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I Introduct|on


Defense of the Ancients (commonly known as DotA) is a custom scenario for the real-time
strategy game Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and its expansion, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, based on
the "Aeon of Strife" map for StarCraft. The objective of the scenario is for each team to destroy the
opponents' Ancients, heavily guarded structures at opposing corners of the map. Players use powerful
units known as heroes, and are assisted by allied heroes and A-controlled fighters called "creeps". As
in role-playing games, players level up their heroes and use gold to buy equipment during the mission.
The scenario was developed with the "World Editor" of Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, and was updated
upon the release of its expansion, The Frozen Throne. There have been many variations of the original
concept; the most popular being DotA Allstars, which eventually was simplified to DotA with the release of
version 6.68 This specific scenario has been maintained by several authors during development, with the
current publicly anonymous developer known as "ceFrog" developing the game since 2005.
Since its original release, DotA has become a feature at several worldwide tournaments,
including Blizzard Entertainment's BlizzCon and the Asian World Cyber Games, as well as the
Cyberathlete Amateur and CyberEvolution leagues; Gamasutradeclared that DotA was perhaps the most
popular "free, non-supported game mod in the world" Valve Corporation is currently developing a
sequel, Dota 2.

Defense of the Ancients pits two teams of players against each other: the Sentinel and the Scourge.
Players on the Sentinel team are based at the southwest corner of the map, and those on the Scourge
team are based at the northeast corner. Each base is defended by towers and waves of units which
guard the main paths leading to their base. n the center of each base is the "Ancient", a building that
must be destroyed to win the game.
Each human player controls one Hero, a powerful unit with unique abilities. n DotA, players on each side
choose one of 104 heroes, each with different abilities and tactical advantages over other heroes. The
scenario is highly team-oriented; it is difficult for one player to carry the team to victory alone. Defense of
the Ancients allows up to ten players in a five-versus-five format and an additional two slots for referees
or observers, often with an equal number of players on each side.
Because the gameplay revolves around strengthening individual heroes, it does not require one to focus
on resource management and base-building, unlike most traditional real-time strategy games. Killing
computer-controlled or neutral units earns the player experience points; when enough experience is
accumulated, the player gains a level. Leveling up improves the hero's toughness and the damage it can
inflict, and allows players to upgrade their spells or skills. n addition to accumulating experience, players
also manage a single resource: gold. The typical resource-gathering of Warcraft III is replaced by a
combat-oriented money system; in addition to a small periodic income, heroes earn gold by killing hostile
units, base structures, and enemy heroes. This has caused emphasis on a technique called "last-hitting,"
which is when the player attacks a hostile unit when "its hit points are low enough to kill it with one
blow". Using gold, players buy items to strengthen their hero and gain abilities; certain items can be
combined with recipes to create more powerful items. Buying items that suit one's hero is an important
tactical element of the scenario. tem choice also affects play style, as any given item may increase one
statistic (for example, attack per minute) while leaving another (damage per attack) unchanged.
DotA offers a variety of game modes, selected by the game host at the beginning of the match. The game
modes dictate the difficulty of the scenario, as well as whether people can choose their hero or are
assigned one randomly. Many game modes can be combined (for example, an easy difficulty level and a
random hero pick), allowing more flexible options.
Warcraft III is the third title in the Warcraft series of real-time strategy games developed by Blizzard
Entertainment. As with Warcraft II, Blizzard included a free "world editor" in the game that allows players
to create custom scenarios or "maps" for the game, which can be played online with other players
through These custom scenarios can be simple terrain changes, which play like
normal Warcraft games, or they can be entirely new game scenarios with custom objectives, units, items,
and events, like Defense of the Ancients.
The first version of Defense of the Ancients was released in 2003 by a mapmaker under the alias of
who based the map on a previous StarCraft scenario known as "Aeon of Strife". After the release
of Warcraft's expansion The Frozen Throne, which added new features to the World Editor, Eul did not
update the scenario. Other mapmakers produced spinoffs that added new heroes, items, and features.
Among the DotA variants created in the wake of Eul's map, there was DotA Allstars, developed by
modder Steve Feak (under the alias Guinsoo); this version would become today's dominant version of the
map, simply known as Defense of the Ancients. Feak said when he began developing DotA Allstars, he
had no idea how popular the game would eventually become; the emerging success of the gametype
inspired him to design a new title around what he considered an emerging game genre. Feak added a
recipe system for items so that player's equipment would scale as they grew more powerful, as well as a
powerful boss character called Roshan (named after his bowling ball) who required an entire team to
Feak used a chat channel as a place for DotA players to congregate but DotA Allstars had no
official site for discussions and hosting. The leaders of the DotA Allstars clan, TDA, proposed that a
dedicated web site be created to replace the various online alternatives that were infrequently updated or
improperly maintained. TDA member Steve "Pendragon" Mescon created the former official community
site,, on October 14, 2004.
Towards the end of his association with the map, Feak primarily worked on optimizing the map before
handing over control to another developer after version 6.01. The new author, ceFrog, added new
features, heroes, and fixes. Each release is accompanied by achangelog. ceFrog was at one time highly
reclusive, refusing to give interviews; the only evidence of his authorship was the map maker's email
account on the official website and the name branded on the game's loading screen. ceFrog now
interacts with players through a personal blog where he answers common questions players have about
him and about the game. He has also posted information about upcoming map releases, including
previews of new heroes and items.
Defense of the Ancients is maintained via official forums. Users can post ideas for new heroes or items,
some of which are added to the map. Players have contributed icons and hero descriptions and created
the artwork displayed while the map loads, and suggestions for changes to existing heroes or items are
taken seriously; ceFrog once changed a new hero less than two weeks after the new version of the map
was released. Versions of the scenario where enemy heroes are controlled by artificial intelligences have
also been released. Mescon continued to maintain, which by the end of ceFrog's
affiliation in May 2009 had over 1,500,000 registered users and had received over one million unique
visitors every month. Due to their separation, ceFrog announced that he would be further developing a
new official site,, while continuing game development; Mescon closed dota-allstars on July
22, 2010, citing dropping statistics and his new passion for League of Legends as the reason for its end.
Because Warcraft III custom games have none of the features designed to improve game quality
(matchmaking players based on connection speed, etc.), various programs are used to maintain Defense
of the Ancients. External tools ping player's locations, and games can be named to exclude geographic
regions. Clans and committees such as TDA maintain their own official list of rules and regulations, and
players can be kicked from matches by being placed on "banlists".
Reception and legacy
The top three finalists from the first World Cyber Games Defense of the Ancientschampionship
The popularity of Defense of the Ancients has increased over time. The scenario was featured
by Computer Gaming World in a review of new maps and mods in Warcraft III. DotA Allstars became an
important tournament scenario, starting with its prominence at the debut of Blizzard's BlizzCon convention
in 2005. DotA Allstars was also featured in theMalaysia and Singapore World Cyber Games starting in
2005, and the World Cyber Games Asian Championships beginning with the 2006 season. Defense of
the Ancients was included in the game lineup for the internationally recognized Cyberathlete Amateur
League and CyberEvolution leagues. Additionally, the scenario appeared in Electronic Sports World
Cup (ESWC) 2008; Oliver Paradis, ESWC's competition manager, noted that the high level of community
support behind the scenario, as well as its worldwide appeal, were among the reasons it was chosen.
The scenario is popular in many parts of the world; in the Philippines and Thailand, it is played as much
as the game Counter-Strike. t is also popular in Sweden and other Northern European countries, where
the Defense of the Ancients-inspired song "Vi sitter i Ventrilo och spelar DotA" by Swedish
musician Basshunter reached the European 2006 charts at #116 and cracked the top ten Singles Charts
in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. LAN tournaments are a major part of worldwide play including
tournaments in Sweden and Russia; however, due to a lack of LAN tournaments and championships in
North America, several teams disbanded. Blizzard points to DotA as an example of what dedicated
mapmakers can create using developer's tools.
n June 2008, Michael Walbridge, writing for Gamasutra, stated that DotA "is likely the most popular and
most-discussed free, non-supported game mod in the world". n pointing to the strong community built
around the game, Walbridge stated that DotA shows it is much easier for a community game to be
maintained by the community, and this is one of the maps' greatest strengths. Former game
journalist Luke Smith called DotA "the ultimate RTS".
Defense of the Ancients has been credited as one of the influences for the 2009 Gas Powered
Games title Demigod, with the video game publication GameSpy noting the game's premise revolved
around aspiring gods "[playing] DotA in real life". Guinsoo went on to apply many of the mechanics and
lessons he learned from Defense of the Ancients to the Riot Games title League of Legends. Other
"DotA clones" include S2 Games' Heroes of Newerth. Blizzard Entertainment is also developing a free
mod forStarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm entitled Blizzard DOTA, featuring an array of heroes from
Blizzard's franchises.

Buckgrounds oI LIe SLudy
TecInoIogy Loduy Is very udvunced und wIdeIy used by peopIe In workIng, sLudyIng,
communIcuLIng, und even Ior gumes und enLerLuInmenL. Gumes ure very popuIur wILI
Leenugers LIese duys. L enLerLuIns LIem und mude LIem Iuve Iun. L...

The EIIects oI Dota
TIere ure muny sLudenLs und even some young proIessIonuIs LIuL ure uddIcLed Lo DoLA.
TIIs Is one oI LIe compuLer gumes LIuL cun be pIuyed by muny pIuyers und Is one oI LIe
mosL popuIur gumes Lo young sLudenLs. Muny sLudenLs geL uddIcLed Lo LIIs gume und
LIey even spend Iong Iours InsIde LIe compuLer sIop jusL Lo pIuy LIe gume. TIere ure
sLudIes LIuL geLLIng uddIcLed In pIuyIng compuLer gumes uIIecLs LIeIr sLudIes und LIIs Is
LIe cuuse wIy LIey ure IyIng Lo LIeIr purenLs LIuL LIey need exLru money Ior LIeIr
scIooI projecL buL LIe LruLI Is LIey ure jusL usIng LIe money Lo renL u compuLer wIere
LIey cun pIuy DoLA wILI LIeIr cIussmuLes. SomeLImes, In order Lo muke LIe gume
excILIng, LIey Iuve u deuI Lo puy LIose wIo won LIe gume, so IL uIreudy becomes u Iorm
oI gumbIIng.
WIen LIme spenL on LIe compuLer pIuyIng DoLA gumes or cruIsIng LIe nLerneL
reucIes Lo LIe poInL wIen IL Iurms u cIIId`s or uduIL`s IumIIy und socIuI reIuLIonsIIps,
or dIsrupLs scIooI or work IIIe, LIuL person muy be cuugIL In u cycIe oI uddIcLIon. Ike
oLIer uddIcLIons, DoLA gume Ius repIuced IrIends und IumIIy us LIe source oI u person`s
emoLIonuI IIIe. ncreusIngIy, Lo IeeI good, LIe uddIcLed person spends more LIme pIuyIng
vIdeo gumes or seurcIIng LIe nLerneL. TIme uwuy Irom LIe compuLer or gume cuuses
moodIness or wILIdruwuI.
WIen u person spends up Lo Len Iours u duy or more reurrungIng or sendIng IIIes,
pIuyIng gumes, surIIng LIe neL, vIsILIng cIuL rooms, InsLunL messugIng, und reudIng
emuIIs, LIuL eusIIy cun reucI up Lo sevenLy Lo eIgILy Iours u week on-IIne wILI LIe
compuLer und wIII resuIL Lo mujor dIsrupLIons Irom work, scIooI, und In socIuI IIIe.

Dota EIIect
DoLA eIIecLs Iuve been conLInue Ior severuI yeurs sInce LIe IuuncI oI LIe Wur oI Wur
CruIL und LIe rozen TIrone. AImosL every peopIe especIuIIy LIe youLI Ius pIuyed LIIs
gume uL LIe very begInnIng oI LIe yeurs. WIuL Is LIe conLenL LIuL DoLA oIIers Lo LIe
gumers? And Iow's LIe excILemenLs LIuL IL brIngs Lowurds LIe gumers? And you muy usk
u key quesLIon, Iow Iong wIII LIIs DoLA eIIecLs IusL?

DoLA busIcuIIy Is u gume expunded Irom versIon oI Wur oI Wur CruIL, wIIcI InILIuIIy u
sLruLegIc gume sImIIur Lo Red AIerL serIes. BuL evenLuuIIy evoIved InLo currenL sLuLe.
Gumers cun pIuy DoLA on u wIde runge; Irom sIngIe pIuyer, IocuI AN, or AN over
InLerneL connecLIon wILI vurIous counLry's gumers. TIere conLuIn vurIeLy oI Heroes Lo be
cIosen us your cIurucLer, LIere ure muny Lype oI gumIng modes, und dIIIerenL Lype oI
mup Ior LIe gume modes. TIere's no need Ior me Lo expIuIn Iow LIe gume Is conducLed
und LIe IeuLures oI LIe gume. Becuuse LIere ure IoLs oI gumers wIo ure more experL LIun
me exIsL In LIe DoLA communILy. or me, LIIs DoLA Is noL u dIIIIcuIL gume Ior umuLeur,
you cun sLurL pIuy DoLA unyLIme und IumIIIur wILI LIIs gume eusIIy over z or duys. BuL
one LIIngs Lo remInd you Is, DoLA Is noL eusy Lo musLer und pIuy IIke u Pro. You cun Luke
up Lo severuI yeurs spenL on LIIs gume buL sLIII beIuve IIke umuLeur.

TIere ure IoLs oI eIIecLs wIIcI DoLA brIngs Lo our socIeLy, Lo be purLIcuIur, LIe youLI.
WILI no doubL LIIs gume Is one oI LIe IoLLesL gume In LIe murkeL. n every cyber cuIe
you cun see gumers sLIck wILI LIeIr screen und mouse und keybourd, wILI LIeIr Iuce IuII
oI concenLruLIon und excILemenLs IIndIng wuys Lo deIeuL LIeIr opposIng Leum or
enemIes. AcLuuIIy DoLA serve us u pIuLIorm Ior youLI Lo communIcuLe. Teenugers wIo
InILIuIIy don'L know eucI oLIer cun eusIIy become IrIends LIrougI DoLA gume, becuuse
LIIs gume provIdes u common LopIcs Ior every oI LIe Leenugers. TIey cun dIscuss ubouL
LIe weupons, LIe Ieros, LIe LucLIcs, LIe dIIIerenL versIons oI...

n LIe pusL decude, LIe compuLer gumIng IndusLry Ius grown Irom zIIcI Lo mummoLI.
TIe quuIILy oI gume grupIIcs und desIgn enIunced wILI eucI new deveIoped gume. TIe
IuLesL gumes swepL Iess new ones oII LIe sIeIves oI gumers. TIIs wus LIe cuse Ior uImosL
uII gume genres especIuIIy wILI sLruLegy gumes. However, u Iew sLruLegy gumes
deveIoped by BIIzzurd EnLerLuInmenL never seemed Lo Iose LIeIr cIurm, In IucL, LIey
conLInuuIIy kepL growIng even more popuIur. One sucI gume by BIIzzurd EnLerLuInmenL
Is WurcruIL : DoLu.
DoLu sLunds Ior DeIense oI LIe AncIenLs. DoLu Is noL gume ILseII; IL Is u muILIpIuyer mup
on WurcruIL : TIe rozen TIrone. BuL becuuse oI ILs Iume und umpIe dIIIerences wILI
LIe resL oI LIe gume, LIIs mup Is oILen consIdered un enLIreIy sepuruLe gume ILseII ruLIer
LIun jusL u mup In TIe rozen TIrone.
TIe Ideu In LIIs gume Is LIuL you ure u Iero Irom one oI LIe Lwo rIvuI ruces; scourge und
senLIneIs, und you IIgIL your wuy LIrougI LIe deIenses Lo desLroy eucI oLIers LIrones.
TIere Is u vusL vurIeLy oI dIIIerenL Ieroes you cun cIoose Irom eucI IuvIng ILs own
specIuI ubIIILIes. TIe gume cun supporL up Lo Len pIuyers, dIvIded InLo Lwo equuI Leums
eucI represenLIng one oI LIe Lwo ruces - senLIneI or scourge.
You cun buy ILems wILI money you eurn by kIIIIng enemy unILs und your Iero Increuses
In IeveIs by guInIng experIence Irom buLLIes. AL eucI IeveI cIunge Ie Ieurns u new ubIIILy.
Heroes cun cusL speIIs, wILI uImosL every Iero IuvIng IIs own dIsLIncL speIIs und
uLLrIbuLes. TIe objecLIve Is Lo muke your Iero sLrong enougI Lo deIeuL LIe enemy Ieroes
und breuk down LIeIr Lowers und deIenses.
DoLu wus InLroduced us u mup on TIe rozen TIrone, uImosL LIree yeurs ugo. L dId noL
guIn mucI uLLenLIon InILIuIIy, buL LIen gruduuIIy sLurLed beIng upprecIuLed by gumers
uround LIe worId. SInce LIen IL Ius Iud more LIun sIxLy new versIons reIeused, eucI new
versIon guInIng more Iume und success. Toduy, peopIe uII uround LIe gIobe pIuy DoLu