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# Appendix B of the Subgroup A report

## Failure mode design equations and related partial safety factors.

J. Dalsgaard Sørensen and H. F. Burcharth
For explanation and derivation of the safety factors see the subgroup D report.
Table B1. Partial safety factors for sliding failure of vertical wall caissons.

Design equation
1 ˆ
G = G ( γ H Hˆ ST L , ρˆ c , Uˆ Hor . Force , Uˆ Ver . Force , ξˆ , f , B)
γZ

1 ˆ ˆ
= ( FˆG − Uˆ Ver. Force FˆU ) f − U Hor . Force FˆH
γZ

## In calculation of FˆU and F̂H apply as wave height γ H Ĥ STL .

Deep water. Design without model tests. Deep water. Wave load determined by model tests.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.7 0.01 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.5
0.05 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 0.05 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4
0.10 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.3 0.10 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2
0.20 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.20 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2
0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.40 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0

Shallow water. Design without model tests. Shallow water. Wave load determined by model tests.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.3 1.9 1.4 1.9 0.01 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.6
0.05 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.6 0.05 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.5
0.10 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 0.10 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3
0.20 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3 0.20 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2
0.40 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.40 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1

## Ĥ STL significant wave height with return period TL

B width of caisson
Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver. Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor. Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
Uˆ Ver. Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
ρc mass density of caisson
FG buoyancy reduced weight of caisson
FH horizontal wave force calculated by the Goda Formula
FU wave induced uplift force calculated by the Goda formula
f friction coefficient

B1
Table B2. Partial safety factors for overturning failure of vertical wall caissons.

Design equation

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γH Pf γH γH
0.01 - - 0.01 2.1 2.3
0.05 2.7 - 0.05 1.7 1.9
0.10 2.0 2.5 0.10 1.4 1.6
0.20 1.6 1.7 0.20 1.3 1.4
0.40 1.2 1.2 0.40 1.1 1.2

## Ĥ STL significant wave height with return period TL

B width of caisson
Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver. Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor. Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
Uˆ Ver. Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
ρc mass density of caisson
MG moment of FG around heel of caisson
MH moment of FH around heel of caisson
MU moment of FU around heel of caisson
FG buoyancy reduced weight of caisson
FH horizontal wave force calculated by the Goda Formula
FU Wave induced uplift force calculated by the Goda formula

B1
Table B3. Partial safety factors for foundation failure of vertical wall caissons – Sand subsoil.

## Design equation parameters

G = G ( γ H Hˆ STL , ρˆ c ,Uˆ Hor . Force ,Uˆ Ver . Force ,Uˆ Hor . Moment ,Uˆ Ver . Moment ,

1 1
ζˆ , tân ϕ d1 , tân ϕ d 2 , B )
γZ γZ

## Design equations are presented in Appendix A of the Subgroup A report

Deep water. Design without model tests. Deep water. Wave load determined by model
γZ is used for both rubble mound and tests. γZ is used for both rubble mound and
sand subsoil. sand subsoil.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 0.01 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2
0.05 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.05 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.1
0.10 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.10 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1
0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0

Shallow water. Design without model tests. Shallow water. Wave load determined by model
γZ is used for both rubble mound and tests. γZ is used for both rubble mound and
sand subsoil. sand subsoil.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 0.01 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2
0.05 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.05 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.1
0.10 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.10 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1
0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0

## Ĥ STL significant wave height with return period TL

B width of caisson
Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver . Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor. Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

Uˆ Ver. Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
sin ϕ' cos ψ
ϕd
1 − sin ϕ' sin ψ
ϕ' effective friction angle of friction material (sand or rubble stone)

## ρc mass density of caisson

B2
Table B4. Partial safety factors for foundation failure of vertical wall caissons –Clay subsoil.

## G = G( γ H Hˆ ST L , ρˆ c , Uˆ Hor . Force , Uˆ Ver . Force , Uˆ Hor . Moment , Uˆ Ver . Moment ,

1 1
ζˆ , tâ n ϕ d 1 , cˆ u , B )
γZ γc

## Design equations are presented in Appendix A of the Subgroup A report

Deep water. Design without model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC
0.01 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.6
0.05 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.5
0.10 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5
0.20 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.5
0.40 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2

Deep water. Wave load determined by model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC
0.01 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.3 15. 1.6
0.05 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5
0.10 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.4
0.20 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.3
0.40 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1

Shallow water. Design without model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC
0.01 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.6
0.05 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5
0.10 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3
0.20 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3
0.40 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

Shallow water. Wave load determined by model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC
0.01 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4
0.05 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.4
0.10 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3
0.20 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2
0.40 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0

B3
Ĥ STL significant wave height with return period T
B width of caisson
Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver. Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor . Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
Uˆ Ver . Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave
forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate
sin ϕ' cos ψ
ϕd
1 − sin ϕ' sin ψ

## ϕ' effective friction angle of friction material (sand or rubble stone)

ψ dilation angle of friction material (sand or rubble stone)
ρc mass density of caisson
cu undrained shear strength of clay

B4
Table B5. Partial safety factors for toe-berm rock armour failure in front of vertical wall caissons (Madrigal
and Valdés 1995). Design without model tests.

Design equation
1 ˆ ˆ hˆ
G= ∆ Dn 50 (5.8 b − 0.60) N od0.19 − γ H Hˆ STL
γZ hˆs
Deep water. Shallow water.

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.3 0.01 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5
0.05 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.2 0.05 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3
0.10 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 0.10 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2
0.20 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1 0.20 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2
0.40 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.40 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.0

xˆ mean values of x
Dn50 equivalent cube side length of medium rock size
H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime
hb water depth on top of toe berm
hs water depth in front of toe berm
Nod number of displaced units within a strip of width Dn

Table B6. Partial safety factors for scour at circular vertical wall roundheads (Sumer and Fredsøe 1997).
Design without model tests.

Design equation
1 Sˆ
− 0.5(1 − exp( −0.175( Kˆ C ( γ H Hˆ S L ) − 1)))
T
G=
γZ Bˆ

where
U mT p
KC =
B
In calculation of Um apply as wave height γ H Ĥ STL .

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.4
0.05 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
0.10 2.0 1.8 2.0 1.8
0.20 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5
0.40 2.0 1.2 2.0 1.2
x̂ mean values of x
B diameter of vertical wall roundhead
H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime
S scour depth
Tp wave peak period
Um max wave generated velocity of water particles at the undisturbed sea bed

B5
Table B7. Partial safety factors for hydraulic stability failure of Dolosse (Burcharth and Liu 1992). Design
without model tests.

Design equation
1 ˆ ˆ
G= ∆ Dn ( 47 − 72rˆ)ϕˆ Dˆ 1 / 3 Nˆ Z−0.1 − γ H Hˆ STL
γZ

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 2.1 1.08 2.4 1.02
0.05 1.7 1.00 1.7 1.08
0.10 1.5 1.00 1.6 1.00
0.20 1.3 1.00 1.3 1.04
0.40 1.0 1.10 1.1 1.02

x̂ mean values of x
Dn equivalent cube side length of armour unit = (Volume)1/3
D relative number of units displaced
H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime
Nz number of waves
φ packing density
∆ ρs/ρw – 1
ρs mass density of armour units
ρw mass density of water

Table B8. Partial safety factors for hydraulic stability failure of Tetrapods (Van der Meer 1988). Design
without model tests.

Design equation

1 Nˆ 0.5 − 0.1 ˆ ˆ
G= (3.75 0od.25 + 0.85) sˆom ∆Dn − γ H Hˆ STL
γZ ˆ
Nz

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.7 1.02 1.9 1.04
0.05 1.4 1.06 1.5 1.08
0.10 1.3 1.04 1.4 1.04
0.20 1.2 1.02 1.3 1.00
0.40 1.0 1.08 1.1 1.00

x̂ mean values of x
Dn equivalent cube side length of armour unit = (Volume)1/3
H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime
Nz number of waves
Nod number of displaced units within a strip of width Dn
som wave steepness, Hs/Lom
∆ ρs/ρw – 1
ρs mass density of armour units
ρw mass density of water

B6
Table B9. Partial safety factors for trunk Dolos breakage (Burcharth et al 1995). Design without model
tests.

Design equation

1
G= B − C 0 Mˆ C1 Sˆ C2 ( γ H Hˆ STL ) C3
γZ

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2 Dolos C0 C1 C2 C3

Pf γH γZ γH γZ waist
0.01 1.9 1.00 2.1 1.00 ratio
0.05 1.5 1.04 1.6 1.10 0.325 0.00973 -0.749 -2.584 4.143
0.10 1.4 1.00 1.5 1.00 0.37 0.00546 -0.782 -1.221 3.147
0.20 1.2 1.10 1.3 1.00 0.42 0.01306 -0.507 -1.743 2.871
0.40 1.1 1.00 1.1 1.02

xˆ mean values of x
B relative number of broken units
H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime
M mass of unit in ton
S concrete tensile strength in M Pa

Table B10. Partial safety factors for trunk Tetrapod breakage (Burcharth et al 1995). Design without model
tests.

Design equation

1
G= B − 3.3910 −3 Mˆ −0.79 Sˆ −2.73 ( γ H Hˆ STL ) 3.84
γZ

## σ ' FH S = 0.05 σ ' FH S = 0.2

Pf γH γZ γH γZ
0.01 1.9 1.10 2.1 1.06
0.05 1.6 1.00 1.7 1.00
0.10 1.4 1.04 1.5 1.04
0.20 1.2 1.10 1.3 1.06
0.40 1.1 1.00 1.1 1.04

xˆ mean values of x
B relative number of broken units
H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime
M mass of unit in ton
S concrete tensile strength in M Pa

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B8