Table of Contents
J.

1. Time To Rebuild? ......... AccumulatedMileage Oil Consumption . Poor Performance DiagnosticTests . 2. Engine Removal Preparation Beetles& KarmannGhias (Type 1) .... (TYPes & 4) 2 Bus & Transporters Notchback(Type 3) ..... Squareback, Fastback, 41U412 914 Porsche/VW

5

.7

Crankcase & Cylinder Reconditioning ....75 ......... 75 Parts. Crankcase Clean& Inspect 82 Crankshaft 88 Pistons& ConnectingRods 94 Oil Pump 96 Camshaft Cylinder Head Reconditioning ............ 100 .. 101 Disassembly ..... 105 Valve Guides& Stems .... 101 Valves & Inspecting Reconditioning ...... 110 .. Reconditionittg Valve-Seat ........ 111 S Rocker-Arm ervice & Inspection Installation..... ..... ll2 Valve-Spring .. --. --- lI4 Assembly .. CylinderHead ...... 115 Manifolds Intake& Exhaust

l3 l8 18 19
LJ

26 26
1, 1

3. Parts Identification & Interchange ........ 3 1 -'tz .... Indentification 34 Engine Descriptions 35 Cases 38 Crankshafts ^ a +J Flywheels 44 ConnectingRods . 45 Pistons& Cylinders 46 Cylinder Heads 53 ..... Oil Pumps& Camshafts 55 Oil Coolers & SheetMetal . 4. Teardown .......... AccessoryRemoval-Uprights Removal-Flat .. Accessory E B a s i c n g i n e. . . . . Valve Train CylinderHeads Oil Pump Splitting Cases . Teardown Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 58 62 66 66 68 68 10 12

7 . Engine Assembly
Assembly Crankcase Install Crankshaft InstallCamshaft Prep Cylinders ... valveTrain Accessories External T y p e1 & P r e : 7 2 B u s . . Type 3 Post:12 Bus, 914 4111412,

. 116 ........ 119 .... l2l ..... 122 ---. 132 "' 134 ........ 138 ....." 138 .... 143 .. 148

8. EngineInstallation,Break-in, Tuneup .. 156
Prep . Transaxle EngineInstallation 1 Type Type 2 Type 3 4 Type 9 1 4. . FirstStarrl B r e a k - i& T u n e u p n Index ...... 156 .. I5'1 ' . . . . . . .1 6 0 . ........161 . 1 ..'....-- 62 1 ......... 63 ... 166 .... 169 . . . . . . . . .1 7 0 ...... 173

No. Finally. tures i basic are br what' ACC Tol engini . manufacturers.As in other worldwide markets. This goes againstcommon. If this is your first engine rebuild. His requirements for an inexpenstve. with minimal patience. For the camera and personal experience. The Volksiuug"n *u. tools and cash.not just disassemble engine comPonents. you'd have difficulty coming up with a design more out of the ordinary if you tried. all experts in their field. it's difficult to imagine roads without them.000 Type 82s were built for the Wehrmacht. a fact Adolf Hitler said he was gorng to change.914 engines are treated like any ottier. and I think you'll agree the intricacies of VW engine rebuilding are more thoroughly documented here than anywhere else. I've traveled to machine shops. presentedat the 1939 Berlin Motor Show. the 914 engineis turned around so its flywheel is at the car's rear' Unlessthis is imporlant. To that I say. A few specific understandingsand cautions are appropriate here. the Beetle sold on its economy and superior workmanship. it's difficult to remember to keep the positions front and back properly oriented. always take the time to double-check "There's your work. Justrememberthe saying. but there's always time to do it over'" It's a lot faster to double-check than it is to rebuild it twice. Unlike many engines. So when I speak of the front oil seal I mean the one at the flywheel end' whether you have a Bus or 914. *ffi n I :::S+i'* I ffiffi Solid years Sin engin sary when the tol is nee In tl tic st( follou the Er rebuil Bel this b able. get starled and handle each point one at a time. currency or economy. such a basic design was hardly suitable for popular ffansportation when hostilities ended. A mid-engine car. there has to be an exception. But in the mid-'3Os there were no Volkswagens. Like left and right. parts iuppliers. and treating the carefully constructedair-cooledengine like an appliancewon't pay off' VW engines are full of precision tolerances that resoond to cleanliness and careful assembly. rebuilding air-cooled Volkswagen engines.that doesn'tmean they are a cheap. Cylinders I and 2 are on the right. Just as a Beetle or Bus is fun to own and drive. the VW offers opportunities to measure and adjust basic and engine parameters. the air-cooled VW is easily overhauled. rebuilding an air-cooled VW is fun. or for the chaos in what was left of Germany. and like a detailed map. while VWs are a common sight and don't commandhigh prices. Read aheadof your progressin the shop to keep the job in perspectiveand alert yourself to needed tools or supplies.Thus. So read ahead. Therefore. Pitfalls can be avoided if you know about them ahead of time. Soon you'll be listening to your Volks puttering smoothly in the driveway-a sound of wonderful personal satisfaction. With the wrong turns clearly marked. mass-produced. But just as unfamiliar roads are easily traveled if you have a good map. It's just that the engine is so completely different. rebuilding these engines is probably more satisfying than going through other. but none offer the old-world craftsmanship or personality of a Volkswagen. I rebuilt several air-cooled engines. not available anYwhereelse.racers and other VW rp-iiulirt. it seemedthe Volkswagen had been stillborn. First. The knowledge in these words and pictures represents the combined experience of many people. what Germany got was a long ways from the people's dream of motoring down the autobahn. In any society with pdvate transportation they're ubiquitous in the extreme. A factory was built in Wolfsburg for Beetle production and Germany was about to get lts car. and keep this book on the bench where it will be handy. and the Beetlewas on its way' Eventuallythe Volkswagencame to the United States. War brought Volkswagen production only in the ffansmuted Type 82 military fotm. throw-away car. Also. now known as the Thing' Although 70. Without a government. it may seem like there are too many steps or points to remember. After awhile it becomes natural. front and back in this book are basedon the engine while it is in the chassis. It's not that it's so difficult to rebuild. and the 914 is it. air-cooled Volkswagenscontinue to be popular. Additionally. and 3 and 4 are on the left. A lot of care and thought went into every VW built. never time to do it right the first time. assemble This book eliminates a lot of legwork for you. This is an engine that needs step-by-step instructions for rebuilding. But from the rubble of 1945 a few cars were built from spare parts' The British officer in charge of the Wolfsburg factory assistedthe German workers in building more cars.Introduction The Volkswagen Beetle hardly needs an introduction. And so we reach the point of this book. Of course. until you've been around VWs for some time.high-cruising-speed car were met (if not without difficulty) by a bright ensineer named Ferdinand Porsche. not even in Germany' In fact. as in the removal and installation sequences. Of course. ingrained automotive knowledge and takes some time to get used to. long after the introduction of faster. Now. this book points out the hazards. In fact. the flywheel is at the engine'sfront. there weien't many cars of any type on German roads. to gather the information presented hire. Traditional rebuilding technioues and books based on them don't have mich to offer the VW rebuilder. more common engine slyles. buying it in numbers other import builders could only versionsfollowed envy. Other cars may be more modern. Bus and Squareback with equal success.Americanscame to respectand ultimately adore the round-backed car. and the crankshaft pulley is at therear. quieter and roomier economy cars. you haveto keep reminding yourself that the flywheel end is the engine's front. this book helps make VW enginerebuilding easy. the "Parts Identification & Interchange" chapter offers considerablemoney-savinginformation.

ancl giv. l e i l h e e n t l so f t h e o . i t s i n l e r n ac l e a r a n c c sr ee a s i l yU i i O s e d l a B u sc n g i n e s n d r h o s c l r i v e no l i r o r d t v o i _ b y a no i l f i l m .e. T h e a i i . S t a t e f o l n eL . e u l s ri h c p i s i o n u c a l l yl a s rl e s s .When an ensineis a sedanengineshouldlast this long. i.000miles Oil consumption is determinedby an en_ betweenrebuilds.Studythe pic_ tures skim the high pointsof the text. a A s m i l e sa ( ...t . n e w . l o d c l e r m i n e n g i n ec o n d i t i o n iS y e lI:o l ltop t l n g . lnrsbookand any other VW lirerltureavail_ able. Sometimesthis is easy. V a o At the crankshaft. In thischapter. (exceptin the late Bus and thosemiles.leaf rhrough .excessclcarance has less D r i r e nh a r d .su you can undersland w n a l\ g o t n go n w h e nt h e y l a l l a p a r t . w a n d h i g ho i l p r c s s u r a t l h e e of extraweight. m munJatrtrtior long enginelit'e. we'll examinesomediagnos_ . rs needed. the Othertim"r.op.it will go more than 100. isn't well-known for extreme OIL CONSUMPTION longevity.diugnoii.. s VW just doesn'thold that rr-ruch It alsohas This causes oil. i o u r n a lw h e r er t ' r f l u n g o t f .connecting roclsare poking through thetopof case. B:iur: beginning lour ct'forts. for instance.befbrebeginningan as engine rebuild..tlLttely rccurnulrted iles. h e yc a nb eo r e r h e u i e d . n g i n e .w h i c h r . .You'll seea wispy trail of blue smoke l h e p o o r c n g i n e s r i v e n h l r d a n c lg i v e n l i i l l e from the exhaust d pipe.o i l c r n n o tb r i d s e powerplantfbr each mile covered. . T h e r e a t a r er i g h t. more oil to try and fill the voiil and .1 o u ' l l g e t a n e x a c r. gearin-e. and oil works its wav to i f ' t h c o i l i s n ' t c h a n g c d l t e n . Dirt is the thegapsbetween rings andcylinderwalls andls enemy of ofT-roadengines sucked into the combustion chambcr and Thoseengineswith the shorlestlif-espan are burned.. n T h e n . wind resistance their low marn. c u m u l a l eh e s e a n su e a r a n d p t. ACCUMULATED MILEAGE Totalmileageisn't a very good yardstickof engrne condition. w t h e m . r. While the air-cooledVW engine. . the owner'smanual. W e n g i n c s r e s u s c c p t i b lte h c r t .Tirne To Rebuild? Simple it rnay sound.especially Types l-3. When driven inside its oer_ g i n e ' s i n l e r n a l clctrances nd is an excellent a formance limitations.n p. gageof enginecondition. Busengine A revshigherthan sedan. Get and a Dasrc comprehension how air_cooled of VWs are bolled together. so fiequentoil changesareal:tsr. s e r v i c e .c o . whentwo. pay more attentionto how tne car was operatedand maintaineddurins no paper oil filter.o*.B u se n g i n c s c a rl a \ t c rb e c i u r e n n g s a n d v a l v e s .Thesearernoreimportant thanthi Type 4). i l l h e l p y o u d c c i d ei l " r a rebuildis required. so the engine "travels farther" than a sedan d i m e n s i o n is c r e a s e .first decicle a rebuil-d neies_ if is sary.ui.. rod and and camshaftbeanngs.s p c c i a l l v resistance t e to oil flow.

ifthe enginehasmoreihan one leakor one cleaner. Record odometerreading.These blowby 6 gasespressurlzethe crankcase. plastic center.itiil. make sure oil is level with top line. A flame arrestor is Oil-Pressure Sender-Oil-pressure senders placed in both hosesrunning from the air filter often dribble from their plastic centers. a rebuild is required to correct excessclearances. From the air filrer. A puff of smokeindicatesworn guides or rings. A single puff of smoke immediately upon start-upafler sirting overnight usually meanswom guides and piston rings. but it has beenroutedio the cooled VW enginesare hard on guides because air filter by a hose and metered orifice (valve) ofthe angle with which the rocker arm contacts since rhe mid-'60s. apart with screwdrivers. mostiy out the oil-filler and dipsrick holei. Blowby-Just as worn rings and cylinders al_ low oil to enter the combusiion chamber. Valve Guides-Some oil passagepast the Original-equipment (Bosch)senders besr. Suchoil consumptiin can result lrom parts on the loose end oi the acceptable-tolerance range. are and draws more blowby out of the crankcasethai won't affect oil-consumptioncalculations. Fresh air from internals. the guides is common. When y6u reach rneDottom. but the oer_ .Oil stays But. oil pressuredrops.il ii::. they also let combustiongasespass in the other orrectron. are valve stems and piston rings is normal.Type 3 and'4 engines^usE Iet's a review some of the common oil leaks.oil is suckedinto the combustioncham_ makes a good temporary fix here. But. Much of the time. covers on these engines. you can bet the rings are at fault. Type 2 engines. Tighten the oil_pump when guide-to-valve clearanceis too larse. Then. So you won't be fooled by an oil leak when There is no PCV valve on Type I and upright trying to figure how much oil is being burned. excessive clearance there Blowby used to be vented to the atmosphere results in blowby into the rocker cover. This lets roo much oil berweenthe guide a"nd remove the pump and rry repairingihe mating valve stem. next time the intike valve area of the crankcase.. they would wear out in less than l0 miles fiom They result from prying the-crankcasefrdves metal-to-metal contact. merely venting it to the atmosphere. So. If that doesn't stop the^leak. When oil consumptionis high and oil pressurelow. Another good test is to find a ione hill to coastdown while in top gear. this review should be an integral"part the air filter enters the engine at the rocker of the enginediagnosis. If it is loose. ice picks and other oil _Excessive lossthroughtheguidesoccurs barbaric instruments.nli*ffiii of service and pooroperating practices destroy engine. the engineneedsattention. into the crankcase. Air_ at the oil-filler hole. It also causesincreasedoil consumption becausemore oil is splashedon the cylinder bores. along with the normal airlfuel mixture. cover plate first.remost common in recently rebuilt engines.i:.. glance lhe mirrorasyou openthe in throttle. air-iootet-vtlv'" will any -' out inlp"rti"ular require regular changes spot-on oil and igniiion [imin6. Telltale signs areblowby vapor blowin! But becausean exhausiport is a hot. Oil consumptionis an excellentinOicator ot an. ifthe rings andguideswere sealed oil_tisht. if the engine lays down a i-moke screen. After Oil Pump-Leaks from around the oil pump all.Sffi air ittii fltfvensing andmissing filrerwiltshorren eus.: :irii::!tr. atmosphere.Both let oil enterthe combustion cham_ ber where it is partially bumed and sent out the exhaust. PCV valve in the hoseleading from rhe crank_ Because someoil leaksresultfrom worn engine caseto the intake-air distributor. and lesspollutants are spewedinto the bad leak. Exhaust valvescan pass the sameway.Wiggle thi reachingthe crankcase. How Much Is Too Much?_Certainly. high-pressure area. oil the oil. This Oil Leaks-Many air-cooled VW ensinesleak p ositiv e crankcase ventilation (pCV) plumbing oil. Differenceis oil consumptio-n rate. but not enough to justify tearingit down. it will affect these fisures.and readdipstickregular_ ly. a. replacethJs"ender. or from partial re_ buildswherethecylinders andpistoniwerenot replaced.r:. the leaks m-inor. RTV silicone sealei opens. the the top of the valve stem.causins to the rocker covers to stop backfires from a puddle right under the sender.To check. oil loss through blowby is burnedin thecombustion chambers.contaminating ber._When level drops to the tirst finJnote oil mileage and subtract first reading from second.If a new quart is neided every 500 miles or less.engine's internalcondition. Between 500_1000 miles per quart indicates a slightly wide clear_ ance somewherein the engine. there's no harm in buming a quart of oil eveiy 1000 miles or more.:rij!l:iiiiir. There are two parts that contribute to an engine burning oil: worn rings and valve guides.

ffi< yields poor fuel economy and power. but shouldn't any cause alatm. the result of engines anoverworkedcrankshaftoil seal. You can try RTV sealer. This is a serious problem and should be right awaY. See page 76. POOR PERFORMANCE Performanceis best defined for our pulposes when an engine iency.excessive oil the distort neoprene sealat the bearing bore.the oil leak is serious. someonehas used a screwdriver to pry the case aoart therel a definite mistake.however. andrebuild it.To staba screwdriver into this joint is criminal. pull the engineor transaxleandreplacethe transaxle seal right away' won't go away. Usually these are little weeping leaks and pose no danger. If the problem is machiningprobablywon't continue. and the sealhas not been changed recently. and will cause a leak. investigated originatesfrom the # I main bearThecause ing. and joint is a marvel of their precision. The machining on VW casehalvesis ofthe highestquality.one parallel to thecrankshaft.gasketless German production technique. lf this problem is detected soonenough. It can take lots of muscle to movethecrankwhen the engine is together. If theenginehas a lot of miles on it. Thereisn't any method for detecting crankwobblewhile the engineis in the chassis.the cure is disassembling engine and manent addingmaterial by welding Engine/Transaxle Mating Surface-Most leak some oil at the front. They see . Ontheotherhand.calledend p lay. There'sa chance. cure.If power or fuel economy drops. andoi1pourspastit.This meansa valve adjustment.and the end pull the to playis or evenseems be excessive. the crankshaftis free to wobble. trluny cars and have learnedto quickly and accuratelydiagnosetheir problems. there is no cheap. Oil Cooler-Oil coolersleak for two reasons' Eitherthecoolerhas split apart anywherealong or thetubes. wearing out. Cooling efficiency drops and air filte(s) must. the one closestto the flywheel. Case Leaks-These can be anywhere along the case parting line. thensmellor tasteit.Thewearis in two directions. and the other perpendicularto the crankshaft. Get a complete analysisof the engine's condition from the shop. there is a iargeoil leak at the bellhousing. if the areais washedclean byoil flowing from the bellhousing area. specific problem. it is inif efficient.iny. undet-car air into engine bay.This is because as a. stafi with a tuneup. the Removing engineand installing anotherone is the only cure. timing and carburetor or injection tuning. so the deoress clutch and then monitor the pulley' Usethe detaileddirections for measuring end If play on page 126. openthe transaxlefiller hole and take a Compareit to the bellhousing leak' If sample. The perforce wears the main-bearing bore oendicular so iggshaped. Remember. sure. then the rearmain bearing may be pounded out-the is case actuallydeformed-from excessiveend p/ny. is thetransaxle leaking. points. that the transaxleseal and is leaking. . shaft end play. Diagnosisshoulddetermine the engine is usingthe right amountoffuel to produce the expected amount of power. dwell.Mount a dial indicatorto read directly off the crankshaft pulley and end measure play. plugs. This results on in a mess theengine'sbottom. it alsodripsout the bellhousing' Geta dabof the dripping liquid on a finger tlp. Chapter 5 has more infbrmation on case cracking. engineinternalsmay or may not be the cause. Remove the cooler to inspect the mountings and have it pressure-checked. engine life is shortened. the main-bearing bore can be and machined the casesaved. performance refers to both engine power and fuel consumption.Devconor some other material to fill the gap. end play and wobble Of course. may havebeeninstalledincorrectly. but the only enduring cure is to weld or replacethe case' A case can also leak through a crack' The magnesiumcase of Type 1-3 engines will crack soonet or later from fatigue. Complete the tuneup yourself before performing any diagnostictestsor have it doneby a professional tJneup shop. Unfortunately.too. allowedto do any good. it is looseon its mountings'Both leaks are real gushers because of the large volume of oil passingthrough the cooler.fen-d off constint bilmbardment of dirt. Putting this problem off engine canbe very exPenslve. lf you're unfamiliar with thesmellandtasteof gear oil used in the transaxle. if necessary. but lets hot. at leastin BeeButyoucanmeasure tlesandearlyBuses. dirty. and the longer it Thisproblem leaks the greater the chance of ruining the clutchdisc.The diagnostictestslater in this chapter are designed to systematicallyuncover the Drivinq without engine compartment seal mav ieem harmless. To locate the source of poor performance. and the case will have to be replaced-an expensivefix. If the seal was recently reit placed.When oil poursfrom betweenthe casehalves.

Burning fuel only makes the air expand. All hosesmust be in perfect shapeand tightly sealed.especially considering car. valves and sparkplug. If an injected engine won't run. The key to an engine's pumping efficiency is the tightness of the combustion chamber: the area formed by the piston top. or some of the diagnostic tests will be inaccurate. if not expense. Beetleenginehere is builton a Type3 case! Large oil passage(top photo) and U letter code (bottom) were first tip-offs. by showing there is something internally wrong and two. a cylinder won't have full compression if the valves are incorrectly adjusted. Vacuum test results will also be affected. this means that some some of the valve's/ace (sealingsurface)has beeneroded away or crackedby the blast ofhot combustiongases. to injectedenginescan be impossible tune withoutprofessional Basic Fuel-Injection TroubleshootingLater engineshave lots of vacuum and fuel hoses that arepafi ofthe fuel-injectionsystem. But. stumbling and searching(increasingand decreasing). eliminating external variables from the diagnostictests. The idle may be erratic. Unscrew the switch from the throttle. If the flap won't move freely after a little fiddling. valve broug . compl speed pressl no con Eve droppt head b Type I and ste arate a head d andcy the pis The usual\ in the with tt lifters i will bL warnir It's a valv three c (and e engine One corTec '78 an lic val the val for pe air-cor needp servic ance c A ! to and oil consumption be normal. A stuck dirflow sensor. the valves. this is called hunting. you've probably cured any problems and a rebuild isn't necessary. In this case. Later fuelequipment. A burned exhaust-valve face can't make a gas-tight seal against its seat. For example. One. Additionally. If the engine responds to the tuneup with renewed performance. But it is also possible for engine performanceto be low Examiningengine will often reveal interestbuyinga if ing details. Every part must be in place. Burned Exhaust Valve-When a mechanic says a valve \s burned. cylinder wall. If any of from the combusthesepartsallow air to escape tion chamber.the dipsticktube is an add-onunit.Early engines have few adjustmentsand are great at-hometuneup proiects. or the engine will not run right or respond to tuning. buy a new one. This is most likely causedby worn rings and cylinders. Finicky idle problems and weird throttle responseon fuelinjectedBusesand 914s are often tracedto the throttle switch mounted right next to the throttle.Think of combustiongases as an inefficient cutting torch and you'll understandwhy valves burn. When a chunk is missing. They perform work by inhaling air.or valve springscould be at fault. compressing it and expanding it. first make sure all fuelsystemparts are correctly installed.Don't skip the tuneup. Fuel-injected Type 3 throttle switchesoften needadjustment. rings. a chunk may be burned from the valve head.l coole stem. it's indicated immediately during a seated guide closed cleara cool a The br Eve piece r heada valve erosio bumin be not The lesspr becau valve l sodiun ing ter when valver in the Whr stem. anotherclue. enginebreathing will suffer if the valves and valve train are in poor shape.camshaft. harnessingthe expansionand exhaling the byproducts. engine performance will drop. anything that hinders an engine's breathing reduces its efficiencyboth power and fuel economy. Tuning the enginewill have helpedin two ways. Underneath. Bending the arms so they wipe a new areaoften helps. can cause driveability problems. A worn-out engine will generally perform poorly and use a lot of oil. Keep in mind that internal-combustionengines are nothing more than air pumps. Other fuel-injection problems can convince you the engineis at fault. but can be solved with minimal work. too. CAUSES OF POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE A quick look at the most likely internal engine problems will help put them in perspective before you start testing for them individually. Cloudsof black smokeout the exhaust and poor running below full throttle indicate electronic control unit (ECU) failve or a coldstart valve that has stuck open. go ahead and do diagnostic tests as a double-check. including the air filter. The engine then runs on only three cylinders. allowing all compression to escapeout the exhaustport. remove the cover and note the wrper contacts lhat signal throttle position. Check all hosesfor connectionand condition. the flap in the box next to the air filter. So. which causesa large drop in power and compression. 8 If a tuneupdoesn'trestorelost performance. head. do the following diagnostictests. As this condition worsens.

The engine expandsoversizewhen it is overheated. on the other hand. Even well-maintained valves can bum if a piece carbongets caught between the valve of head seatasthe valve closes. All other VW air-cooled engines use solid valve lifters and periodicvalve adjustments. The problem is the threadsin the case.Skipping this need or service maintaining insufficient valve clearance can easily lead to burned valves. With casesaversinstalled. They can be added when rebuilding to earlier cases that don't have them. some of which sticks to the combustion-chamber surfaces. This preheatedcylinder #3's cooling air. causing high cylinder temperatures and prematurely burned exhaustvalves. Carbon Deposits-Although carbon deposits don't fall under the categoryofengine damage. combustion pressureand gaseswill be lost through the gap. The threadsin the case are magnesium. then it will reach over 70 ft-lb at operating temperature. Reciprocating valvemotionthrows the sodium back and forth in the hollow stem. to Oneprimary cause of burned valves is inconect valve adjustment.you've just aboutboughta new engine. If these parts loosen for any reason. not the studs. on a metal-to-metal sealbetween the top of the cylinder and the cylinder head to contain combustion gases. Loose Cylinder Heads-Type 1-3 VW enInstead.This holds the and valve partially open and can start the gaserosionprocess. So. for example. it leavesthe cylinder free to hammer the crankcase and cylinder heads. Type 4 engineshave a thin metal gasket for better sealing. The studs are strained and being pulled from the case. Prolonged idling and slow driving can also cause carbon buildup.If the problem is caught soon enough. not the source' Merely ridding the engine of carbon won't cure the problem. the magnesiumcan fatique and the threadsweaken. The most common sourceof harmful carbon depositsis excessiveoil consumption. Whenthe sodiumis at the hot head-endofthe stem. Luckily. Such doghousefan shrouds stop #3's exhaust valve from burning any sooner than the rest. they are much less apt to burn. and they sometimes sepstems arate thejoint. spring. and their threadsare strong. retainer and keepers usually separate also. In '71. Or.is the torque applied to the cylinder-headnuts is not the same amountof torque that sealsthe heads. the heads and case can be machined back to service. Type 3 and 4 engines never had this problem because flat mounting ofthe cooling fan has the always positioned the oil cooler away from any one particular cylinder. Thevalve stem. Hydraulic valve lifters adjust thevalvesautomaticallyand eliminate the need for periodicvalve adjustments. the aluminum cylinder heads and cast-iron barrels grow a lot longer than the steel studs. But after 100. a valve staysopen longer due to tight clearances whatever. to and a rebuild is not necessary remove them. What typically happensis the cylinder head studs pull out of the case.Type lthroughthe '77have steelthread insertsinstalled in 3s from the case at the factory. cylinder wall and cylinderheadas it gets slammedaround by thepiston. Theexhaust valvesused in 914 enginesare proneto burning than other Type 4 engines less because they are sodium-filled. putting more strain on the cylinder studs. letting combustion pressure escapebetween the cylinders and cylinder heads. the oil cooler was mounted inside the fan shroud. barrels and case halves are replaced.It will immediately begin running on by three cylindersaccompanied a lot of honible (and rattling. while there may be ways to get rid of carbon an buildupwithoutoverhauling engine. Another factor affecting valve burning on engines with upright cooling-fan mounting is oil-cooler placement.they rely ginesdon't useheadgaskets. What they don't understand. From the guide. letting the cylinder head and cylinders bang back and forth with piston motion. Before'71 .000 miles. Becauseintakes run so much cooler than exhausts. so burning them in the combustion chamber in the wrong amounts causesexcess carbon deposits. Becausemany valvesaremadewith heads Type 1-3 exhaust joined together.and some at the seat when the valve is If closed.The stem is in constant contact with the valve guide. they add ten poundstorque to the cylinder-head nuts.This isn't a factor on '78 andlater Busesbecausethey have hydraulic valvelifters. the oil cooler was movedout of #3's airstreamand an offset sectionwas addedto the fan housing to enclose the relocated cooler. A valve cools best only when it is fully seated. The studs are steel. Thus.compressiontest because engine cranking speed doesn'tchangeon that cylinder's compression strokeand the gagereadsvery little or nocompression. but don't count on this remedy all the time. heat is transferredby the sodium from the headto the stem. pulled threadsare no longer a common problem. Therefore. so it is a liquid of when the engine is running. Evenworse than a burned exhaustvalve is a d t droppe exhaus valve. carbon deposits are a symptom of a problem. so this is some warning before it destroys the entire engine. exhaustvalve. This type of valvehas a hollow stem.it absorbs heat. Becauseonce the cylinder heads.Under normal conditions. Then the weak threadsare ripped right out of the case by cylinder-head torque and combustion pressure. The first point to give is the cylinder stud threadsin the case. So they whip out the breaker bar and crank the headnuts down anothertum.This is because are exposed to combustion heat on both the combustion-chamber and port sides. Some cooling takes place through the guide. Instantly shut off the expensive) engine help minimize damage. The hammering ruins the engine and it's not even a worthwhile core. camshaft liftersandoil pump. the valveburningprocessis rapid. No wonder the studspull out of the case! Overheating the engine has the same effect as overtorquing the cylinder-head nuts. longer-lasting Exhaustvalves are much more prone to burnvalves exhaust ing than intakes. When the studsdo pull.curing . The steel thread inserts are commonly called case savers. so it can cool well if heat is broushtto it bv sodium or some other mech- anism. Excessivecylinder-head torque will also destroy thesethreadsin short order. Theburningprocesshas begun. Some people may look at the low torque specificationsgiven for these cylinder heads and figure they aren't enough.however. A v alve drops when the head breaksoff from the stem. It's painfully obvious when an engine drops a valve.the valve at head destroysthe piston crown. the heat passesto the head and ultimately to the cooling air. the exhaustvalve will burnbadly before it drops. Carbon is a solid byproduct of incomplete combustion.Hammering of the caseand headsby the cylinders is not a problem with warped heads. only delay the symptoms. are cooled by each passing intake charge and are heated only on the combustion-chamberside. Usually a valve will benoticeablyburned in 2. in the path of cooling air going to the #3 cylinder. where it passes heat to the the stem. when they assemblethe engine. although a rich airlfuel mixture can be just as bad. Pulled studs are a very common problem up '70 Type 1-3 engines. Type 4 engines get combustion leaks just like Types 1-3. Still. which is no match for steel when it comesto mating threads.When the engine is cold. partially filled with sodium. the cylinder heads can warp. Sodium melts well below the operating temperature the valve. Now the effective torque on the studs is nearer 55 ft-lb. it has both less time to or cooland absorbseven more combustion heat. Metal particles circulate withtheoil and scorethe crankshaft.000 miles or less. perhapsthey arehaving cylinder-head sealingproblems. The net result is a cooler-running. Intake valves. Then it getstossedto the cooler stem-end. Once it starts. which shedsthe heat quickly to the valve guide. But when the enginewarms up and expands like a balloon. If an enginewith case saversis overheated. a few words about carbon will help you with engine diagnosis. When this happens. Both gasoline and motor oil are hydrocarbons. So. the studs won't pull. to 40 ft-lb. causingall sortsofhavoc in the rocker cover. there is only 18 or 23 frlb of torque on the studs. If the at-rest torque is misapplied.

the engine may need a professional tuneup or carburetor overhaul.but without any accompanying pinging or knocking. sometimes producing an explosiondetonation-rather than even buming.onthe right side on earlier carbs.Also. throttle response and improves engine acceleration. Fin are he gine. Carbon deposits causetrouble in two ways. breakrings. the solenoid is deactivatedand a spring-loaded plungerclosesthe idle circuit.asmentioned earlier. Admittedly. Carbon easily heats to incandescence. Carbon deposits build up on the backside of a valve and restrict airlfuel mixture flow into the cylinder. stuck thermostat. Each time you touch the lead. pistons and cylinders more quickly. but the secondignition source. or get betweena valve headand its seat. Audible signs of detonation are pinging or knocking. Recent researchindicates a small amount of knocking or pinging is not harmful to an engine. sounds akin to colliding billiard balls. retardthe timing a degree at a time until it doesn't ping. remove its electrical lead.but with today'sfuel it might inside wire i the wi bad a "dead Stethoscopeis preferred tool for pin-pointinginternal engine noises because it amplifies sound coming through probe and reduces surroundingnoise with earplugs. The resulting suddenpressureand temperaturerise is more than the engine was designedfor. First. This is sometimescalled light pinging. Imagine red-hot carbon in the combustion chamber. concerned be ifthe engineis knocking heavily. Nevertheless. Sor with i probk stall tl origin have i speed stop d On solenc Theor particl usuall On solen discor other. If a piece ofcarbon sticksbetweenthe plug electrodes. s in ba< noises hear l Peo eyesi tion tc your ( sound front. the hot carbonpreignites themixture. If the engine pings at the slightestload. As a final note on carbon. If r the er decid NOIS Interr a diffi fluenc leastt ing ar Open cil. solen when Fue when shouk De necessary. but doesreducefuel economyandpower. short-tripdriving. It's no secret that advancing the spark in aircooled VW engines increases their power.hole a piston and spew metal throughout the lubrication system. slow-speed.So.This will heat the combustion chamber and burn away excesscarbon. Heed another warning: These engines selfdestructratherquickly when the cooling system fails.the glowing carbon. So. This shouldstop the dieselingmentionedabove. They contribute excess oil to the combustion chamberand it can't be completelyburned. you may pay for it with an engine overhaul. To test the solenoid.slow- ing the idle and reducing spark advance a few degreeswill help reduce dieseling.Ridding the engineof carbon. When a fresh intake charge is compressedon the compressionstroke. considervehicle operation.the sparkplugfires and the mixture also startsburning near the plug. fault. over-advanced ignition timing andengineoverheating. or foreign objects in the fan housing. Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid-Type I and 2carbureted engines since '70 have an electric fuel shut-off solenoid attachedto the idle circuit of the carburetor. Pay specialattentionto the ignition timing of a VW engine. A hot piece of carbon acts like a diesel-engine glow plug by supplying an ignition source other than the sparkplug. Although not as severe. The excessheat will causeseveredetonation. If the cooling flaps remain shut from a broken or missing spring. Besides carbon buildup. The solenoid is on the left side on '71 and later carbs (34mm) and. Ignition timing is also commonly overadvancedby owners looking for more power. They of areusually associated with low-octane gasoline ot over-advanced timing. preignition without detonation causes excess combustion-chamber pressure and temperature. valve andring damagecan result ifpreignition or detonation is prolonged. When the ignition is turned off. long-term light detonation will wear the rings. or do a lot of in-town. the fuel shut-off solenoid may be faulty. combustion-chambertemperature and pressure exceedsenginedesign limits and damage occurs. Now touch the lead to the solenoidconnection.excessiveoil consumptionmay meanan engine overhaul. These types of abnormal combustion can damagean engine by placing a heavy load on engine internals. but severe cases can burn or blast holesin oistons. If that doesn't help. detonation can be causedby staleor low-octanegasoline. Look for the small can on the side of the carburetor with the wire leadingto it. cylinder temperatureswill quickly go sky-high. Turn on the ignition without starting the engine. prompt attention to the causes abnormalcombustionis wise. A carbon-aggravatedproblem most people arefamiliar withis dieseling-the enginerunson after the key is turned off. the solenoid should click (the plunger is moving DIAC No' probk witho may 0 the tes it. If you drive a delivery route.causing preignition and detonation. As an air-cooledengine. Worn ringsandvalve guideswill alsocause excessive carbon buildup from incomplete oil buming. they may shroud the valves. lights the mtxture after the sparkplughas fired. This timing setting may be retardedfrom the specified stocksetting. Piston. Again. This devastationcan happen in less than one minute if the engine has been running for 10 minutes and is fully warm.Checkfor theseproblemsif the engine detonates. Drive it a half hour or more at freeway speeds. If you advance the ignition past specification. Loose carbon depositscan also lodge between the electrodes of a sparkplug. substantialengine damagefrom preignition or detonation isn't prevalent. the sparkplug will short out and the cylinder will misfire or go totally dead. Plug replacementor cleaning usually cures theseproblems. Detonation is very similar to preignition. A moment 1ater. But the penalty for too much total advance is severe detonation. it is very susceptibleto overheatingand preignition causedby too-advanced timing.anddeformthe main-bearing bores in the crankcase. Carbondepositsin the combustion chambers can also causedamage. carbon will build up because low cylinder of temperatures. if thereis a problem with it. sound you ci sound to hea Aid 10 .Thetwoflamefronts collide.You can easily burn-oul excess carbon accumulatedthis way by taking the car for a long trip.

Stop the engine. measurement. first one solenoid and then the disconnecting other. For example. solenoid's Theorifice is very small and eventhe tiniest dirt particlecan clog it. close the hood.inside). But. worn rod bearingsand main bearings. length of heater hope or a wooden dowel. If not. On Type 3s with dual carburetors (and two determinewhich one is defective by solenoids). A proper valve adjustmentcan only be done while the engine is cold.the main noise of an idling engine should be the soft ticking of the valve train. Then reinstallthe fuel shut-off solenoid. Piston slap is easiestto detect on a cold engine. These are external sornds coming from loose brackets. case. valve clearance. but it helps mask soundsfrom the sides and amplifies those in front. Openthe hood. intermittent rattling noise from the sheet-metalfan shroud of Type I and 2 engines may be a loose or broken fan. If you don't find anything. Many factors influencethe way sounds are perceived. it's possible there is a wom camshaft lobe or lifter. If you have trouble telling whether a noise is at one-half or at crankshaft speed. Piston slap is audible when piston{o-bore clearanceis excessive. If "hot" (has voltage). if you still have the noise with their fan belts removed. and probe the fan area with your hand.With a hose. Consequently.Upon first hearinga running engine. If there is any appreciable movement other than 90'to the shaft. early Type 2s and 9l4s becausethe fan is right in front ofyou when looking into the engine compartment. Type 3s and flatengine Type 2s project more fan noise than Type ls. It can make several different sounds. Ifvalve adjustmentdoesn't cure a valve-train noise. Try the rocker arms. it's at crankshaft speed-a bottom-endproblem. just forward of your ear. DIAGNOSIS Now that we've examined some engine oroblems. lifters or camshaft. so dieseling shouldn'tbe a problem with them. Isolating Normal Noises-Now for the hard part: What do theseproblemssoundlike? Let's startwith normal enginesounds. a noisy valve can best be heardby listening at the edgeof the rocker cover or cylinder head.006-in. First.As you listen to an air-cooledVW. NOISE DIAGNOSIS Internal Noises-Diagnosing engine noisesis a difficult and imprecise art. so engine vibrations don't bounce the dowel into your ear. Cam and liftclearance. You won't hear all from each spot. Never close a valve adjustment tighter than 0. you'll have established baselineof the engine's condition. not at the middle of the rocker cover. the low-pitch noise associated and a high-pitch whistle. Ifyou suspecta noise from againsta beneatha cover. the noise is at one-half crankshaft speed-a top-end problem or piston slap. manifold.If the noise disappears. stand in back. you can decidewhether to rebuild now or later. Once oast the exhaust. lay down in back and to the side.biased People so eyesight. adjust the valves. or the valve will burn. If the noise occurs twice for every flash. try different spots. And.which increases er inspection require engine disassembly. it occurs on every other crank revolution. Just rememberto properly adjust the valves after the engine cools.And. All air-cooled jt unless is VWs use 0. but all have been superseded the 0. a Type 4 engine with hydraulic lifters. becausethere's only one power stroke for every two crank revolutions. the initial impression is a big jumble of By sounds. As a secondchoice. position the receiving end of the dowel againstyour skull. check if the wireis supplying electricity with a test light.. For example. Valve adjusting proceduresare on page 136-138.Cupping your hands around your ears may look funny. increases the valve noise. and then recheck the solenoid operation. critically identifying each sound. If the valve noise remains after adjustment. Ifyou hear one valve over the rest. The engine mayor may not be exhibiting problems. Remove any debris. By poking around the engine compartment. trace and repair the wiring fault.If you don't hear a click. before the pistons have expanded.Leaning forward into the engine compartmentwill help mask the exhaust. Noises occurring at every turn of the crankshaft come from the bottom end: worn piston pins. Unlike the stethoscopea doctor uses.006-in. the dominantsoundwill be the exhaust. Rocker arms can be checkedby moving each by hand with the valve completely closed. Abnormal Fan Noises-A lot of abnormal noises come from outside the engine. place the stethoscope nearby bolt head or solid rail. Carburetorsnot originally equipped with the solenoid can't haveit added. It may be necessary remove the fan and generator assembly to investigate this noise. so you can more easily hear internal engine noises. close your eyesto help focus attention to the sounds. If the wire is "dead"(no voltage).let's start in on how to find themwithout taking the engine apart. Raise the rpm past idle and the ticking should turn into a whirr. the solenoid is thewire is bad and needs to be replaced. you can single out and stop thesenoises. reducing piston-to-bore clearance. it will only bum the valve. There have been other clearancesspecified by VW in by the past. hold one end firmly against the engine and the other end to your ear. It's a great way to pinpoint a noise. a whining or screaming from the fan area usually means something is caught in the fan. Then all the valve-adjustment tightening in the world won't quiet the engine. Check the tightness of the large fan retaining nut. timing and idleare adjustments required in thesecasesto speed stopdieseling. but do anyway.you'll find thetests a it. Aids for locating noises are a stethoscope. This. Noises that occur at every other turn of the crank-at camshaft speed-are most likely coming from the valve train: valves. the problem is in the fan' A sharp. rubbing hoses. the intermittent sounds-the oddballs. in effect. learn to mentally dissect what you arehearing.unlessthe engine diesels. From there. if you are checking for one loose valve. When using a dowel. 11 . those occurring eachcrankshaftrevolution. sit inside the car. those that you can noises hearwill sound different from each spot'. you can locate it on a warm engine. A shot of compressedair usuallyclears the orifice. There is one bottom-end noise that can happen at every other revolutionpiston slap. If it does. bolt heador the like. you can more easily block out the unimportant while concentratingon those you want sounds to hear. not the leastbeing the human factor. and try to to wiggle the fan on its hub. there's no problem. an automotive stethoscopehas a solid metal probe at the business end. the fuel shut-off end doubles as the idle metering jet. Piston slap is the sound produced by the piston slamming againstthe cylinder as that cylinder fires at the top ofthe power stroke. When investigating an automotive sound. the rocker-arm bushing or shaft is worn.006 in. broken rings. toward perceiving via their aro. remove the fan belt and run the engine for a few seconds. If so. a length ofhose or dowel can be used instead of a stethoscope. hook up a timing light and see if the noise coincides with flashesof the light. It works best when held against a solid part-head.The engine will die when you unplug the that's working and show little change solenoid whenyou unplug the one that's not. Therefore. look elsewherefor the source. rocker arms and lifters. items stuck in the fan and so forth. The other major noise in a air-cooled VW engine compartmentcomesfrom the fan. ranging from with ahouse fan. Someonemay have replaced the solenoid with a standard idle screw. and thoseoccurring at every other crank revolution. standto one side. Engine noises can be lumped into three categories: intermittent ones. or if all the valves are making more of a harsh clacking sound. This test will isolate only the generator or alternator on Type 3 and 4 engines because their fans are driven directly off the crankshaft. Fuel-injection systems stop fuel delivery when the engine is shut-off.you've got a crackedfan or bad generator or alternator bearings.If ithas aproblem. Finally. On pre-'71 carburetors.

Engine rpm must drop sharply. they don't make any noise. As rpm drops. it covers the oil holes in the crankshaft. tired bearings. and camshaft are sure to be broken. remove and replacethe sparkplugwire to each cylinder one at a time. Main bearings knock for the same reasons as rods-excessive oil clearance-but under different conditions. disconnectand plugvacuumlineleading dashpot. Be sure to ground the plug lead when disabling a cylinder. This sound is often heard during a cold start before oil pressurebuilds. seizeand break. Even when a clip is broken and the pin is free to score the cylinder. some are betterthan others. but mating flanges at the cylinders. lightly rev the engine. Usr speed a don't k throttle bearing frequen this betl for rnor the clutr while gr periods with axle. Oil ceasesto flow to that rod and it rapidly overheats. A spun bearing is one that is rotating relative to the rod and the crankshaft. phuft sound coming from the leak.. screwdriver or the like. On dualport and fuel-injected engines. case. When the bearing spins. To test for rod knock. It occurs at every power stroke. so don't lose any sleep over them. Now. Rod knock describesthe knocking sound made by a connecting rod when there is excessiveclearancebetween it and the crankshaft. Reconnecting the plug lead will restorethe noise. or ignitiotn-system damage may occur. When you hear a rod knock.gap between the free end of the lead and ground. If one rod is bad. Another typical exhaustsound is a whistle as the engine is accelerated. there's a better chance of hearing it while driving than listening for it with the hood open. Ihere shouldbe no morethanal/4-in. The sheet-metalshrouding can be bent out of the way with a wooden dowel. examine the rubber hose sections of the intake manifold. you'lI hear one steady knocking beat. This is becausethe rods float on their joumals as they pass through the transition of being loaded. The rod. more serious problems. phuft. Pushing or pulling on the top of the fan shroud will probably eliminate the fan noise. Metal-to-metal contact startsas the rod bearing is slammed against the crankshaft. Don't leave your hands or shoesover the exhaust pipes very long. plus the intake manifold-to-cylinder head hardware. phuft. knock or pound. lt dows throttle closingvia rod restingagainst throttle linkage. Exhaust systems can leak from anywhere. To remove it. On engines wilh electronic ignition.there are severalways to short-circuit electrical the supplyto the plugs. for an instant. oil can't fill the gap between the rod bearing and crankshaft. Exhaust is very hot. and all other precision clearances have been destroyed by the passingmetal. If there are leaks. plus the air intake and metering areain general. Rod Knock-If there is one internal engine noise associated with air-cooled VWs. Ona by sele until tht engine 1 on the t tor. you'll hear a phuft. commonly called a vacuum leak. They are very rarely a problem. ortheir bushingsget loose. rod knock is it. with the engine idling. Cold-start enrichment devices normally make some sucking or hissing sound while they are operating.simplyreinsert the lead into the distributor cap.Rhythmic scraping soundsare likely to be a bent crankshaft pu11ey the cooling fan rubor bing the fan shroud.If the exhaust system is tight. serious damage has been done to the crankshaft and rod. so it's a good idea to check the exhaust system before jumping to any conclusions. so you'll hear a castanet-like rattling with old. cover the exhaust outlets with palms that are swathedin wet rags or block the pipes with your shoes. Many times. The best way is to removethe high-tension leadfromthe center of the distributor cap and ground it.The twisthelpsbreakany corrosion that resistswire removal. Usually metal particles from the rod have been pumped through the engine with the oil. muffler and tailpipe extensions are the usual spots. STOP! Rebuild the engine while there is still enough to rebuild. DISABLINGTHE IGNITION Many diagnostic tests call for the ignition system to be disabled. the rods should rattle. See the sidebar for more information on disabling the ignition. With conventional ignitionsystems. then quickly unloaded.It is causedby loose or cheap replacementtailpipe baffles on Beetles and early Buses. Disabling the cylinder will reduce piston slap because combustion loads no longer exist. the bearing is no longer clamped by the connecting rod. In fact. For quicker throttle response when testing for rod knock. move into a medium rap and finally develop into a knock. worn rod bearings are bad main bearings. you may hear the rod knock start out as a light tap. sealing the ends of the pipes wilt stop the engine. so it sounds off in time with the valve train. You have to take the engine apa. so don't be confused by them. With the transaxlein neutral. or they'll get burned. Ifyou are on a long trip and overheat the engine. graspthe bootaroundthe distributor-cap terminal. and pull out the lead. the rod will weld itself to the crankshaft.You'll have to apply considerablepressure to exhaust openings as a well-sealed system has a lot of pressure. So. Thisis a to 411 engine. thoroughly warm the engine to operating temperature. Round can at right is throttle dashpot. Main-Bearing Knock-Sounding similar to. depending on how you hear it. Piston slap is a dull. say from 1000-2000 rpm. tt Placetl ly with tor slov load thr main br right al and trar the tral test is ( WV Piston-Pin Noise-All air-cooled VWs use full-floating piston pins. Piston Slap-Piston slap has already been mentioned becauseof its timing. it won't raise any racket. for the they rar especi bearinl knocki are a ri DIAGl Crank is an en the pur ing thr crankir sealed in goo< vacuun portion Beg temper ute drir There' warm i Onc the ign nect y VACUUr intake vacuur of the buretor Port \ mary create ious e vacuu applic 12 . the better. This givesthe high-voltage electricity somewhere to go. Continued driving may spin the bearing.This the can destroyan expensive electronic-ignition module. A few well-placed wooden block and hammer blows can straighten out a bent pulley. Make surethe distributor cam and points rubbing block are well-lubricated and then recheck. Oncethe testis done. Intake-Air Hissing-A loud hissing accompanied by poor idling usually indicates an intake-air leak. It's difficult to hear over the normally loud VW engine mechanicals and not easy to isolate. When thesepins wear.but dashpotsare found on all air-cooledVWs. The sooneryou stop and overhaul the engine. To test for main-bearingknock. Then they wear in sets. Distributor Chirping-Dry distributor-cam surfaces can cause the points to give a highpitched chirping. Bent crank pulleys areeasily seen by sighting acrossthem while the engine idles. Ifyou think you hearpiston slap.groundthe leadto the head or engineblock. Exhaust Leaks-These are often confused with other. When you get to the affected cylinder. Rods also wear with accumulated mileage. In other words. if that's easier. andabruptly lift offthe accelerator. By the time a rod is knocking. put the thoroughly warmed engine under load.twistthe lead slightly. Check the tightness of the carburetor{ointake manifold connections. the noise will greatly diminish. which is being disconnected. When rod-bearing clearanceis large. insteadof continuing build voltage to andtryingto arcto groundinside coil. The high-tension lead is the large.heavily insulatedwire running from the coil to the center of the distributor cap.rtto detect bad piston pins. hollow sound. but deeper than.

Hg.ringsare probably vacuum readings under the same conditions.Hg thepumping below areading taken at sealevel. If you are looking for a more subtle problem.There is no needto keep the engine andtransaxle straining-this is very tough on (5-10) and the A thetransaxle. and con.This is they rarely true of Type 4 engines. a quick. it's a Power-Balance Test-This test shows how vacuumsignal that reads low on part-throttle much each cylinder contributes to the power which outputofan engine.Use the parking brake.Hg. you can determinewhich cylinder is at fault.the engine will produce a lot of vacuum-if not. You cando the sameby inserting a metal spring between the sparkplug and lead. Keep engine speed about 1000 rpm during the test and at don'tlet the car creep forward. you'll have to perfbrm more maryventuri. Then to ground the lead. You can practically feel fiequency this better thanhearit.orado.Thus. or makenoise. test is the best method.through the rear window. If all internal parts are level. a If you suspect burnedvalve or other major problem. a bad one showsright away. disable it's normal on a four-cylinder engine. it alsoisolates applications-opposite of the high manifold- cylinders contribute little to manifold vacuum. just loadthe engineso the car tries to creep. touch a grounded wire to the spring. racuumsource. canalsohearbadmain bearings You goinguphill. to however. You're going to lift a lead off its plug without a lot of tugging. (This 5 sameenginein Denver is registering in. or have a friend crank portionately the engine. accelerating during other while or periods high engine load. vacuum will be pro. Be careful! Don't do this for morethan three secondsor you'll burn out theclutch. cranking vacuum will drop about I inch of mercury DIAGNOSTIC TESTS step (in.Hgwarmit up. too. Then load the furtherby putting half of your right foot engine onthebrakeand the other half on the accelerator.pull all sparkplugleadsoff the sparkplugs. then set the leads lightly back on the tops."''* You can detect maior of vacuumis excellentindicator overallenginecondition. Manifold much vacuumduring problemsin secondswith a vacuumgage. Prop the vacuum gage so you can see it in goodshape.) temperature-tenminutes idling or a five minA wom engine with no major problems will utedrive. Such a vacuum drop vacuum sourceisn't ported vacuum-from one can have numerous causes: poorly adjusted of the small diameter nipples on later car. worn cam lobes. '-%iffi' "Y::.you are really testing how wellthe sealed cylinders are. they'11 so are do rightaway. To pinpoint the cylPortedvacuum exists in the carburetor priinder at fault. It creates vacuum signal usedfor operating var.pulled head studs. Just make sure the then there is a problem. of fail. crankingvacuumvalueswill be 5 in. Judgingfrom grit and lackof air filter.Check for heat out of the heater. The rod especially bearings much more suspect. Any vacuum nipple on the intakemanifold will do. wearout. But. of With an Auto-Stick or full automatic transis axle.pistonsor rings. With a little throttle clutchjuggling. If the main bearings going to knock. few seconds test over. is VW mainbearingsare quite large and strong for thehorsepower the engines.pecially slow-cranking ones with 6-volt startlng systems.Hg) for each 1000-ft increasein altitude. a ious emission-control switches. There's need to overheatthe engine.By measur. estheignition so the engine can't start. By comparingthe resulting rpm drop for each disabled cylinder. An engine in good condition will lower.Therefore. just above the throttle plates. nect your vacuum gage to a fulL manfoldIf the needleregularlydropsto near0 in. the Once engineis warm. the lead has to be grounded without open-firing it first. byselecting first gear and letting out the clutch untiltheenginebeginsto labor.This is easiersaidthan done in the confines of a Bus engine compartment. Don't overdoit. lowbearings pounding.On a manuai-transaxle load the engine car. Vacuum-The next diagnostic Cranking vacuum test. the knocking main and will sound off with a heavy. so a professional To perform a power-balance test on other engines.Becauseatmosphericpressure drops as altitude increases. at 5000 ft. shut it off. but lower reading. Colisanengine-cranking ability of the engine. ear-calibrated powerbalancetest will tell what you want to knowwhich cylinder is it? BecauseVWs have only four cylinders. the Place transaxlein gear.Hg. test To do a power-balance on them.This engineisn't drawing shot.valves. You can perform a power-balancetest at home '79 and later on any air-cooled VW except for with electronicigniBuses. The vacuum ing the vacuum an engine produces while at valuesgiven below are for measurements sea cranking. The engine will then be running on three cylinders.tests. Don't be no alarmedif the needleswings about 2 in. for example in Denver. too. iunningidle test. or cylinders. tester A professionaloscilloscope/diagnostic easilydoesthis.They are equipped tion that can't be open-fired. This checks So. hold the brake firmthe ly with your left foot and depressthe acceleratorslowlywith your right. warped cylinder heads and worn buretors fuel-injectionsystems. use a dwell/tachometer measure rpm drop for eachcylinder. chances area rod is about to fail.burnedvalves.The car's tachis not 't3 . If you hear are knocking orpounding from the engine. Beginby warming the engine to operating pull a steadyvacuum ofabout l0 in. A note about altitude and how it affects vacuum readings. just have a steady. tesl for bad main bearings easier. The idea is to pull the lead away from the plug and ground it against the head and stop that plug from firing-this is called open-firing.

If the fuel mixture is too rich.---\iI vi l\ i\ FLYWHEEL + . and the porcelain insulator will appear burned. Becausethe compressiontest follows. none will drop very much.Shiny-black-coating inciicaiesexcesd oil that won't rub off easily. when . Now. Go to the next plug and do the same until you've done all four. ingam will ct engine Scr use.Oil in the combustionchamber will leavethe plug wet and shiny black. plug D is trodethan the metal shell. Plug B is oiFfouled. crankpulleysahdfans rotateclockwise. which requires sparkplug removal. Late Type 2 & Type 4 Type 1 & EarlyType2 @ Type 3 rype l&Earry f-b-l' rype2 ( ((a\ 6-Ll . Good VW cylinders usually register a drop of about 200 rpm.possiblyfrom worn rings and valve guides. write down the reading and reconnect the plug lead. unusual combustion. The black depositsshould wipe off easily. B Reading Sparkplugs-Think of a sparkplug as a removable portion of the combustion chamber. The insulator can also turn a pastel green or yellow in normal operation.Electroderoundingisrnoderateand insulatbris even tan dr gray.) to if the much are 1o Re grve( 14 .andyou'll seeit hasusefuldiagnostic potential. Rub Reading.K" Type3 Type2 i1 \ | i Cylinderlayout. It doesn't matter so much how far rpm drops as how close the readings are to each other. distributorpositionat TDC (Top Dead Center)and firingorder.Jl self.. flat-black carbon. Distributor driveshaftslot positionat TDC. a really bad cylinder may not drop in rpm at all.cylinder#1. If the mixture is too lean. Remember. let's discusssparkplugreadingnow.FLYWHEEL + "":? 'tEtrcET - | --\^Y/-7-l-. with an even tan coating and slight rounding of the electrodes. ) helper any ca compr The disabk out for engine fully c openin using i linkag helps. Noteoffset of slot: thicker arc faces different positiondeiending on engine. the plug will be coatedwith dry. - i p ao"= rir cAsE a E l T r N r .A carbon-fouledplug's dry.. accurate enough for this test. f engine oily plr with tt Compr pressio conditi There r taperec and he the scr difficu mount coolinl hold a bent ir screwtype. Replacesuch plugs and engin6 that into your palm and you get an oily mess performancewill improve. flat-blackcoating comes from ex. pay more attention to consumption. sparkplu. plug c is carbon-fouled.Photoscourtesy ChampionSpark Hu! C'ompany. When reading plugs. Il busyp plug h wit c and cr about cranki come fast cr highe \ same of cor Lik are de surec in. Therefore. It's most sensitive to normal. a plug should be dry.)KY. Of course. lt's worn out. But when thesereadings start varying by more than 40 or 50 rpm.gs can-yieldimportanttroubleshooting clues.the cylinders with the leastdrop are the bad ones. With thc tachometerconnected. take notice. don't confuse it with oil-fouling. if all cylinders are bad. t/ i(il i . indicaiing ii well coloring and more likely to show symptoms of all in the combustionchamber. ground the first plug lead and wait for engine rpm to stabilize. Note vacuumadvancecan positibnand rotor tip points at #1 when installed. = |LINE PARTINGE ---.stop-and-go drivingor-a too-coldplug heit range. the plug will be powdered with a white coating. PlugA suffers from heavily rounded electrodes and pitted insulator. depending on the individual fuel blend beihg used. Also be aware that soark- plugs I show tl cause0 driven You who re turn ad race. Normally.All distributorroiors. *. Don't expect the readingsto be any closer than 20 rpm.the porcelain insulator around the center eleccessively_rich airlfuelmixtures. Rub the carbon onto the palm of your hand.

a cylinder suffering from engineis subjectedto' driven excessiveoiling-from bad rings even-can Youmayhaveheardabout the ace mechanic readingsbecause vield hieh compression-test whoreadihe plugs' then made a one-eighth the seals rings'Again' oil in thecylinder L*. instead.different compresslon testers hay have inciease by l0 psi at a time. then compression An acceptable be pulled head studs or a lessinDenver' Dependingon the engine' pres. There. consider them faulty' Below 14. they in oo. becausethis conditionsbethe sholw mostbasiccombustion condition is usually causedby poor nngs' ofthemanyoperatingconditions a streetcause On the other hand.valves.7psratmospnerday cnnditions: u"r. al operatingaltitude.8359 6000 ihe trouble is poor ring{o-bore sealing' A rereading' Test all four cylinders the highest . mulriply 125by 0. also give lower compress^ton tester. tuy. Give eachcylinder the same . They will registerlower valuesthe higher difficult useon VWs because cone and its rubber'conetype likeone shownis atttrouglr are mount usuallytoo shortto reachthrough the thE altitude. don't be too concerned in. butiustfinefor the actupsi on tire next and so on. Compressionreadingsare influencedby psi. is ensine uanked. l2Oor 125psi. prop the throttle acceptatle. So.9428 strokes' You can hear 2000 6-8 compression about . hold the thottle open oil into the cylinder. are if all cylindersread above 94 psi.. cylinders and valves' tery will run down during a compresslontests' are There two types of compression testers: a But if it does. do iwet testby value for compression1in Justscrewit in and crank the engine youruse. Remember. Note: Avoid smokcompresonly 97 psi and-the pensatefor this when interpreting ei.They are cooling cause lower-than-normal readings' Highcylinder pressure while you are hold against oerformance camshafts. i"r.t method.r. of squirtinga teaspoon oil sion. if a cylinderyietded the because airlfuel charge ingandopenflames sion-testresults. can ioi e*impre.sfamiliar comCompressionTesting-The rut" . Problem cylinders arelow.enough.9151 Crank the engine two revolutions or so to 30O0 crankingspeed slow as the tested cylinder . even reaolngs psi. and ancl Altitude will affect compressron reaorngs version is Foputar diagnostic check is compression type. jot down the increasesand fast compression .ith. the pushing conetightly againstthe sparkbusy teaspoonget a teaspoonand fill it while countolushole. Worn camshaft lobes can also just as accurate' also awkward to shrouding. ihe specification into that cylinder. If you crank them some leeway' givedifferentreadings.or.if possible. you use a rubber-conetester. if the highestreading is^l25 The throttle and choke plate must be engine. plugs in a street race.ninitresult low readingsSo. If using the conescrew-in readings.. The rubber-cone thescrew-in even as it influences manifold-vacuum readthe to test.en. Just make sure the oil can has .. 40 psi or more. It could also aredesirable.lt plug oit"y ona street obtained from compression testing' One is withtheringsor valveguldes' cranking speed.75 to get94 Therefore' test-part-throttle for ful'ivopenfor an accurate Specifications altitudeand temperature.9711 1000 andcrankthe engine so the testedcylinder is full so you don't squirt air into the cylinder' . pression is a good way to measure tne test four-cylinder engine.8617 5000 pression comes up markedly. Screw-in tester is easiest to use' ings. relaThat'son a race engine. to tumadjustmenl the carburetor and won the if you crank this type of cylinder enough. .ur"tents.higher speedgives higher pre. Then squirt the sameamount oI Altitude (ft) frith . it isn't likely that the batof condition the rings. *. If a friend hard to set a wear limit and say anything above decreaseas alllpressureand temperature helps.you'll need a remote starter switch or a low-rpm breathing for improved high-rpm tt. Compression testing takes place at it because leavesyou free to watch the case anv cranking speed-well below idle speed' gageduring the test' compression The engine must be warmed up.at about 5000 ft' the sure rangefrom 75 psi (pounds per square warped be You may notice a cylinder that takes a long equivalenicompressionreading would.8106 7000 number builtl is neededto restorethe lost clearances'If ruL. Use a duration profiles. over150psi.t up on . heldagainstthe open sparkplug hole."idingt and vice versa. A helper is bestjn breathing.)to psi X . starlerswitch. SAE 30W is fine' To depsi) by the factorfor the engine'soperating If se1f. So.8617 : 108 psi' The cylinders time to pump up.ip.Atmospnenc ic pressure linkageopen with a screwdriver. urinn standard Notice I said acceptable.7860 8000 increase much' about 5 compression doesn't strokes.jump the battery to anotherone to type that is inserted into rubber-cone tapered maintain cranking sPeed.This is becausesuch cams sacntrce type.on that.ito crankthe engine. if you're compressionvalues are usually based. ignition Double-check your findings with the 7570rule: ind all sparkplugs removed' Watch disabled HIGHERALTITUDE& cylinders must read within 757oof the highA11 outfor hot partswheneverworking on a warm LOWER COMPRESS]ON est cylinder.to.8881 soreadthe oil. oI compression the problem is probably with the of reading 125 Like the power-balancetest. I would be wary of the the *ilt ro*i out of the sparkplug holes when The chart supplies correction factors low cylinder.so allow 15 . psi at sea levelwouldregister cylinder head. With a small.r. so comwhin crankingthe engine.they'll come close to the other cylinolussfrom a street-drivenengine can onty ders. and tempressure "Screw-in (accounting decreased for To help determinethe causeof low compresto compressiontesters are easier Just multlply for oerature) difterentaltitudes.havehim fully depressthe accelerator is sood and all below are bad' In the example tude increasesabove sea level. Wet tLst such a cylinder. you'll be termine how many squirts it takes to make a conditions. trouble reaching 40 psi and. tively high readings can result' can't be read that way' Check for the ensine There are variables that affect the readings a reveals problem engine. with their longbentinto a VW engine compartment. Usually' a cylinder will pr-oTrouble is idS if the figures seem generally low' wltn seaduce40 psi on the first piston stroke' another35 could be reading low comp-ared muchmorelikely if only one or two cylinders Lu"Lm"u. Retestthe low cylinder' If com4000 its compressionstroke' Note how . ' Factor ing the squirts. not desirable' It is and 59F at sea level.

Testing is done with the engine stationary. Then testcylinders#3 and. The higher the leakage rate. A compression test gives an accurate enoughpicture ofan engine's condition 90Zoof the time. you can hear the hiss of escaping air in the tailpipe. lOVoor less.The readoutis in percent leakage. As the cam lobes wear. valve lift is likely your problem. Bring the # I cylinder to top deadcenter (TDC) of the its compressionstroke. Compressed aii is pumped to the cylinder while the tester monitors how much air it takes to make uo for cylinder leakage. Reconnect the leak-down tester and watch the meter. You'll need an air compressor(a l/2-Hp model will do) and the leak-down tester if performing the test yourself. So. That will provoke some mystery! What happensis the lifter rotatesright aftera valveadjustment. They aren't.A length ofhose can aid listeningin somechassis holding by oneendat yourearind the other where you suspect leakage: carburetor.Bad-sealing rings and cylinders can be detectedat the oil-breather or dipstick holes.so lts center protrudes more than the edges. holed piston or the like. And. have a helper hold the crank with a socket on the crank-pulley nut. Need as for air compressor.If so. disconnect the tester. and wear concentratesln one spot. intake-air sensor or breather. Problems start when the lifter wearsa sroove into its concavesurface. This wears the lifter and especially the lobe very rapidly. #2.just an adapter for the sparkplug hole and a compressed-airsource. then connectthe testerto the adapter and the air compressor. A leak-down tester uses an external airpressuresource. This will keep the engine for turning over. they should have an HC/CO meter available. first consider how camshafts and lifters are made. a leak-down test is more accuratethan comJiession testing. so that when the lifter restsagainstit. a9OVo leakageindicatesseriousdamage. generator. the less valve lift and horsepower. This unit is part of professional diagnostictester. If you are diagnosing a car before buying it. The cost should be minimal. Then the lifter tendsnot to rotate. others are available separatetools. unlessyou do a lot of enginediagnosis. Of course. Otherwise. On the other hand.If the exhaustvalve is lenking.the lifter's bottomis convex. With the screwdriver contacting pistontop. install the hose adapter in the sparkplug hole. If the diagnostic tests thus far indicate worn engine internals. The top of the lobe is cut at a slight angle. Check the engine timing marksto make sureit's exactly on TDC. The shorter the lobe. Once finished with the first cylinder. This test actually doesn't require a leak-down tester. the engine witl kick over without warning the instant the cylinder is pressurized. there is little need to consider valve lift. you can the feel when the piston is at the top of its stroke. and inspectthe camshaft and lifters directly. the test is not influenced by cranking speed.A20Voleakage indicate can a high-mileageengine.Leak-Down Testing-Although it's also a measure of combustion-chamber sealins. ir's a sure iign of multiple problems. thin screwdriver into the combustion chamberthrough the sparkplug hole. Start by reading the instructionsthat came with the tester. the working surface of a lifter and the top edge of a camshaft lobe look flat. Frequent valve adjustments become necessary keep noise down to and the valves adjusted. Leakage for an engine in good condition is 16 valve is to hook an HC/CO meterto the tailpipe and squirt some carburetorcleanerinto the cylinder. valve lift decreases and the ensine doesn't breath as well. if you have accessto a leak-down tester. This makes the lifter rotate with each valve opening and spreadswear over the surface of the lifter. however. the contact point is off-center. even frequent valve adjustments don't stop the wear once it is started. If it's slightly off. Therefore. This is especially true if there is a burnedvalve. They only reduce the valve clearancefor the short time it takes the lobe to wear down some more. Instead. One way to spot a suspected leaky exhaust . holed piston or other catastrophic cylinder damage. Power is reducedand valve train noise increasesbecausethe valve clearanceincreaseswith cam and lifter wear. It takes a minute for the leakage to reach the meter. Many tuneup shopscan do the test for you. It is possible to disable one cylinder by adjusting its valves. if the engine seemswellsealed at the valves and cylinders. until the lobe is considerably shorter than when new. tl and ne If th needsi cam al replace quired timely Chanc Leak-downtesting can indicatemore about engine conditionthan any other test.o so longerover cam Iobe. A good way to check for TDC is to insert a long.or the cam lobe'wears flat. partof the the a lifter which is closeto originalthickn-essnow is against the lobe. valve duration. even just a little. altitude or excessiveoiling.by againrotaringthe crank 180oeach time. Pulled head studsmay causehissing leaks between the cylinder heads and cylinders. rotate the engineI 80' to cylinder #4 and testit. such as a badly burned valve. During the test. But becausethe valve was adjuste clearan valve < started runs oI If y< find it adjuste loosen engine starts c its lovr now. Next.cost and more involved test procedure usually prohibit homemechanicuse.Accuracy is improved beiause variables affecting compression-test readings-those that have no bearingon the sealing capability of an engine-are eliminated. VALVE LIFT Valve lift is the distancethe valve is moved off its seat by the camshaft. the worsetheproblem. the HC portion of the meter will peg instantaneously If you usea ! tuneup shop for the leak-down test. or air the engine will tum over. Leakage past intake valves can be heard at the carburetor or intake-airsensor. If the compressionreadings are baffling. Sometimes leakage is evenly divided and hard to attribute to one source. a leak-down test is an excellentidea. Farmthis test out to get accurate evaluationof engine condition.Insteacl.leakagewill approachl007o as all the compressed blows by an open valve. but ifthe exhaustvalve is leaking. You might as well get on with rebuilding the engine.the piston must be at TDC of its compression stroke so both valves are closed. To understandthe wear cycte. skip thecompression andtestthecylinders resl witir the more accurate leak-down tester.this is one test to farm out. However. alternator. but doesn't normally warrant a rebuild. It is also a test that can be skipped most of the time. the worn spolis. both the rings and valvesmay be leaking. Increased noise is part of the wear process becausevalve clearance increasesas the lobe and lifter grind down. At first glance. You can usuallytell what's leakingby listening to the engine with the tester attached. Leak-downtestequipmentis expensive. or fan. a leak-down tester will definitely help you make a decision. A 30Va leakage is serious enough for an engine overhaul or valve job. Remember. but lacks power and has noisy valves that won't stay in adjustment.

to Chances the valves and cylinders are worn are anyway. valve clearance will subtract. Read valve lift directly on the dial. In other words. If the enginehas 50. Then five minutes later it starts clackingaway as the dished lifter rotates its low spot over the lobe again. When the ensine is started.theengine'scam and lifters are worn out andneedreplacing. Measuring Valve Lift-Some VW specialists. a bit puzzled.like 914s. use a dial indicator to measurevalve lift at the valve-spring retainer. For a test of this kind. Remember. No puzzle now. which was iust adjusted conectly.000 or more miles and needs valve adjustmentevery 500 miles. you'll findit tight on rharcylinder. don't be concerned about the absolute valve lift. Note the space available for a dial indicator before considering measuring valve lift. but valve lift relative to the other valves. and don't have time to split the caseto look at the camshaftbetween races. though. Indicator magneticbaseswon't attachto aluminum cylinder heads. Rotate the engine until that valve is completely closed.but might mount on the cooling shroud or exhaust. you loosen adjustmentto specificationsand the the engine runs fine. as well. Bring the indicator's plunger to bear on the valve-spring retainer. compression can't buildandtheingine runson three cylinders. look for a valve that is liftine considerably rhanits neighbors. If measuringvalve lift. you'Il need a dial indicator. Zero the dial indicator. because you are measuring valve lift. . They can then determine if the cam lobe is wearingdown. a valvi less If is lifting less than the others. Complete engine disassembly is requiredto service the cam and lifters. allow for the rocker-arm ratio and valve clearance. so endless valve adjustments are usually another clue that the engine needs an overhaul. actual valve for clearance zero and the lobe is holdins the is valve openal! rhe time. Racer'scan't hearnoisy valves over open exhaust. the cam is worn and will need to be replaced or reground. consequentty. like drag racers. So. this measurement is out ofthe question unlessthe engineis out of the car. some way to mount it near the valve springs and enough room to fit the instrument. the a camand lifters are worn out and need to be replaced. Rocker-arm ratio w111 add to lift measuredat the cam lobe. If you recheck the valve clearance.adjusted the worn section. they don't have to split the casesto determine the cam's condition. then rotate the crank pulley until the valve is completely open. On somechassis. Measuring valve lift lets them determine there is no camshaftwear. so it's timely rebuild the rest of the engine.

it will sink into the dirt instead. a piece of plywood.Lifting & Lowering Tools-To raiseand sup.You'll need a sizeable let on it anddecidewhereto pull it.this method works as well as only to have the jack stop and the engineslip suchas an oil leakerdriven on dirt roads. it set so the under the oil strainer. car while you are underneath. Wdd short length of pipe over gland-nut bore to secure flywheel in jack. have a gardenhose. A VW air-cooled engine is lowered fromils special tools are needed for all cars: a floor Spray degreasercan be usedat home if you raised chassiswith a floor iack.gine steamcleaned. costis reasonable thejob takesabouta half and to remove this waterproofingbefore driving.very hard packeddirt. A thorfloorjack andjack standscan be rented. able. piece of ll2-in. ly available:steam cleaning. solvent blasting shapedto fit. If Y try rer the ph hobby base. If not. you'll needa l-112-tonversionfor lifting most other cars.Look Air-cooledVolkswagenengines found in are ough solvent blasting takes about as long as in the phone book under Rentals. Problem is. Evenon equipmentshop. and if you are underthe car rebuilt engine. little prepara.ldflywheelto make widerfloorjacksaddle.For Powertrain on 914 is somewhatheavy. It under Con when movin The cl pendir about angry cities.try not to removea VW hour. Steam cleaning is for truly filthy enginesWith patience. Typically. r Get O engint where an enf big bc do ge find y the ch wil disco and di memc and fi and br housi and s dropp Ge . you warm the jacking point for loweringthe engineis right Additionally.ifyou're planningto buy a floorjack.sprayit with degreaser.then hoseoff the crud. clean the enginebefore working engine. Engine removal and installationare imporConsiderhaving only the bottom of the enOnce the car is up. port the car during engineremovaland installa. it could be fatal. Engine Cleaning-A dirty engineis miserable driveway.for supportinga tion and caution before and during engine re. This makesthe Avoid theseproblemsby cleaningthe engine Rememberto cover the distributor.the sheetmetal. spray and leave the messthere.Steamcleaningthe top is jack stands. you must support it with tantsteps any overhaul. beforeremovingit. screw or otherwise) as a stand.standsto hold up the rear of the car. scising an engine guarantees headaches during intoo messyasthe hot solution is reflectedback at sors. not. A balanced jack. For the samereason. you'll have a hard time restartingthe engine. fasteners hide under wash. Never use any jack (bumper. Theseparts must be kept dry or It's frustratingto pull on the engine.The floor jack is a hydraulicjack in a wheeledframe. use afloor jack andjack stands. and. a 1-1/2but all accessories. surfaces somethingto dig into.the mechanic and is trapped atop the engine by A for raising and lowering. solvent to blow off the dirt. Use two jack of the time. Use the high-pressure water/detergent the soft plywood givesthe hardengineandjack the goo and grime gets underyour fingernails. Containers for degreaser can penetrate.Haphazardly in remov. jack stands. roll the engine/jackcombinationtoward you. or thicker plywood to place hardwaremust also be readied.rolling. transmission. Threemethods general. Solve that by doing the job at a car Besidesprotectingthe enginefrom gouges.Engine Removal ffi Use g. Suppr ward qoncrr betwe tion.hopingto and spray degreasing. many different types of chassis. only a floorjack! Besides.carburetorwith plastic bags or aluminum foil are making engineremoval safer and a lot easier. check with a tractor or heavy.but the same steamcleaning. moval will reward you when installing your Solvent blasting uses compressedair and Ajack can fail. the stinky mess ends up on your betweenthe engine and floor jack. Most service stations have the equip.(Yes.clutch.differentialand coolingsystem)out of a Camarowith ton jack is sturdierand usually will lift higher. little pebblescan chock 18 the jar jerkinl ing gn full sh on. Wrenches slip.The floor jack resists ment. It works well gOVo when it does.coil and engine less likely to slip off the jack's pad. Cost is comparable steamclean. Jacksare stallation.Don't forget off. it happens!) engineon a dirt surface.It's alsodangerous.but imaginepullingequivalent package(enginewith VWs a l-ton version is adequate. Both the to PREPARATION ing and practically any shop can do it.The steam cleaningor solventblasting. to work on.

GetOrganized-It's a trying taskto install an engine someone else removed.On soft asphaltor dirt. but no problem. label and disconnectany hoses. and 412 look under the driver's seat. undo center of the oil stainer. theyoften have auto hobby shopsavailable. Save yourself considerabletrouble andfrustrationby getting several coffee cans and boxes labelingthem. ENGINE REMOVAL Remember. Squareback and Fastback.On the 41 I marker. Unclamp and remove the engines. 19 . then removethe posi.Support with jackstandsany time it is raised. too. you'll find your memory can't make any order from thechaos.even the authorities in some cities. pulling anengine throwing all the hardware in one and bigbox amounts the sameeffort. to fiesh engine only to find the battery dead. Three weeks is on about average. vacuum. The paperelementis easilyidenBattery-On all chassis. Draw your own schematics ofthe various connections help at reassembly. Fuel-Injection Air Filter-Undo the four permanent.Labelallwire hoseconnections tapeandpermanent car with marker. The cable is connectedto the engine thermostatand controls engineinlet air temperature response enin to gine temperature.Next. there aren't many disconnectionsremember. lay a full sheet ofplywood down to roll the floorjack on. thejack wheels. depending how fast you work. Placestands for.the lessmessyou'll have later when the engine compartment.but later engines to and different chassis definitely tax the best can memory. Karmann Ghia and 914. angrylandlords. up to It's to you to label and keep track ofthe electrical. keep it upright. It will also keep you cleaner as you work underthe car. oil-bath unit.If you are stationed at a military base.tified by its rectangular shape. With the earlier Beetle. Label tive one.set them on These labelsare your insurancefor correctlyinstallingconnections @ncrete best foundation. Consider what you'll do with the chassis whenyou removethe engine. The Iongerthe from its mounting bracketand remove it from oil drains. Have the containersready before dropping engine. but now is a good time to next disconnection getsa 2 andso forth. If youdon't havea dedicatedworking room. During completelyremovethe batteryfor cleaningand engineinstallationall you'll have to do is concharging.Its hoseattachtery negativecablefirst. Earlier cars had oilbath air filters with a minimum of hoses attachedto them.when handling and storing an oilWe'll examine engine removal chassisby bath air filter. mechanicaland fuel lines. the battery is on hosedoesyou are removing. backbreaking grunts. moving chassis the meanspushingor towing. Karmann Ghia air filters are mountedto the Drain Oil-Now drain the oil. don't rely on memoryalone! for so between standand ground to prevent settling and tipping. 2s to 2s and so on.taminatethe upperhalf of the filter and spill out cooled VWs are mountedin. Thechassis will be immobile for awhile.If a dirt floor is all you have. Use these for labeling the vacuum and electrical disconnectionsyou'll make.You'll thank yourself at installation. the Geta roll of masking otherstouttapeanda or BEETLES & KARMANN GHIAS fiYPE 1) Air Filter & Housing-Open theenginecover and remove the air filter. Who knows where those all nutsandboltsso? Well. hosesand cables. lift it off the carburetor and set it aside.waterproofmarking pen. Yet.ments are different. and wardol rear wheels on sturdy chassis component. On the You don't have to know exactly what the Bus.Disconnect it at the air filter. Use one for belland housing hardware. On the Beetle. On the Type 4.It's aggravating try and start your nect the ls to ls. so don't skip it! There isn't enoughroom in this book to list all the hose and wire diagrams for the various chassis. When you to do getaroundto installing the engine.another for heater tubing andso on. a cable is fitted to the warm air flap on the filter inlet. hose 1 and where it attaches with a 1.just mark the first the right side of the engine compaftment. Label andremovethe crankcase oil drain while you make the variouselectrical breatherhose. From August '67. On Type I -3 right of the engine.Let the the filter inlet. the the warm-air control flap cablefrom its arm on drain plug is separate from the strainer.the drain plug is the large bolt in the filterto-engine and hot-air hoses.disconnectthe bat. disconnections ofcomponentsaboutthe engine ln'73 a paper-element filter replaced air the aresimilar in all models. you open the engine. placeplywood during engine installation. Look in thephone book for a do-it-yourself auto shopor hobbyshop.or you won't use them. Once it's out.then unscrewthe clamp at the air-filter housing base. or oil will conchassisbecauseof the different chassisair. try rentingspaceat a service station. Stationary cars attract vandals. Without tipping the filter. The It's not essential. The batteryis undertherearseatin the them with masking tape and your permanent Beetle. making engine movement a jerkingseriesof barely controlled. then unlatchthe filter assembly and mechanical disconnections. Labeling disconnections is a critical step. the first few of the unit. Or use a plastic label maker. complete with some of the larger tools.

throttle cable into the guide now.The voltageregulator '73 '74 is mounted separately on and early alternators. The throttlecableis removedby unscrewingor the air filter housing cover and the paper air filter element. lf so. but it's not the right one. Don'tloosencinchboltagainst cabletension. Sometimes a hose clamp is placed on guide in front of fan housing as a retainer. and pull it completelyout when lowering the engine.Tipping filterany morethanthis willsloshoil insideagainst air upper section.removethe three slip-on connectlons. Be careful when pulling back the rubber boot and tugging on the conLater. Mark and remove them. cast-aluminum box. Now disconnectthe multiple unbolting the clamping bolt and pushing the wire plug onthe intake air sensor. The negative to the distributor. There Electrical Connections-Look underthe disare severalbreatherlines intersecting with this sendingunit.This releases Also remove the fuel line and throttle cable. and remove Generator/Alternator-Mark the three wires on the generator. on pliers hold throttle cable and linkagewhile cable is Needle-nose or disconnected. VW's Bosch fuel injection addsa lot of little stepsto engine R&R (Removal and Replacement). In this case. Clean filter canister and changeoil beforefilter is installed rebuiltengine.Always hold linkagestationaryinstead.you can push the off as a unit. voltageregulators slip-onconnectors used on generator-mounted are clips aroundthe air filter housing. brownis have nc out of 1 tically t connec Sometir end. tributor for the oil-pressure Carburetor-Mark and remove the automatic connect and mark its single wire. Disduct. Look on the coil. terminalsfor a * signif you don'tknow which wire alsoruns is the positivewire. Generatordisconnections normallythree wires right on top of the generator. and hos connec tra fuel installat The r push-on other d.Neverpull by the wires. If the car has an altemator. it will also drain from under lid. you'll kink cable. After that. Next unscrew the rubber boot's clamp at the A lot of throttle cable guides have been other end of the air sensor. With the sensorout of the way. Fuel Injection-Unfortunately. Pull the cable guide out of the fan housing and set it aside. you can pull the cable out the fan housing the rest of the way.In that case.Remove the trvo air cleanermounting nuts on either side ofthe hood clampedbehindthe fan housingto hold a homehinge and lift the air sensorand filter housing madegrommet. nearthe choke heating element and fuel-cutofT wires. You have extramarking andremovingof necessary wires engine Bec diseng rear el earlY t screw Latt from I Comp ber ga screw over t fuel-it small aloun manif Thr endsc attach UnSCfl screw Raise until 20 . wires l other. the regulator is integrally mounted on top of the alternator. them.The voltage '66 regulatoris mounted on the generatoron Beetles. are and alternators. just leave guide in place. Ol The Follow labelinl and ten be pusl Mak. when the engine is paftially out of the nector. pull cable guide from fan housing. remove the multiple-wireconnector. which is the cable toward the fan housing. ( and att Also one retl Get the Thrott tle pc diaphrt under positio but it i lowerir housin will cl Rear I of the partmc piece t After throttle cable is removed from linkage. unclamp and remove the rubber air duct. Disconnect the positivecoil wire.However. chassis.

Justleaveit alone. the plate must be removed. and theseexYou'll be reconnecting connections. and least stabLe. but push-on plugs. Then unscrewand remove the small separateshroud pully. On rear engine-cover early40-HPengines.Then the hamesscan and temperature aside. by jacking under the engine. Get ThrottlePositioner-If the enginehas a throttle positioner. Most manuals say the positioner must come off for engine removal. disconnectingand labeling wiresat the coil.A bolt passes throughthe leverand cableend and is nuttedon the other side.Takeyour time when labelingthese hoses. (Unless you have a overthe crankshaft engine. Immediately place the jack standsto suppofi and the chassis. course. This raises positionerso it housing will clear rearbodywork. to and attaches the chassis. butit isn't so. When cable and lock bolt are hopelessly frozen. have choicebut to grasp the wires leading no outof this type of connector and pull. slowly lower the caronto them. snip cable and buy new ones. you'll have to tilt the fan the the forward. Freeing the cable end requires pliers to grip the lever. the usual rust penetrant. rearbodywork mustbe high enoughto clearthe top of the fan housing. Loosen small bolt on heater-control valve arm to free heater cables. remove the two covers tubesleading to the intake around heat-riser the manifold. injectors.Most plugs separate other don't. the RearEngine Cover Plate-Between the rear of theengineand the rear of the engine compartment the rear engine cover plate. tray so the enginecan easilyslide rearward. and them reversed the enginewill not start. are pull-off.you can each the unscrew rear engine cover-plate attaching screws pull the plate out of the car. two wrenchesand inventive language. end.With thosepartsgone. Be one return. Thereis alsoa small cylinder in the lever which the cable passesthrough. This is especiallytrue of those You usually connectors. have two large hoses leading Laterengines fromthe fan housing to the heat exchangers. Thehealrisertubecoversare at the outboard coverplate. Heater Cables-At the front and sides of the engine you'll find the two heater-control cablesfrom valves.Four screws ends oftherearengine attach one. you'll see an aluminum unit diaphragm-and-cylinder sticking out from underthe carburetor. when lowering engine. engine the Because enginemust be slid to the rear to it disengagefrom the transaxleinput shaft.position. then the cablewill pull free. sureto correctly mark their flow. Some leadfrom one side of the engine to the wires other. Replace or tape-repair damaged hoses. The fuel-injection it Follow aroundthe engine. the Alsoremove two fuel lines: one supply. edge to find its attachment 21 . connection the Sometimes wire pulls out of its terminal repair the wire in that case.Followtray's leading Removerear sheet-metal screws. Theelectricaldisconnections easily. which are meansmostjack stands raisedto their highest. Later. Be sure your standsare stout and stablebefore getting under the car. you have extra stepsif the heater controlshaverustedshutand then beenpeened over by rocks. Practicallyevery time you succeedand the spade inside the connector separates. the cylinder shouldfall free. so be readyfor it.never tnder You can crack the case the engineor transaxle.crankcase sensors.merely remove the fbur and screws lift out the plate. This is piece sheet metalis part of the cooling sysof tem. wires and hosesduring engine trafuelsystem in$allation. When you remove the cable. and Raise Car-Use the floor jack to raise the car until the ensineis about a vard in the air. The These are clean aft hoses connecting fan housing and heat exchangers.)Finally.VWs haveto be raised a lot to get the engine out.and there's no reason to disconnect Onlyremovea wire if it leavesthe engine them. removethesehoses and their rubCompletely at ber gaskets the cover plate end. bepushed Makesure you follow the harness.Removethe heater-control their leverson the controlvalves. They don't have this fuel-injected smallplate. Alternately. rectangular brownish. Use two wrenchesto remove the bolt and nut. Check the stability of the car on the standsby gentlyshakingit from sideto side. Just slip them ofi at both ends and set aside.which works by sealing the top of the from air passingunder it. Of wiring is in a harness. Put the jack under the framejust forward of the transaxle.

need to be labeled and disconnected. But the transaxle oil seal will be ruined if it's necessaryto pull the torqueconverter with the engine.' Vise-C wrencl Lower out. The driveplate is bolted at its center to the crankshaft. That's fine if the engine t0 seized and you can't rotate it to gain access the bolts. Some mechanics pinch the line shut with locking pliers.Heaterducts are largeflexiblehosesleading Be preparedfor spillage when disconnecting Thisone was tuei tin'e. compat to remo membe and the access both nu the bol though Havr bolts. If you usea bolt.The enginecan fall on you ifthe upper bolts aren't in place. Make sure your socketis clean.or l2-point. then pull it off. i ward stantl wire r catch snag Wi the fa on th This 22 . It threads a special round nut pressedinto the enginecase. More Auto-Stick disconnectlonsare necessary inside the engine compartment. If so. also called flare-nut wrenches. Look on the firewall. to find the control valve. make sureit has an unthreaded shoulder. It's fast and fuel hosethat clean. not roundedoff and lined up straight with the bolts.a regular open end will do. Slip off the flexible line and use a pencil or bolt to plug it. You the can separate stud and nut later and reinstall the stud. Use two tubing wrenches. Startingin '71. the stud may unthread from the transaxle. Stop rotation when the bolt is the access squarelycenteredin the hole. Be ready for ATF to pour out of the line from the tank. nutsmay be very tight The lowerbellhousing on their studs becauseof rust or impact damage. the left heater-control Fuel Line-Above valve is the fuel line connection from the fuel tank. and so dirt can't enter the transmission system. Bellhousing Nuts-Remove the two 17mm hex nuts and washersat the lower cornersof the bellhousing. Support Engine-Get the piece of plywood and set it on the jack saddle. At its outer edgeit is bolted to the torque converler. one nut fastening. then have your helper rotate the engine 90" where another bolt will appear in the hole. remove them onLy after checking that the upper bolts are still in the placeandthe floorjack is setup lo support engine. If you don't have tubing wrenches. There are two more bolts still attached on top of the engine' WARNING: If the lower bellhousing fastenersare nuts and bolts. Have a pan underneathand work fast. on the fittings. Have a helper rotate the engine with the crankshaftpully while you watch hole. so don't worry aboutit. engine bind th work. not the nut from the stud. but you probably don't have one laying around' Those small plastic caps new brake master cylinders are shipped with work well. you need At first. Auto-Stick '70 use nuts on studs. 6. Someof thesebolts are8mm. the other to the oil pump. BecauseAuto-Stick transaxleshave a torque converter between the engine and clutch. brazed or welded shut. this far.lnvestigate vacuum electrical to see which ones must come off. There's no problemwith this. but take extra care to not round off the hex. Thesebolts are small and will break or round off if not treated with care. dry.1 compu Sta the in workir clear t left to On jack. Two ATF (Automatic TransOne mission Fluid) lines need disconnecting. Continueuntil you haveremovedall four bolts. two at '71 the Auto-Stickswent with the two top. all carsuse two bolts but only one nut' At the right side is the usual nut and bolt assembly' into but the left side usesonly a bolt. like a flywheel.but I don't like squeezing hard. In bolt. clamped. Don't worry about the engine falling. Don't lift it too much or you'll bind the engineon thebellhousing studs and have trouble sliding it off them Upper Bellhousing Bolts-Slide out from under the car and turn your attentlon to removlng the upper engine-to-transaxle fasteners. If you don't remove the driveplate bolts' the toroue converter will slide out of the transaxle is with the engine.Then roll thejack under the engine and raise the saddleuntil it is just carryingthe engineweight. becausethe offset oil coolThis is necessary '7 roorn er usedfrom I on doesn'tleaveenough to get at a nut from the engine side. All '70 have bolts manual transaxle cars through and nuts at the upper bellhousing. Thesebolts are accessible through a hole in the bottom backside of the engineshave a rubbellhousing.The best plug is a pipe fitting that has been soldered. there are four driveplate bolts to remove. few Automatic Stick Shift (Auto-Stick)-A on are extradisconnections necessau carswith the Auto-Stick. Replace the oil sealif that's the case. if you have the right size. pull the large flexible hoses off the heater-control valves' Push the hoses away from the engine so they won't get torn as the engine is lowered. Remove the bolt. A fully threaded bolt can let gasoline leak past through the threads. to the left of the ignition coil. Mark and disconnectthe hoses the leads. Whatever the attachmentmethod. Aluminum foil wrapped several times around the fitting and securedwith a hose clamp works. Plug the disconnectedfittings so they won't leak. Still. carburetedengines have an open hole. Lower bellhousingnuts are higher up be' tween transaxleand engine than you might think. Thosethat Therest don't go to the enginecanbe left alone. line runs to the ATF tank. Thesenuts arethreadedonto a pair of studs that fit into the transaxle. tt have tt floor.but often they clip on the exchang' ible hose will stop fuel tank from siphoning ers and easilYslide off. like on brake lines. The lines are steelbraided and use high pressurehydraulic fittings.Fuel-injected ber plug in the accesshole. they are easy to get at' This drivetrainis a candidatefor steamcleaning' Once you have the cablesfree.A bolt stuffed and clampedin flexforwardfrom heatexchangers. too. so their bellcars in housingshave four studs:two at bottom.

A simple piecJ of flat Transaxle-Support the transaxle with a Lower Engine-Once the upper fastenersare metal with a hole in it will do. s ) f filters when removing them. Then the bolts from under the car.and right-forward comers of the plate. Bellhousing Bolts-Now reach way to the front of the engine compartment and remove the two upper bellhousing bolts. The top of the fan housing needs to be wait until the engine is ready to come out. hot-air hoses and unclamp the filter gine.quicklyalternating steps. and it Vise-Grip pliers to the bolt heads. coil. Then lower the enginewhile guiding it by the shroud. from underneath. Don't tip the oil-bath air down. specially bent box-end wrench if you do loop it out of the way. Just barely take up left to do is clear the bellhousing studs. the tioner can get past the rear body panel. the torque converter can have to add a wood block to the two supporting floor jack and another to eyeball the engine slip out of the transaxle. Use one of the second floor jack or prop it up with wood out. you could remove the carburetor and More Cables & Fuel Hose-Pull the throttle bolts. but not overly so. but the '71 watch for wire and hose snass on the wav This is another good reason to have a helper version has no cable. Haveyour helper get under the car to hold the nately. aslow. Cables. If you are BUS & TRANSPORTER (TYPE 2 & 4) doubles as a bolt for the starter mountins. If the engine later engine is more difficult. workingon an Auto-Stick. you might have peoplefor this job: one to managethe Without this brace. simply remove the crankcase and the bellhousing studs are clear of the enWatchfor the throttle cable as it oulls from breather. Con. Hoses-Disconnect the distributor. Alterslide under the rear bodywork. blocks.or. then let the is out. then engineaway from the transaxle. to seal ruined.On '71 Buses.'wires engine only the right upper bolt is accessiblefrom the an and top. smoothloweringis allthat'sneeded. bohs will turn. a '71 Bus. If that doesn't this with the engine in the car.|It s t. on the clutch is clear of the transaxle input shaft snag continuedown. Pull the engine and floor jack rearward until catches something. Heater-Control Cables-It's time to go underneath anyway.the chassishas to go up so the fan housing will though. the torque converter. Disconnect Wires. Busesusethe uprighffan Beetle engineand '72 some engine weight with the jack. That might thin.you'll have to attacha box end wrench or With Auto-Stick transaxles. once you get thisfar.once the engine ible fuel hose.the engineis ready to lower. It's just a slip joint. generator. which the input shaft clears the clutch. Have your helper the On onthefan shroud and the other on the muffler. run a braceacrossthe bellhousine to hold is not clamped. disconnectthe hot-air flap cable. With the transaxlesupported. two lower bellhousing nuts. Read the Type 1 section if you need more help with these. In fact. On Atfirst. If no helper is handy.enginemust come back and down in small. then disOncethe engine has disengaged. The Bus chassisis so tall.powerplantsto drop: a couple ofdisconnections Remove them and the engine is ready to come stantly monitor the engine so it won't snag a and it practically falls out of the chassis. tioner.the arein theengine nuts compartment the engine. but both nutswill come off without anyoneholding body. '68-70 models. mounted vertically on the plate's rear face. All that's removing Bus enginesbecause the and earlier wood under the engine. Engine-Plate Screws-Unscrew the l0 rear engine-plate screws and lift out the plate.style Bus engines are one of the eisiest VW vertical bolt at each end of the crossmember. There is one jack. The out. be damagedand its oil jack. as Buses stand pretty tall. you accessible only from under the car. Undo the throttle cable at the carburetor and push it forward through the fan housing asfar as it will go. Early connect the rear crossmember. wrench turn against the body. The other upper bolt must be removed compartment seal. With luck. You'll be looking at the nutted end of the bolts from inside the enginecompartment. so get under the engine and toremovethe upper bellhousing fasteners. 23 . you must tip the engine to clear the might not want to raise the chassisnow. Label the disconneuiors. fan Steady enginew itir onehand housingat the carburel.lower the and later Buses use the Type 4 engine. Removal requires a very cable all the way free of the fan housing. wireor cable on the way down. you'll have your handsfull with disconnectthe heater-controlcablesand hoses. The other four are in the rear corners.Continueto pull the engine and jack rear. The fuel line is on the left. the driveplate will Two sections are necessary to examine Lower Engine-Place the floor jack and ply'71 clear torqueconverterright away. try pulling the throttle positioner. Six are in the left. oilpressuresenderand carburetor wires.move the jack.high. On and later engineswith a throttle posi. With thoseout of the way the enginecan be slid straight back out of the chassis. the generator and exhaust. disconnectthe vacuum hosesat the throttlepositioner. clear the Early Bus (Pre-'72)-Start with the air fitter. stop the jack. It's best to transaxle studs and nuts to secure the brace. member. You shouldn't have to raise the chassisvery '70 andthebolt headsare on the transmissionside. and Up to '68. More typically tipped toward the firewall so the throttle posi. the noid connectionsand remove and plug the flexwork.K'eep eye on hoises.Re. An optional method is to continue rearward and remove the rear bumper and body panel. ward while slowly lowering the jack. remove the compaftment watch for hangups.now Startby pulling back on the floor jack until remove the left upper bellhousing bolt. On '70-71 Buses. Slip off the starter solebind boltsso they won't turn.

plus with automa. you can comthrough a hole in the bellhousingfrom inside basically the same as dropping the early Bus pletely pull it through from undemeath. elementfilter. threaddirectlyinto the frame. You definitely needa helperwith a heavy pressuresender. hosesattachedto the intake air distributor. alternatorregulator. and carefully pull out the con_ connect electrical the andvacuumleadsfrom it.remove the two large diameter are out. burelors. tic transmissions havea vacuumadvance cutofT remove the crossmember.and it is removed like the m e n t . but there are more disconnections to car ls an automatic transmission model. extra work.W ithiabeli ne mate_ filler bellows and dipstick. remove the gravel guardfronr carburetors and at the [ilter's centersection. Avoro Knocktngthis somewhat delicateand expensive part when connect hoses so they lift otf with filter. and fuel injectors or car_ plate lirsr. lt is '74s All'12-13 engines. mushy mountsarecited body. On dual_ carbureted models. disconnect the electricalleatls removingthe rearengineplate. n t h i sc h a s s i s . e s e o l t ra r ea c c e s s i b l e as a prime reasonthe casescracked O th b on these 24 FASTBI NOTCH AirFilte oil draini air filters during re unscrew canister. thecase as may be. removeit. after removingthe engine.lorverbellhousingnuts. Lal ing them correctly Check with dua ders with of the ca foul the t so unscr Oil Dips clamp ar This is th tube and cooling e nectorbr 'Ihrottle .Setthejaik cover and paper element. so it isn't a mirror image oftherightrear automatictransmission transaxles immediately connections. the Weak. Unclamp the large S-shapedrubber On all chassis.flip open the clips at the balance tube.Seepage22 in thi lead to the fuel-injection triggering contacts. rotate the pipe counterclockwise pull transaxle mounts on Buses without rear and throttlecablefrom the crossbar at the throttle it out. Disbolts at the eachend of the crossmember which protectiveboot. and hot air hoses from the filter bottom half. left carburelor. the engine is ready to come out. Thc lelt olare Type 4 engine.When thosebolts nector. If not storedupright. oil_ pleces on the late Bus. Type tube 3 air filter removalstarts with hoses.l f s o .remove tic plug in the upperleli mounring flange area make on the Type 4 engrne. Disconnect it. If the the enginecompanmenl. Followthe wirins wrapsaroundtheengineside and runsforward Fit a brace acrossthe torque converteron harnesses over the engineto find all the tlisl alittle. On ceLrbureted enor wood blocks. Then go to the rearand the aluminum box with the cast-in grid work. the hose is attached the to Gravel Guard-Before getting all the way carburetedengines. Get the cablestarledthroughits guide in b o l l s . Oil Filler-As on Type 3s. I. this wire (it's for cablesand hosesat the heater-control valves. Automatic Transmission-This causes some previousType I sectionfbr the reasons this. and remove the two Locate the intake air sensorat the left. hot-air c elbow be carburetc breather Filters nuts ovel center.Watch fbr hangups rials in hand. the backup lighrs) at the fuse holder. It is bestremovedas a unif with filter is the can suspended from the upper right Transaxle-Support the transaxlewith a jack its intake air sensor. residual sectionin the center of the intake system. which and guide the engine so it won't fall off the is in two from the distributor.sifver stickingup from Bus exhaustpipeis oxygen sensor. The charcoal front right of the engine for the fuel lines. check the rubber Throttle Cable & Vacuum Hoses-Undo the nuts. Take out four boltsand Lift off the top half of the filter and setit aside. Removethe ginesthere is a hosemounted the to the top of the wood assembly againstthe engine. gine may also have a temperature sensor the front engineplateand put it out oi the wav. More Cables & Fuel Hoses-Now slideuoto oil will drain into the upper half of the filter and Coil & More Hoses-Look near thecoil lor an the front of the engineand disconnecttheheater contaminate Unclamp and removethe fresh inline fuseholder. i pump on carbureted engines. On of the case. the vacuumhosefrom the intake manifold. Remove the three Locatethe elecrric connecror plug. A paper-element filter is used on 'j3_74 mounted in the upper right engine compartDisconnect plug thefuel linesfromthefuej and carbureted engines. Look on the Fuel-injected engineshave a different paper hoseleadingto the charcoal filter.Startby disconnecting all ceiling of the engine bay.At the distributor. lt's usuallybest to dis. remove the plate. snug againstthe ensine. Then or remove driveplare-to-convertercrossmembers. thenunclipping cover. intake air distributor is the black. Fuel-injectedmodels have the under the engine. Take off the risht rear jack.ate Bus (Post-'72)-Removing this engineis the front engine plate. . rhen rhe lefr rear. Look undertheplay engine. remove the oil engrneclearsthe transaxle. The enPull the accelerator cable all the wav throush Then unclip it at its bottom edgeand lift it out.ilip off its valve mounted near the blower motor. The under the rear bumper. Air Filter-Remove the air filter. remove the ATF filler pipe Once the engine is out. then lower it outof ElectricalConnections. hose from the air sensorand removethe air blower hoses. y place wor Smaff.early Bus ground. Then set about the engine compaftment. Lower Engine-Pull the jack back until the filter body and int:Lke sensortosether. sheet-metal this thin bent strip will come off. U air contn filter. r move thc Electric: the elec pressure injected t the vario The fr left-rear comes fr( connecti< case sen perature Also ren pressure wall. or pressure reg_ oil-bath type. Now raise the iack and olvhoses. Keep it upright. First. d i s c o n n e c t s w i r e . for It's attached nearthe bottom of the distributor. Sr buretors fore rem< the lockn only get t Justpop 1 screwdri Air fil only the removed remainin label the moved. Later. Take out the ignition coil and remove the ulator of the fuel-injectedmodel.

Don't kink the cable or the throttle will be sticky. Fuel injectionthrortlelinkageis undone at the throttle body. disconnect exhaust the gas recirculation (EGR) wire from its transmission switch. the Because the crankshaft pulley nut is inaccessible Type 3s. Undo the two horizontalbolts at eachendof the crossmember which connectthe crossmember to its rubbermounts.Reyou place wom transaxle mounts. With a single carburetor this is done at the carburetor. The fuel injecrionECU mounti inside rhe leffrear inner fender. With all hosesremoved. unscrew wing nut in the center of the filter the canister. Also removethe vacuum hose from the fuel pressure sensor the lelt enginecompartment on wall. Mark and disconnectthe crankcase breather hose. Don't unbolt the vertical rubbercushion-tobody bolts or the crossmemberto-engine bolts. Undo the heater control-box cable connections and stow the large diameter air hosesout of the way. Raise Car-Raise the rear of the car 3 ft and support it with jack stands. Label each hose and wire before removing them so you'll be able to reconnect them conectly.the left bolt threads into a special nut permanently attached to the case. This last line isthefuel return line. Air filters on fuel-injected engines require only the intake elbow and several hoses be removed.remove the wiring harnessat thevariousconnectionson the ensine. These are small c-ylinders with a wire mounted on the outboard side of the carburetor. Disconnect and plug the fuel return line on the right side of the engine if you didn't get it from the top. If nothing else. Support Engine-Disconnect the lower bellhousingnuts.On double-jointed-axle cars. Storein a level position.Don't forget the plywood cushion. Be carefulnot to lower the enginetoo far or you'll damagethe transaxlemounts.They usually catch on and foulthebodywork when the engine is lowered. and intake air distributor. It returnsexcessfuel to the fuel tank.thenplacethe floorjack underthe engine. Thisis theaccordionpiece betweenthe dipstick tube andbody. Then you can get at both sidesof the upper bellhousingbolts from the top. out of the enginecompartment through the rear sheetmetal. plus one at frontcenter. Unlike the Auto-Stick transmission. Check fuel shut-off solenoidson ensines the withdual carburetors.generator and coil. FASTBACK. On cars with an automatic transmission. All Type 3 airfilters are oil-bath units. which is part of the intake air distibutor. On Type 3s. Disconnect the intake elbowbetweenthe filter and carburetor at the carburetor. remove the air cleaner. Another line leadsoff the back of the left manifold and runs to the other side of the engine. the Electrical Connections-Label and remove the electrical leads at the carburetors. The rubbermountsarecentered their mountby ing bolts. Filters dual-carbureted on engineshave wing nutsover each carburetor. injectors. Follow the harnessto the connections the distributor.unscrew the center wing nut and remove unit. Oil Dipstick-Remove the dipstick.If the transaxlesagsalmost to the ground. disconnect the cable at the throttle linkase crossbar. then unclampand remove the oil filler rubber boot. oilpressure sender. it must be off to remove the engine. There is supposed be an engine mount to attached to the fan housing on cars without a crossmember. cylinder-head temperature sensors. It so a lot of ownersleavethemoff. On fuelinjected engines. On fuel-injected engines. slip off the vacuum hose at the balance pipe anddisconnect kickdown-switchwire. Completely remove intake bellows at left to avoid cutting it when engine is slid back during removal. Unclampthe hot-air hose from the hotair controlbox and remove the box with the filter.Also on the automatictransmission.The elbow is clamped and the remaining hoses slip ons. Reach the ring gear teeth through the bolt accesshole. crankat case sensors and grounds.you'll haveto recenterthe engine during installation. Then slide rearwardand unbolt the enginecrossmember. Throttle Cable-Disconnect the throttle Intake and dipstick bellows are two Type 3 & 4 disconnections. SQUAREBACK & NOTCHBACK (TYPE 3) Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. disconnection the should be made on the left and. pop Just therod endsoff the ball socketswith a screwdriver.right fuel manifulds. pick up rear mat and store wires underneath. and the wiring harness comes from that side. plus the air intake bellows from the hot-air control box. It joins the right fuel manifold. Another way of doing this is to wait until the engineis on its way down. Pull the throttle cable through the front engine cover plate and gently loop it out of the way. Fuel Line-Remove and plug the fuel line. you'11 onlygetthecarburetorsout of synchronization. Bellhousing Bolts-Finish the topsidechores by removing the two upper bellhousingbolts.Also unclampand removethe cooling bellows. use a stout screwdriver on against the ring gear teeth to rotate the engine. Wiring alwaysseems to be in your way. bui rememberto are labelthemduring removal. On'72 Type 3s. You may needa helper under the car to hold the bolt heads. and finally runs forward. Don't fiddle with thelocknuts and rod endsof the linkage. know the mounts are useless. supportthe transaxle with anotherjack or wood blocks.Ifyou undothese bolts. That's the sheet-metal center section of the intake manifold. so don't tio them during removal. Two boltsand it's in hand. The fuel manilblds are the metal sections of fuel line right abovethe injectors.On '71 and later engines. The entire circuit or U offuel lines is called thefuel ring. doesn'tprovidemuch support. Snap the throttle linkage off the carburetors the center-mountedbellcrank beand foreremovingthe air filters. The fuel lines then connect to the injectors via the manifold.the full automatic transmission has only three driveplate-to-converter bolts.This is the big rubberconair nector betweenthe engine and rear bodywork.unbolt the driveplate from the torque converter. s0unscrew them from the carburetors. cable. The rubber fuel line coming from the left front of the engine compartmentand running to the left fuel manifold is thefuel inlet line. Lower Engine-Now you arereadyto pull the enginebackand lower it.early Buses. On dual-carburetor engines. They are accessible through a hole in the fronfbottom ofthe bellhousing. Watch for hangups on 25 . Remove this bolt from undemeath. single-carbureted On engines.

its crr engin Wa body transa as the housi engae then r auton verter bellht 26 PORI Alr Type on thr 914 ' engin seats S o . It is mounted on the right front side of the engine compartment and the connectorcomesup to the regulator from the bottom. Voltage Regulator-Pull the plug connector from under the voltage regulator. engin .They are at the intake air Automatic transmissions havea vacuumdis. remove it to exposethe front of the transaxle. unclip the upper filter half lf heaterductswon't pulloff. Start with the air filter. Wire up the transaxle double-jointed-axle so you on cars can move the chassis. A metal tab nutted to one of the bellhousing studs works fine. post-'72shave paper elements. a driveshaft runs forward from the clutch to the transmission.the way down. Follow the wiring harness over the engine to find the connections. Next. Now unclip the bottom half and remove it. and pull pieces apart. Manual Transmission-An unusual desisn featureof the Type 4 manualtransaxle requiris an extra step in engine removal. in diameter. Rotate the engine to expose the driveplate bolts one at a time. then Iift clamps.The front of the driveshaft looks and functions the same as an input shaft on other transmissions. Pop clip ofl with screwdriver (don't lose it).but there are several notable differences. Push the throttle cable through the front engine panel.distributor. W MM Disco widng deant Throttle linkage on Type 4 uses a clip. (l00mm). case connectionunder left axle flange. lt's prob. On carburetedengines. Insidethe transaxle will be the end ofthe driveshaft with a nut threadedonto it. Wires & Cables-Remove the dipstick and oil filler bellows. Remove the transmission dipstick and bellows sectionof the filler tube. remove the rear seat cushion. Remove the fresh air and crankcasebreather hoses. Rotatethe engine with a wrench on the cooling fan mounting bolts or by simply grasping the fan in your hand. too. and steady the engine so it doesn't fall off the jack. Find the round. Fuel-Injection Connections-Label and disconnect the fuel-injection leads at the engine.except it is longer than a normal input shaft.off the upper half. Disconnect Type 3 crossmembers where crossmembermeets engine mount. Look on the left engine-casevertical flange for a round plastic plug. Automatic Transmission-Remove the three driveplate bolts from inside the engine compartment. Unthread the nu behin< some! move move Lower move both tl by crt move ber in chass tilt do engin Thr requir and ar port tl ward. Becausethe differential is betweenthe engineand transmission. Pry out the plug with a screwdriver to expose the driveplate underneath.Unscrewthe plug. Ducts. This task is much easier with the soarkplugs removed. injectors.Oil and dirt can combineto camou. plus the temperaturesensors the case at ably just as easy to pull off this hose at and heads. Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. ignition distributor. Reassemblywill be so much easier. Under the cushion is an accesspanel. as nections. they are heldby at the carburetors and center section. Fuel-injection air filters needthe flage these connections. about2-ll2-1n. screw-in plug. Disconnect and remove the ignition coil. connected at chassis. center wing nut undone and the filter removed. remove two uptransmission bellhousing. Theseparls protrude from the forward left sheet metal in the Bellhousing and driveplate hardware are engine compartment. To remove the engine the driveshaft must be unlocked and moved forward in the car 4 in. Before '72 all 4l1l4l2 filters were oil-bath type. Moving Driveshaft-To reach the driveshaft. spring and unusually shaped cable end. 4ru4r2 (TYPE4) Engine removal in the Type 4 is roughly similar to droppingthe '72 andlaterBus engine because they sharelhe sameengine. Brace the torqueconverter so it can't fall out of the transaxleand be damaged. Be sure you label all discontransmission at engine. not wheremountmeetsbody.ground. then the oil-pressure sender lead and throttle cable. and the engine will operate correctly. Use a mirror to see this connectlon. Unclampand remove the cooling air intake bellows. Disconnect the vacuum accessible through windows in automatic hose from balancepipe. Take off any ducting for the heater blower motor.u 914. per engine mounting bolts from bellhousing. they will have to be alignedat engineinstallation keep engine to straightin compartment. begin the engine bay disconnections.lf mountsaredis.

The transaxle crossmembermounting bolts require personinside the car to tum the nuts one andanotherundemeathto hold the bolts. You can pull the shaft forward the somewhat with the circlip still attached. remove the air filter and disconnect the fuel lines near the battery. oncethey're on the bench. Label and remove all the connections. thenut. it is easier to unbolt it from the chassis. then unscrew the ECU's bracket. Note that boththe engine and transmissionare supported by crossmembers. it's best to remove the transaxlefirst.supportthe engine with ajack. If using a larger floor jack with a wide saddle. or working on dirt. then slide offthe plastic cover from the ECU. ECU connector is at one end. and undo its crossmemberat each end. Reinstall the plastic cover and setthe ECU in a safeplace. remove the engine and transaxle as a unit.you first seethe transaxle. Set Hole in bellhousing(arrow) is for reachingautomatictransmission (labeltherir!)are made. removethe slotted lower splash pan. There is one supply and one return line. Extract the engine. Rotatecrankshaftto bring wiring loomasidednce disconnections gel hardwareinto view. cleaner is great hose and wire cleanerto detail wiring. if not. Two bolts can be felt under the hinges. If you remove the transaxlefirst. Lift off the cover and find several electrical connections. then remove the circlip from the shaft. then remove the other bolt and lift off the cover. Voltage Regulator-Remove the voltage regulator by extracting the two screws on its mounting tang and then lifting off the unit. Instead. PORSCHE/VW 914 Although there is little difference among the Type later Bus and 914 engines 4. Inside the car is a good spot. so the engine is right behind the seats.but to movethe shaft forward the required 4 in. Tip it up so the inboard end with the connector is visible. disconnect the connector from the fuel injection ECU located in front of the battery.Disconnect fueFinjectionwiring on Bus and Type 4 engines. intake manifolds and throttle linkage in your installation.Hand driveplatehardwareon Type 4 engines. If using a small floor jack. You don't have to remove the fuel injection wiring and fuel line ring. take it otf at ECU. relays and other connections. the steps are the same. Engine Cover-First stepin removing a 914's engineis to take offthe enginecover. So. though. First. the car is equipped with Fuel Injection-If fuel injection. So.followed by the engine. Remove one and have a friend hold that side up. Remove the four bellhousingnuts and the engine is ready to disfrom the transaxle. Because of the mid-engine mounting. Monitor the jack too. Now unscrew the round nut on top of the large black plastic cover next to the regulator. The connectorplug takesup almostthe entire side of the ECU. You'Il have plenty of extra room to work and no lid banging your head to get your attention. rusho the w-1n v the fthe read Instead of removing injection wiring from engine on 914s. on the plug. Then move forward. On automatic transmissions. Ileater Blower Ducting-Remove the heater blower motor ducting and the rubber intake air elbow. There may be a plastic handle rnng p off pull :sign uires r the mlsutch rhaft rhaft than ethe forhaft.. then replace the cover and regulator. Now lower the englne.and the transaxle is behind the engine. 914shave had the Bosch Carburetors-Many fuel injection removed and dual carburetors installed. engage thenreinstall the transaxle crossmember. removethe circlip. there sure is a difference in the 914 engine mounting. I explain removing the engine/transaxleas a unit here.While it is possible to removethe engine with the transaxlecrossmemberin place. The engine/transmission unit can then tilt down at the rear. behind nut. remove the battery for clearance. Unscrew the metal clamp around the wiring bundle.securethe torque converter in place with a metal tab nutted to a bellhousingstud. plastic handle on multFpin connector eases disconnecting. the engine can only be removed with the transaxle or after the transaxle has been removed separately. 27 . giving a clearer path for engine removal. as it will have to be lowered transaxle astheengineis lowered. Watch the fuel injectors' clearance to the bodybecausethey are a tight fit. except you must also remove the four bellhousing fastenersto free the transaxle. use a hooked instrument to carefully remove it. completely remove the carburetors. Lower Engine-Under the rear bumper. The 914 is a midenginedcar.when you crawl forward under the back of a 914. then the engine. Supportthe transaxle with a jack.

On these. Once the exhaustpipes areout ofthe way. outboard and forward of the engine compartment. il n fi Heate metal mum gine. Someengines mountthe air filter to one side. Return to the exhaustsystem.Pull rear mounts. Air Filter & Throttle Catrle-Remove the formed sheet-metalair filter support from the centerofthe engine.Drape all the disconnected hoses over the center of the engine so they won't be in the way when removingit. Shift linkageis underneathplastic box with Speed sardine-canband clamp. With the support removed. Once screw is out. Unplug the reverse-light leadsfrom the lefi side of the transaxle.Don't put them under the suspension or front engine crossmember. so rotatethe axleto getstraieht acces Hold 1 two h brake They requir les a ( T tt : Jotnts bolts. Another set-screwarrangement 28 t Anothershift-rodset screw is locatedin front Transaxlegroundstrapbolts to chassisnear of engine where rod enters chassis.but if the chassis lifted fairly high. Look under the rubber boot where the shifter enters the bodywork at the front of the engine compartment. the shift rod can be extracted from the caf.Pass 914 throttle cables through sheet metal so they completely clear engine. The other rear attachment is boltedto the caseusingoneofthe caseflange bolts.Use a long screwdriverto reach down to the case where the two front support legs attach. and extract it. they will kink when lowering engine. and the metal pivot bracket and cable come free.Unwind the sardinecan clamp over the rear shifterboot and disconnect the shifter. the throttle cable can be removed. nave other flangt . ih" b"tt"r.e heatexchansers. Remove them. unscrew the speedometer cable and remove the clutch cable. Undo the flat sheet-metal shielcls under tf. Axles & CV Joints-I've left the axles until now because they are sucha gooey mess. you'll actuallybe ableto see t h ee n g i n e . Otherwise.And the less time you spend pushing the disconnectedaxles out of th"-*au. Somecommon hosesgo to the charcoalcanister and pressuresensor. Un wrench to unlockshift rod from transmission linkage. is the engine can be removed with it in place. placethem at the two small round protrusionsin the body. Loop the cable and bracketaside. Under the wheel are two nuts. You can remove the throttle cable without detaching the support. The clutch cable is undone by removing the self-locking nut in the center of the cable pivot: Ihe round plastic wheel. Remove the rear wheels and tires. This will give a lot more room and light under the car. Removethe muffler from the exhaustpipes and the muffler bracefrom the rear ofthe transaxle. Usea firm tug to pullreverse-light wiringfrom transaxle-mounted switch.leave the air filter supportalone.Use a small Allen wrenchto remove the set screw.Removeeach exhaust pipe/heat exchanger. Unbolt the groundstrapabovethe reartransaxle. Vacuum & Vapor Hoses-Label and disconnect the remaining vacuum and vapor hoses. With the forward connection removed. back rubber boot to expose screw. Lift Car-Raise the car and support it on tall jack stands. Now's the time. Removing Cables & Exhaust-It helps to remove the bodywork panel below the rear bumper. Unthread the lockins nulson thecablehousing. removeshift rod. disconnecr cabli rhe from the throttle arm and push the cable throughthe hole in the right sideengineplate. valve securesthe front end of the shift rod. Use small Allen le. and disconnectthe heater control valveJand associated plumbing.Instead.

then twist the blade. Gently set it asidewithout kinking 29 . this maneuver will keepyou a lot cleaner. Besides the bolts. It takesquite a prying effort to free the CV jorntsfrom lhe tansaxle flanges. Sacrificethe gasket betweenjoint and flange stickinga flat-bladed by screwdriver be- tweenthem. then the to other.The largerthe plywood. These bolts are heavily torqued to prevent loosening. Besides keepingthe closetolerance.heater valves out of the way. cable and easilyremoveit at clutch release. Then removethe two largebolts from the crossmember ends. There's no Examine so mum heaterducting is removedwith en. yourchassis a mini.unthreadthe Clutchcablepivot uses a self-locking for two bracket nuts. Unscrew and remove the CV bolts.need to disconnectheater-control of cablesor gine.Unscrew large nut and pull cable out.6mm Allen head bolts that are tequire specialremoving tool. push metaltubing. Support Engine-Place the floor jack and plywood under the bellhousing. These are the front engine mount nuts. expensive CV joints dirt free. is Clean dirt from tiny splines in CV-joint bolts. there are dowels at the joint. They 12-point. Use a rubber band to securethe bags.The crossmember will drop free (it's heavy) complete with the cables that pass through it. but special 3/8-drive socket. about1/16in. Don't insertmore screwdriver bladethan necessary you'll scar or the mating surfaces.Speedometer is at rightrearof transaxcable le. Removenut and pulleyto loosen transaxle. or have a helper step on the brakes. Heater ductingon Type 4 engines is often After ductingfrom engineis removed. On valves best separationpoint. Keep alternating actionfrom onesideof thejoint this to the otheruntil it separates.Justget a toe hold. Hold axle by inserting a breakerbar through the twolug bolts. access theconstant-velocity to (CV) joint bolts. Rotatethe axa lesa coupleof times to reach all the bolts. After clutch pulleyis removed.so it will protect the metal surfaces. This frees bracket from nut retention. Short Allen head tool and wrench duo shown here is cheapest method. so you'll have work to free one side of it. 914s.connection bearingarm. Go forward and remove the two nuts from the center of the solid metal crossmember. place a plastic sandwich bags over the joint and its flange.this clampjust beforeheater flexibleducting. That's why I try to put the screwdriverright throughthe gasket. leaving clutch cable-to-bracket undisturbed.Extra lengthwill help balancethe awkward engine/transaxle on the unit jack. splines will strip if not completely clean. of blade inserted. As soon as you separate CV joint. the better. 12-point 6mm Allen head tool is easier to use.

twith small mount-to-chassis hardware. Lower Engine-Gently start lowering the engine and transaxle while a helper checks the engine compartment. hardware and parts before they get scattered. Disconnect the starter motor leads. so pay extra attention to them. or smashingthe cables. Grasp it by the endsofthe cylinder heads. Set the engine on the floor. Stai.Use the trunk or Bus interior for storageifgarage space is tisht. Remove these. a get helper and lift it off the jack. Two strong people are needed when moving it. Pick up all tools. Be careful to get the blocks bearing against the cylinder heads. You'll thank yourself at reassembly.It's easy to bang the injectors against the bodywork or have their fuel lines hangup. pushrod tubes.Store all hardware and partsin clearlymarkedboxesand cans. If lifting a Type 4 enginebe preparedfor a heavy load. Use the floorjack to get the chassis backon the ground and pushed to its storagelocation. it can be stored by its mounts on chassis. rags. CLEAN-UP (ALL MODBLS) Once the engineis clearof the chassis. That's about300 lb for a Type 4. This wll save a lot of aggravation when you drag your hairover them. wrap them an-d transaxleflangeswith plasticbajs. Once the engine is out. Go to the rear and remove the transaxle mounts at the body. Crossmember will drop after both sets ol bolts are out. prop one 9nd up with a block of wood. rubber cushion and washers will come out with the unit. Then the entire bolt. It will take a minute or two to jockey the engine free of the chassis. I o"s tcv I . r I I | [ . Remove the unit and support it on the floor with wood blocks.not the fan housing. Don't let it lay unsupported over clutch and speedometer cables. then large bolts at each end of crossmember.Do this now while they're still fresh in your memory. This iron piece is heavy. Front crossmember attaches to engine mountsusingsmallnuts found in recesled wells. flywheel or the like. then remove larger bolts at center.tr As soon as CVjoints come free. so be careful. so take your time. M one are kl Bear engine mounts must come completely off transaxleto clear bodywork. it weighs abouttwice as much as a Type 1. not the sheet-metalpushrod tubes or another vulnerable part. remove the four bellhousing fastenersand separatelhe transaxle from the eneine.Th L 30 .