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EPA 625/1 - 79- 011

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL


FOR

SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY


Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory
Office of Research and Development

Center for Environmental Research Information


Technology Transfer

September 1979

NOT ICE

The mention of t r a d e names o r c o m m e r c i a l


p r o d u c t s in this publication is f o r
illustrative purposes only and does not
constitute endorsement or cecommendation
for use by the USEPA.

FOREWORD

The formation of the United States Environmental Protection


Agency marked a new era of environmental aware ness in America.
This Agency' s
goals are national in scope and encompass broad
responS1b111ty 1n the areas of air and water pollut i on, solid
wastes, pesticides , and radiation .
A vital part of EPA ' s
national pOll u tion con t rol effort is the constant de"elopment
and dissemination of new techno l ogy .
It is now clear that only the mos t effective design and operation
of pollution control
facilities using t he latest available
techniques will be adequate to ensure continued protection of
the n a t i o n ' s waters .
I t is essential that this new technology be
incorporated into the contemporary design of pollution co n trol
facilities to aChieve ma xim um benefit of our expenditures.
The purpose of this manual is to
provide
the engineering
community and related industry wit h a new source of information
to be used in the p l a n n i n g , design , and operation of present
and f u t u r e wastewater pollution control facilities .
It is
recognized that t h e r e are a number of d e s i gn manuals and manuals
of s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e , s u ch as those published by t he Water
Pollution Cont r ol Federation , available in the field , and
t h a t each of these adequately d e s c r i b e s a n d interprets curren t
engineering prac tices as related to t r a d i t i o n a l plant design .
It is th e intent of this m a n u a l to supplement this exist i ng
body of knowledge by describing new treatment methods and by
discussing the a p p l i c a t i o n of new techniques f o r more effect i vely
removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater".
Much of the information presen t ed is based on the evaluation and
ope r ation of pilot , demonstration, and full-scale plants .
The
desig n criteria thus g e n e r a t e d r e p r e s e n t ty pical values.
These
values should be used as a guide and should be tempered with
sound engineeri ng jud g ment based on a complete a nalysis of the
specific application .
This manual is one of se"eral avai la b l e from Technology T r a n s f e r
to describe technological advances and new information .
Future
editions will be issued as w a r r a n t e d by advancing state- of-the art to include new data a s th ey become availab l e and to revise
design criteria as additional full - scale opera ti onal i nformation
a s generated .

iii

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this manual is


to present a contemporary review
of sludge processing technology , with particular emphasis on
design methodology .
This is a revision
of a manual orig i nally
published in October 1974 .
The revised edition incorporates chap t ers on design approach,
disinfection,
composting ,
transport,
stor a ge ,
sidestream
treatlnent, and instrumentation.
Other sections h a v e been
considerably expanded .
Design examples are used throughout the manu a l
design principles .

to illustrate

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
FOREWORD
ABSTRACT

................................................
.................. ....... .......................

LIST OF TABLES ......... ..


LIST OF FIGURES .... . .... ...... ......
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... .....
CHAPTER 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE ... ....... ...
1 . 1 Purpose .............
1 . 2 Scope .......... .
1.3 Process Classification
..
1 .4 References ............... ...
CHAPTER 2.
GENERAL CONS IDE RAT IONS ...........
2 . 1 Introduction and Scope
..
2 . 2 Legal and Regula t ory C o n s i d e r a t i o n s .........
2 . 2 . 1 Effect of Effluent Discharge Limitations
on Wastewater solids Management .........
2 . 2.2
Hestrictions on Wastewater
Solids Treatment ................
2 . 2 . 2.1
Air Emissions Limits
..
2 . 2 . 2 . 2 Nuisances ..................
2 . 2.2.3 S t a t e and Local Requiremen t s
..
2 . 2 . 3 Laws a n d Regulations Governing Wastewater
Solids Utilization and Disposal . ..
2 . 2 . 3 . 1 Federal Water Pollution Control Act ...
2 . 2 . 3 . 2 Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act ..........
2 . 2 . 3 . 3 To x ic Substances Control Act ...
2.2 . 3 . 4 Marine Protection, R e s e a r c h and
S a n c t u a r i e s Act .....
2.2 . 3 . 5 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Pol i cy Acts ..
2 . 2 . 3 . 6 State and Local Reuse and
Disposal Requi r ements .......
2 . 2 .4 The C o m p r e h e n s i v e N a t u r e of Section 405
of the Clean Wa t er Act
.
2 . 3 Other No n-Te chnical Factors Affecting
Wastewater Solids Management .......
2 . 3 . 1 Avai l abil i ty of Construction Funds . ...
2.3 . 2 Special Funding Requirements .........

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.4

3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

Time Span of Decisions


.
Uncertainties
The Design Team ............
Public Involvement ..........
Social and Political Factors Affecting
Waste Export ......
References .................

CHAPTER 3. DES I GN APPROACH .................


3.1 Introduction
.
3 . 2 Systems Approach ........
3.3 The Logic of Process Selection
.
3.3 . 1 Identification of Relevant Criteria .....
3 . 3 . 2 Identi f ication of System Options .......
3.3.3 System Selection Procedure .........
3 . 3 . 3 . 1 Base and Secondary Alterna t ives
3 . 3 . 3 . 2 Choosing a Base Alternative :
Firs t Cut
.
3.3.3 . 3 Choosing a Base Alternative :
Second Cu t . .
3.3 . 3.4 Third Cut
.
3 . 3 . 3 . 5 Subsequent Cuts ..........
3 . 3. 4 P a r a l l e l Elements
.
3 . 3 . 5 Process Selection a t Eugene , Oregon ....
3.4 The Quantitative Flow Diagram
.
3 . 4 . 1 Example : QFD for a Chemically Assisted
Primary Treatment Plant .
3.4 . 2 Example : QFD for Secondary Plant
With Filtration ..............
3 . 5 Sizing of Equipment
..
3 . 6 Contingency Pl anning
3.6.1 Example of Con t ingency Planning
for Breakdowns .
3.7 Other General Design Considerations ..
3 . 7 . 1 Site Variations ............
3 . 7 . 2 Energy Conservation ...........
3.7.3 Cost- Effective Analyses
.
3.7.4 Checklists
.
3 . 8 References ........................ .
WASTEWATER SOLIDS PRODUCTION AND
CHARACTERIZATION ................. ..
4. 1 Introduction ....
4 . 2 Primary Sludge ..................
4.2 . 1 P r i m a r y Sludge Production
..
4.2.1 . 1 Basic Procedures for Estimat,ing
Primary Sludge Produc t ion .........
4 . 2 . 1.2 lndustrial W a s t e E f f e c t
..
4 . 2 . 1.3 Ground Garbage Effect
.
4 . 2.1 .4 Other Sludges and Sidest r eams .... ..

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CHAPTER 4.

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TABLE OF CONT ENTS (cont in ued)

4. 2. 1 . 5

Chemical
a nd
Coagula tion .......................

4. 2 . 1 . 6
Pea k Loads ... .......
4. 2.2
Concentration Propert i es .......
4.2.3 Composit i on and Charac teri stics .............
, . 3 Biological S l udges ...
4. 3 . 1 G e n e r a l Characteristics ....
4. 3 . 2 Activated Sl u dge ..........................
4.3 . 2 . 1 Processes Included
.
4. 3 . 2 . 2 Computi ng Activated Sludge
Production - Dry Weight Basis ,

Examp le: Determination of


Biological Sludge Produc t ion .....
4.3.2.4 Interact i on of Yield Calcu la tions and
the Quantitative Flow D i a g r a m (QFOj .
4.3.2.5 Concent r ation of Wa s t e- Act ivated
Sludge
4 . 3 . 2 . 6 Other Prope r ties of Activated Sludge . .
4.3 . 3 Trickling Filters ..............
4. 3 . 3 . 1 Computing Trickling Filter Sludge
Produc ti on - Dry Weig ht Basis
4.3 . 3 . 2 Concentration of Trickling Fi lter
Sludge .............
4.3.3.3
Prop e rties - Trickling Filte r Sludge ...
4. 3.4 Sludge f r om Ro tating Biological Reactors ..
4. 3.5 Coupled Attached-Suspended Growth Sludges ...
4. 3.6
Deni tri fication Sludge
.
Chemical Sludges ....
4.4. 1 Introduction
.
4 . 4.2 Computing Chemical Sludge
P r oduction - Dry Weight Basis .. ..
4 .4. 3 Pr oper t ies of Chemical Sludges
.
4 . 4 . 4 Handling Chem i cal Sludge s
.
4.4.4.1 Stabilization ..
4 .4.4. 2 Chemical and By- Produc t Recove r y .
Elemental Analysis of Va r ious Sludges .......
4.5.1 Controlling Trace Elements
.
4. 5 . 2 Site - Specific An alysis ...
4.5.3 Cadmium ...... . . .
4. 5 . 4 Inc r eased C o n c e n t r a t i o n During Processing ...
' . 6 Trace Organic compounds i n Sludge ...........
4.7 M.iscellaneous Wastewater Solids .......
4. 7 .1 Screenings ..................
4 . 7.1.1 Quan t ity of Coarse Sc r eenings
.
4.7 . 1.2 Quan t ity of Fine Screenings
.
4.7 . 1.3 Properties of Screenings
.
4.7 . 1.4 Handling Scree n ings ..........
4 . 7 . 1 . 5 Sc r ee n ings From Miscellaneous
Locations ...........
4. 7 . 2 Grit

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'.5

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... ... ....... .............. ........ ..


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Page
4 . 7 . 2 . 1 Quantity of Gr i t
.
4. 7.2.2 Prope rt ies of Grit
.
4. 7 . 2.3 Hand li ng Grit ......
4.7. 3 Scum ..........
4 . 7 . 3 .1 Qu a n ti ties of Scum
.
4 . 7 . 3 . 2 Properties of Scu m ...........
4. 7.3 . 3 H a n d l i n g Scum
.
4. 7 .4 Septage ..............
4. 7 .4. 1 Q u a n t i t i e s of Septage
.
4. 7. 4.2 Properties of Septage
.
4. 7 .4. 3 T r e a t i n g Sep t age in Wastewater
Tre at men t Plants ......
4 . 7 . 5 Backwash .........
4. 7 . 6 Solids From Trea tment of Combined
Se",er Overflows .........
4. 8 References ... .........
CHAPTER 5 . THIC KENING ......
5 .1 I nt roduction ...............
5 . 1 . 1 Definition
..
5 . 1 . 2 purpose ..........
5 . 1 . 3 Process Evaluatio n .............
5 . 1 .4 Types and Occurrence of Thic k eni ng
Processes ..... ............
5 . 2 Sedimentation Basins . ....... ... ..
5 . 2.1 Primary Sedimentation
.
5 . 2 . 2 Secondary Sedimen t ation . ..
5 . 3 Grav i ty Th ickeners ....... ...
5 . 1 . 1 Introduction ........
5 . 3 . 2 Theory ... ... .
5 . 3 . 3 System Design Conside r ations .. ...
5 . 3 . 3 . 1 Minimum Su rf ace Area Requirements .
5 . 3 .3. 2 Hydraulic Loading
.
5 . 3 . 3 . 3 Drive To r q ue Requirements ..........
5 . 3 . 3 .4 To t al Tank Depth
.
5 . 3 .3. 5 Floor Slope
.
5 . 3 . 3 . 6 Ot he r Consid erations .......
5 . 3 .4 Design Example ........
5 . 3 . 5 Cost .........
5 . 3.5.1 Capi t al Cost .... . ........
5 . 3.5.2 Oper a ting and Maintenance Cost ..
5 . 4 Flotation Thickening ....... ..........
5.4.1 Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)
5 .4. 1 . 1 Theory
.
5 . 4 . 1 . 2 System Des i gn Considerations ........
5 .4. 2 Design Example . ... ...... ...
5 . 4.3 Cost .... .. . . . .....
5 . 4 . 3 . 1 Capital Cos t .............
5.4.3.2 Operating and Maintenance Costs .
5 . 5 Centrifugal Thickening ......
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TABLE OF CONTENTS ( c ontinued)

..............
... .
.... .......
.
. .. ..
....
.. .. ..
...
. .. ... ..
.............

5 . 5.1

Introduction
Theory ........
5 . 5 . 3 System Design Considera t ions
5 . 5 . 3.1 Disc Nozzles .....
5 . 5 . 3 . 2 Imperforate Bask et
5 . 5 . 3 . 3 So l id Bowl Decante r
5 . 5 . 4 Case History . .

5 . 5 . 5 Cos t

5 . 5 . 5 . 1 Capital Cost
..
5 . 5 . 5 . 2 Operati ng and Maint e n a nc e Cost
5 . 6 Miscellaneous Thic k ening Methods
5 . 6 . 1 Elutriation Basin .
5 . 6.2 Secondary Anaerobic Oigesters ...
5 . 6 . 3 Facultative Sludge Lagoons
.
5 . 6 .4 Ul t rafiltration ...
5 . 7 Reference s ....

5 . 5. 2

....... ....... .. ........ ... ...... .. ......

........
..... .

.. ..

.... .. ... .. .

..

CHAPTE R 6. STABILIZATION. ...


. . . .
6.1
In t roduction
.
6 . 2 Anaerobic Digestion
.
6 . 2 . 1 Process Description
..
..
.
6 . 2 . 1 .1 History and Current Status
..
6 . 2 . 1.2 Applicability .............
.
6 . 2 . 1 . 3 Advantages and Disadva n tages
...
6 . 2 . 1. 4 Microbiology ....... .
.
6 . 2 . 2 Proce ss Va riatio n s
.
6 . 2 . 2 . 1 Low - Rate Digestion
..
6 . 2 . 2 . 2 lIigh - Ra t e Digestion .
6 . 2 . 2 . 3 Anaerobic Contact Process
6 . 2 . 2 .4 Phase Separation
..
6 . 2 . 3 Sizing of Anaerobic Diges t ers
..

6 . 2 . 3 . 1 Load i ng Cr i t eria ...


6.2.3 . 2 Solids Retention Time . . .
6 . 2 . 3 . 3 Recommended Sizing Pr ocedure
6 . 2 . 4 Process Performance

6.2 . 4 . 1 Solids Reduction

6 . 2 . 4 . 2 Gas Prod u ction .


6 . 2 . 4 . 3 Supernatant Qua l ity
6 . 2 . 5 Ope r a t iona l Considerations
6 . 2 . 5 . 1 pH
.

6 . 2 . 5 . 2 Toxicity
..
6 . 2 . 6 System Component Design
6 . 2 . 6 . 1 Tank De sign . . . .
6 . 2 . 6 . 2 lI eat i ng .
6 . 2 . 6 . 3 Mixing

6 . 2 . 6 . 4 Covers ...
6 . 2 . 6 . 5 Piping
6 . 2 . 6 . 6 Cleaning
6 . 2 . 7 En ergyUsage
.
6 . 2 . 8 Cos t s ..

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
6 . 2 . 9 Design Example .... ...
6.2 . 9 . 1 Design Loadings
..
6.2.9.2 System Description
.
6.2.9.3 Component Sizing
6 . 3 Aerobic Digestion . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 . 3 . 1 Process Description
..

6 . 3 . 1 . 1 History ........
. .
6.3 . 1 . 2 Current Status
. .
6.3 . 1.3 Applicability

6 . 3 . t . 4 A d v a n t a g e s and Disadvantages
6 . 3 . 1.5 Microbiology
.
.
6 . 3 . 2 Process variations
6 . 3.2 . 1 Conventional Semi-Batch Operation .
6 . 3 . 2 . 2 Conventional Continuous Operation

6 . 3 . 2 . 3 Au t o-Heated Mode of Operation ..

6 . 3 . 3 Design Considerations
...

6 . 3 . 3.1 Temperature

.
6.3.3.2 Solids Reduction

.
6.3 . 3 . 3 Oxygen Requirements ..
..
.
6.3 . 3 . 4 Mi x ing . ...
.
6.3.3 . 5 pH Reduction
.. ..
6.3 . 3 . 6 Dewatering
.
6.3.4 Process Performance
.
6 . 3 . 4 . 1 Total Volatile Solids Reduction
6 . 3.4 . 2 Supernatant Quality
.
6 . 3 . 5 Design Example ..... .
.
6 . 3 . 6 Cost .. . ....
. .. ..

6 . 3.6 . 1 Capital Cost


6 . 3.6.2 Operation and MaIntenance Cost
.
..
6. 4 Lime Stabiliza t ion ........
6.4.1 Process Description .
......
....
....
6 . 4.1.1 His t ory .......
...
...

6.4.1.2 Current Status
.
6 .4. 1 . 3 Applicability... .....
.
.
6.4.1. 4 Theory of the Process
..
6.4.2 Design Criteria .-. . .....

.
6 . 4 . 2 . 1 pH and Con t act Time
.
6 . 4 . 2.2 Lime Dosage . .
. ...
6 .4. 3 Process Performance

.
6 . 4 . 3.1 Odor Control ......
..
.
6 . 4 . 3 . 2 Pathogen Red u ction
.....
6 . 4 . 3 . 3 Dewatering and Settling
Characteristics ..
6 .4. 3 . 4 Chemical Characteristics .
6 . 4 . 4 Process Design . .......
6 . 4.4 . 1 Design of Lime Handling F a c i l i t i e s

.
6.4.4.2 Mixing Tank Design .........
6 . 4.5 Costs and Energy Usage ........
6 .4. 5 . 1 Capital and Operating Costs
6.4 . 5.2 Energy Usage . .

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TABLE OF CONTE NTS (continued)


Page

..
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.. ..
.......
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...
..
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..............
.....
.
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.. ........
... ...

6.4.6 Design Example ....



6.4 .6. 1 Design Loading
6.4.6.2 System Description
6 .4. 6 . 3 Component Sizing

6. 5 Chlorine Stabilization .

6.5 . 1 Process Description


6.5.2 Uses, Advantages, and Disadvantages

6.5 . 3 Chlorine Requirements
..
6 . 5 . 4 Characterist i cs of Chlorine-Stabilized
Materials .........
6.5.4.1 Stabil ized Slude
.
,,
6.5.4 . 2 Supernatant!Fi1trate!Subnatant
Quality . . . . . . . .
. ..
,,
6.5,5 Costs
6 . 5 . 5 .1 Opera t ing Costs
6 , 5 , 5 .2 Capital Costs ,.
6.6 References
,
,.,
"

CHAPTER 7 . DISINFECTION
. .
7 . 1 Introduction

.
7 . 2 Pathogenic Organisms
.
7 . 2 . 1 Pathogen Sources
.
7 . 2 . 2 Pa t hogen Ch ar acteris tic s
..
7 . 2 . 2 .1 Viruses
.. ..
7 . 2 . 2 . 2 Bacteria
..
.
7 . 2 . 2 . 3 Parasites. .
..
..
7 . 2 . 2 .4 Fungi
..
7 . 2 . 3 Pathogen Occur r ence in the United St ates
Pathogen Survival Du ri ng Sludge Stabilization
7.3
P r o c e s s e s ..............
7 . 3.1 Pathogen Reduction During Di gestion
.
7.3.1 . 1 V i r u s e s ......
..
7.3.1.2 Bacteria .....
.
7.3.1 . 3 Parasites
.
7 . 3 . 2 Long Term Storage

..
7 . 3 . 3 Chemical Disinfection
.
7.3.3 . 1 Lime
.
7.3.3 . 2 Chlorine
..
.
7.3 . 3 . 3 Other Chemicals
.
Pathogen Su r vival in t he Soil
.
..
..
7 .4. 1 Viruses
7 . 4.2 Bacteria
.....
7 . 4.3 Parasites
.
Potential Human E xposure to Pathogens
Heat Disin fe ction Processes .......
7.6 . 1 Sludge Pasteurization .
.
.
..
7 . 6 . 1 . 1 Process Description
7 . 6 . 1 .2 Current Status

..
7 . 6.1.3 Design Criter i a
..

..

..

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

Instrumentation
and
Considerations
............. 77 . 6 . 1 . 5 Energy Impacts ......
77.6 .1. 6 Cost Information ........
77.6 . 1 . 7 Design Exa mple ........... ..
77 . 6.2 Other Heat Processes
.
77 . 6 . 2 . 1 Heat - Conditioning .... . .. . .. ..
77 . 6 . 2 . 2 Heat-Drying
.
77 . 6 . 2 . 3 High Temperature P r o c e s s e s .........
77 . 6 . 2 . 4 Composting ... . . ........
77 . 7 Pathogen Reduction With High-Energy Rad i ation ....
77 . 7 . 1 Reduction of Pathogens i n Sludge Wi t h
Electron Irradia t ion ..........
77 . 7.1.1
Process Descritpion
.
77 . 7 . 1 . 2 Status .... ... ....
77.7.1.3 Design Considerations
.
77. 7. 1 . 4
Inst r umen t ation and Operational
Cons i derations ..............
77 . 7 . 1 . 5 Energy I mpacts ...........
77.7 . 1 . 6
Performance Data ...........
77 . 7 .1. 7 Produc ti on Production and Properties
.
77 . 7 . 1 . 8 Cost I n f o r m a t i o n
.
77 . 7 . 2 Disinfection with Gammer Irradiation . ...
77. 7. 2. 1
Process Description ........
77.7.2.2 Current Status - Liquid Sludge
..
77.7.2.3 Cu rr ent Sta t us - Dried or Composted
Sludqe . . .. . . .
777 . 7.2 . 4 Des i gn Cri t eria
.
7 . 7.2 . 5 Instrumentation and Operational
7Considerations .. .........
77 . 7 . 2 .6 Energy Impacts ........
77.7 . 2 .7 Performance Data .. . ..... ...
77 . 7 . 2.8 Cost Information .... ....
77 . 8 References
7. 6 .1 . 4

............ .. ........................ ...

CHAPTER 8 . CONDITIONING ..............


8 . 1 introduction ...... .............
8 .2 Selecting a Condition i nq Process
.
8.3 Factors Affectinq Wastewater Solids Condit i oning
8 . 3 . 1 General Wastewater Solids P r operties .
8.3.1 . 1 Particle Size
and Distribution ..
8 . 3.1 . 2 Surface Charge and Degree of
Hydration ..... .....
8 . 3 . 1.3 Particle Interaction ..........
8 . 3 . 2 Physical Facto r s ..............
8.3 . 2 . 1 Effect o f Processing Prio r to
Conditioning ........
8 . 3.2 . 2 Conditioner Application
.
8 .4
Inorganic Chemica l Conditioning
.
8 .4.1 Introduction . ........ ...

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Page
8 .4. 2
8. 4 . 3
8 .4 . 4

Dosage Requirements ...... .. ....


Availability ..............
Storage, P r eparation , and Application
Eq ui pment .......
8 .4. 5 Design Example .........
8 .4. 6 Cost ...........
8.4 .6. 1 Capital Cost
.
8 .4.6. 2 operation and Mai n tenance Cost ...
8 . 5 Chemical Condi t ioning With Polyel e ct r olytes ..
8.5 . 1 Introduction
.
8 . 5 . 2 Background on Polyelect r olytes . ..
8.5.2 . 1 Composition and Physical Form .... .
8.5 . 2 . 2 Structure in SOlution .....
8 . 5 . 2 . 3 How Polyelectroly t e Conditioning
Works ........
8 . 5 . 3 Condit i oning for Thickening ....
8 . 5 .3.1 Gravity Thickening
.
8 . 5 . 3.2 Dissolved Air Flotation Thickening
8 . 5 . 3 . 3 Centrifugal Thick ening .
8 . 5 . 4 Cond iti oning for De"wa t ering ............
8.5 .4. 1 Dr ying Beds
..
8.5 .4. 2 Vacuum Fil t ers
.
8.5 .4. 3 Recessed Plate Pressure Filters
8 . 5 .4.4 Belt Filter Presses .............
8 . 5.4 . 5 Ce ntr ifuges
..
8.5.5 St orage , P r eparation , and Application
Equipment ....................
8 .5. 6 Case His t ory
.
8 . 5 . 7 Cost
.. . . . ..........
8 . 5.7 . 1 Capital Cost
..
8 . 5 . 7 . 2 Operation and Main tenance Cost
8 . 6 Non-Chemical Additions . . . ..
8 . 7 Thermal Cond i tioning ......
8 . 7 . 1 Advantages and Disadvantages
..
8 . 7 . 2 Process Sidestreams ......
8 .7. 2.1 Gaseous Sidestreams
.
8 . 7 .2. 2 Liquid Sidestreams
.
8 . 7 . 3 Operations and Cost
..
8 . 7 . 3.1 General Cons i derations
..
8 . 7.3 . 2 USEP A Survey Resu l ts
..
8 . 8 Elutr i ation
.
8.9
Freeze-Thaw .................
8.9.1
Indirect Mechanical Freezing ..
8 . 9 . 2 Direct Mechan ic al F r eezing
..
8 . 9 . 3 Natural Freezing
.
8 . 10 Mechanical Screening and Grin ding ..........
8 .1 1 Miscellaneou s Pr ocesses .. . . . ...
8.11.1 Bact eria
.
8.11 . 2 Electrici ty
.
8 . 11 . 3 Solvent Ext raction ...............
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Page

...............
.........
. ........ .. .. .. .......
CHAPTER 9 . DEWATERI NG .. . ....

, . 1 lntroduction ....
...... .. ....

9 . 1 . 1 Process Ev alu a tion .

9 . 1 . 2 .' 1ethods of Dewatering


, 2 Natural Sludge Dewa t ering Syste ms ... .


8.12

Ultrasonic .
8.11.4
References

9 . 2 . 1 Drying Beds ...........


9 . 2 . 1 . 1 Ba sic Compon e n ts a n d Operat io n

9 . 2 . 1.2 Types of Dryi ng Beds



9 . 2 .1, 3 Process Desi') n Cr iter ia
....
9. 2 . 1. 4 Costs

.
9 . 2. 2 Drying Lagoon s

.
9. 2 . 2 . 1 Ba sic Conce p t ....
.
9 . 2 . 2 . 2 Desig n Criteri a

.
9 . 2 . 2 . 3 Costs

.
, . 3 Centrifugal Dewat e r i ng Systems ...
.
9 . 3. 1 In t rod u c t i on
9 . 3 . 2 I mperfo r ate Bas k e t

..
9 . 3 . 2 . 1 Pri nc i ples of Opera tion
..
9 . 3 . 2 . 2 Ap plica tion
.......
9. 3 . 2 . 3 Pe r f orm a n c e
.. .
9 . 3 . 2. 4 Case Hi sto ry .....
. .....
9 . 3 . 3 Solid Bowl De c an t e r s
.
9 . 3 . 3 . 1 Appl ic a ti o n
..
9 . 3 . 3 . 2 Performa nc e ....
9 . 3 . 3 . 3 Other Co nsid e r at io n s
filt r ation De watering Sy stems
...
9 . 4 . 1 Int r od u ction .......

..
.
..

.
9 . 4 . 2 Basic Theory
9 . 4 . 3 Fi l ter Aids
..
..
9 .4.4 Vacuum F i lters ...... . . .....
. .
9 . 4 . 4 . 1 Pr i n ciples of Operation
. .
9 . 4 . 4 . 2 Ap p l i cation
. .. .
9.4. 4 . 3 Pe r fo r mance . ..

9 .4.4.4 Other Co nsiderati o n s ...

.
9 . 4 . 4 . 5 Ca se History
..
9 . 4 . 4. 6 Cos t s ...
....
9 . 4 . 5 Belt Fi l t e r Pres s
..

9 . 4. 5 . 1 Pri n ciples of Operati on


..
9.4 . 5 . 2 App li c a tion
.
9 . 4 . 5 . 3 Performance ....

9 .4 . 5 . 4 Ot he r Co nsid erations


9 . 4 . 5 . 5 Des i gn E x a m p l e .. ..

..
9 . 4. 5 . 6 Cos t s ........ . .
9 .4 . 6 Recessed Pl a t e P r essu r e F ilters
9 . 4. 6 . 1 Pri nciples of Ope r a ti o n
9 . 4. 6 . 2 App l ication
..

9 .4. 6 . 3 Pe rf o r mance
.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
9 .4. 6 . 4 Other Co nsideratio n s .....
9 .4. 6 . 5 Case History
.
9 .4. 6 .6 Cost .. . .... . .. ....
9 .4. / Screw and Ro ll Press
.
9 . 4 . 7 . 1 Sc r e w Pre ss
.
9. 4.7. 2 Twin - Roll Press
..
9 .4 . 8 Du al Ce l l Gravity ( DCG) Fi lt er .... .
9 .4. 9 T ube Filt e rs ................
9. 4. 9 . 1 Pressure Type
.
9 .4.9. 2 Gr avity Type
.
9 5 Other
Dewatering Systems
. ~
.
9 . 5 . 1 Cyclones ... . . .. . .. .
9 . 5 . 2 Screens ............ . . ..
9 . 5 . 3 Elec t ro-Osmosis .....
9 . 6 References
.
CHAPTER 10 . HEAT DRYING . ... ..... . ..
10 .
Introduction .. ...
10 . 2 Hea t- Dry i ng Pri n ciples
.
10 . 2.1 Dry i ng Periods .......... .
10 . 2 . 2 Humidity and M ass Transfer
.
1 0.2 . 3 Temperature and Hea t T r ansfer ......... . .
10 . 3 Energy Impacts .. . ... .............
10 . 3 . 1 Des i gn E x a m p l e .....................
10 . 3 . 2 Energy Cost o f Heat-Dried Sludges Used
for Fer t i l i zers ...............
10 .4 Environmental Impacts ...... . . . .............
10 . 4 . 1 Air Pollu t ion . .... .. . ... ..
10 . 4 . 2 Safety
.
1 0 .4. 3 Sides t ream Production ............
10 . 5 General Des i gn C r iteria
.
10.5 . 1 Dryin g Ca pacity
10 . 5 . 2 Stor age Requirements ..
1 0.5.3 Heat Source ...........
10.5.4 Air F l ow ..........
10.5 . 5 Equi p ment Maint e nance ...........
10.5.6 Special Considerations
.
.
1 0 . 6 Conventional He a t Dryers
10 . 6 . 1 Flash- Dryi ng
.
10.6 . 1.1 Process Description
..
10 . 6 . 1 . 2 Ca se Study : Houston , T e x a s ....
10 . 6 . 2 Rotary Dryers .............
10 . 6 . 2 . 1 Direct Rota r y Dryers
..
10 . 6 . 2 .2 In d irect Dr ying
..
10 . 6 . 2.3 Di rect - Indirect Rotary Dryers . .
10 . 6 . 3 Incine r ators
.
10.6 . 4 Toroidal Dryer ......
10 . 6 .4. 1 Process Description .. ..
10 .6 . 4. 2 Current Status
.
10 . 6 . 5 Spray- Drying
.

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Page
10 . 6 . 5 . 1 Process Descr i ption
10.6.5 . 2 Cur r ent Status .
10 . 7 Other Heat-Drying Systems
.
10 . 7.1 Solvent Ex trac t ion- -BEST Process ..
10 . 7.1 . 1 Process D e s c r i p t i o n
.
10 . 7 . 1 . 2 Current Status
.
10 . 7 . 1.3 operating Experience .. .
10 . 7 . 2 Mul tiple - Effect Evaporation- -Carve r
Greenf i e1d Process ..
10 . 7 . 2 . 1 Process Descr i ption
.
10 . 7 . 2 . 2 Current Status ..
10 . 6 References ........
CHAPTER 11 . HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESSES ..
ILl Introduction ............
11.2 Principles of High Temperature Operations ....
11 . 2 . 1 Combustion Facto r s .
lL2 . 1.1 Sludge Fuel Valu es
.
11 . 2 . 1 . 2 Oxygen Requi r ements for Complete
Combust i on ...........
11 . 2 . 1 . 3 Factors Affecting th e Heat Balance
11.2 . 2 Incineration Design Ex ample .......
11.2.2 . 1 Problem Statement
.
11 . 2 . 2 . 2 Approx imate Calcul ati on Method .
11 . 2 . 2 . 3 Theoretical Calculation Method .
11 . 2 . 2 .4 Comparison of Appro x imate and
Theoretical Calcula t ion Methods
11 . 2 . 3 Pyrolysis and Starved-A ir Combustion
Calculations ..
11.2 .4 Heat and Material Balances
.
11 . 3 Incineration ..........
11 . 3 . 1 Multiple-Hearth Furnace ......
11 . 3 . 2 Fluid Bed Furnace ........
11.3 . 3 Elect r ic Furnace
..
11 . 3 . 4 Single Hearth Cyclonic Furnace
11 . 3 . 5 Design Example : New Sludge Incineratton
Process . .........
11 . 3 . 5.1 Approach ......
11.3 . 5 . 2 Preliminary Design ....
11. 4 S t a r v e d - A i r Combustion ........ ..
11.4 . 1 Developmen t and Application
.
11 . 4 . 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of SAC . . .
11.4.3 Conversion of Ex isting Mult i ple- Hearth
Incineration Units to SAC
.
11 .4. 4 Design Example:
Retrofit of an Ex isting
Multiple- Heart h Sludge Incinerator t o a
Starved- Ai r Combustion Reactor ..
11. 4 .4 . 1 Approach ..
11 . 4.4 . 2 Preliminary Design
.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
Starved-Air Combustion , . , . " .
11.4.1 Development and Application " ...... " . , ..
11 .4. 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of SAC ., .... .
11 . 4 . 3 Conversion of Exis t ing Multiple-Hearth
I n c i n e r a t i o n Units to SAC . . . . . . . ..... " , ..
11.4.4 Design Example:
R e t r o f i t of an E x isting
Multiple-Hearth Sludge Incinerator to a
S t a r v e d - A i r Combustion R e a c t o r . , .......
11 . 4,4 , 1 Approach , ......... .... " , .
11.4,4 , 2 Prelimina r y Design
,
,.
11 . 5 Co-Combustion of Sludge and O t h e r Material .....
11 . 5.1 Co-Combustion with Coal and Other
Residuals " ............ " . , . , .... "
11,5.2 Co-Combustion with Mi xed Municipal Refuse
(MMR) ..... , ,., . " " " , ....... "
11.5.2 . 1 Refuse Combustion Technology .......
11,5.2 , 2 Sludge Combustion Technology ......
11 . 5 . 3 Institutional C o n s t r a i n t s ..... , . " , . , ..
11 . 5 . 4 Conclusions about Co-Combustion .. , . , " . ,
1 1 . 6 Related Combustion Processes Used in W a s t e w a t e r
Treatment . , " .. ... ",." ..............
11 . 6.1 S c r e e n i n g s , Grit , and Scum Reduction ., .
11 . 6 . 2 Lime Recalcination . . ....... " , . , ... . . . "
11,6.3 Activated Carbon Regeneration .... . .....
11.6.3 . 1 Granular Carbon Systems (GAC) " , . , "
11 . 6.3 . 2 P o w d e r e d Activated Carbon (PAC) , "
11 . 6 . 3 . 3 Jet Propuls ion Laboratory A c t i v a tedCarbon Treatment System (JPL-l\CTS) ...
11 . 7 Other High Temperature Processes .............
11 , 7.1 High Pressure/High Temperature Wet Air
o x i d a t i o n ....... ,.,., , . ..........
11 . 7 . 2 REACT-O-THERMtm . " ........
11 . 7.3 Modular Starved-Air Incinerators . , .
1 1 . 1.4 Pyro-Sol tm P r o c e s s .. .......
11 . 1 . 5 Bailie Process .. ..........
11 . 1 . 6 Wright-Malta Process ....
11.1.7 Molten Salt Pyrolysis
" .........
11.8 Air Pollution Considerations
.
11 . 8 . 1 N a t i o n a l Ambient Air Q U a l i t y Standa r ds
{NAAQS) - State Implementation Plans (SIP) ...
11.8 . 2 National Emission S t a n d a r d s for Hazardou s
Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) .............
11 . 8 . 3 Standards of Performance (or Ne w
Stationary Sources (NSPS) ... ,., , ....
11 . 8 . 4 New Source Review S t a n d a r d s (NSR)
11.8.5 P r e v e n t i o n of Significant D e t e r i o r a t i o n
(PSD) ...... , ...............
The
P e r m i t Process
.
11. 8 . 6
A
i
r
Emissions
Test
Procedures
.
,
....
11 . 8.7
11 . 8 . 8 Design Example ...................
11 .4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continu e d)


Page
11.8.8 . 1

Identify Applicable State and Local


Regulations ...............
11.8 . 8 . 2 Establish Air Pollution Abatement
Procedures .........
11. 9 Residue Disposal ............
11.10 References ...........

11-121
11-123
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11-136

CHAPTER 12 . COMPOSTING .......


12 . 1 In t roduction
.
12 . 2 The Composting Process
.
12 . 2.1 Moisture
..
12 . 2 . 2 Temperature ........... ...
12 . 2 . 3 pH ............. .....
12.2 . 4 Nutrient Concentcatioo
.
12.2 . 5 Oxygen Supply .. ....... ...
12 . 2 . 6 Design Criteria and Procedures ...
12 . 3 Unconfined C o m p o s t i n g Sys t ems
.
12.3 . 1 Windrow Process .......
12 . 3.1 . 1 Energy Requicements
.
12 . 3.1.2 Public Health and Environmental
Impacts ...............
12.3.1.3 Design E xample ............
12 . 3 . 2 Aerated Static Pile Process ....
12 . 3 . 2 . 1 Individual Aerated Piles ....
12.3 . 2 . 2 Extended Aerated Piles
.
12 . 3 . 2 . 3 Current Status
.
12 . 3 . 2 . 4 Oxyqen Supply ........
12.3.2 . 5 Bulking Agent
.
12 . 3.2 . 6 Energy Requirements ..............
12 . 3.2.7 Public Health and Environmental
Impacts ..... ...
12 . 3.2.8 Design E x a m p l e ... . ... .....
12 . 3 . 3 Case Stlldies (Unconfined Systems) ....
12.3.3 . 1 Joint Water Po1111tion Control plant,
Carson, California . ........
12 . 3 . 3 .2 Beltsville, Maryland .... .
12.3 . 3 . 3 Bangor , Maine
..
12 . 3.3 .4 Durham , New Hampshire .........
12 . 3 . 3 . 5 Cost Analysis
.
12.4 Confined Composting System
.
12 . 4 . 1 Description of Process
..
12 . 4 . 2 Metro-Waste Aerobic Thermophilic
bio-Reactor ............
12 .4. 3 Dano Bio-Stabilizer Plant
.
12 .4. 4 BAV aio- ReactOr
..
12.5 European Composting Experience .. ....
12 . 6 References ............ ...

121
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122
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125
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CHAPTER 13 . MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES ....


13 .1 Introduction ... .......

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (con t inued)


Page
1 3.2
13 . 3

Chemical Fixation Process


.
Encapsulation Process
.
13.3.1 Polyethylene Process
.
13 . 3 . 2 Asphalt Pr ocess ... .. . ...
1 3 .4 Earth worm Conversion Process
.
13.4.1 Process Arrangement
.
13.4 . 2 Advantages of t he E a r t h worm Conve r sion
Process . . . . .. ...
13.4.3 Possible Operating Difficulties . .....
13.4.4 Limitations
.
1 3 . 5 References .. . . . . .
CHAPTER 14. TRANSPORTATION . .. .. .... . ..
14.1 Pumping a n d Pipelines
.
14.1.1 Simplified Head - Loss Ca l culations . .....
14.1.2 Application of Rheology to Sludge
Pumping Problems
. .... . .. . .. ..
14.1.2.1 Solution of P r essure Drop Equa t ion ....
14 . 1 . 2.2 Design Example ..... ....
14.1.2.3 Thixotropy and Other
Time- Dependen t Ef fe cts ...... ....
14 . 1.2.4 Obtaining the Coefficients ... ....
14.1.2.5 Additional Information . . ..... ...
14 . 1.3 Types of S l u d g e Pumps
.
14 . 1.3.1 Centrifugal Pumps
.
14.1.3.2 Torque Flow Pumps ... . .......
14 . 1 . 3.3 Plunger Pumps ....... ...
14.1.3. 4 Piston Pumps . . .. . .
14.1.3.5 Progressive Cavi t y Pumps ...
14 . 1.3.6 D i a p h r a g m Pump . . ... .
14 . 1.3.7 Rotary Pumps .. ....
14.1.3 . 8 Ejector Pumps . ...
14.1 . 3 . 9 Gas Lift Pumps
.
14 . 1.3.10 Water Eductors . .
14 . 1.4 Application of Sludge Pumps
.
14.1.5 Pipe, Fittings, and Valves . . ... .
14.1.6 Long Distance Pumping . .....
14 . 1.6.1 Experience . ..... . ....
14 . 1.6.2 Design Guidance
.
14.1.7
In-Line Grinding
.
1 4. 2 Dew atered Waste w ater Solids Conveyance .... ..
14.2.1 Manual Transpo r t of Screenings a nd Gri t
1 4. 2 . 2 Belt Conveyors .... . .........
14 . 2 . 3 Screw Conveyors .... .. ..
1 4 . 2 . 4 Positive Displacement Type Conveyors . ....
14. 2.5 Pneumatic Conveyors ... .
1 4. 2.6 Chutes and lnclined Planes .. .... ..
14 . 2 . 7 Odo r s .... ........
14 . 3 Long Distance Wastewater S o l i d s Hauling ......
1 4. 3 . 1 T r u c k Transportation ..... .... ..

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
14Types of T r uck s ...... ....
Owned Equipmen t vs . Contrac t
H auling ,. ................. 141414 . 3 . 1.3 Haul Schedu l ing ....
Tr
ucking
Costs
......

....

...
1414 . 3 . 1. 4
1414 . 3 . 2 Rail Transport ........... .
14 . 3 . 2 . 1 Advan t a ges and Disadva n tages
of Rail Transport
.
141414.3.2 . 2 Routes .... .....
Haul
Contracts
......

....

1414 . 3.2 . 3
.
1414 . 3 . 2 . 4 Railcar Supply
il
lary
Fa
cilities
......

...
An
c
1414.3.2.5
1414 . 3 . 2 . 6 Manpower and Energy Requirements ....
Transportat
ion
..............
1414.3 . 3 Barg e
Routes
and
Trans
it
T
i
mes
........
1414 . 3 . 3 . 1
1414 . 3.3 . 2 Haul or System Con tr ac t ing ........
Ba
r
ge
Select
ion
and
Acquisition
.....
1414.3.3 . 3
An
cillary
Faci
l
ities
.
1414 . 3.3. 4
Spill
Preventio
n
a
n
d
Cleanup
.

1414. 3 . 3 . 5
1414 .4 References

14 . 3 . 1.1
14 . 3 . 1.2

..................................... ...

C1IAPTER 1 5. STORAGE ...............


15 . 1 Int c oduc t ion .... ..
15 . 1 . 1 Need fo e Sto r age
.
15 . 1.2 Ris k s and Benefits of Solids Storage w i t h i n
Was t e wa t er T r eatment Sys t em ..
15 . 1 . 3 Stoc age With i n W a s t e w a t e r Sludge Treatment
Processes . ..............
15 . 1.4 Effects of Storage on Wastewater Soli ds
.
1 5 . 1 . 5 Types of Storage
..
15 . 2 Was t ewater Trea t ment Storage ...................
15 . 2 . 1 Storage Within Waste water T r eatment
Proce sses ........... ..
Grit Removal . ........
15.2.1.1
15 . 2 . 1.2 Primary Sedime n tation .....
15 . 2 . 1.3 Aeration Reactors and Secondary
Se d imen t ation .
1 5 . 2 .1. 4 I m h o f f and Communi t y Septic Tanks ...
15 . 2 . 1.5 Wastewater Stabilization Ponds .......
15 . 2 . 2 Storage Wi th i n Wastewater Sludge Tre a tment
Processes ..............
15 . 2 . 2 . 1 Gravit y Thick eners
..
15 . 2 . 2 . 2 Anaerobic Digeste rs ...
15 . 2 . 2 . 3 Aerobic Digesters ....
15 . 2.2 . 4 Compos ti ng ..............
15.2.2.5
Dryi ng Beds ..........
15 . 3 Dedicated Storage F a c i l i t i e s . .
15 . 3 .1 facilities Provided P ri ma ri ly for Stocage
of L i quid Sludge . ...............
15.3.1.1
Ho l ding T a n k s ........ ,.............

15 -

47
48
49
49
49
49
50
50

"

53
53
54
54
55
56
57
57
57

15 -

1
1
1

15 -

1 5151515-

2
2
4

1515 15-

5
6
7

15 -

15 9
15- 10
1 5- 11
15 - 11

15- 12
1515-

15-

12
18
18

15 - 18
15 - 18
15 - 19
15 - 19

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
15 . 3.1,2
Facul t ative Sludge Lagoons
..
15 . 3 .1. 3 Anaerobic Liq u id Sludge Lagoons ...
15.3 . 1.4 Aerated Storage Basins ........
15.3 . 2 Facilities Provided Primarily for Storage
of Dewatered Sludge ..........
15 . 3 . 2.1
Drying S l udge Lagoons
.
15 . 3.2 . 2 Confined Hoppers or Bins
.
..
1 5 . 3.2 . 3 Unconfined Stock piles
15 . 4
References .. ............

SIDESTREAMS FROM SOLIDS TREATMENT


PROCESSES .. . ..........
Sidestream
16 . 1
Production
.
16 . 2 Sides tr eam Quality and Potential Problems ....
16.3 General Approaches to Sidestrcam P r oblems ...
16. 3 . 1 Elimination of Sidestream .........
16 . 3 . 2 Modification of Upstream Solids Processing
Steps ......................
1 6 . 3 . 3 Change in Timing , Return Rate . Or Return
Point .................
16 . 3 . 4 Modification of Wastewater Treatment
Facilities
.
16 . 3 . 5 Separate Treatment of Sides t reams .
16 . 3 . 5.1 Anaerobic Digester Super na tant . . . . . . . .
16 . 3.5 . 2 Thermal
Conditioning Liquor ...
16.4
References
.

15- 23
15 - 41
15- 43
15- 46
15 - 47

15- 51
15- 56
15- 58

CHAPTER 16 .

Chapter

17 .
INSTRUMENTATION ............
17 . 1
Introduction
.
17 . 1.1 Pu r poses of Instrumen t ation
.
1 7 .1. 2 Instrumentation Justification and
Design Considerations ................
17 . 2 Measureme n ts .......... ........
17 . 2.1
Level Measurements ............... .
17.2.1 . 1 Bubb l ers ........ . . . . . . . . . ...
17 . 2.1 . 2 Diaphragms
.
17.2.1 . 3 Capacitance T r a n s m i t t e r s ...... ....
17.2 . 1 . 4 Ultrasonic T r a n s m i t t e r s ...........
17.2.1.5 Tape - Supported Floats . . .. .
17 . 2 . 2 Flow Measurements ...... ..
17.2 . 2 .1 Venturi Tubes
..
17.2.2 . 2 Nozzles
.
17.2 . 2 . 3 M a g n e t i c Meters . .....
17.2 . 2 .4 U l t r a s o n i c Meters
.
17.2 . 2 . 5
Doppler Meters
.
17.2 .2. 6 Rotameters ... ........
17 . 2 . 2 . 7
Prope l ler Meters
.
17.2 . 2 . 8
Pitot Tubes
.
17 . 2.2.9 Weirs and Plumes
..
17 . 2 . 2.10 Orifice Pl a t es
..
xxi

16-

161 6-

16-

16-

16-

16-

16-

5
16- 7
16- S
16- 10
16- 17
171717-

171717171717 171717171717171717171717 17-

1
1
1
1
41

41
41
41
44
44
45
45
46
46
46
47
470
48
48
48
49

49

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
17 . 2 . 2 . 11
17.2.2.12
17 . 2 . 2 . 13
17 . 2 . 2.1 4

Turbine Meters
.
17 - 49
Vortex Meters ...... ..
17 - 50
Positive Displacement
.
17 - 50
Pump and T r ansport Displacemen t
Systems ........
17 - 50
17 . 2 . 3 Pressure Measurement .. .........
17- 50
17 . 2 . 3 . 1 Bourdons or Bellows
.
17 - 51
17 . 2 . 3 . 2 D i a p h r a g m s .. .........
17 - 52
17 . 2 .4 Tempe ratu re Measurements ...........
17- 52
17.2. 4. 1 Resistance Temperature
Detectors (RTDs) . ....
17 - 53
17 . 2 .4. 2 Thermocouples .....
17 - 53
17.2 . 5 We igh t Measurements .. ... . 17 - 5 4
17 . 2 . 5 . 1 Static ........... ....
17 - 5 4
17 . 2 . 5 . 2 Mass Flow
.
17 - 5 4
17 . 2 . 6 Density and Suspended Solids Measurements ..
17- 55
17 . 2 . 6 . 1 Density
.
17- 55
17 . 2 . 6 . 2 Suspended Solids Measurements .....
17- 56
17 . 2 . 7 Time Measurements ...........
17 17 . 2 . 8 Speed Measurements ..............
17 - 51
17 .2. 9 M o i s t u r e Content Measurements ........
17 - 51
17 . 2 . 10 Dissolved Oxygen Measurements
....... 17 - 58
17 . 2 . 11 pH Measurements .. .........
17 - 58
17 . 2.12 Chemical Oxygen Demand Me asurements
17- 59
17 . 2.13 Ammonia Measurements ....
17 - 59
17 . 2.14 Gas Measurement and A n a l y s i s
.
17 - 59
17 . 2 . 14 . 1 Composi t ion Analyzer . 17- 59
17 . 2 . 14 . 2 Calorimeter
.
17 - 60
17 . 2 . 15 Stack Gas Measurements and Analysis ......
1760
17 . 2.16 Odor Measurements ....
17 - 61
17 . 2 . 17 Aerobic Condi t ion Heasurements .......
1761
17 . 2.18 Blanke t Level Measurements ....
1761
17 . 2 . 19 Hydrocarbons and Flammab l e Gas Detectors ....
17- 63
17.2 . 20 Radiation Monitoring ..
17 - 63
17 . 2.21 Machine ry Protec ti on .
1717.2.21.1 Empty Pipe Detectors
.
1717 . 2.21 . 2 Vibrat i on - Acceleration and
17- 64
Displacement Systems .........
17 .2. 21.3 Flow Loss Monitors
.
17- 65
17 . 2.21.4 Overload Devices
.
17- 65
17 . 2 . 21 . 5 Flame Safeguard Equipment ......
1765
17 . 3 Samp l ing Systems ... .. .......
17 - 66
17 .4 Operator Interface .............
17 - 61
17 . 4.1 Location . ......... ............
1761
17 . 4 . 2 Indicator Boards
.
17- 68
17.5 References ...
17- 68

"

"

CHAPTER 18 . UTILIZATION .......


18 .1 Introduction
.
1 8 . 2 Sludge as a Soil Ambient
.
xxii

18 18 18 -

"

1
1
2

TAB LE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
1 8 . 2.1
18 . 2.2

Perspective
.
Pr i ncip l es and Design Criteria fo r
Applying Wastewater Sludge to Land ........
18 . 2.2 . 1 Pr e liminary Planning
.
18 . 2 . 2 . 2 Site selec t ion
.
18 . 2 . 2 . 3 Process Design
.
18 . 2.2 .4 Facilities Design
.
18 . 2 . 2 . 5 Facil i ty Management , Opera t io n s,
and Monitoring
....... . ......
1 8 . 3 Sludge as an Ene r gy Sour ce ...............
1 8 . 3 . 1 Perspe c t i ve
.
18 . 3 . 2 Reco very of Energy Fr om Sludge ......
18 . 3 . 2 . 1 Tr e atme nt of Digeste r Gas ..
18 . 3 . 2 . 2 Gas- Bu rni ng Equip ment .............
18 . 3 . 3 . 3 Generators ..................
1 8 . 3.3 Ex amples of Enerqy Recovery
.
18 . 3 . 3 . 1 En ergy Re cove r y From Di gest e r Gas
.
18 . 3 . 3 . 2 Recovery of Ener gy F r om Incinera t or
Flue Gas ..................
18 . 3 .4 Other Facto r s Af f ec ti ng Ilea t Recovery ......
1 8 .4 Other uses of Wastewater So li ds and So l id
By-Products
.
18 . 5 Refere n c e s .......

18 -

18 18 18 1818-

3
5
5
5
6

1818-

18 181818 -

18 18 18 -

7
B
8
9
9
11
15
15
15

18 - 25
18- 34
18 - 35
18 - 3 6

CHAPTER 1 9 .
DISPOSAL TO LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 - 1
1 9 . 1 In t rod u ct i on .......................
19- 1
19. 1.1
Reg u latory Agency Guid a nce ....... . . . . . .
19- 1
1 9 . 2 Sludge L a n d f i l l ..... ............
19 - 1
1 9 .2. 1 De fi n i tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 1
1 9 . 2 . 2 Sludge Landfill Me t hods
.
19- 2
..
1 9. 2 . 2 . 1 Slud ge-Only T r e n ch Fi ll
19- 2
19 . 2 . 2.2 Slud ge - Only Ar e a F ill
.
19- 3
19 19 . 2 .2. 3 CO-D isposal with Refuse
.... ... .
5
19 . 2 . 2 .4
Suitability of S l udge for
6
Landf il1i ng ................... 1 9 19 1 9 .2 .3 Pre l iminary Pl a n ning ...
6
19 . 2 . 3 . 1 S l udge Charac t erizat i on
.
19 6
19 8
1 9 . 2 , 3 . 2 Select i o n of a Landfilli ng Method ...
19 . 2 . 3 . 3 S ite Selection ..............
19- B
1 9- 12
1 9 .2.4
Facilit y Desig n ..............
19- 12
19 . 2 . 4 . 1 Regulations
and Stand a r ds .......
19 . 2 .4. 2 Site Characteristics .. .
19 - 13
19- I '
19 . 2. 4 . 3 La ndfill Type a nd Desig n
.
19 . 2 .4.4 A n c i l l a r y Fac il itie s
.
19 - 15
19- 18
19 . 2 .4. 5 Landfill Equipmen t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 9 . 2. 4. 6
Flexi bility a nd Reli ab ili t y .........
19 - 18
19 . 2 .4. 7 Expected Performance
.
19 - 19
19- 2O
1 9 . 2 .4. 8 Environmental Impacts .........
19 - 20
19 . 2 . 5 O p e r a t i o n s and Maintenance . . ...........
19 . 2 . 5 . 1 Operations Plan
..
19- 2O
xxi ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page
19.2.5 . 2 Operating Sched u le
.
19 . 2 . 5 . 3 Equipment Selection and Maintenance
.
19 . 2 . 5 . 4 Management and Reporting
.
19 . 2 . 5 . 5 Safety
.
19.2.5 . 6 environmental Controls ............
19 . 2 . 6 Site Closure .....................
19.2.6 . 1 Ultimate Use
..
19 . 2 . 6 . 2 Grading at Completion of Filling
19 . 2 . 6 . 3 Final Grading
..
19 . 2 . 6 . 4 Landscaping
.
.
19.2 . 6 . 5 Continued Leachate and Gas ControL
19 . 2 . 7 Landfilling of Screen i ngs, Gr i t, and Ash
.
19 .3 Dedicated Land Disposal
.
19 . 3.1 Defintion
.
19 . 3 . 2 Background ..........
19 . 3 . 3 Site Selection ...................
19.3.3.1 Ownership by Wastewater Treamtent
Authority ................
19.3.3.2 Groundwater Patterns ..
19.3.3.3 Topography .
19.3 . 3.4 Soil Types
..
19.3.3.5 Availability of Suffient Land
..
19 . 3 . 4 Storage . ...
19 . 3 .4. 1 Climatic Influences
.
19 . 3 .4. 2 Operational Storage ........
19.3.5 Operational Methods and Equipmen t
19 . 3.5.1 Liquid Sludge
.
19 . 3.5 . 2 Dewa t ered Sludge
19 . 3.5 . 3 Sludge Application Rates ..........
19 . 3 . 6 Environmental Controls and Monitoring ..
19 . 3.6 . 1 Site Layout
..
19.3.6.2 . Groundwater Controls ..... ...
19.3.6.3 Surface Water Runoff Co n trolS .....
19 . 3 . 6 . 4 Air Pollution Control .
19.3.6.5 Site Moni t oring
.
19.3 . 7 Costs ... ......
19 . 3 . 8 Case Examples . .........
19 . 3 . 8.1 Colorado Springs, Colorado ...
19.3 . 8.2 Sacramento, California .......
19 .4 References ........

xxiv

19 1919 1919 1919 19 19 19 1919191919 19 -

21
21
22
22
23
24
24
24
25
2S
25
25
25
25
26
27

19 19 1919 19191919 1919191919191919 1919 1919 19 1919-

27
27
28
28
28
28
28
29
29
29
34
35
37
37
38
38
39
39
39
39
40
50
58

LIST OF TABLES
Number
CHAPTER 3
3- 1
3- 2
3- 3
3-

3-

3- 6
3-

3- 8
3- 9
3-1 0

Example of Initial Screening Matrix for Base


Sludge Disposal Options ............
Example of Proce ss Compatibility Ma tri x .
Ex ample of T r e a t m e n t / D i p o s a l Compat ibi lit y
Matrlx .. . .
Example of Nume rical Rating System for
Al t ernatives Analysis ..................
Estima t ed Costs of Alternatives for
Eugene-Springfield ...................
Mass Bal a nce Equa ti ons for Flowsheet o f
Figure 3 - 7 .
Mass Ba l ance Equations for Flowsheet of
Figure 3 - 9 .......................
Solid P r operties Ch ecklist ............
Pr ocess Design Checklist
.
Pub l ic Health and Environmental
Impact Chec k list ...............

33-

3-

3- 10
3- 13

3- 2l
26
3- 37
3- 37

) -

3- 38

CHAPTER 4
,- 1

,- 2
.- 3

,-

- 5
- 6
4- 7
4- 8
,- 9

4-1 0
4- 11
4-12
4-13

Predicted Quan t ities of Suspended Solid s and


Chemical Solids Removed in a Hypothetical
Primary Sedime n tation Ta nk ...
Primary Sludge Character i stics ....
Alternate Names and Symbols for
Equation (4-1)
.
Values of Yield and Decay Coefficients for
Computing Waste-Activated S l udge ..
Design Data for Sludge Production Ex amp l e ...
Activated Sludge Characte ri stics . . ...........
Tric k l i ng Filter Solids Prod uc t ion ...........
Daily Variations in Trick ling Filter Effluent,
StOck t on , Califo rn ia ................
Description o f Sloughing Events . ..
Concentration o f Trickl ing Filter Sludge
Wi t hdrawn from Final Clarif i ers ..............
Tric k ling Filter Sludge Composition ......
Sl udge from Combi ned Attac h ed - Suspend e d
Growth Proce sses ... .. .......
Metals i n Fer ri c Chloride Solutions .........

.-.- ,
.-..-.-.8

11

12
2l

28
30

,- 3333
,-

.-.,.-

34
35
36

40

List OF TABLES (continued)


Number

4- 1 4
4-15
4- 16
4-17
4- 18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23

4-24
4-25
4- 26

4-27

Page
P r o g r e s s in Source Control of Toxic
Pollutants ...... .................
Cadmium in Sludge .............
I n c r e a s e d Metals Concentration
D u r i n g Processing ....... .
Aroclor (PCB) 1254 Measurements in Sludge . .
C h l o r i n a t e d Hydrocarbon Pesticides in
Sludge ... .. .... .............
Screening Experience ... ..... ..........
Analyses of Screenings .... ... .....
Methods of Handling Screenings
.
Grit Quantities ... ..............
Sieve Analysis o f G r i t ............
Scum P r o d u c t i o n and P r o p e r t i e s ..... .
Methods of Handling Scum
.
Characteristics of Domestic Septage ..
Metals C o n c e n t r a t i o n s in Solids from T r e a t m e n t
of Combined Sewer Overflows .......

4- 41
4- 42
4- 43
4- 44
444444444-

45
47
49

SO
52
53
57
58
60

4- 62

CHAPTER 5
5- 1
5- 2
5- 3
5- 4
5- 5
5- 6
5- 7
5- 8
5- 9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5- 13
5-14
5- 15

Advantages and Disadvantages of G r a v i t y


Th ick eners ....... ...
Typical Gravity Thickener Sllrface Area
Design C r i t e r i a
.
Reported O p e r a t i n g Results at V a r i o u s O v e r f l o w
Rates for Gravity Thickeners
..
Typical Uniform Load (Wj 'Jalues ......
Definition of Torques Applicable to C i r c u l a r
Gravity Thickeners ................
Types of Municipal Wastewater Sludges Being
Thickened by DAF Thickeners
.
Advantages and Disadvantages of DAF
Th ickening ........ ,.
Typical DAF Thickener Solids Loading Rates
N e c e s s a r y to Produce a Minimum 4 P e r c e n t
Solids Concentration .................
Field O p e r a t i o n Results From Rectangular DAF
Thickeners ...............................
R e p o r t e d DAF Thick ener Hydraul ic Loading
Rates ...... . ....... ...... . .........
Advantages and Disadvantages of Disc Nozzle
Centri(uges ................ ;.
Typical Performance of Disc Nozzle C e n t r i f u g e ..
Advantages and Disadvantages of Imperforate
Basket Centrifuge ..................
Typical Thickening Resul t s Using Imperforate
Basket Centrifuge ..............
Advantages and Disadvantages of Solid Bowl
Decanter Centrifuges ...............
~xvi

5-

5-

55-

8
9

5 - 10
5- 18
5 - 19
5- 23
5- 24
5- 27
5- 40
5- 43
5-

45

5-

47

5 - SO

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Number
5-16
5 - 17

Typical Characteristics of the New Type


Thickening Decanter Centrif ug e WAS .........
Estimated Capi t al and O&M Cost for Various
Centrifuges for Thi ckening of Waste-Activated
Sludge at Vill a ge Creek - Fort Worth, Texas

5- 52
5- 55

CHAPTER 6
6- 1
6- 2
6- 3

6- 4
6-

6- 6
6- 7

6-

6- e
6-1 0
6- 11
6- 12
6-13
6-14

6-15
6-16
6-17

6 -18

Type and Reference of Full - Scale Studies on


High Rate Anaerobic Digestion of Munic i pal
Wastewater Sludge ........ .....
Results of Recirculating Diges t ed Sludge to
the Thickener at Bowery aay Plant, New Yor k .
Operating and Performance Characteristics for
the Bench- Scale , Two - Phase Anaerobic Digestion
of Waste-Ac ti vated Sludge .................
Typical Design Criteria for Sizing
Mesophilic Anaerobic S l udge Di gesters ..
So l ids Retention Time Design Criteria for
High Ra t e Digestion .. ...........
Average Physical and Chemica l Characteristics
of Sludge From Two - Stage Digester System ..
Materials Entering and Leaving Two-Stage
Digester System ......
Gas Pr oduct i on for Several Compounds in
Sewage Sludge .....
Characteristics o f SLudge Gas ......
Supernatant , Characteristics of High - Rate,
Two-Stage , Mesophilic , Anaerobic Digestion
at Various Plants ........
Effect of Ammonia Nitrogen on Anaerobic
Digestion ...... ...........
Influent Concentra ti ons and Ex pec t ed
Removals of Some Heavy Metals in Wastewater
Treat ment Systems .................
Total Concentration o f Indi v idual Metals
Required to Sev erely Inhibit Anaerobic
Digestion ............................
Total and Soluble Heavy Metal Conte nt of
Digesters ......................
Stimulating and Inhibitory Co n centrations
of Light Me t al Cations . ...................
Synergis t ic and Antagon i stic Ca t ion
Combinations ...................
Heat Transfer Coeff i cients (or Hot Water
Coils in Anaerobic Digesters .
Heat Transfer Coefficients f o r Various
Anaerobic Digestion Tank Materials ... . .....

xxvii

6-

6 - 11
6-

17

6- 19
666-

24
25

"

6- 29
6- 31
6 - 33
6 - 37
6- 38
6- 39
6- 40
6-

40

6- 41

6- 47
6-

52

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Number
6 -19
6-20
6 - 21
6 - 22
6-23
6- 24
6-25
6-26
6-27
6-28
6- 29
6 - 30
6- 31
6- 32
6 - 33

6- 34
6-35

Relationship Be t e en the Velocity Gradient


and Uni t Gas Flow
.
Design Load ing Assump t ions ..............
Selected Aerobic Digestion S tud ies on
Various Municipal Wastew ate r Sludges ....
Cha r acteris ti cs of Mesophil i c Aerobic
Digester Super n atant ... . ............
Summary of Curre nt Aerobic Digester
Design Crite ria ....................
Aerobic Di gestion Labor Requirements ...........
Lime Requirement to Attain pH 12 for
30 Minutes a t Lebanon , Oh i o ........
Lime Doses Required to Keep pH Above
11 . 0 at Leas t 14 Days .............
Bacteria in Ra w, Anaerobica l ly Digested, and
Lime Sta bilized Sludges at Lebanon , Ohio . ...
Chemical Composi t ion of Sludges a t Lebanon ,
Ohio , Before and After Lime Stabilization ....
Chemical Composition of Sludge and
Supernatant Before and After Lime
Stabilizat i on .....................
Charac t e r is t ics of Quicklime and
Hydrated Lime ... ..
Mechanical Mixer Specifica t ions for
Sludge Slurries ............ . ... . ......
Est i mated Average An nual Cos ts for Lime
Stabilization Facilit i es
..
Estimated Chlorine Requirements for
Sludge and Sides t ream Processing ........
Actual Operati ng Costs for Chlorine
Stabilization System
.
Chlorine Stabilization Capital Costs , 1979 ...

6- 63
6- 79
6- 83
6- 93

6- 94
6-100
6-105

6-1 05
6-109
6 -1 11

6-113
6-114
6-122
6- 123
6 - 133

6- 135
6- 137

CHAPTER 7

7- 1
77-

2
3

7-
7- 5
7- 6

7- 7

Pathogenic Human Viruses Po t ent i ally in


Wastewater Sludge ........
Pathogenic Human Bacteria Potential ly in
Wastewater Sludge ............. . ..
Pathogenic Human and Animal Paras ites
Potentially in Wastew a t er Sludge ......
Pa t hogenic Fungi Potentially in
wastew ater Sludge ..... ...........
Pathogen Occu rrence in Liquid Wastewater
SludgeS .... . ........ .
Pathogen Survival in Soils ............
Time a nd Temperature To l erance fo r
Pathogens in Sludge

xxviii

7-

7-

7-

7-

77-

8
12

7- 14

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Number
CHAPTER 8
8- 1

8- 2
8- 3
8- 4
8- S
8- 6
8- 7
8-

8-

8-10
8-11
8-12
8 - 13
8-14
8 - 15

Effects of Either Polyelectrolyte Conditioning


or Thermal Conditioning Versus No Conditioning
on a Mixture of Primary and Waste - Activated
Sludge Prior to Gr avity Thicke ni ng ......
Typical Conditioning Dosages of Ferric
Chloride (l'eC13) and Lime (CaD) for
Municipal Wastewater Sludges ...........
Suppliers of Polyelectrolytes .........
Representative Dry Powder Cationic
Polyelectrolytes ..........
Representative Liquid Cationic
Polyelectrolytes .............. .
Typical Polyelectrolyte Additions for
Various Sludges ...........
Typical Levels of Dry Polyelectrolyte Addition
for: Belt Filter Presses
.
Typical Levels of Dry Polyelectrolyte Addition
for: Solid Bowl Decanter Centrifuges
Conditioning Various Sludges ................
P e r f o r m a n c e of Solids Handling System at
Bisse l l Point. St. Louis STP 1972-1976
.
Performance of Solids Handling System at
Bissell Point, St . Louis STP 1977- 1978 ....
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ash Addition
to Sludge for Conditioning
..
General Characteristics of Separated Liquo r
From Thermal Conditioned S l udge .........
Filtrate and/or Cent rate Characteristics From
Dewatering Thermal Conditioned Sludge ...
USEPA July 1979 Survey of Exi sting Municipal
Wastewater Thermal Conditi.oning .......
Comparison of Sewage Sludge Handli ng and
Conditioning Processes ...... ..
CHAPTER 9

,- 1
,- 2
, - 3
,- 4
9- SA

9 - 5B

,- ,

pilot-Scale Sludge Dewatering Studies ........


Advantages a nd Disadvan t ages of Using
Sludge Dry ing Beds ...............
Advantages of a Wedge-Wire Drying Bed ..
Characteri za t ion of Sand Bed Drainage .......
Summary of Recognized Published Sand Bed
Sizing Criteria for Anaerobically Diges t ed .
Non-Conditioned S l u d g e ... . .. ......
Summary of Recognized Published State Bed
Sizing Criteria for Sand Beds by USEPA
Regions Square feet/Capita .......
Wedge-Wire System Performance Data .
xx ix

8-

8,-

14

8 - 16
8- 16

,,- 23
,,-

II

2S

26

e- 28
8 - 33
8- 36
8- 38
8-

39

8- 41

,,-,-

2
3
7
9

,,-

10

,-,-

11
12

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Number

9- 7
9- 8
9- 9
9-10

9-11
9 - 12

9 - 13
9 - 14

9-15
9-16

9- 11
9-1 8

9-19
9-20

9- 21
9- 22

9-23
9-24

9-25
9 - 26

9-27
9-28

9-29
9 - 30

9- 31

Page
Sludge Drying Beds , Labor Re quirements .......
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Sludge
Dry ing Lagoons ...........
Sludge Drying Lagoons , Labor
Requiremen t s ...............
Advantages and Di sadvantage s of Baske t
Centrifuges ..... ........
Typical Performa nc e Data for an Imperforate
Basket Centrifuge ..... ......
Specific Operati ng Results fo r Imperforate
Bas k et ....... .........
Operating Results for Basket Centrifuge
Dewatedng of Aerobically Diges t ed
Sludge at Burlington , Wisconsi n .............
Advantages and Disadvantages of Solid Bowl
Decanter Centrifuges ...... .
Typical Performance Data for a Solid Bowl
Decan t er Centrifuge .......
Precoat Process Performance on Fine
P a r t i c u l a t e Sludqes ..............
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Rotary
Drum vacuum Fi l t e rs ...........
Typical Dewatering Performance Data for
Rotary Vacuum Fi lters - Cl oth Media .......
Typical Dewatering Performa n ce Data for
R.otary Va cuum Filters - Coil Media .....
Specific Operating Resul t s of Ro t ary Vacuum
F i lters - Cloth Media . .. ..
Specific Operating Results of Rotary Vacuum
filters - Coil Media
.
Operational Cost for Lakewood, Ohio Vacuum
Filter Operations . .
Advantages and Disadvantages of Belt
Filter Presses .......... . ...........
Typical Dewatering Performance of Belt Filter
Presses . ........ .
Labor Req u i r ements for Belt Filter
Presses . ..... . ..............
Advantages and Disadvantages of Recessed Plate
Pressure Filters ...................
Expected Dewatering Performance for a Typical
Fixed Vo lume Recessed Plate Pressure Filter .
Specific Operating Results of Fixed Volume
Recessed Pl ate Pressure Filters .... .....
Typical Dewatering Performance of a Variable
Volume Recessed Plate Pressure Filter ...
Pressure Fi Itration and Incineration
Operational Cost . .
Performance Resul t s From a Screw Press . .

9- 13
9-

,- "

17

9- 18

,,,-

20
20

22

9- 2J
9- 24

,-

27

9- 28

,-

34

9- 35

,- 35
,,,,,,,,,,-9- 61
36

41

45
48

51

52
56
57
57
65

LIST OF TABLES (con t inued )


Number
9 - 32

Summary of Performance Res u lts For a Dual


Cell Gravity Filter - Me n tor , Ohio

... ...........

9- 68

CHAPTER 10
10 -

Estimated 1911 Cos t s for Dewateri ng, Drying


and Bagging at Largo , Fl orida . ,............

1 0-

22

11-

11-

11-

71

CHAPTER 1 1
11 - 1
11-

11-

11- 4
11-

11 - 6
11- 7
11 -

11 - 9
11 - 10
11-11
11 - 12

11 - 13

11-14
11 - 15

11 - 16
1 1-11

11-1 8

11-19

Chemical Reactions Occurring


During
Combustion .. ...........
Representative Hea t ing Values of Some
Sludges ........... .
Theoretical Air and Oxygen Requirements
for Complete Combustion
.
Approximate Combustion Calcu l a t ion Supplemental Fuel Requirements ............
Combustion Calculations - Molal Uasis ..... .....
Combustion Calculations - Molal Ba sis
..
Comparison Between an Approximate and a
Theoretical calculat i on of Fu r nace
Combustion .... .....................
Hypothetical Wastewater Treatment Plant
Design Data ......
Heat and Material Balance for Sludge
Incineratio n In a Multiple- Hearth Furnace ..
Typical Hearth Loading Rat e s for a
Multiple-Hea rth Furnace ......... . ...... .. .. .....
Heat and Material Balance for Sludge
Inci neration in a Fluid Bed furnace .......
Heat and Ma t erial Ba l ance for Sludge
Incineration in an Electric Infrared
Furnace . ...... ...... . .. ........ ... ..... .... .....
Heat and Material Balance for Sludge
Incineration in a Cyclonic Furnace
...... . . .. . .
Design Examp l e : Wastewater Treatment Plant
Operating Data ..... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Example
Sludge Furnace Design
Criteria ... ..................
Design Examp l e : Heat and Material Balance
for a Fluid Bed Furnace . ... ...
Heat and Material Balance for Starved-Air
Combustion of Sludge in a Multiple - Heart h
Furnace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... . ....
Heat and Materi a l Ba l ance Comparison of
Starved-Air Combustion and Incineration .........
Design Ex amp l e : Wastewater Trea t ment Plant
Operating Data . . ... .. .. ...... . ............ . .....

xx xi

11- 18
11- 21
11- 23

11-

25

11-

31

11- 39
11-

48

11 - 51
11- 51

11- 60
11-

61

1 1-

62

11- 63
1 1-

10

11- 72
11- 77

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Number

11-31

Design Ex ample : Heat and Ma t erial Balances


for Multiple-Hearth Furnaces ...
Conventional Approaches to Co- Combustion
of Wastewa t er Sludge and Mi x ed Municipal
Refuse ...................
Heat and Material Balance for Co-Combustion
by S t arved - Air Combustion in a Multiple-Hearth
Furnace .........
Carbon Regeneration Methods .
Basic Type s of Pyrolysis, Thermal Gasification ,
and Liquefaction Reactors - New , Demonstrated ,
or Under Development .................... . ..
Health Effects of Air Pollutants
.
san Francisco Bay Area - Ma x imum A l l o w a b l e
Pollutant Concentrations ...
Uncontrolled Emission Rates from
Multiple- llearth Furnaces ................
Design Ex ample : Ex h a ust Gas Data from a
Multiple- Hearth Furnace .......... ... .
Design Ex ample : Auxiliary Fuel Correction
for a Multiple- Hearth Furnace
.
Design Example : Multiple-Hearth Furnace
Pollutant Concentrations After Scrubbing ....
Description of Solid and Liquid Waste
Classifications ............ . . ....
Classification of Waste Disposal Sites ...

11 - 32

CHAPTER 12

11-20
11 - 21
11- 22
11-23
11-24
11-25
11- 26
11-27
11- 28
11-29
11- 30

12- 1
12-

12 - 4

12- 3
12- 6

12 - 6
12- 7
12 - 8
12- 9

Suggested Monitoring Program for a Municipal


Wastcwater S l udge Composting Facility
.
Densities of V a r i o u s Compost Bulk ing
Agents .... ... ...... . .. .. .....
Beltsville Equipment ....... . ........
Beltsville Actual and Projected Operating
Cos ts . . ......... . .... . ........ . ...
Estimated An nual Labor and Equipment
Requirements, Bangor, Maine ................
Bangor Equipment ... ....... .. .
Bangor Materials Requirements for 2 , l70 We t 'l'on
Annual Sludge Input . .. ...... . ..
Facility Processing 10 Dry Tons of Sludge per
Day ... , ....... ..... . ...
European Wastewater Sludge Composting
Processes .. ....

11 -

79

11 - 83
11- 91
11 - 99

11- 103
11-118
11- 124

11- 125
11- 130
11-130

11-131
11-133
11-13 4

12-

12- 12
12- 41
12- 43
1212-

46
54

12-

46

12 - 5 0
12-

57

1313-

2
6

CHAPTER 13
13- 1
13- 2

Partial Lis t of Fixati.on Processes ........


Parameters fo r Ear t hworm Conversion .. ...
x xxi i

LIST Of' TABLES (con t inued)


Number
13-

Possible Operating Difficulties in


earthworm Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......

14- 1
14-

14 - 3
14- 4
1 4- 5

14 6
14- 7
14- a
14- 9

14-10

14-11
1 4-12

CHAPTER 1 4
Summarized Calculations for Non-Newtonian
Flow Example Problem .......
Pressure Required to Exceed Yield Stress Example Problem ... ......
Applica t ions for Sludge Pumps ....
Typical Long Pipelines Carrying Unstabilized
Sludged ........ .
Typical Long Pipelines Ca rry ing Diges t ed
Sludge ............. .
Long Pipelines for Unstabilized Sludge :
Additional Locations . ........
Long Pipelines f or Diges t ed Sludge :
Additional Locations ........... ....
Typical Minimum Tank Car Requi r ements .......
Typica l Transit T i mes for Rail r oad
Transportation
.
Manpower Requirements for Railroad
Transport ....... . ..............
Tug Costs for Various Barge Capacit ie s ....
Typical Barge Sizes and Costs .............

13-

14- 11
14- 12
1 4- 30

14 32
1 4-

32

14- 34
14- 34
14- 52
14- 53

14- 54
14- 55
14- 56

CHAPTER 1 5
l5- I
l5- I

15 -

l5 l5-

l5 -

15-

l5- 8
l5- 9

1 5

Wastewater Solids Storage Applicability ..


Calculations for Digester Effluent Mass
Flow Rate from Equation 15-1
..
Advantages and Limitations of Using Facultative
SlUdge Lagoons for Long - Term Storage ....
Sacrament o Cent r al Wastewater T r eatme nt
Plant Volatile Reductions , Digested Sludge
Quantities and FSL Area Loadings ....
Sacramento Central Wastewater T r ea tment
Plant PSL Design Da t a .
Sacramento Central Wastewater Treatment
Plan t PSL Sludge Inventory . Dry Tons ......
Sacramento Central Wastewater Treatment
Plant Recycled FSL Supernatant Quali ty ........
Sacramento Central Wastewater Treatment
Plant Comparison of Digested FSL and
Removed Sludge Analytical Data ..........
Sacramento Central Wastewater Treatment
Plant Odor Ris k for 40 Acres of FSLs, Annual
Events (Days) .............
Sacramen t o Regional Wastewa t er Treatment
Plant Ultimate Odor Ris k for 124 Acres
of FSL, Annual Events (Days)
.

l5l5- 16
l5 -

24

l5-

33

15- 35
15- 35
lS- 36

15- 37
lS- 39

lS-

xxxiii

LI ST Of TABLES (c on tinued)
Number
15 - 11
15-12

1978 Removed Sludge-P r a i rie Pla n Land


Reclama t ion Project , The Metropo l ita n S a ni t a r y
District of Greater Chicago
........
1973/197 4 Supernatant-Praire Plan Reclama t ion
Project , The Me t r opoli t an Sa n itary District of
Greater Chicago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15- 4 4
1 5- 45

CHAPTER 1 6
16 - 1
16- 2
16- 3

16- 4
1 6- 5
16- 6
16 - 7
16- 8
16- 9

Effect of Polymer on Elutriation ...........


Effect of Supernatant Return
..
Estimated Increase in Wastewater Stream
Biological T r eatmen t capacity Req u ire'] t ,)
Handle Sidestreams Fr om Various Solids
Treatment Processes ...
Possible Di gester Supernatant Treatment
Processes ................
Chlorine Treatment of Digeste r Supernatan t
Aerobic Oigest i on of He a t Tr e atment Liquor ...
Activated Sludge Treatment of Thermal
Conditioning Liquor . . . .
Aerobic Biological Filtration of Thermal
Condition Liquor
.
Chlorine Oxidat i on Treatment o f Thermal
Conditioning L i quor

1616 -

5
6

16-

16- 10
16 - 11
16- 13
16- 1 4
16 -

15

16- 16

CHAPTER 17
17- 1
17- 2
17- 3
17 - 4
1717 17 17 -

5
6
7
8

17 - 9
17 - 10
17-11
17- 1 2

Thickening . . .... .........


Stabilization
..
Disinfection .... . .......
Conditioning . . ...
Dewatering ........................
Heat Drying .... . .......... .
High Temperature Proce"s ...
Composting .... ......
Miscellaneous Conversion Processes ....
Transportat ion . . . ...
Storage .. . ........
Sidestreams ..............

17-

17 17 -

5
8
17 - 10

17 - 13
17 -

17

1717 1717 17 17 -

22
27
31
32
36

18 -

18-

30

CHAPTER 18
18 - 1

18- 2

Comparison of Current and Potential Sludge


Utilization to Commerc i al F e r t i l i z e r
Consumption in the United States . . .
Examp l es of C o m m u n i t i e s Practicing Land
Utilizatio n ........... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x xx iv

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Number
CHAPTER 19

19- 1
19 19 19 19-

2
3
4
5

19- 6
19- 7
19- S
19- 9

19 - 10
19-11
19-1 2
1 9-13
19-14
19-15
19-16
19-17
19-18
19-19
19 - 20

Suitability of Sludges for La ndfilling . .....


Sludge and Site Conditions
.
Landfill Desig n Criteria
..
Leachate Quality From Sludge-Only Landfill .
Landfill Equipment Performance
Characteristics ......... .....
Typical Equipment Type and Number as a Function
of Landfill Me t hod and Site Loading .
Potential En v ironmental Problems and Control
Prac t ices ........ . ......
Surface Application Methods and Equipment for
Liquid Sludges . .........
Subsurface Application Methods and equipment
for Liquid Sludges . .....
Furrow Slope Evaluation ....
Methods and Equipment for Application o f
Dewatered Sludges .. .. ...
Colorado Springs Population a nd Wastewater Flow
Project ions .............
Colorado Springs Projected Cos t of Sludge
Management System . ...
Colorado Springs Climatic Conditions Affecting
Sludge Disposal ....... .... .
Colorado Spri ngs Dedicated La nd Disposall
Subsurface Injection System Design Data . . .. ..
Sacramento Reg i onal Wastewater Treatment Plant
Projected 1985 Wastewater Flow and Loadings .
Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Pla n t
Projected Digested Sludge Production .....
Sacramento Test DLD Runoff Water Analysis .....
Sacramento Regional Wastewa t er Treatment Plant
Projec t ed 1985 DLD Staffing Requi r ements
Sac..-amento Regional W a s t e w a t e r Treatment Plant
Projected Costs of Sludge Management System
Following Anae..-obic Digestion ....

xxx v

19- 7
19- 9
19- 15
19- 16
19- 19
19- 21
19- 23
19- 30
19- 3l
19- 33
19- 35
19- 40
19- 43
19- 44
19- 49

19- 51
19- 5.
19- 55

19- 58
19- 59

LtST OF FtGURES
Number
CHAPTER 1
1-

Classification of T r ea t ment Disposal Op ti ons ....

1-

JJ-

CHAPTER 3

J- 1
J- 2
J- J
J- 4
J- 5
J- 6
J-

J- 8
J- 9
3- 10

Criteria for System Selection


.
Components fo r System Synthesis ....
Flowsheet Developed From Compone n ts fo r
System Synthesis ..... .....
Paralle l Elements . ....
Candidate Base Alte r na t ives for Eu g eneSpringfield
.
Flowsheet for t he Eugene - Springfield Sl u dge
Management Sys t e m ..... ......
Blank OFD for Chem i cally-Assiste d Prima ry
Pl ant ...... .............
OFO for Chemical ly - Assis t ed Primary P l ant
OFD for Secondary Plan t w i t h Filtration ......
Contingency Planning Examp l e .... .....

J- 5
J- 12
J- 14
J-

17

J- 19
J- 22
J- 25
J- 30

CHAPTER 4
4- 1
44-

J
4- 4
4- 5

4- 6

Typical Relationship Between Peak Solids


Loading and Dur atio n o f Pea k for Some La rge
American Cities .........
Peak Sludge Lo a ds , St . Louis Study
.
Net Growt h Ra te Curves .
Schematic for Sludge Quant i ty Exa mple .
Sludge Wa st i ng Methods .. .............
VSS Production Data for Th r ee T r ickli ng Media
Designs ..............

4- 5
.- 6
4- 18
4- 20
4- 26

4- 32

CHAPTER 5
5- 1
5- 2
5- J
5- 4
5- 5

Typical Concentration Profile of Municipal


Wastewater Sludge in a Continuously O p e r a t i n g
Gr avity Th ick ener
..
Typical Gravity Thickene r I nstalla t ion .....
C r o s s Section al View of a Typical Circular
Gravity Thick ener ............
Annual O&M Man- Hour Requirements - Gravity
Th i c k eners .. . ............
Annual Power Consumpt i on - Co nt inuo u s
Operating Gravity Thic k eners ............
" xx vi

55-

5-

5 - 16

5- 17

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number
5- 6
5- 7
5- 8
5- 9
5-10

5- 11
5- 12

5- 13
5 - 14

5-15
5 - 16

5-17
5-18
5- 19
5-20
5-21

5-22
5-23
5-24
5- 25

5-26

Page
Estimated June 1975 Maintenance Material Cost
For Ci r cular Gravity ThiCkeners ........
Typical Rectangular , Steel Tank , Recycle
Pressu r ization Dissolved Air Flo t a ti on
Thickener , ...............
Float Concentration and Subna t an t Suspended
Solids Versus Solids Loading of a Waste -Ac tivated
Sludge - Wi t hou t Polymers
.
Float Concentra ti on and Subnatant Suspended
Solids Versus Solids Loading of a Waste-Activated
Sludge - wi th Polymers . , ,
Effect of Hydraulic Loading on Performance in
Thickeni ng Waste-Activated Sludge ..........
Float Concent r ation and S u bnatan t Suspended
Solids Versus Air-Solids Ratio With Polymer For
a Waste-Activated
Sludge .........
float Co n centration and Subnatant Suspended
Solids Versus Air-Solids Ratio Witho ut Poly mer
For a Waste-Activated Sludge
.
Annual O&M Man-Hour Requirements - OAF
Thick eners . , .
Annual Power Consumption - Continuous Operating
OAF Thickeners , .
Estimated June 197 5 Maintenance Material Cost For
OAF ThiCkeners .... " ... ,., ..
Typical Disc Nozzle Centrifuge in t he Field ..
Schematic of a Disc Nozzle Centrifuge .......
Typical Di sc Nozzle Pre t reatment Sys t em .....
Effect of Activated Sludge Se ttl eabi lit y on
Capture and Thickening ........
General Schematic of I m p e r f o r a t e Basket
Centrifuge ....................
Relative Influence of One Pocess variab l e as a
Function of Feed Solids Content fo r Imperforate
Basket Centrifuge Holding All Other Process
Variables Constant ...................
Schematic of Typica l Solid Bowl Decanter
Centrifuge ...... .......
Solid Bowl Decanter Cen t rifuge Installation .....
Estimated June 1975 Solid Bowl Decanter
Installation capital Cost ... " . , .......
Annual O&M Requirements
- Solid Bowl Decanter
Centrifuge .......................
Estimated June 1975 Mai nt e nanc e Material Cost for
Solid Bow l Decanter Cen tr ifuge ............

5- 18
5- 2l
5- 25
5- 26
5- 28
5- 29
5-

30

5- 37
5- 3B
5- 39
5- 40
55- 43

41

5-

5- 46

5- 48

5- 50
5- 51

5- 56
5- 58
5- 59

CHAPTER 6
6- 1
6- 2

Summary of the Anaerobic Digestion Process ,


Low-Rate Anaerobic Di gestion System , .
xxxvi i

66-

5
8

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number

6- 3

6-
6- 5
6- 6

6- 7
6- 8
6- 9
6 - 10

6-11
6-12
6 - 13

6-14
6 - 15

6- 16
6-17
6-18
6-1 9
6 - 20

6 - 21
6-22

6-23
6-24

6-25
6-26

6-27
6-28
6- 29

Page
Single- S tag e, High - Rate Anaerobic Digestion
System ........... .....
Flow Diagram for t he Torpey Process .....
Two-Stage , High-Rate Anaerobic Digester
System ....................
Carbon and Nitrogen Balance for a Two - Stage,
High-Rate Digestion System
..
Effect of Recycling Digester Supernatant on the
Suspended Solids Flow Through an Activated
Sludge plant .. ... ......
Anaerobic Contact Process .....
Two - Phase Anaerobic Digestion Process ....
Effec t of SRT on the Relative Breakdown of
Degradable Waste Componen t s and Methane
Production ..... ..
Effect of Temperature and SRT on the Pattern
of Methane Production and Volatile Solids
Breakdown .......
Effec t of Solids Re t en t ion Time and Temperature
on Volatile Solids Reduction in a LaboratoryScale Anaerobic Digester
.
VOlatile Sol i ds Reduction vs Temperature x SRT
for Three Types of Feed Sludges .
Effect of Temperature on Gas Production .....
Relationship Between pH and Bicarbonate
Concentration Near 95F (3S"C)
..
Cylindrical Anaerobic Digestion Tanks
Rectangular Anaerobic Diges ti on Tank .
Egg-Shaped Anaerobic Digestion Tan k at Terminal
Island Trea t ment Plant , Los Angeles
Schematic of the Heat Reservoir System for a
Jacketed Pipe or Spiral Heat E xchanger . ....
Spiral Heat Exchanger Operating Off Secondary
Heat Loop at Sunnyvale , California .
Effect of Solids Concentration on the Raw Sludge
Heating Requirement .............
Circulation Pat t erns Produced by Draft Tube and
Free Gas Lift Mi xer s
.
Draft Tube and Free Gas Lift Pumping Rate ....
Comparison of Lance and Draft Tube Mixing in
Clean Water ..... ..
Effect of Temperature on the Viscosity of
water . ......................
Effect of Solids Concentration and Volatile
Content on the Viscosity of Digesting Sludge ....
Types of Digester Covers . ...
Overall View of Four Digesters with Downes
floating Covers at Sunnyvale , California ...
Typical Digester Supernatant Collection
System ...... .........
xxxviii

6- 9
6- 10
6 - 12
6- 14

"

66- 15
6- 16
6- 21
6- 22
6- 27
6- 28
6- 30

."

66- 43
66- 43
66-

666-

6-

"
"

"
""

"

6- 60
6- 61
66-

"
"

6- 68

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number
6 - 30
6- 31

6- 32
6- 33
6-34
6- 35
6- 36
6-37
6-38
6-39
6- 4 0

6-41
6- 42

6-43
6- 44
6-45
6-46
6-47
6-48

Page
Digester Drain System . .. . ...
Digester Washwater Cleaning by Cyclonic
Separators, Grit Oewaterers , and Sta t ic Screens
at Los Angeles County Carson Plant ....
Energy Flow Through an Anaerobic Sludge Di gestion
System . ......
Construction Costs for Anaerobic Di gestion
Systems . .. .......
Operating , Maintenance , and E n e r g y Costs for
Anaerobic Sludge Digestion Systems
Conceptual Design of an Anaerobic Sludge
Digestion System ...................
Process Flow Diagram for a Conventional
Continuously Operated Aerobic Digester
Reaction Rate Kd Versus Anaerobic Digester
Liquid Temperatures . ..... .... ..
Effect of Solids Concentration on Reaction
Rate Kd
lnfluence of Sludge Age and Liquid Temperatures
on the Oxygen Uptake Rates in Aerobic
Digesters .. .
Design Chart for Low Speed Mechanical Aerators
in Non-Circular Aeration Basins to Calculate
Energy Requirements for Meeting Oxygen
Requi rements ........... . ......
Effect of Sludge Age on pH During Aerobic
Digestion ....... . ..... . . ...
Volatile Solids Reduction as a Function of
Digester Liquid Temperature and Di gester Sludge
Age ............................
Summary of Results for Aerobic Digestion Design
Example ... . ...... . .
Lime Doses Required to Raise pH of a Mixture of
Primary Sludge and Trickling Filter Humes at
Different Solids Concentrations . .... ... ..
Change in pH During Storage of Primary Sludge
Using Different Lime Dosages
..
Effect of pH on Hydrogen Sulfide-Sulfide
Equilibrium
.
Conceptual Design for a Lime Stabilization
Facility
.
Schematic Diagram of a Chlodne O x i d a t i o n
System .......................

6- 71
6- 12
6- 73
6- 75
6- 76
6- 80
6- 85
6- 87
6 - 88
6- 89

6- 90
6- 91
6- 92
6- 98

6-106
6-107
6-108
6-125
6-129

CHAPTER 7

7- 1
7- 2

Potential Pathogen Pathways to Man


Flow Scheme for Sludge Pasteurization With
.
Single-Stage Heat Recuperation ...........

xxxix

7-

13

7- 15

LIST Of fIGURES (continued)


Number

7- 3

77,,- ,
,4

9
7- 10
7 - 11
7-12
7-13
7-14

7-1 5
7-16
7-17

7-18
7-19

7-20

Page
Ene r gy Requi r ements fo r Sludge ....
P asteurization Systems
...........
Constr uction Costs fo r Sludge Pasteur ization
Systems Without Hea t Recovery
.
Const r uction Costs fo r Sludge Pasteur ization
Systems Wi th Heat Recove y
.
Labor Requirements fo r Sludge
Pasteur i za t ion Systems . .....
Mainten a nce Material Costs fo r Sludge
With Ileat Recovery ............
Equipment Layout for Elec tr on Beam facility .
Electron Beam Scanne r and Sludge Spreader ....
Schematic Representation of Cobalt- 60 lrradiation
facili t y at Geiselbullach , West Ger many
..
Gamma Rad iati on Treatment of Liquid Sludge Power
Requi r ements ......
Radiation T r eatment of Dewatered Sludge - Power
Requi r ements .... . .
Gamma Radiation Treatment of Liquid Sludge Capital Costs ......
Gamma Radiation Treatment of Liqu i d S l udge Labor
Requi r ements ........... ..
Gamma Radiation Treat ment of Liquid Sludge
Maintenance Material Supplies and Costs .
Gamma R a d i a t i o n Treatment Facility for Handling
25 Tons per Day or More of Dewate r ed Sludge
Gamma Radiation Treatment of Dewatered Sludge
Capital Cost ..................
Gamma Radiation Treatment of Dewatered SludqeLabe l Requirements .....................
Gamma Radiation Treatment of Dewatered
Maintenance Materials and Supplies Cost .......

,- 18
,,- 20
,- 21
,,,,- "

19

24

28
29

,- 36

,,- J9
,- 40
,,- 41
J<

41

,-

42

8-

8-

8-

,- 43
,- 44

CHAPTER 8
8- 1
8-

8- 3

8- 4
8-

8- 6
8- ,

Basic Parameters fo r Evalu a tion of a Sludge .


Conditioning System ......................
Pa r ticle Size Distribution of Common
Mate r ials ... ....
Typical Concentration Profile of Municipal
Wastewater Sludge in a Continuously Operating
Gravity Thick ener
.
Capital Cost of Fe ric Chloride Storage and
Feeding Facilities ............
Capital Cost of Lime Storage and Feeding
Facilities
.
Fer r ic Chloride Storage and Feeding Ope r ating and
Maintenance Wo r k - Hour Requi r ements ....
Elect r ical Energy Requi r ements for a Fe r r ic
Chloride Chemical Feed System .

8- 10

13- 11
8- 11
8-

12

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number

,- ,
,-

8-10
8-11
8 - 12
8-13

8-14
8-10
8-16
8-17

8-18

Page
Lime Storage and Feeding Operation and
Maintenance Work-Hour Requirements .
Electrical Energy Requirements for a Lime Feed
System ............. ........
Polyacrylamide Molecule - Backbone of the
Synthetic Organic Polyelectrolytes ....... . ....
Typical Configuration of a Cationic
Polyelectrolyte in Solution
Schema t ic Representation of the Bridging Model
for the Destabilization of Colloids by
Polymers .................
Effect of Biological So l ids on Polymer
Requirements in Belt Press Dewatering .
Relative Influence of Polymer Addition on
Imperforate Basket Centrifuge Process
Variables ....................
Polymer S t orage and Feeding Operation and
Maintenance Work-Hour Requirements
Electrical Energy Requi r ements for a Polymer
Feed System ..................
General Thermal Sludge Conditioning Flow Scheme
for a Non - Oxidative System ...........
General Thermal Sludge Conditioning Flow Scheme
for an Oxidative System . ..

,-

12

8- 13

,,,,,- "
,-

15
17
19
24

29

8- 30

,-

32

8- 33

CHAPTF;R 9

9- 1

99- 3
9- 4
9- 5
9- 6

9- 7
9-

9- 9
9-10
9-11
9-12
9-13
9-14

SChematic of Sludge Dewatering in a Drying Bed


System ..............
Typical Sand Drying Bed Construction . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Paved Drying Bed Construction ........
Cross Section of a Wedge-Wire Drying Bed ....
Estimated June 1975 Maintenance Material Cost
for Open Sand Drying Beds
.
1977 Flow Diagram of Burlington . Wisconsin
Wastewater Treatment Plant ..............
Flow Diagram of a Filtration System ........
Cutaway View of a Drum or Scraper-Type Rotary
Vacuum Filter . .....
Operating Zones of a Rotary Vacuum Filter
Cross Sectional View of a Coil Spring - Belt
Type - Rotary Vacuum Filter ..............
Typical Coil Spring - Belt Type - Rotary Vacuum
Filter Installation
.
Cross Sectional View of a Fiber Cloth - Belt
Type - Rotary Vacuum Fil t er ...... . .......
Typical Fiber Cloth - Belt Type - Rotary Vacuum
Filter .............
Rotary Vacuum Filter System . ..

xli

9999-

4
6
6
7

9- 13

"

99- 25
9- 29
9- 29

9- 3D
9- 31
9- 32
9- 33
9- 36

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Page

Number
9-15
9-16
9 - 17
9-18
9-19
9 - 20
9 - 21
9-22
9- 23
9-24
9 - 25
9 - 26
9-27
9-28

9 - 29
9 - 30

9 - 31
9-32

9-33
9-34
9- 35
9 - 36

9-37
9-38

Rotary Vacuum Filter Productivity as a Function


of Feed Sludge Suspended Solids Concentration

Sludge Cake Total Solids Concentration as a
Function of the Feed Sludge Suspended Solids
Concentration .
Lakewood , Ohio Wastewater Trea t ment Plant Flow
Diagram . ............
Estimated June 1975 C/lpital Cost for Rotary Drum
Vacuum Filter
..
Annual O&M Man- Hour Requirements - Ro t ary Drum
Vacuum Fil t ers ....
Power Consumed by Rotary Drum Vacuum Fi Itration
Process ............
Estimated June 1975 Annual Maintenance Material
Cost - ROta r y Drum Vacuum F i lter ............
The Three Basic Stages of a Belt Press ...
Alternative Designs for Obtaining Water Releases
with Belt Fi l ter Presses
.
Typical Dewate r ing Performance of Belt Filter
Presses ......................
Schematic Side View of a Recessed Plate Pressure
filter ......
Cross Section of a Fixed-Volume Recessed Plate
Filter Assembly ................
Typical Recessed Plate Pressure Filter
Installation at Wassau , Wisconsin
Cross Section of a Variable Volume Recessed Plate
Filter Assembly ............
Schema t ic of an In-Line Conditioning System For
Recessed Plate Pressure Filter .....
Brookfield , Wisconsin Wastewater Treatment
Plant
Flow Diagram .............
Performance Data for a Pressure Filter
Brookfield , Wisconsin ..
Estimated June 1975 Costs for Fixed Volume
Recessed Plate Pressure Filters ............
Annual O&M Man-Hour Requirements - Fixed Volume
Recessed Plate P r essure Filter .........
Fixed Volume Recessed Plate Pressure Filter
Power Consumption .......
Estimated June 1975 Annual Maintenance Ma t erial
Cost-Fixed Volume , Recessed Plate Pressure
Filter .............
System Schematic for One Type of Screw Press
System . ....... . ...... .
Cross Sect ion View of 11 Twin-Roll Vari-Nip
Press ...........
Cross Section View of II Dual Cell Gravity
Filter .................

xli i

9- 38
9- 39
9-

"

9- 42
9- 42
9- 0
9- 44
9- 46
9- 42
9 - 48
9- 5'
9 - 53
9- 54
9- 55
9- 58
9- 60
9 - 61
9 - 62
9- 63
9- 64

9- 64
9- 65
9 - 66
9- 67

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number

10- 1
10101010-

2
3
4

10- 6
10-

Estimate of Energy Required to Dry Wastewater


Sludge as a Function of Dryer Feed Solids
Content . ......
SChematic for Sludge Drying Example ....
Flash Dryer System (Courtesy of C . E . Raymond) ..
Schema tic for a Rotary Dryer ...........
J a cketed HollOW-Flight Dryer {Courtesy Bethlehem
Corporation) ..... ....
Toroidal Drying System ..
Schema t ic of BEST Process . . .

10- 6
1010- n
10- 20
10- 23
10 - 26
10 - 29

CH A PTER 11
11 -

11- 2
11- 3

11- 4
11- 5

11- 6
11- 7
11- 8

11 - 9
11-10
11 - 11
11 - 12
11-13
11 - 14
11-15
11-16
11-17
11-18

11-19
11-20

Basic Elements of High Temperature Processes . . .


Effect of Excess Air and Excess Temperature
on Supplemental fuel Requiremen t s ...
Effect of Dry Solids Heating Val u e and Sludge
Moisture on Capability for Autogenous
Combustion ..............
Effect of Sludge Mo i sture Content and
Combustible Solids Con t ent on Supplemental
Fuel Consumption ................
Hypothetical Wastewa ter Treatment Plant
Flowsheet .
Cross Section of a Multiple-Hearth Furnace ..
Shaft Cooling Air Arrangement i n a
Multiple-Hearth Furnace
.
Process Zones i n a Multiple-Hearth Furnace
Flowsheet for SlUdge Incineration in a
Multiple-Hearth Furnace .......
Multiple-Hearth Furnace Start-Up Fuel
Requlrements .......
Mul t iple-Hearth Fu rnace Cons truct ion
Cos t ..........
Multiple-Hearth Furnace Oper a ting and
Maintenance Labor Requirements ...
Multiple-Hearth Furnace Fuel
Requi r e m e n t s ...... .
Multiple-Hearth Furnace Electrical Power
Regui rements ...
Multiple-Hearth Furnace Maintenance Material
Costs ....... ..
Heat Bala nce for the Recycle Concept
in a Multiple-Hearth Furnace ......
Cross Section of a Fluid . Bed Furnace ......
Flowsheet for Sludge Incineration in a Fluid
Bed Furnace .......
Fluid Bed furnace Fuel Requirements ..
Fluid Bed Furnace Electrical Power
Requirements ......... ....
xlii i

11-

11-

11- 11
ll- 12
ll- 30
11- 33

11- 34
11- 35
11- 33
11- 41
11- 42
11- 44
11- 45
11 - 46
11- n
11- 49
11- 50
11- 52
11- 5)
11- 54

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number
11 - 21
11 - 22
11 - 23
11- 24
11-25
11-26
11-21
11-28
11- 29
11-30
11 - 31
11 - 32
11 - 33
11- 34
11 - 35
11 - 36
11 - 31
11 - 38
11- 39
1 1-4 0
11-41
11 -4 2
11 - 43
11- 44
11 - 45

Page
Cross Section of an E l e c t r i c Infrared Furnace ..
Flowsheet for Sludge Incine r ation in an
El ectrlc
i In f rare d Furnace ..........
Cross Section of a Cyclonic Furnace .. ...
Flow-sheet for Sludge Incineration in a
Cyclonic Furnace ...............
Design Example:
Heat and M a t e r i a l Balance
in a Fluid Bed Furnace
.
Comparison of Excess Air Requirements :
Incineration vs . Starved- Air Combustion ..
Flowsheet for Starved-Air Combus t ion in a
Multiple-Hearth Furnace .....
Design Example : Starved- Air Combustion
in a Multiple- He a rth Furnace
.
Typical Gra t e-Fired Waterwalled Combus t ion
Unit .......................
Vert ical Shaf t Reactors ..................
Autogenous Combustion Requirements for
Co- Di sposal ..............
Fl owsheet for CO- Combustion Full Scale Test
at the Central Contra Costa Sanitary District ,
Californ i a ...............................
Flowsheet for Co-Combustion at the Western
Lake S u p e r i o r Sanitary D i s t r i c t , Du luth ,
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross Section of the Watergate Furnace f or
Scum Incineration .............
JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System .. .
Volatile Solids and COD Content of Heat
Treated Sludge . .......
Flowsheet for High Pressure/Hiqh Tempe r ature
Wet Air Oxidation .............
Wet Air Oxidation - Electrical Energy
Requirements .. ............
React-O-Therm tm on Sludge/L i quid Waste
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modular Controlled-Air Incinerator
Configurations ...... ....
Pyro-Sol Limited Pyrolysis System ....
Bailie Process Flowsheet ...........
Wright-Malta Process F l owshee ..........
Air Emissions ..................
San Francisco Bay Area Quality Management
Oi strict : Auxiliary Fuel and Oxygen
Correction ............... ......

11 - 55
11- 56
11 - 58
11 - 59
11- 64
11 - 66
11- 69
11- 82
1111- 87

"
11"

11 - 90
11- 93
11- 97
11- 101
11-105
11 - 106
11 - 108
11- 109
11-111
11-112
11- 113
11- 11 4
11-11 5
11 - 126

CHAPTER 12
12- 1

Effect of Solids Content on the Ratio of Wood


Chips to Sludge by Volume
xli v

12- 4

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number
14- 2
14- 3
14- 4

14- 5
14- 6
14- 7

14- 8
1 4- 12
14-13
14-14
14-15
14- 16
14-17
14-18
14-19
14-20
14-21
14-22
14- 23

Page
Comparison of Behaviors of Was t ewater Sludge and
Water Flowing in Circular Pipelines ........ , .
Friction Factor for Sludge , Analyzed as a Bingham
Plastic .. " " , ..... " .... , , .....
Friction Factors for Example PrOblem . "." ..
Pressure Drops for Example Problem . " . " . , ...
Viscometer Test of Sewage Sludge , ........
Centcifugal Pump " " . " ..... " " . , ....
Torque Flow Pump " , . " , ........ ",." ...
Progressive Cavity Pump
.
Diaphragm Pump ..... " , , ... ..
Rotacy Pump ,., ... " . , ....... ,.
Ejector Pump ...... , "" , . .. ,
Belt Conveyoc .... , , ...
Inclined Belt Conveyor Features . , .
Flexible Flat Belt Conveyor ...... .. " , .
Screw Conve yor ... , . ...
Tabular Conveyor ............ ,
Bucket Elevator ........ . ... ...
Pneumatic Ejector ... , , .. .
Pneumatic Conveyor , , .

14-

1414141414-

7
12

16
18
19
14- 23
14- 2S
14- 27
14- 28
14- 38
14- <l
14- 42
14 - 42
14- 43
141414 -

"-

."
"

CHAPTER 15

lS- I
15-

15- 3
15-

IS - S
15-

15- 7
15- 8
15- 9

15-10
15- 11

15-12

Solids Balance and Flow Diagram-Design Example


Concentcation and Displacement
Single-Phase
Storage . ..... , ............
Effect of Various Operating Strategies on
Dewatering Unit Feed Rates " . " .......
Proposed Oesign for Blending Digester--Sacramento
Regional Wastewater Trea t ment Plant ...........
26,000 Gallon Sludge Equalization Ta nk (Typical
of Two) Aliso Solids S t abilization Facility
Schematic Represen tat ion of a Facultative Sludge
Lagoon (FSL) ... ..... ... ....
Typical Bcush- Type Surface Mixer, Sacrame n to,
California
.
Typical FSL Layout ...... ......... ..
Typical FSL Cross Section ..........
Layout for 124 Acres of FSLs--Saccamento Regional
Wastewater Treatment Plant ........... .
Sacramento Central Wastewater Treatment Plant
Surface Layer Monitoring Data f or FSLs 5 to 8
Sacramento Central Wastewater Tr eatment Plant
1977 Fecal Coli f orm Populations for Various
Locations in the Solids Treiltment-Disposal
Process ........ ........... , . .
Typical Wind Machines and Barriers Sacramen t o ,
California
" . , . . . . . . . . . ........

xlvi

13

15- 1 3
lS - I '

15- 21
15- 22
15- 2S
15 - 27
15- 29
15 - 29
15-

30

15 -34

15- 38
15 - 40

LIST OF FIGURES (contin u ed)


Number
12 -

12- 3
12- 4

12- 5
12- 6

12- 7
12- 8
12- 9
12-10
12-11

12-12
12- 13
12- 1 4
12-15
12- 16
12- 17
12-18
12- 19

12 - 20
12 - 21
12-22
12 - 23

Locations for Temperature and Oxygen


Monitoring a t One End of a Windrow or
I n d"i v i"d ua 1 Aera t ed PIle
"
....... ..... .
Sludge Composti ng Mass Balance Diagram ..
Temperature P r of i le o f a Typical Compost
Windrow . .... .....
Tu r ning a Windrow at Los Angeles Compost Site . '"
Destruction of Pathogenic Organisms as a
Function of Time and Temperature Ouring
Composting of Digested Sludge by the Windrow
Method ...... .. .....
Process Flow Di agram - Wi nd r o w Composti ng
Sludge - 10 MGD Activated Sludge Pla n t .......
Config u rat i on of Individual Ae r a t ed P i les ....
Aeratio n P ipe Se t- Up for Ind i vidual Aerated
pile ... ...
Configuratio n of Extended Aerated Pile ........
Des tr uction of Pa thogenic Orga n isms as a
Function of Time and Temperature During
Compos t ing of Undiges t ed Sludge by the Aerated
Pile Me thod . . .
Odor Filter Piles at Beltsville
.
Process Flow Di agram fo r t he Ex tended PUe
Compost Sludge Facili t y - 1 0 MGD Ac t ivated Sludge
Plant .. ............
Design Ex ample Extende d Aerated Pile
Cons t ruction .. . ........
Compost Piles Being Tak.en Down .. ......
Finished Screene d Compos t ......
Compostinq/D r y in q Syste m - Cou n ty Sani t ary
Districts - Los Angeles
.
Composting Site Layou t - Bangor , Main e .....
Cross Section of Aera t ion Pipe T ren c h Dur h am
Compost Pad Design ...... . ..
Typical Pr ocess Flow Schematic Co n fined
Composting System ............
Partial Diagram Metro - Waste System Resource Conversion Systems , I n c . ......
Typical Layout of a Dano Bio-Stabilizer Plant ....
BAV Bior eactor ..... . .. . .........

12 - 7
12- 9
12-1 4
12- 15

12- 17
1 2- 21
12- 22
12- 23
12-25

12- 28
1 2- 29
12 - 32

1 2- 34
12- 35
12-37
12 - 39
12- 44
12 -4 8
12-52
12- 53
12- 5 4
12- 56

CHAPTER 1 3

13- 1

Diagram o f an Ea rthworm Conve r sion Pr ocess ......

13-

14-

CHAPTER 14
14 - 1

Approximate F r i c t i o n Head-Loss for L a m i n a r Flow


of Sludge ....... . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number
1 4-

14- 3

14- 4
14- 5
14 - 6
14 - 7
14 - 8
14-12
14-13
14-14
14-1 5
14-16
14-17
14-18
14- 19
14-20
14-21
14-22
14 - 23

Page
Comparison of Behaviors of Wastewater Sludge an d
Water Flowing in Ci r cular Pipelines
.
Friction Facto r for Sludge , Analyzed as a Bingham
Plastic ..... ... ......
Friction Factors (or Example Problem .......
Pressure Orops for Example Problem ...
Viscome t er Test of Sewage Sludge .......
Centrifugal Pump ..........
Torque Flow Pump .......
Progressive Cavity Pump ........
Diaphragm Pump ................
Rotary Pump ..................
Ejector Pump ......................
Belt Conveyo r ... ............
Inclined Belt Conveyor Featu res .........
Fle x ible Flat Belt Conveyor ...
Screw Conveyor ................... .
Tabular Conveyor .... . . ....
Bucket Elevator .... .. .
Pneumatic Ejector ....... ....
Pneumatic Conveyor ................

14-

14-

HHHHH-

18
19
23
'5
27

1 4- 12
14- 13
H- 16

14- 28

H- 38
14- 41

HHH-

""
43

14 - 44

H - 45
14- 45

CHAPTER 15
15- 1
15-

15- 3
15- 4
15- 5
1 5-

1 5- 7
15- B
15 - 9

15-10
15-11

15-12

Solids Balance and Flow Diagram-Design Example


Single-Phase Conce ntra tion and Displ acement
Storage ............. ......
Effect of Various Ope rating Strategies on
Dewatering Unit Feed Rates
.
Proposed Design for Bl ending Diges ter - -Sacramento
Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant .. .......
26,000 Gallon Sludge Equalization
Tank (Typical
of Two I Aliso Solids Stabilization Facility ....
Schematic Representation of a Facu l tative Sludge
Lagoon (FSL) ...........
Typical Brush- Type Surface Mixer , Sacrame n to,
California ...... ...
Typical FSL Layout ........... ..
Typical FSL Cross Section ......... ...
Layout for 12 4 Acres of FSLs - -Sacramento Regional
Wastewater Treatment Plant ........ ......
Sacramento Central Wa s tewater Treatment Plant
Surface Layer Monitoring Data for FSLs 5 to ' 8
Sacramento Ce ntral Wastewater Treatment Plant
1977 Feca l Coliform Populations for Various
Locations in the Solids Treatment-Disposal
Process.. .............. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Wind Machines and Bar r iers Sacramento,
California ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............

xlvi

15- 13
15- 17
15-

2l

1 5-

22

15- 25
15 - 27
15- 29
15- 29
15-

30

15 -34

15- 38
15- 40

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Number
15-13
15-14
15- 15
15-16
15-17
15 -1 8

Anaerobic Liquid Sludge Lagoons , Prairie Plan


Land Reclamation Project , the Metropo l itan
Sanitary District of Gr eater Chicago ........... .
Plan View of Drying Sludge Lagoon Near WestSouthwest Sewage Treatment Works, Chicago .......
Cross Section of Draw-Off Box Area Dr ying Sludge
Lagoon Near West-Southwest Sewage Treat ment
Works , Chicago , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........
Cr oss Sect i on of Drying Sludge I,agoon With
Slackline Cable Near West - Southwe5t Treatment
Works , Chicago .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isometric of Sludge Storage a nd Truck Loading
Station , Joint Wa ter Pol l ution Control Plant,
Los Angeles County , California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage Bin Discharge Con t rol System , Joint Water
Pollution Con t rol P la nt , Los Angeles County ,
California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15- 42
15- 4 9
15- 50
15 - 50
15- 55

15 - 57

CHAPTER 16
16- 1
16 - 2
16-

16- 4
16 - 5
16- 6

Example of Sidestream PrOduction ... .....


Possible Treatment Scheme for Anaerob ic
Digester Supernatant ..... . .........
Aerobic Digestion of Heat Trea t ment , Ba t ch
Tests ... ... . ....
Flow Diagram , Anaerobic Filtration of Heat
Treatment Liquor , , .....
Schematic Di agram of Plant for Processing Heat
Treatment Liquor .... " .. " . . . . ...
Chlorine Treatment of Hea t Treatmen t
Liquor ...............

16- 2
16- 9
16 - 12
16-14
16-16
16 - 17

CHAPTER 17
17- 1

17- 2
17 -

17 17 -

4
5

17- 6

Typical Bubbler Schematic With Air Purge


Capabili t ies ......
Typical Bubbler Schemat ic Wit h Diaphragm
Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylindrical C h e m i c a l Seal for S l udg e P r e s s u r e
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct Reading Olfactometer (DRO) ........
Aeration Control Gr aphic Panel and Console
Ligh t s Se t Manually on Graphic Panel .......
Incine r a t or- Digester Control Graphic Panel Lights
Cont r olled by Remote Valve Limit Sw i tches .......

17- 42
17- 43
17- 52
17 - 62
17- 69
17- 70

CHAPTER 18
18 -

The Release , Conversion , Forms and Uses of


Energy From Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xl vi i

18- 1 0

LIST OF FIGURES (con t inu ed)


Number
18 - 2
18- 3
18- 4
18 - 5
18- 6
18- 7
18 - 8

Schema t ic of Combined Boiler/Condenser System


for Hot Water Production . ... . .. . ...... ..... .....
Process Schematic for Ex ample of Energy Recovery
From Digester Gas .. . . ... .. ... .
Energy Flowsheet for Example o f Energy Recovery
Prom Digester Gas ....... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean Mo l a l Heat Capacities of Gases at Constant
Pressure (Mean Values From 77 0 to TOP)
Flowsheet for Ex ample of Energy Recovery From
Incinerator Flue Gas
S t eam Cond itions for Ex ample of Recovery of
Energy Fr om Incinerator of Flue Gas .............
Energy Flowsheet for Example of Energy Recovery
From Incinerator Flue Gas

18 - 12
18 - 16
18 - 18

18- 23
18- 27

18 - 28
18- 32

CHAPTER 19

19- 1
19 - 2
19 - 3
19 - 4
1 9- S
19 - S

19 -

19 - 8
19 - 9
19-10

19 - 11

Wide Trenching Operation. North Shore


Sanitaty District ..........
Dewatered Sludge Landspreading, Metropolitan
Denver Sewage Disposal District No . I,
Denver , Colorado .. ..
Flow Diagram Sludge Management System , Colorado
Spri ngs , Colorado .
Overall Sludge Disposal Site Layout , Colorado
Springs , Colorado
.
Sludge Application Rate-DLO System Colorado
Springs , Colorado . . ............
Estimated Net OLD Area Requirements Sludge
Applied at 5 Percent Solids Concent ration,
Colorado Springs , Colorado
.
Estima t ed Net OLD Area Requirements at Various
Sludge Concentrations , Colorado Springs ,
ColoradO ....... , . , .. , .. ,
Sludge Application Rates by Subsurface Injection,
Colorado Springs, Colorado . . . ....
Prototype Dr edging Operation , Sacramento Reg ional
County Sanitation District . ... . .
Prototype Subsurface Injection Operations
Sacramento Regional County sanitation
District ...... " . , .
Flow Diag ram - Projected 1992 Normal Solids
Treatment and Disposal Operation, Sacramento
Regiona l WaStewater Treatment Plant , .

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AC KN OWLE DGEM EN T S

This design manual was p r epared as part of the T e chnology


T r ansfer S e r i e s of the Cente r f o r Environmental R e s e a r c h
I n f o r m a t i o n , U. S . Environmental Protection Agency , Cincinnati ,
Ohio .
Development , coordination and preparation were carried
o u t by Brown and Caldwe l l , Consul t ing Engineers , Walnut Creek ,
California , with the assis t ance of En v i r onmental Technology
Consultants , Inc ., of Sp r ingfield , Virginia .
Technical review
and coordination were provided by the Office of Water Program
Operat i ons , USEPA , Washington , D. C .
Addition a l technical
r eview and contribu tions were provided by Regions V and I X of
the USEPA , by t h e Metropolitan sanitary District of Greater
Chicago, and by the Tec h nical Pract i ce Comm i ttee of the Water
Pollu t ion Cont r ol Fede r ation .
USEPA project office r s on t his
man ual were Dr. Joseph B . Farrell , M u n i c i p a l Environmental
Research Cent e r , a nd Dr . James E . Smith , Jr ., Center fo r
Environmental Re search Information , Cincinnati , Ohio .

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