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J. Dalsgaard Sørensen and H. F. Burcharth

For explanation and derivation of the safety factors see the subgroup D report.

Table B1. Partial safety factors for sliding failure of vertical wall caissons.

Design equation

1 ˆ

G = G ( γ H Hˆ ST L , ρˆ c , Uˆ Hor . Force , Uˆ Ver . Force , ξˆ , f , B)

γZ

1 ˆ ˆ

= ( FˆG − Uˆ Ver. Force FˆU ) f − U Hor . Force FˆH

γZ

Deep water. Design without model tests. Deep water. Wave load determined by model tests.

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.7 0.01 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.5

0.05 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 0.05 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4

0.10 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.3 0.10 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2

0.20 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.20 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2

0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.40 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0

Shallow water. Design without model tests. Shallow water. Wave load determined by model tests.

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.3 1.9 1.4 1.9 0.01 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.6

0.05 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.6 0.05 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.5

0.10 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 0.10 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3

0.20 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3 0.20 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2

0.40 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.40 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1

TL structure lifetime

B width of caisson

Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver. Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor. Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

Uˆ Ver. Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

ρc mass density of caisson

FG buoyancy reduced weight of caisson

FH horizontal wave force calculated by the Goda Formula

FU wave induced uplift force calculated by the Goda formula

f friction coefficient

B1

Table B2. Partial safety factors for overturning failure of vertical wall caissons.

Design equation

Pf γH γH Pf γH γH

0.01 - - 0.01 2.1 2.3

0.05 2.7 - 0.05 1.7 1.9

0.10 2.0 2.5 0.10 1.4 1.6

0.20 1.6 1.7 0.20 1.3 1.4

0.40 1.2 1.2 0.40 1.1 1.2

TL structure lifetime

B width of caisson

Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver. Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor. Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

Uˆ Ver. Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

ρc mass density of caisson

MG moment of FG around heel of caisson

MH moment of FH around heel of caisson

MU moment of FU around heel of caisson

FG buoyancy reduced weight of caisson

FH horizontal wave force calculated by the Goda Formula

FU Wave induced uplift force calculated by the Goda formula

B1

Table B3. Partial safety factors for foundation failure of vertical wall caissons – Sand subsoil.

G = G ( γ H Hˆ STL , ρˆ c ,Uˆ Hor . Force ,Uˆ Ver . Force ,Uˆ Hor . Moment ,Uˆ Ver . Moment ,

1 1

ζˆ , tân ϕ d1 , tân ϕ d 2 , B )

γZ γZ

Deep water. Design without model tests. Deep water. Wave load determined by model

γZ is used for both rubble mound and tests. γZ is used for both rubble mound and

sand subsoil. sand subsoil.

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 0.01 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2

0.05 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.05 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.1

0.10 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.10 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1

0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0

Shallow water. Design without model tests. Shallow water. Wave load determined by model

γZ is used for both rubble mound and tests. γZ is used for both rubble mound and

sand subsoil. sand subsoil.

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 0.01 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2

0.05 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.05 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.1

0.10 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.10 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1

0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.20 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.40 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0

TL structure lifetime

B width of caisson

Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver . Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor. Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

Uˆ Ver. Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

sin ϕ' cos ψ

ϕd

1 − sin ϕ' sin ψ

ϕ' effective friction angle of friction material (sand or rubble stone)

B2

Table B4. Partial safety factors for foundation failure of vertical wall caissons –Clay subsoil.

1 1

ζˆ , tâ n ϕ d 1 , cˆ u , B )

γZ γc

Deep water. Design without model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC

0.01 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.6

0.05 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.5

0.10 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5

0.20 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.5

0.40 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2

Deep water. Wave load determined by model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC

0.01 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.3 15. 1.6

0.05 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5

0.10 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.4

0.20 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.3

0.40 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1

Shallow water. Design without model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC

0.01 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.6

0.05 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5

0.10 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3

0.20 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3

0.40 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

Shallow water. Wave load determined by model tests. γZ is used for rubble mound and γc for clay subsoil.

Pf γH γZ γC γH γZ γC

0.01 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4

0.05 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.4

0.10 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3

0.20 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2

0.40 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0

B3

Ĥ STL significant wave height with return period T

TL structure lifetime

B width of caisson

Uˆ Hor. Force 0.90, bias factor to be applied to the Goda horizontal wave force

Uˆ Ver. Force 0.77, bias factor to be applied to the Goda vertical wave force

Uˆ Hor . Moment 0.81, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda horizontal wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

Uˆ Ver . Moment 0.72, bias factor to be applied to the moment from the Goda vertical wave

forces around the shoreward heel of the base plate

sin ϕ' cos ψ

ϕd

1 − sin ϕ' sin ψ

ψ dilation angle of friction material (sand or rubble stone)

ρc mass density of caisson

cu undrained shear strength of clay

B4

Table B5. Partial safety factors for toe-berm rock armour failure in front of vertical wall caissons (Madrigal

and Valdés 1995). Design without model tests.

Design equation

1 ˆ ˆ hˆ

G= ∆ Dn 50 (5.8 b − 0.60) N od0.19 − γ H Hˆ STL

γZ hˆs

Deep water. Shallow water.

Pf γH γZ γH γZ Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.3 0.01 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5

0.05 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.2 0.05 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3

0.10 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 0.10 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2

0.20 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1 0.20 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2

0.40 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.40 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.0

xˆ mean values of x

Dn50 equivalent cube side length of medium rock size

H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime

hb water depth on top of toe berm

hs water depth in front of toe berm

Nod number of displaced units within a strip of width Dn

Table B6. Partial safety factors for scour at circular vertical wall roundheads (Sumer and Fredsøe 1997).

Design without model tests.

Design equation

1 Sˆ

− 0.5(1 − exp( −0.175( Kˆ C ( γ H Hˆ S L ) − 1)))

T

G=

γZ Bˆ

where

U mT p

KC =

B

In calculation of Um apply as wave height γ H Ĥ STL .

Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.4

0.05 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

0.10 2.0 1.8 2.0 1.8

0.20 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5

0.40 2.0 1.2 2.0 1.2

x̂ mean values of x

B diameter of vertical wall roundhead

H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime

S scour depth

Tp wave peak period

Um max wave generated velocity of water particles at the undisturbed sea bed

B5

Table B7. Partial safety factors for hydraulic stability failure of Dolosse (Burcharth and Liu 1992). Design

without model tests.

Design equation

1 ˆ ˆ

G= ∆ Dn ( 47 − 72rˆ)ϕˆ Dˆ 1 / 3 Nˆ Z−0.1 − γ H Hˆ STL

γZ

Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 2.1 1.08 2.4 1.02

0.05 1.7 1.00 1.7 1.08

0.10 1.5 1.00 1.6 1.00

0.20 1.3 1.00 1.3 1.04

0.40 1.0 1.10 1.1 1.02

x̂ mean values of x

Dn equivalent cube side length of armour unit = (Volume)1/3

D relative number of units displaced

H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime

Nz number of waves

φ packing density

∆ ρs/ρw – 1

ρs mass density of armour units

ρw mass density of water

Table B8. Partial safety factors for hydraulic stability failure of Tetrapods (Van der Meer 1988). Design

without model tests.

Design equation

1 Nˆ 0.5 − 0.1 ˆ ˆ

G= (3.75 0od.25 + 0.85) sˆom ∆Dn − γ H Hˆ STL

γZ ˆ

Nz

Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.7 1.02 1.9 1.04

0.05 1.4 1.06 1.5 1.08

0.10 1.3 1.04 1.4 1.04

0.20 1.2 1.02 1.3 1.00

0.40 1.0 1.08 1.1 1.00

x̂ mean values of x

Dn equivalent cube side length of armour unit = (Volume)1/3

H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime

Nz number of waves

Nod number of displaced units within a strip of width Dn

som wave steepness, Hs/Lom

∆ ρs/ρw – 1

ρs mass density of armour units

ρw mass density of water

B6

Table B9. Partial safety factors for trunk Dolos breakage (Burcharth et al 1995). Design without model

tests.

Design equation

1

G= B − C 0 Mˆ C1 Sˆ C2 ( γ H Hˆ STL ) C3

γZ

Pf γH γZ γH γZ waist

0.01 1.9 1.00 2.1 1.00 ratio

0.05 1.5 1.04 1.6 1.10 0.325 0.00973 -0.749 -2.584 4.143

0.10 1.4 1.00 1.5 1.00 0.37 0.00546 -0.782 -1.221 3.147

0.20 1.2 1.10 1.3 1.00 0.42 0.01306 -0.507 -1.743 2.871

0.40 1.1 1.00 1.1 1.02

xˆ mean values of x

B relative number of broken units

H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime

M mass of unit in ton

S concrete tensile strength in M Pa

Table B10. Partial safety factors for trunk Tetrapod breakage (Burcharth et al 1995). Design without model

tests.

Design equation

1

G= B − 3.3910 −3 Mˆ −0.79 Sˆ −2.73 ( γ H Hˆ STL ) 3.84

γZ

Pf γH γZ γH γZ

0.01 1.9 1.10 2.1 1.06

0.05 1.6 1.00 1.7 1.00

0.10 1.4 1.04 1.5 1.04

0.20 1.2 1.10 1.3 1.06

0.40 1.1 1.00 1.1 1.04

xˆ mean values of x

B relative number of broken units

H sTL significant wave height with return period TL equal to structure lifetime

M mass of unit in ton

S concrete tensile strength in M Pa

B7

B8

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