance, (2) legacy, or (3) donation cannot be included by stipulation ecept the fruits thereof. Hence, any stipulation including property acquired is void. Profits from other sources (not from the properties contributed) will become common property only if there is a stipulation. TOPIC- Future properties cannot be contributed. RESTRICTION- In fact, the identifying nature of the contract of partnership is the contribution of property, money or industry to a common fund in which the partners are required to give their properties to the partnership. But donations cannot comprehend future property. ILLUSTRATION- For example, properties acquired by inheritance, legacy, or donations cannot be included as part of the contributions of the partners except the fruits obtain thereof. ANALYSIS- The significance of this is that any stipulation including properties acquired is considered null and void. CONCLUSION- Therefore, partners must contribute their properties to a common fund but propeties acquired by inheritance, legacy or donations are not considered as a property of the partnership. Only if there is stipulation can these properties or profits from other sources be part of the partnership.

e. Financial Accounting

TOPIC RESTRICTION ILLUSTRATION f. Managerial Accounting TOPIC RESTRICTION ILLUSTRATION g. Tax Transfer tax is a tax imposed upon the gratuitous transfer of property ownership. It is a privilege tax which is imposed on the act of passing ownership of property and not a tax on the property itself. The transfer of ownership may take effect during lifetime in the case of the gift tax, or upon the death of a person in the case of estate tax. TOPIC Transfer tax is a tax imposed upon transfer of property ownership. RESTRICTION Transfer tax is only imposed on the act of passing the property. You need to pay the transfer tax because the evidence of its payment is required by the Register of Deeds of the province concerned before registering any deed ILLUSTRATION For example, transfer tax is imposed on tax on the sale, donation, barter, or any other mode of transferring ownership or title of real property