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Chapter One
Fluid properties By Ahmed YASHAR

What is the Fluid ???


fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, no matter how small.

Why are we studying fluid mechanics


Fluid mechanics is involved in nearly all areas of Engineering either directly or indirectly. Sea and river (flood); Water distribution / sewerage (sanitation) networks; Gas Pipeline; Dams; Irrigation; Pumps and Turbines;

Physical Properties of Fluid.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mass Density Weight Density Relative Density Specific Volume Viscosity Surface Tension (Capillary Rise or Depression) 7. Compressibility and elasticity
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Units of Dimension
SI British Dim.

Mass
Length Time Force Temperature

Kg
m Sec N C

Slug
ft Sec lb F

(M)
( L) (T) (F)

Gravity = 32.2 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2

Mass Density
is defined as substance mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is (the Greek letter rho).
is the density (kg/m) or (slug/ft3 ) m is the mass (kg ) ( slug ) V is the volume (m) ( ft3 )

Example (1) & (2)


An unknown liquid substance has a mass of 18.5 g and occupies a volume of 23.4 ml. (milliliter).
The density can be calculated as

The density of substance is 4507 kg/m3. Calculate the mass of 0.17 m3 !


m = (0.17 m3) (4507 kg/m3) = 766.2 kg

Weight Density
Weight Density : defined as weight per unit volume.( )

Note :Specific Weight = Weight Density


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Relative Density
is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material (water).

Note:1. Specific Gravity ( SG ) = Relative Density (rd) 2. At 4C or 39.4F water = 9810 N/m3 = 62.4 lb/ft3 water = 1000 kg/m3 = 1.94 slug/ft3
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Example ( 3 )
A container filled with oil that weights 2kN and the volume of the container is (400 lit). calculate the weight and mass density and relative density ?
Solution :-

Or
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Specific Volume
the specific volume of a substance is the ratio of the substance's volume to its mass. It is the reciprocal of density:

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Example ( 4 )
Compute the density and specific weight of mercury in BG units, if the specific gravity of the mercury is ( 13.56 ) .
Solution :-

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Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by shear stress .
molasses ( )and tar () liquid. are example for viscous

Water and air have very small resistance. The viscosity of gas increase with temp. The viscosity of liquid decrease with temp.

The substance above has lower viscosity than the substance below

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Newton low of viscosity


Experimentally shown that
Stress at the upper point

Stress at the any point


F

dy

du

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Viscosity

units Pas, Poise, P


1 P = 0.1 Pas

Kinematic viscosity is the viscosity divided by the density (typical units cm2/s,
Stokes, St).

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Capillary Rise or Depression


adhesiveness - the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition. cohesiveness - The force of attraction that holds molecules of a given substance together. It is strongest in solids, less strong in liquids, and least strong in gases.

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Surface Tension (Capillary Rise or Depression)


The weight of liquid = The surface tension force
* volume = * contact length * cos
r

Where = Weight Density h= Height of the liquid r= radius of tube = surface tension coefficient =angle of contact

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Capillary Rise or Depression

Note : when the glass clean, = zero with water = 130 with Hg
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Example ( 5 )
A (2 mm ) diameter clean glass tube is immersed in water 15C . Determine the height of the water climb up the tube. The water makes a contact angle of zero with clean glass. Solution :-

h= 0.0151 m
From table we find and

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Compressibility and elasticity


Reduction in volume due to increasing in pressure applied on this volume.

F1 , V1

F2, V2

F3 , V3

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Compressibility and elasticity


Each pressure
Strain

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Compressibility and elasticity


Bulk modulus of elasticity ( or E)

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Example ( 6 )
A fluid compressed in a cylinder has a volume of 1000 cm3 at 1 MPa and a volume of 995 cm3 at 2 MPa. Determine the bulk modulus of elasticity ?
Solution :-

Units = ??

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Example ( 7 )
The volume of tank is (190 lit) the weight of this tank is (200 N) when its empty and (2 kN) when its filled by oil, calculate the weight density (), mass density (), relative density (r.d or S ), specific volume of oil.
Solution :-

specific volume = ?

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Example ( 8 )
The specific gravity of ethyl alcohol is 0.79. Calculate 1. specific weight ? 2. Mass density ?

Do not forget 1. Specific Weight = Weight Density ( ) 2. Specific Gravity ( SG ) = Relative Density (rd)
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Example ( 9 )
Liquid with 0.006 kg/m.sec viscosity and 850 kg/m3 density. Determine its kinematic viscosity ?
Solution :-

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Example ( 10 )
L F1=500 N V1=1 m/Sec When F2 =1500 N find V2 = ?? F1 V1 D

Solution :A= D L

V2=3 m/Sec

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Example ( 11 )
t=0.1 mm A=25x25 cm = 0.38 N.s / m2 V= ??
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Solution :W=400N

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V=
400 sin 20 W=400N 400 cos 20 29

Example ( 12 )
Oil with mass density ( 850 kg/m3) is following in a pipe (200 mm), the shear stress at the pipe wall ( 0.07 N/m2) and the velocity distribution is(v=1-100r2). Find kinematic viscosity ? Solution :y

R
r

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H.W 1
mid-plate dimension is 1 x 1 m
V=0.5 m/s

4 cm 2 cm Determine ??
F =41 N

Solution :-

V=0.5 m/s F =41 N

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H.W 2
t=2 mm A=60x60 cm = ?? 3 3 4 4

Solution :-

W=100N

W=100N 32

H.W3
= 0.05 N.S/m2 A=30X60 cm F=??

0.5 cm
1 cm

V=0.5 m/s F= ??

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Water Properties in SI Units


Bulk modulus
vapor head

Vapor pressure

Surface Tension

Kinematic Viscosity

Viscosity

mass density

Weight density Temp.

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Water Properties in British Units


Bulk modulus
vapor head
Vapor pressure

Surface Tension

Kinematic Viscosity

Viscosity

mass density

Weight density

Temp.

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Example (13)
Drive an expression for capillary rise or depression between two vertical parallel plates separated by distance (s).

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