Table of Contents
J.

1. Time To Rebuild? ......... AccumulatedMileage Oil Consumption . Poor Performance DiagnosticTests . 2. Engine Removal Preparation Beetles& KarmannGhias (Type 1) .... (TYPes & 4) 2 Bus & Transporters Notchback(Type 3) ..... Squareback, Fastback, 41U412 914 Porsche/VW

5

.7

Crankcase & Cylinder Reconditioning ....75 ......... 75 Parts. Crankcase Clean& Inspect 82 Crankshaft 88 Pistons& ConnectingRods 94 Oil Pump 96 Camshaft Cylinder Head Reconditioning ............ 100 .. 101 Disassembly ..... 105 Valve Guides& Stems .... 101 Valves & Inspecting Reconditioning ...... 110 .. Reconditionittg Valve-Seat ........ 111 S Rocker-Arm ervice & Inspection Installation..... ..... ll2 Valve-Spring .. --. --- lI4 Assembly .. CylinderHead ...... 115 Manifolds Intake& Exhaust

l3 l8 18 19
LJ

26 26
1, 1

3. Parts Identification & Interchange ........ 3 1 -'tz .... Indentification 34 Engine Descriptions 35 Cases 38 Crankshafts ^ a +J Flywheels 44 ConnectingRods . 45 Pistons& Cylinders 46 Cylinder Heads 53 ..... Oil Pumps& Camshafts 55 Oil Coolers & SheetMetal . 4. Teardown .......... AccessoryRemoval-Uprights Removal-Flat .. Accessory E B a s i c n g i n e. . . . . Valve Train CylinderHeads Oil Pump Splitting Cases . Teardown Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 58 62 66 66 68 68 10 12

7 . Engine Assembly
Assembly Crankcase Install Crankshaft InstallCamshaft Prep Cylinders ... valveTrain Accessories External T y p e1 & P r e : 7 2 B u s . . Type 3 Post:12 Bus, 914 4111412,

. 116 ........ 119 .... l2l ..... 122 ---. 132 "' 134 ........ 138 ....." 138 .... 143 .. 148

8. EngineInstallation,Break-in, Tuneup .. 156
Prep . Transaxle EngineInstallation 1 Type Type 2 Type 3 4 Type 9 1 4. . FirstStarrl B r e a k - i& T u n e u p n Index ...... 156 .. I5'1 ' . . . . . . .1 6 0 . ........161 . 1 ..'....-- 62 1 ......... 63 ... 166 .... 169 . . . . . . . . .1 7 0 ...... 173

assemble This book eliminates a lot of legwork for you. and 3 and 4 are on the left. front and back in this book are basedon the engine while it is in the chassis. there has to be an exception. but there's always time to do it over'" It's a lot faster to double-check than it is to rebuild it twice. such a basic design was hardly suitable for popular ffansportation when hostilities ended. rebuilding an air-cooled VW is fun.not just disassemble engine comPonents. But from the rubble of 1945 a few cars were built from spare parts' The British officer in charge of the Wolfsburg factory assistedthe German workers in building more cars. And so we reach the point of this book. now known as the Thing' Although 70. throw-away car. you'd have difficulty coming up with a design more out of the ordinary if you tried. as in the removal and installation sequences. it's difficult to remember to keep the positions front and back properly oriented. this book points out the hazards.Americanscame to respectand ultimately adore the round-backed car. Of course. more common engine slyles. Without a government. always take the time to double-check "There's your work. and the 914 is it. to gather the information presented hire. Of course. rebuilding these engines is probably more satisfying than going through other. the Beetle sold on its economy and superior workmanship. it seemedthe Volkswagen had been stillborn. A mid-engine car. No. Pitfalls can be avoided if you know about them ahead of time. all experts in their field. His requirements for an inexpenstve.Introduction The Volkswagen Beetle hardly needs an introduction.that doesn'tmean they are a cheap.As in other worldwide markets.racers and other VW rp-iiulirt. Additionally. buying it in numbers other import builders could only versionsfollowed envy. the 914 engineis turned around so its flywheel is at the car's rear' Unlessthis is imporlant. This goes againstcommon. currency or economy. Just as a Beetle or Bus is fun to own and drive. the VW offers opportunities to measure and adjust basic and engine parameters. It's just that the engine is so completely different. After awhile it becomes natural. I've traveled to machine shops. until you've been around VWs for some time. With the wrong turns clearly marked. long after the introduction of faster. what Germany got was a long ways from the people's dream of motoring down the autobahn. But in the mid-'3Os there were no Volkswagens. In fact. Other cars may be more modern. I rebuilt several air-cooled engines.000 Type 82s were built for the Wehrmacht. there weien't many cars of any type on German roads. Finally. this book helps make VW enginerebuilding easy. Traditional rebuilding technioues and books based on them don't have mich to offer the VW rebuilder. So read ahead. If this is your first engine rebuild. and the Beetlewas on its way' Eventuallythe Volkswagencame to the United States. the "Parts Identification & Interchange" chapter offers considerablemoney-savinginformation. air-cooled Volkswagenscontinue to be popular. First. This is an engine that needs step-by-step instructions for rebuilding. and keep this book on the bench where it will be handy. a fact Adolf Hitler said he was gorng to change. mass-produced. So when I speak of the front oil seal I mean the one at the flywheel end' whether you have a Bus or 914. tools and cash. *ffi n I :::S+i'* I ffiffi Solid years Sin engin sary when the tol is nee In tl tic st( follou the Er rebuil Bel this b able. Cylinders I and 2 are on the right. Unlike many engines. not available anYwhereelse. The Volksiuug"n *u. presentedat the 1939 Berlin Motor Show. A lot of care and thought went into every VW built. it's difficult to imagine roads without them. It's not that it's so difficult to rebuild. quieter and roomier economy cars. it may seem like there are too many steps or points to remember. Bus and Squareback with equal success. and I think you'll agree the intricacies of VW engine rebuilding are more thoroughly documented here than anywhere else. Like left and right. A few specific understandingsand cautions are appropriate here. you haveto keep reminding yourself that the flywheel end is the engine's front. rebuilding air-cooled Volkswagen engines.high-cruising-speed car were met (if not without difficulty) by a bright ensineer named Ferdinand Porsche. while VWs are a common sight and don't commandhigh prices. get starled and handle each point one at a time. But just as unfamiliar roads are easily traveled if you have a good map. and like a detailed map. Read aheadof your progressin the shop to keep the job in perspectiveand alert yourself to needed tools or supplies. or for the chaos in what was left of Germany. with minimal patience. manufacturers. and treating the carefully constructedair-cooledengine like an appliancewon't pay off' VW engines are full of precision tolerances that resoond to cleanliness and careful assembly. Therefore. To that I say. tures i basic are br what' ACC Tol engini . and the crankshaft pulley is at therear. In any society with pdvate transportation they're ubiquitous in the extreme. War brought Volkswagen production only in the ffansmuted Type 82 military fotm. Justrememberthe saying. Now. not even in Germany' In fact. the flywheel is at the engine'sfront. ingrained automotive knowledge and takes some time to get used to. the air-cooled VW is easily overhauled. Also. The knowledge in these words and pictures represents the combined experience of many people.Thus. For the camera and personal experience. never time to do it right the first time. Soon you'll be listening to your Volks puttering smoothly in the driveway-a sound of wonderful personal satisfaction.914 engines are treated like any ottier. but none offer the old-world craftsmanship or personality of a Volkswagen. A factory was built in Wolfsburg for Beetle production and Germany was about to get lts car. parts iuppliers.

Tirne To Rebuild? Simple it rnay sound. the Othertim"r. n g i n e . r.. i l l h e l p y o u d c c i d ei l " r a rebuildis required. When driven inside its oer_ g i n e ' s i n l e r n a l clctrances nd is an excellent a formance limitations. T h e r e a t a r er i g h t.o*.n p..especially Types l-3. s e r v i c e . w t h e m . . i t s i n l e r n ac l e a r a n c c sr ee a s i l yU i i O s e d l a B u sc n g i n e s n d r h o s c l r i v e no l i r o r d t v o i _ b y a no i l f i l m . rs needed.You'll seea wispy trail of blue smoke l h e p o o r c n g i n e s r i v e n h l r d a n c lg i v e n l i i l l e from the exhaust d pipe. i.ancl giv.Thesearernoreimportant thanthi Type 4). . In thischapter. l o d c l e r m i n e n g i n ec o n d i t i o n iS y e lI:o l ltop t l n g . e u l s ri h c p i s i o n u c a l l yl a s rl e s s .000miles Oil consumption is determinedby an en_ betweenrebuilds.e. W e n g i n c s r e s u s c c p t i b lte h c r t .. Sometimesthis is easy.it will go more than 100.B u se n g i n c s c a rl a \ t c rb e c i u r e n n g s a n d v a l v e s . V a o At the crankshaft. Busengine A revshigherthan sedan. B:iur: beginning lour ct'forts. so the engine "travels farther" than a sedan d i m e n s i o n is c r e a s e . more oil to try and fill the voiil and . n T h e n . (exceptin the late Bus and thosemiles. and oil works its wav to i f ' t h c o i l i s n ' t c h a n g c d l t e n .o i l c r n n o tb r i d s e powerplantfbr each mile covered. a A s m i l e sa ( . whentwo.op.. gearin-e. ACCUMULATED MILEAGE Totalmileageisn't a very good yardstickof engrne condition. . rod and and camshaftbeanngs. gageof enginecondition.su you can undersland w n a l\ g o t n go n w h e nt h e y l a l l a p a r t .w h i c h r . n e w . lnrsbookand any other VW lirerltureavail_ able. so fiequentoil changesareal:tsr..c o ..befbrebeginningan as engine rebuild. w a n d h i g ho i l p r c s s u r a t l h e e of extraweight.t .first decicle a rebuil-d neies_ if is sary.s p c c i a l l v resistance t e to oil flow.connecting roclsare poking through thetopof case. m munJatrtrtior long enginelit'e. Dirt is the thegapsbetween rings andcylinderwalls andls enemy of ofT-roadengines sucked into the combustion chambcr and Thoseengineswith the shorlestlif-espan are burned. i o u r n a lw h e r er t ' r f l u n g o t f .excessclcarance has less D r i r e nh a r d .When an ensineis a sedanengineshouldlast this long. Get and a Dasrc comprehension how air_cooled of VWs are bolled together. h e yc a nb eo r e r h e u i e d . While the air-cooledVW engine. c u m u l a l eh e s e a n su e a r a n d p t. isn't well-known for extreme OIL CONSUMPTION longevity. s VW just doesn'thold that rr-ruch It alsohas This causes oil.leaf rhrough . wind resistance their low marn. the owner'smanual. for instance.diugnoii.1 o u ' l l g e t a n e x a c r. we'll examinesomediagnos_ .ui. S t a t e f o l n eL . T h e a i i . pay more attentionto how tne car was operatedand maintaineddurins no paper oil filter. l e i l h e e n t l so f t h e o .tlLttely rccurnulrted iles.Studythe pic_ tures skim the high pointsof the text.

Oil stays But. glance lhe mirrorasyou openthe in throttle.contaminating ber. This lets roo much oil berweenthe guide a"nd remove the pump and rry repairingihe mating valve stem. From the air filrer.remost common in recently rebuilt engines. Type 2 engines. the guides is common.: :irii::!tr. Blowby-Just as worn rings and cylinders al_ low oil to enter the combusiion chamber. and lesspollutants are spewedinto the bad leak. Differenceis oil consumptio-n rate. So. it will affect these fisures. Oil consumptionis an excellentinOicator ot an. Between 500_1000 miles per quart indicates a slightly wide clear_ ance somewherein the engine.Wiggle thi reachingthe crankcase. they would wear out in less than l0 miles fiom They result from prying the-crankcasefrdves metal-to-metal contact.itiil. Air_ at the oil-filler hole. Then. the leaks m-inor. oil pressuredrops.nli*ffiii of service and pooroperating practices destroy engine. A puff of smokeindicatesworn guides or rings. It also causesincreasedoil consumption becausemore oil is splashedon the cylinder bores.:rij!l:iiiiir. ifthe enginehasmoreihan one leakor one cleaner.If a new quart is neided every 500 miles or less.. So you won't be fooled by an oil leak when There is no PCV valve on Type I and upright trying to figure how much oil is being burned. Valve Guides-Some oil passagepast the Original-equipment (Bosch)senders besr. apart with screwdrivers. Telltale signs areblowby vapor blowin! But becausean exhausiport is a hot. along with the normal airlfuel mixture.Both let oil enterthe combustion cham_ ber where it is partially bumed and sent out the exhaust.il ii::. Record odometerreading. atmosphere. but it has beenroutedio the cooled VW enginesare hard on guides because air filter by a hose and metered orifice (valve) ofthe angle with which the rocker arm contacts since rhe mid-'60s. you can bet the rings are at fault. ice picks and other oil _Excessive lossthroughtheguidesoccurs barbaric instruments. If it is loose.r:. excessive clearance there Blowby used to be vented to the atmosphere results in blowby into the rocker cover.i:. When oil consumptionis high and oil pressurelow.oil is suckedinto the combustioncham_ makes a good temporary fix here. next time the intike valve area of the crankcase. mostiy out the oil-filler and dipsrick holei. but not enough to justify tearingit down. When y6u reach rneDottom. make sure oil is level with top line. PCV valve in the hoseleading from rhe crank_ Because someoil leaksresultfrom worn engine caseto the intake-air distributor. the the top of the valve stem. plastic center. covers on these engines. if the engine lays down a i-moke screen. A single puff of smoke immediately upon start-upafler sirting overnight usually meanswom guides and piston rings. high-pressure area.To check. or from partial re_ buildswherethecylinders andpistoniwerenot replaced.. a rebuild is required to correct excessclearances. a. oil the oil. merely venting it to the atmosphere.engine's internalcondition. How Much Is Too Much?_Certainly. Exhaust valvescan pass the sameway. are valve stems and piston rings is normal.Type 3 and'4 engines^usE Iet's a review some of the common oil leaks. oil loss through blowby is burnedin thecombustion chambers. Fresh air from internals. they also let combustiongasespass in the other orrectron. cover plate first.and readdipstickregular_ ly. but the oer_ .These blowby 6 gasespressurlzethe crankcase. Suchoil consumptiin can result lrom parts on the loose end oi the acceptable-tolerance range.Sffi air ittii fltfvensing andmissing filrerwiltshorren eus. ifthe rings andguideswere sealed oil_tisht. There are two parts that contribute to an engine burning oil: worn rings and valve guides. Tighten the oil_pump when guide-to-valve clearanceis too larse.causins to the rocker covers to stop backfires from a puddle right under the sender. This Oil Leaks-Many air-cooled VW ensinesleak p ositiv e crankcase ventilation (pCV) plumbing oil._When level drops to the tirst finJnote oil mileage and subtract first reading from second. air-iootet-vtlv'" will any -' out inlp"rti"ular require regular changes spot-on oil and igniiion [imin6. Much of the time. replacethJs"ender. Another good test is to find a ione hill to coastdown while in top gear. A flame arrestor is Oil-Pressure Sender-Oil-pressure senders placed in both hosesrunning from the air filter often dribble from their plastic centers. But. are and draws more blowby out of the crankcasethai won't affect oil-consumptioncalculations. the engineneedsattention. If that doesn't stop the^leak. After Oil Pump-Leaks from around the oil pump all. RTV silicone sealei opens. there's no harm in buming a quart of oil eveiy 1000 miles or more. into the crankcase. this review should be an integral"part the air filter enters the engine at the rocker of the enginediagnosis.

To locate the source of poor performance. andrebuild it. plugs. wearing out.the cure is disassembling engine and manent addingmaterial by welding Engine/Transaxle Mating Surface-Most leak some oil at the front. the result of engines anoverworkedcrankshaftoil seal. may havebeeninstalledincorrectly. Unfortunately. Case Leaks-These can be anywhere along the case parting line. specific problem. there is a iargeoil leak at the bellhousing. lf this problem is detected soonenough. timing and carburetor or injection tuning. Remember. Chapter 5 has more infbrmation on case cracking. it alsodripsout the bellhousing' Geta dabof the dripping liquid on a finger tlp. that the transaxleseal and is leaking. Cooling efficiency drops and air filte(s) must.When oil poursfrom betweenthe casehalves. See page 76. sure. at leastin BeeButyoucanmeasure tlesandearlyBuses. trluny cars and have learnedto quickly and accuratelydiagnosetheir problems. . POOR PERFORMANCE Performanceis best defined for our pulposes when an engine iency. is thetransaxle leaking.and the end pull the to playis or evenseems be excessive. This results on in a mess theengine'sbottom. the crankshaftis free to wobble. Ontheotherhand. and joint is a marvel of their precision. investigated originatesfrom the # I main bearThecause ing.Mount a dial indicatorto read directly off the crankshaft pulley and end measure play. If the problem is machiningprobablywon't continue. performance refers to both engine power and fuel consumption. Putting this problem off engine canbe very exPenslve. You can try RTV sealer. stafi with a tuneup. If the seal was recently reit placed. The machining on VW casehalvesis ofthe highestquality. pull the engineor transaxleandreplacethe transaxle seal right away' won't go away. someonehas used a screwdriver to pry the case aoart therel a definite mistake. there is no cheap. points. cure.gasketless German production technique. Remove the cooler to inspect the mountings and have it pressure-checked. so the deoress clutch and then monitor the pulley' Usethe detaileddirections for measuring end If play on page 126.iny. it is looseon its mountings'Both leaks are real gushers because of the large volume of oil passingthrough the cooler.fen-d off constint bilmbardment of dirt. The perforce wears the main-bearing bore oendicular so iggshaped. This is a serious problem and should be right awaY. If theenginehas a lot of miles on it.one parallel to thecrankshaft.calledend p lay. end play and wobble Of course. and the case will have to be replaced-an expensivefix.the oil leak is serious. but the only enduring cure is to weld or replacethe case' A case can also leak through a crack' The magnesiumcase of Type 1-3 engines will crack soonet or later from fatigue.Devconor some other material to fill the gap. Diagnosisshoulddetermine the engine is usingthe right amountoffuel to produce the expected amount of power. engineinternalsmay or may not be the cause.If power or fuel economy drops. allowedto do any good. engine life is shortened.however. There'sa chance. lf you're unfamiliar with thesmellandtasteof gear oil used in the transaxle. the Removing engineand installing anotherone is the only cure. Complete the tuneup yourself before performing any diagnostictestsor have it doneby a professional tJneup shop.Thewearis in two directions. dwell. the one closestto the flywheel. shaft end play. Get a complete analysisof the engine's condition from the shop. then the rearmain bearing may be pounded out-the is case actuallydeformed-from excessiveend p/ny. the main-bearing bore can be and machined the casesaved. and the other perpendicularto the crankshaft. but shouldn't any cause alatm. They see . and the sealhas not been changed recently. thensmellor tasteit.The diagnostictestslater in this chapter are designed to systematicallyuncover the Drivinq without engine compartment seal mav ieem harmless. openthe transaxlefiller hole and take a Compareit to the bellhousing leak' If sample. undet-car air into engine bay.too. but lets hot. Oil Cooler-Oil coolersleak for two reasons' Eitherthecoolerhas split apart anywherealong or thetubes.excessive oil the distort neoprene sealat the bearing bore.This is because as a. andoi1pourspastit. It can take lots of muscle to movethecrankwhen the engine is together. Thereisn't any method for detecting crankwobblewhile the engineis in the chassis. it is inif efficient. and the longer it Thisproblem leaks the greater the chance of ruining the clutchdisc.To staba screwdriver into this joint is criminal.ffi< yields poor fuel economy and power.This meansa valve adjustment. if necessary. and will cause a leak. if the areais washedclean byoil flowing from the bellhousing area. dirty. Usually these are little weeping leaks and pose no danger.

camshaft. stumbling and searching(increasingand decreasing). this means that some some of the valve's/ace (sealingsurface)has beeneroded away or crackedby the blast ofhot combustiongases. it's indicated immediately during a seated guide closed cleara cool a The br Eve piece r heada valve erosio bumin be not The lesspr becau valve l sodiun ing ter when valver in the Whr stem. allowing all compression to escapeout the exhaustport.especially considering car. or some of the diagnostic tests will be inaccurate. anything that hinders an engine's breathing reduces its efficiencyboth power and fuel economy. But. compressing it and expanding it. As this condition worsens.l coole stem. but can be solved with minimal work. anotherclue. CAUSES OF POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE A quick look at the most likely internal engine problems will help put them in perspective before you start testing for them individually. valves and sparkplug. harnessingthe expansionand exhaling the byproducts. Every part must be in place. the flap in the box next to the air filter. The key to an engine's pumping efficiency is the tightness of the combustion chamber: the area formed by the piston top. too. Keep in mind that internal-combustionengines are nothing more than air pumps. the valves. Burned Exhaust Valve-When a mechanic says a valve \s burned. head. enginebreathing will suffer if the valves and valve train are in poor shape. if not expense. If any of from the combusthesepartsallow air to escape tion chamber.Don't skip the tuneup. When a chunk is missing. to injectedenginescan be impossible tune withoutprofessional Basic Fuel-Injection TroubleshootingLater engineshave lots of vacuum and fuel hoses that arepafi ofthe fuel-injectionsystem. 8 If a tuneupdoesn'trestorelost performance.Early engines have few adjustmentsand are great at-hometuneup proiects. Tuning the enginewill have helpedin two ways. Burning fuel only makes the air expand. A stuck dirflow sensor. Other fuel-injection problems can convince you the engineis at fault. can cause driveability problems.Think of combustiongases as an inefficient cutting torch and you'll understandwhy valves burn. cylinder wall. this is called hunting. They perform work by inhaling air.the dipsticktube is an add-onunit. The engine then runs on only three cylinders. So. engine performance will drop. For example. Cloudsof black smokeout the exhaust and poor running below full throttle indicate electronic control unit (ECU) failve or a coldstart valve that has stuck open. eliminating external variables from the diagnostictests. rings. A burned exhaust-valve face can't make a gas-tight seal against its seat. Beetleenginehere is builton a Type3 case! Large oil passage(top photo) and U letter code (bottom) were first tip-offs. or the engine will not run right or respond to tuning. including the air filter. buy a new one. first make sure all fuelsystemparts are correctly installed. The idle may be erratic.or valve springscould be at fault. Underneath. If the flap won't move freely after a little fiddling. But it is also possible for engine performanceto be low Examiningengine will often reveal interestbuyinga if ing details. go ahead and do diagnostic tests as a double-check. valve broug . by showing there is something internally wrong and two. a chunk may be burned from the valve head. If an injected engine won't run. This is most likely causedby worn rings and cylinders. which causesa large drop in power and compression. One. Vacuum test results will also be affected. Unscrew the switch from the throttle. Bending the arms so they wipe a new areaoften helps. Later fuelequipment. you've probably cured any problems and a rebuild isn't necessary. Additionally. A worn-out engine will generally perform poorly and use a lot of oil. Check all hosesfor connectionand condition. do the following diagnostictests. remove the cover and note the wrper contacts lhat signal throttle position. In this case. If the engine responds to the tuneup with renewed performance. compl speed pressl no con Eve droppt head b Type I and ste arate a head d andcy the pis The usual\ in the with tt lifters i will bL warnir It's a valv three c (and e engine One corTec '78 an lic val the val for pe air-cor needp servic ance c A ! to and oil consumption be normal. Fuel-injected Type 3 throttle switchesoften needadjustment. All hosesmust be in perfect shapeand tightly sealed. Finicky idle problems and weird throttle responseon fuelinjectedBusesand 914s are often tracedto the throttle switch mounted right next to the throttle. a cylinder won't have full compression if the valves are incorrectly adjusted.

This holds the and valve partially open and can start the gaserosionprocess.curing .Under normal conditions. perhapsthey arehaving cylinder-head sealingproblems. Pulled studs are a very common problem up '70 Type 1-3 engines. From the guide. a valve staysopen longer due to tight clearances whatever. which shedsthe heat quickly to the valve guide.it absorbs heat. but don't count on this remedy all the time. When this happens. Hydraulic valve lifters adjust thevalvesautomaticallyand eliminate the need for periodicvalve adjustments. there is only 18 or 23 frlb of torque on the studs. Therefore. Thus. the exhaustvalve will burnbadly before it drops. a few words about carbon will help you with engine diagnosis.000 miles or less. on a metal-to-metal sealbetween the top of the cylinder and the cylinder head to contain combustion gases. not the source' Merely ridding the engine of carbon won't cure the problem. the oil cooler was mounted inside the fan shroud. on the other hand. exhaustvalve. causing high cylinder temperatures and prematurely burned exhaustvalves.the valve at head destroysthe piston crown. the heat passesto the head and ultimately to the cooling air. are cooled by each passing intake charge and are heated only on the combustion-chamberside. The hammering ruins the engine and it's not even a worthwhile core. It's painfully obvious when an engine drops a valve. If the at-rest torque is misapplied. So they whip out the breaker bar and crank the headnuts down anothertum. barrels and case halves are replaced. Metal particles circulate withtheoil and scorethe crankshaft.compressiontest because engine cranking speed doesn'tchangeon that cylinder's compression strokeand the gagereadsvery little or nocompression. Excessivecylinder-head torque will also destroy thesethreadsin short order. Becauseintakes run so much cooler than exhausts. in the path of cooling air going to the #3 cylinder. Or. the magnesiumcan fatique and the threadsweaken. The net result is a cooler-running. partially filled with sodium. to and a rebuild is not necessary remove them.This is because are exposed to combustion heat on both the combustion-chamber and port sides. to 40 ft-lb. letting combustion pressure escapebetween the cylinders and cylinder heads. they add ten poundstorque to the cylinder-head nuts.is the torque applied to the cylinder-headnuts is not the same amountof torque that sealsthe heads. putting more strain on the cylinder studs. So. the heads and case can be machined back to service. Reciprocating valvemotionthrows the sodium back and forth in the hollow stem. Some cooling takes place through the guide. the cylinder heads can warp. The threadsin the case are magnesium.and some at the seat when the valve is If closed. Type 4 engines get combustion leaks just like Types 1-3. The engine expandsoversizewhen it is overheated. The first point to give is the cylinder stud threadsin the case.Hammering of the caseand headsby the cylinders is not a problem with warped heads. some of which sticks to the combustion-chamber surfaces. This type of valvehas a hollow stem. Luckily. Theburningprocesshas begun. No wonder the studspull out of the case! Overheating the engine has the same effect as overtorquing the cylinder-head nuts. although a rich airlfuel mixture can be just as bad. All other VW air-cooled engines use solid valve lifters and periodicvalve adjustments. The steel thread inserts are commonly called case savers. longer-lasting Exhaustvalves are much more prone to burnvalves exhaust ing than intakes. The problem is the threadsin the case. where it passes heat to the the stem. Sodium melts well below the operating temperature the valve.000 miles. In '71. Type 4 engineshave a thin metal gasket for better sealing. so this is some warning before it destroys the entire engine. the oil cooler was movedout of #3's airstreamand an offset sectionwas addedto the fan housing to enclose the relocated cooler. So. But when the enginewarms up and expands like a balloon. The studs are strained and being pulled from the case. it leavesthe cylinder free to hammer the crankcase and cylinder heads. Loose Cylinder Heads-Type 1-3 VW enInstead. Once it starts. combustion pressureand gaseswill be lost through the gap.Skipping this need or service maintaining insufficient valve clearance can easily lead to burned valves. Both gasoline and motor oil are hydrocarbons.you've just aboutboughta new engine. The most common sourceof harmful carbon depositsis excessiveoil consumption. What they don't understand. which is no match for steel when it comesto mating threads. Prolonged idling and slow driving can also cause carbon buildup.When the engine is cold. it has both less time to or cooland absorbseven more combustion heat. Whenthe sodiumis at the hot head-endofthe stem. cylinder wall and cylinderheadas it gets slammedaround by thepiston.Type lthroughthe '77have steelthread insertsinstalled in 3s from the case at the factory. spring. Still. With casesaversinstalled.If the problem is caught soon enough. so burning them in the combustion chamber in the wrong amounts causesexcess carbon deposits. carbon deposits are a symptom of a problem. Now the effective torque on the studs is nearer 55 ft-lb. This preheatedcylinder #3's cooling air. A valve cools best only when it is fully seated. Then the weak threadsare ripped right out of the case by cylinder-head torque and combustion pressure. the studs won't pull. and they sometimes sepstems arate thejoint. they are much less apt to burn.It will immediately begin running on by three cylindersaccompanied a lot of honible (and rattling. Intake valves. only delay the symptoms. Before'71 . not the studs. Becauseonce the cylinder heads. When the studsdo pull. Such doghousefan shrouds stop #3's exhaust valve from burning any sooner than the rest. so it can cool well if heat is broushtto it bv sodium or some other mech- anism. Usually a valve will benoticeablyburned in 2.however. If these parts loosen for any reason. letting the cylinder head and cylinders bang back and forth with piston motion. Theexhaust valvesused in 914 enginesare proneto burning than other Type 4 engines less because they are sodium-filled. Instantly shut off the expensive) engine help minimize damage.This isn't a factor on '78 andlater Busesbecausethey have hydraulic valvelifters. and their threadsare strong. They can be added when rebuilding to earlier cases that don't have them. causingall sortsofhavoc in the rocker cover. Then it getstossedto the cooler stem-end. If an enginewith case saversis overheated. Becausemany valvesaremadewith heads Type 1-3 exhaust joined together. while there may be ways to get rid of carbon an buildupwithoutoverhauling engine.The stem is in constant contact with the valve guide. pulled threadsare no longer a common problem. Even well-maintained valves can bum if a piece carbongets caught between the valve of head seatasthe valve closes. A v alve drops when the head breaksoff from the stem. heat is transferredby the sodium from the headto the stem. so it is a liquid of when the engine is running. The studs are steel. Carbon is a solid byproduct of incomplete combustion. the aluminum cylinder heads and cast-iron barrels grow a lot longer than the steel studs. the valveburningprocessis rapid. What typically happensis the cylinder head studs pull out of the case. Type 3 and 4 engines never had this problem because flat mounting ofthe cooling fan has the always positioned the oil cooler away from any one particular cylinder. Some people may look at the low torque specificationsgiven for these cylinder heads and figure they aren't enough. retainer and keepers usually separate also. for example. camshaft liftersandoil pump. to Oneprimary cause of burned valves is inconect valve adjustment.they rely ginesdon't useheadgaskets. But after 100. Carbon Deposits-Although carbon deposits don't fall under the categoryofengine damage. Thevalve stem. when they assemblethe engine. Another factor affecting valve burning on engines with upright cooling-fan mounting is oil-cooler placement. then it will reach over 70 ft-lb at operating temperature. Evenworse than a burned exhaustvalve is a d t droppe exhaus valve.

A moment 1ater.onthe right side on earlier carbs. The excessheat will causeseveredetonation. Worn ringsandvalve guideswill alsocause excessive carbon buildup from incomplete oil buming.causing preignition and detonation. This devastationcan happen in less than one minute if the engine has been running for 10 minutes and is fully warm. cylinder temperatureswill quickly go sky-high. They of areusually associated with low-octane gasoline ot over-advanced timing. To test the solenoid. it is very susceptibleto overheatingand preignition causedby too-advanced timing. But the penalty for too much total advance is severe detonation. It's no secret that advancing the spark in aircooled VW engines increases their power.but with today'sfuel it might inside wire i the wi bad a "dead Stethoscopeis preferred tool for pin-pointinginternal engine noises because it amplifies sound coming through probe and reduces surroundingnoise with earplugs. A hot piece of carbon acts like a diesel-engine glow plug by supplying an ignition source other than the sparkplug. combustion-chambertemperature and pressure exceedsenginedesign limits and damage occurs. over-advanced ignition timing andengineoverheating. prompt attention to the causes abnormalcombustionis wise. solen when Fue when shouk De necessary. long-term light detonation will wear the rings. As an air-cooledengine.Thetwoflamefronts collide.hole a piston and spew metal throughout the lubrication system. sometimes producing an explosiondetonation-rather than even buming. If you advance the ignition past specification. If r the er decid NOIS Interr a diffi fluenc leastt ing ar Open cil.Checkfor theseproblemsif the engine detonates. short-tripdriving. detonation can be causedby staleor low-octanegasoline.You can easily burn-oul excess carbon accumulatedthis way by taking the car for a long trip.So. When the ignition is turned off.Also.slow- ing the idle and reducing spark advance a few degreeswill help reduce dieseling. Carbondepositsin the combustion chambers can also causedamage. Plug replacementor cleaning usually cures theseproblems. Imagine red-hot carbon in the combustion chamber. Although not as severe. This shouldstop the dieselingmentionedabove. First. but the secondignition source. sound you ci sound to hea Aid 10 . A carbon-aggravatedproblem most people arefamiliar withis dieseling-the enginerunson after the key is turned off. Carbon easily heats to incandescence.the glowing carbon. they may shroud the valves. Carbon deposits causetrouble in two ways. the engine may need a professional tuneup or carburetor overhaul. but severe cases can burn or blast holesin oistons. This is sometimescalled light pinging. sounds akin to colliding billiard balls. slow-speed. throttle response and improves engine acceleration. If that doesn't help. Fin are he gine. valve andring damagecan result ifpreignition or detonation is prolonged. Turn on the ignition without starting the engine. preignition without detonation causes excess combustion-chamber pressure and temperature. Audible signs of detonation are pinging or knocking. the fuel shut-off solenoid may be faulty.the sparkplugfires and the mixture also startsburning near the plug.Ridding the engineof carbon. retardthe timing a degree at a time until it doesn't ping. pistons and cylinders more quickly. or get betweena valve headand its seat. When a fresh intake charge is compressedon the compressionstroke. the sparkplug will short out and the cylinder will misfire or go totally dead. Detonation is very similar to preignition. the hot carbonpreignites themixture. lights the mtxture after the sparkplughas fired. They contribute excess oil to the combustion chamberand it can't be completelyburned. Pay specialattentionto the ignition timing of a VW engine. If a piece ofcarbon sticksbetweenthe plug electrodes. Heed another warning: These engines selfdestructratherquickly when the cooling system fails. the solenoid is deactivatedand a spring-loaded plungerclosesthe idle circuit. If you drive a delivery route. Carbon deposits build up on the backside of a valve and restrict airlfuel mixture flow into the cylinder.anddeformthe main-bearing bores in the crankcase. Ignition timing is also commonly overadvancedby owners looking for more power. carbon will build up because low cylinder of temperatures. These types of abnormal combustion can damagean engine by placing a heavy load on engine internals. Loose carbon depositscan also lodge between the electrodes of a sparkplug. considervehicle operation. stuck thermostat. breakrings.excessiveoil consumptionmay meanan engine overhaul. fault. If the engine pings at the slightestload. Look for the small can on the side of the carburetor with the wire leadingto it. but doesreducefuel economyandpower. concerned be ifthe engineis knocking heavily. Piston.but without any accompanying pinging or knocking. Nevertheless.This will heat the combustion chamber and burn away excesscarbon. or foreign objects in the fan housing. As a final note on carbon. This timing setting may be retardedfrom the specified stocksetting. Besides carbon buildup. Again. if thereis a problem with it. The solenoid is on the left side on '71 and later carbs (34mm) and. s in ba< noises hear l Peo eyesi tion tc your ( sound front. If the cooling flaps remain shut from a broken or missing spring. Admittedly. you may pay for it with an engine overhaul. substantialengine damagefrom preignition or detonation isn't prevalent. Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid-Type I and 2carbureted engines since '70 have an electric fuel shut-off solenoid attachedto the idle circuit of the carburetor. Recent researchindicates a small amount of knocking or pinging is not harmful to an engine. Drive it a half hour or more at freeway speeds. Now touch the lead to the solenoidconnection. the solenoid should click (the plunger is moving DIAC No' probk witho may 0 the tes it.asmentioned earlier. remove its electrical lead. or do a lot of in-town. Sor with i probk stall tl origin have i speed stop d On solenc Theor particl usuall On solen discor other. The resulting suddenpressureand temperaturerise is more than the engine was designedfor. So. Each time you touch the lead.

the solenoid is thewire is bad and needs to be replaced. The engine mayor may not be exhibiting problems. not at the middle of the rocker cover. Fuel-injection systems stop fuel delivery when the engine is shut-off.006 in. Therefore. It may be necessary remove the fan and generator assembly to investigate this noise. before the pistons have expanded. Aids for locating noises are a stethoscope. NOISE DIAGNOSIS Internal Noises-Diagnosing engine noisesis a difficult and imprecise art. reducing piston-to-bore clearance. Rocker arms can be checkedby moving each by hand with the valve completely closed. check if the wireis supplying electricity with a test light. solenoid's Theorifice is very small and eventhe tiniest dirt particlecan clog it. close the hood. Once oast the exhaust. rocker arms and lifters. close your eyesto help focus attention to the sounds.006-in. If "hot" (has voltage). and probe the fan area with your hand.unlessthe engine diesels. First. look elsewherefor the source. It works best when held against a solid part-head. And. You won't hear all from each spot. If there is any appreciable movement other than 90'to the shaft. Engine noises can be lumped into three categories: intermittent ones. place the stethoscope nearby bolt head or solid rail. For example.let's start in on how to find themwithout taking the engine apart.inside). and then recheck the solenoid operation.If ithas aproblem. you can single out and stop thesenoises. length of heater hope or a wooden dowel. stand in back.biased People so eyesight. standto one side. There have been other clearancesspecified by VW in by the past.you've got a crackedfan or bad generator or alternator bearings. you can locate it on a warm engine. Abnormal Fan Noises-A lot of abnormal noises come from outside the engine. so dieseling shouldn'tbe a problem with them. early Type 2s and 9l4s becausethe fan is right in front ofyou when looking into the engine compartment. Openthe hood. Unlike the stethoscopea doctor uses. the intermittent sounds-the oddballs. and thoseoccurring at every other crank revolution. toward perceiving via their aro. The other major noise in a air-cooled VW engine compartmentcomesfrom the fan. and try to to wiggle the fan on its hub. ranging from with ahouse fan.With a hose. you can decidewhether to rebuild now or later. This. first one solenoid and then the disconnecting other. remove the fan belt and run the engine for a few seconds. If the wire is "dead"(no voltage). just forward of your ear. Isolating Normal Noises-Now for the hard part: What do theseproblemssoundlike? Let's startwith normal enginesounds. manifold. There is one bottom-end noise that can happen at every other revolutionpiston slap. Noises occurring at every turn of the crankshaft come from the bottom end: worn piston pins.which increases er inspection require engine disassembly. but it helps mask soundsfrom the sides and amplifies those in front. On Type 3s with dual carburetors (and two determinewhich one is defective by solenoids). it's possible there is a wom camshaft lobe or lifter. If you have trouble telling whether a noise is at one-half or at crankshaft speed. case. so engine vibrations don't bounce the dowel into your ear. On pre-'71 carburetors. Many factors influencethe way sounds are perceived. It can make several different sounds. Ifyou hear one valve over the rest.If you don't hear a click. Just rememberto properly adjust the valves after the engine cools. but do anyway. Ifyou suspecta noise from againsta beneatha cover.If the noise disappears. If it does. As a secondchoice. If you don't find anything. the problem is in the fan' A sharp. position the receiving end of the dowel againstyour skull. a noisy valve can best be heardby listening at the edgeof the rocker cover or cylinder head. broken rings.Leaning forward into the engine compartmentwill help mask the exhaust. Valve adjusting proceduresare on page 136-138. Never close a valve adjustment tighter than 0. if you are checking for one loose valve. If not. A proper valve adjustmentcan only be done while the engine is cold.the main noise of an idling engine should be the soft ticking of the valve train. But. Cam and liftclearance. A shot of compressedair usuallyclears the orifice. Type 3s and flatengine Type 2s project more fan noise than Type ls. but all have been superseded the 0. those occurring eachcrankshaftrevolution. or if all the valves are making more of a harsh clacking sound. DIAGNOSIS Now that we've examined some engine oroblems. When using a dowel. learn to mentally dissect what you arehearing. so you can more easily hear internal engine noises. those that you can noises hearwill sound different from each spot'. the low-pitch noise associated and a high-pitch whistle. Piston slap is the sound produced by the piston slamming againstthe cylinder as that cylinder fires at the top ofthe power stroke. hook up a timing light and see if the noise coincides with flashesof the light. intermittent rattling noise from the sheet-metalfan shroud of Type I and 2 engines may be a loose or broken fan. the noise is at one-half crankshaft speed-a top-end problem or piston slap. items stuck in the fan and so forth. Try the rocker arms. it will only bum the valve. By poking around the engine compartment. the dominantsoundwill be the exhaust. you can more easily block out the unimportant while concentratingon those you want sounds to hear. From there. you'll have established baselineof the engine's condition. hold one end firmly against the engine and the other end to your ear. if you still have the noise with their fan belts removed. Noises that occur at every other turn of the crank-at camshaft speed-are most likely coming from the valve train: valves. 11 . the rocker-arm bushing or shaft is worn. If the valve noise remains after adjustment. or the valve will burn. Check the tightness of the large fan retaining nut. lay down in back and to the side.Upon first hearinga running engine. Finally. the initial impression is a big jumble of By sounds. Piston slap is easiestto detect on a cold engine. Then all the valve-adjustment tightening in the world won't quiet the engine. If the noise occurs twice for every flash. a Type 4 engine with hydraulic lifters. increases the valve noise. it's at crankshaft speed-a bottom-endproblem. it occurs on every other crank revolution. Piston slap is audible when piston{o-bore clearanceis excessive. rubbing hoses. Then reinstallthe fuel shut-off solenoid. This test will isolate only the generator or alternator on Type 3 and 4 engines because their fans are driven directly off the crankshaft. becausethere's only one power stroke for every two crank revolutions.006-in. All air-cooled jt unless is VWs use 0. For example. Raise the rpm past idle and the ticking should turn into a whirr.The engine will die when you unplug the that's working and show little change solenoid whenyou unplug the one that's not. a length ofhose or dowel can be used instead of a stethoscope. Consequently. trace and repair the wiring fault. measurement. If so. try different spots. the fuel shut-off end doubles as the idle metering jet. It's a great way to pinpoint a noise.And. adjust the valves. Carburetorsnot originally equipped with the solenoid can't haveit added. These are external sornds coming from loose brackets. critically identifying each sound.. valve clearance. timing and idleare adjustments required in thesecasesto speed stopdieseling.Cupping your hands around your ears may look funny.you'll find thetests a it. in effect. worn rod bearingsand main bearings. Someonemay have replaced the solenoid with a standard idle screw. Remove any debris. not the leastbeing the human factor. a whining or screaming from the fan area usually means something is caught in the fan. lifters or camshaft. sit inside the car. there's no problem. Stop the engine.As you listen to an air-cooledVW. an automotive stethoscopehas a solid metal probe at the business end. Ifvalve adjustmentdoesn't cure a valve-train noise. When investigating an automotive sound. bolt heador the like.

disconnectand plugvacuumlineleading dashpot.If the exhaust system is tight.Rhythmic scraping soundsare likely to be a bent crankshaft pu11ey the cooling fan rubor bing the fan shroud. On dualport and fuel-injected engines. Rods also wear with accumulated mileage. then quickly unloaded. thoroughly warm the engine to operating temperature. Even when a clip is broken and the pin is free to score the cylinder. the rod will weld itself to the crankshaft. Many times. it covers the oil holes in the crankshaft.It is causedby loose or cheap replacementtailpipe baffles on Beetles and early Buses.. Ihere shouldbe no morethanal/4-in. Metal-to-metal contact startsas the rod bearing is slammed against the crankshaft. When the bearing spins. Oil ceasesto flow to that rod and it rapidly overheats.You'll have to apply considerablepressure to exhaust openings as a well-sealed system has a lot of pressure. ortheir bushingsget loose. for the they rar especi bearinl knocki are a ri DIAGl Crank is an en the pur ing thr crankir sealed in goo< vacuun portion Beg temper ute drir There' warm i Onc the ign nect y VACUUr intake vacuur of the buretor Port \ mary create ious e vacuu applic 12 . The sheet-metalshrouding can be bent out of the way with a wooden dowel. Bent crank pulleys areeasily seen by sighting acrossthem while the engine idles. screwdriver or the like. for an instant. To test for rod knock. Then they wear in sets. When rod-bearing clearanceis large. With conventional ignitionsystems. Intake-Air Hissing-A loud hissing accompanied by poor idling usually indicates an intake-air leak. It's difficult to hear over the normally loud VW engine mechanicals and not easy to isolate. It occurs at every power stroke. and all other precision clearances have been destroyed by the passingmetal. In other words. so don't lose any sleep over them. the bearing is no longer clamped by the connecting rod. knock or pound. worn rod bearings are bad main bearings. The best way is to removethe high-tension leadfromthe center of the distributor cap and ground it. you'll hear a phuft. the rods should rattle. or ignitiotn-system damage may occur. but deeper than. serious damage has been done to the crankshaft and rod. Make surethe distributor cam and points rubbing block are well-lubricated and then recheck. This sound is often heard during a cold start before oil pressurebuilds. tt Placetl ly with tor slov load thr main br right al and trar the tral test is ( WV Piston-Pin Noise-All air-cooled VWs use full-floating piston pins.twistthe lead slightly. remove and replacethe sparkplugwire to each cylinder one at a time. commonly called a vacuum leak. To test for main-bearingknock. Round can at right is throttle dashpot. Ona by sele until tht engine 1 on the t tor. graspthe bootaroundthe distributor-cap terminal. For quicker throttle response when testing for rod knock. but mating flanges at the cylinders. examine the rubber hose sections of the intake manifold. plus the air intake and metering areain general. case. A few well-placed wooden block and hammer blows can straighten out a bent pulley. phuft. Check the tightness of the carburetor{ointake manifold connections. Ifyou think you hearpiston slap.groundthe leadto the head or engineblock. so you'll hear a castanet-like rattling with old. you'lI hear one steady knocking beat. When you get to the affected cylinder. This is becausethe rods float on their joumals as they pass through the transition of being loaded. Oncethe testis done.heavily insulatedwire running from the coil to the center of the distributor cap. Be sure to ground the plug lead when disabling a cylinder. phuft sound coming from the leak. the better. Piston slap is a dull. rod knock is it. which is being disconnected. Disabling the cylinder will reduce piston slap because combustion loads no longer exist.gap between the free end of the lead and ground. cover the exhaust outlets with palms that are swathedin wet rags or block the pipes with your shoes. plus the intake manifold-to-cylinder head hardware. move into a medium rap and finally develop into a knock. Exhaust Leaks-These are often confused with other. hollow sound. sealing the ends of the pipes wilt stop the engine. Another typical exhaustsound is a whistle as the engine is accelerated. you may hear the rod knock start out as a light tap. seizeand break. The high-tension lead is the large. A spun bearing is one that is rotating relative to the rod and the crankshaft. You have to take the engine apa. Rod knock describesthe knocking sound made by a connecting rod when there is excessiveclearancebetween it and the crankshaft. Main-Bearing Knock-Sounding similar to. so it's a good idea to check the exhaust system before jumping to any conclusions. Exhaust systems can leak from anywhere.but dashpotsare found on all air-cooledVWs. Rod Knock-If there is one internal engine noise associated with air-cooled VWs. some are betterthan others. On engines wilh electronic ignition. there's a better chance of hearing it while driving than listening for it with the hood open. By the time a rod is knocking. with the engine idling. if that's easier. Exhaust is very hot. Now. and pull out the lead. With the transaxlein neutral. Don't leave your hands or shoesover the exhaust pipes very long. Cold-start enrichment devices normally make some sucking or hissing sound while they are operating. muffler and tailpipe extensions are the usual spots. so it sounds off in time with the valve train. Reconnecting the plug lead will restorethe noise. Main bearings knock for the same reasons as rods-excessive oil clearance-but under different conditions. They are very rarely a problem. Continued driving may spin the bearing. Distributor Chirping-Dry distributor-cam surfaces can cause the points to give a highpitched chirping. Engine rpm must drop sharply. lightly rev the engine. or they'll get burned. In fact. phuft. Usr speed a don't k throttle bearing frequen this betl for rnor the clutr while gr periods with axle. put the thoroughly warmed engine under load. it won't raise any racket. See the sidebar for more information on disabling the ignition. So.there are severalways to short-circuit electrical the supplyto the plugs. Thisis a to 411 engine. tired bearings. and camshaft are sure to be broken. When you hear a rod knock. the noise will greatly diminish. more serious problems. The rod. Piston Slap-Piston slap has already been mentioned becauseof its timing. The sooneryou stop and overhaul the engine. so don't be confused by them. To remove it. andabruptly lift offthe accelerator. oil can't fill the gap between the rod bearing and crankshaft. This givesthe high-voltage electricity somewhere to go.rtto detect bad piston pins. When thesepins wear. If one rod is bad. they don't make any noise.The twisthelpsbreakany corrosion that resistswire removal. As rpm drops.This the can destroyan expensive electronic-ignition module. insteadof continuing build voltage to andtryingto arcto groundinside coil. depending on how you hear it. STOP! Rebuild the engine while there is still enough to rebuild. say from 1000-2000 rpm. Ifyou are on a long trip and overheat the engine. Usually metal particles from the rod have been pumped through the engine with the oil. Pushing or pulling on the top of the fan shroud will probably eliminate the fan noise. lt dows throttle closingvia rod restingagainst throttle linkage. DISABLINGTHE IGNITION Many diagnostic tests call for the ignition system to be disabled. If there are leaks.simplyreinsert the lead into the distributor cap.

Then load the furtherby putting half of your right foot engine onthebrakeand the other half on the accelerator.By measur. test is the best method. or makenoise. it alsoisolates applications-opposite of the high manifold- cylinders contribute little to manifold vacuum. they'11 so are do rightaway. a quick. at 5000 ft.) temperature-tenminutes idling or a five minA wom engine with no major problems will utedrive. Then to ground the lead. of fail. If all internal parts are level. If you hear are knocking orpounding from the engine. of With an Auto-Stick or full automatic transis axle. But. Keep engine speed about 1000 rpm during the test and at don'tlet the car creep forward. byselecting first gear and letting out the clutch untiltheenginebeginsto labor. nect your vacuum gage to a fulL manfoldIf the needleregularlydropsto near0 in. If the main bearings going to knock. it's a Power-Balance Test-This test shows how vacuumsignal that reads low on part-throttle much each cylinder contributes to the power which outputofan engine. you can determinewhich cylinder is at fault. hold the brake firmthe ly with your left foot and depressthe acceleratorslowlywith your right.Thus. for example in Denver. There's need to overheatthe engine. warped cylinder heads and worn buretors fuel-injectionsystems. just have a steady. just above the throttle plates.This is easiersaidthan done in the confines of a Bus engine compartment. An engine in good condition will lower. you'll have to perfbrm more maryventuri. You can perform a power-balancetest at home '79 and later on any air-cooled VW except for with electronicigniBuses. Manifold much vacuumduring problemsin secondswith a vacuumgage.pull all sparkplugleadsoff the sparkplugs. tester A professionaloscilloscope/diagnostic easilydoesthis.This is they rarely true of Type 4 engines. accelerating during other while or periods high engine load. test To do a power-balance on them.The car's tachis not 't3 . then set the leads lightly back on the tops. By comparingthe resulting rpm drop for each disabled cylinder. If you are looking for a more subtle problem. tesl for bad main bearings easier. just loadthe engineso the car tries to creep. iunningidle test. a ious emission-control switches.Therefore. The vacuum ing the vacuum an engine produces while at valuesgiven below are for measurements sea cranking. the knocking main and will sound off with a heavy. estheignition so the engine can't start. Beginby warming the engine to operating pull a steadyvacuum ofabout l0 in. To pinpoint the cylPortedvacuum exists in the carburetor priinder at fault.Hg. canalsohearbadmain bearings You goinguphill.Hg thepumping below areading taken at sealevel.This engineisn't drawing shot. You cando the sameby inserting a metal spring between the sparkplug and lead. to however.pecially slow-cranking ones with 6-volt startlng systems. use a dwell/tachometer measure rpm drop for eachcylinder.orado. Be careful! Don't do this for morethan three secondsor you'll burn out theclutch. a bad one showsright away.valves.ringsare probably vacuum readings under the same conditions. touch a grounded wire to the spring. so a professional To perform a power-balance test on other engines. chances area rod is about to fail.On a manuai-transaxle load the engine car. too. ear-calibrated powerbalancetest will tell what you want to knowwhich cylinder is it? BecauseVWs have only four cylinders. or cylinders. cranking vacuum will drop about I inch of mercury DIAGNOSTIC TESTS step (in. It creates vacuum signal usedfor operating var. Colisanengine-cranking ability of the engine.Check for heat out of the heater. lowbearings pounding. The idea is to pull the lead away from the plug and ground it against the head and stop that plug from firing-this is called open-firing.the engine will produce a lot of vacuum-if not. With a little throttle clutchjuggling. Don't overdoit. Just make sure the then there is a problem.Hgwarmit up. is VW mainbearingsare quite large and strong for thehorsepower the engines. wearout. the Place transaxlein gear. and con. Vacuum-The next diagnostic Cranking vacuum test. too.tests.Hg) for each 1000-ft increasein altitude.There is no needto keep the engine andtransaxle straining-this is very tough on (5-10) and the A thetransaxle. the lead has to be grounded without open-firing it first. vacuum will be pro. disable it's normal on a four-cylinder engine. or have a friend crank portionately the engine. a If you suspect burnedvalve or other major problem.They are equipped tion that can't be open-fired. but lower reading.Becauseatmosphericpressure drops as altitude increases.Hg. You're going to lift a lead off its plug without a lot of tugging. few seconds test over.Use the parking brake. The rod especially bearings much more suspect. A note about altitude and how it affects vacuum readings.pistonsor rings. the Once engineis warm. Such a vacuum drop vacuum sourceisn't ported vacuum-from one can have numerous causes: poorly adjusted of the small diameter nipples on later car. You can practically feel fiequency this better thanhearit.pulled head studs.you are really testing how wellthe sealed cylinders are. (This 5 sameenginein Denver is registering in. shut it off.Hg."''* You can detect maior of vacuumis excellentindicator overallenginecondition.burnedvalves. '-%iffi' "Y::. This checks So. Judgingfrom grit and lackof air filter. worn cam lobes. Prop the vacuum gage so you can see it in goodshape. Any vacuum nipple on the intakemanifold will do. The engine will then be running on three cylinders. Don't be no alarmedif the needleswings about 2 in.through the rear window. crankingvacuumvalueswill be 5 in. racuumsource.

Late Type 2 & Type 4 Type 1 & EarlyType2 @ Type 3 rype l&Earry f-b-l' rype2 ( ((a\ 6-Ll . and the porcelain insulator will appear burned. Replacesuch plugs and engin6 that into your palm and you get an oily mess performancewill improve. take notice. ground the first plug lead and wait for engine rpm to stabilize.the porcelain insulator around the center eleccessively_rich airlfuelmixtures. none will drop very much. which requires sparkplug removal. distributorpositionat TDC (Top Dead Center)and firingorder.---\iI vi l\ i\ FLYWHEEL + . B Reading Sparkplugs-Think of a sparkplug as a removable portion of the combustion chamber.)KY..cylinder#1. *.andyou'll seeit hasusefuldiagnostic potential.All distributorroiors. Now. Remember. indicaiing ii well coloring and more likely to show symptoms of all in the combustionchamber. Rub Reading. sparkplu.the cylinders with the leastdrop are the bad ones.stop-and-go drivingor-a too-coldplug heit range. if all cylinders are bad.Electroderoundingisrnoderateand insulatbris even tan dr gray. unusual combustion.FLYWHEEL + "":? 'tEtrcET - | --\^Y/-7-l-. It's most sensitive to normal. let's discusssparkplugreadingnow. If the mixture is too lean. Of course. Therefore. If the fuel mixture is too rich. Good VW cylinders usually register a drop of about 200 rpm.Shiny-black-coating inciicaiesexcesd oil that won't rub off easily. crankpulleysahdfans rotateclockwise. The insulator can also turn a pastel green or yellow in normal operation.Oil in the combustionchamber will leavethe plug wet and shiny black. Don't expect the readingsto be any closer than 20 rpm.Photoscourtesy ChampionSpark Hu! C'ompany. Rub the carbon onto the palm of your hand. f engine oily plr with tt Compr pressio conditi There r taperec and he the scr difficu mount coolinl hold a bent ir screwtype. write down the reading and reconnect the plug lead. the plug will be coatedwith dry. = |LINE PARTINGE ---. flat-blackcoating comes from ex. But when thesereadings start varying by more than 40 or 50 rpm. the plug will be powdered with a white coating. depending on the individual fuel blend beihg used. Normally. It doesn't matter so much how far rpm drops as how close the readings are to each other. don't confuse it with oil-fouling. lt's worn out. ) helper any ca compr The disabk out for engine fully c openin using i linkag helps. Plug B is oiFfouled. when .. Also be aware that soark- plugs I show tl cause0 driven You who re turn ad race. plug c is carbon-fouled.) to if the much are 1o Re grve( 14 . t/ i(il i .possiblyfrom worn rings and valve guides. The black depositsshould wipe off easily. Becausethe compressiontest follows. Note vacuumadvancecan positibnand rotor tip points at #1 when installed. with an even tan coating and slight rounding of the electrodes. Go to the next plug and do the same until you've done all four. flat-black carbon. ingam will ct engine Scr use.gs can-yieldimportanttroubleshooting clues. Il busyp plug h wit c and cr about cranki come fast cr highe \ same of cor Lik are de surec in. plug D is trodethan the metal shell.Jl self. With thc tachometerconnected. Distributor driveshaftslot positionat TDC. Noteoffset of slot: thicker arc faces different positiondeiending on engine.K" Type3 Type2 i1 \ | i Cylinderlayout. - i p ao"= rir cAsE a E l T r N r .A carbon-fouledplug's dry. pay more attention to consumption. When reading plugs. accurate enough for this test. a really bad cylinder may not drop in rpm at all. a plug should be dry. PlugA suffers from heavily rounded electrodes and pitted insulator.

With a small.9711 1000 andcrankthe engine so the testedcylinder is full so you don't squirt air into the cylinder' .or. not desirable' It is and 59F at sea level.Atmospnenc ic pressure linkageopen with a screwdriver.ith.they'll come close to the other cylinolussfrom a street-drivenengine can onty ders. can ioi e*impre. ' Factor ing the squirts. If you crank them some leeway' givedifferentreadings. They will registerlower valuesthe higher difficult useon VWs because cone and its rubber'conetype likeone shownis atttrouglr are mount usuallytoo shortto reachthrough the thE altitude. Compressionreadingsare influencedby psi.ip. and tempressure "Screw-in (accounting decreased for To help determinethe causeof low compresto compressiontesters are easier Just multlply for oerature) difterentaltitudes. Worn camshaft lobes can also just as accurate' also awkward to shrouding.. starlerswitch. you'll be termine how many squirts it takes to make a conditions. cylinders and valves' tery will run down during a compresslontests' are There two types of compression testers: a But if it does. prop the throttle acceptatle. instead. So.en. butiustfinefor the actupsi on tire next and so on.7860 8000 increase much' about 5 compression doesn't strokes.jump the battery to anotherone to type that is inserted into rubber-cone tapered maintain cranking sPeed.on that. plugs in a street race. i"r. the pushing conetightly againstthe sparkbusy teaspoonget a teaspoonand fill it while countolushole.9151 Crank the engine two revolutions or so to 30O0 crankingspeed slow as the tested cylinder . becausethis conditionsbethe sholw mostbasiccombustion condition is usually causedby poor nngs' ofthemanyoperatingconditions a streetcause On the other hand. So. of squirtinga teaspoon oil sion.to. Then squirt the sameamount oI Altitude (ft) frith .r. Screw-in tester is easiest to use' ings. is ensine uanked.75 to get94 Therefore' test-part-throttle for ful'ivopenfor an accurate Specifications altitudeand temperature. and ancl Altitude will affect compressron reaorngs version is Foputar diagnostic check is compression type. do iwet testby value for compression1in Justscrewit in and crank the engine youruse. urinn standard Notice I said acceptable. ihe specification into that cylinder. Remember. jot down the increasesand fast compression . over150psi.t method. heldagainstthe open sparkplug hole.9428 strokes' You can hear 2000 6-8 compression about ."idingt and vice versa.r. I would be wary of the the *ilt ro*i out of the sparkplug holes when The chart supplies correction factors low cylinder.8617 : 108 psi' The cylinders time to pump up. mulriply 125by 0. it isn't likely that the batof condition the rings. consider them faulty' Below 14. are if all cylindersread above 94 psi. .This is becausesuch cams sacntrce type. so comwhin crankingthe engine.7psratmospnerday cnnditions: u"r.ito crankthe engine. if the highestreading is^l25 The throttle and choke plate must be engine.8106 7000 number builtl is neededto restorethe lost clearances'If ruL. A helper is bestjn breathing.lt plug oit"y ona street obtained from compression testing' One is withtheringsor valveguldes' cranking speed. even reaolngs psi. if you're compressionvalues are usually based.8617 5000 pression comes up markedly.enough. they in oo.so allow 15 .8359 6000 ihe trouble is poor ring{o-bore sealing' A rereading' Test all four cylinders the highest .ur"tents.They are cooling cause lower-than-normal readings' Highcylinder pressure while you are hold against oerformance camshafts.you'll need a remote starter switch or a low-rpm breathing for improved high-rpm tt. l2Oor 125psi. you use a rubber-conetester.sfamiliar comCompressionTesting-The rut" .)to psi X . SAE 30W is fine' To depsi) by the factorfor the engine'soperating If se1f.t up on . ignition Double-check your findings with the 7570rule: ind all sparkplugs removed' Watch disabled HIGHERALTITUDE& cylinders must read within 757oof the highA11 outfor hot partswheneverworking on a warm LOWER COMPRESS]ON est cylinder. if a cylinderyietded the because airlfuel charge ingandopenflames sion-testresults. There.different compresslon testers hay have inciease by l0 psi at a time. Problem cylinders arelow.ninitresult low readingsSo. The rubber-cone thescrew-in even as it influences manifold-vacuum readthe to test. don't be too concerned in. to tumadjustmenl the carburetor and won the if you crank this type of cylinder enough.at about 5000 ft' the sure rangefrom 75 psi (pounds per square warped be You may notice a cylinder that takes a long equivalenicompressionreading would. Note: Avoid smokcompresonly 97 psi and-the pensatefor this when interpreting ei. tuy. Just make sure the oil can has . a cylinder suffering from engineis subjectedto' driven excessiveoiling-from bad rings even-can Youmayhaveheardabout the ace mechanic readingsbecause vield hieh compression-test whoreadihe plugs' then made a one-eighth the seals rings'Again' oil in thecylinder L*. also give lower compress^ton tester. If a friend hard to set a wear limit and say anything above decreaseas alllpressureand temperature helps. Use a duration profiles. Usually' a cylinder will pr-oTrouble is idS if the figures seem generally low' wltn seaduce40 psi on the first piston stroke' another35 could be reading low comp-ared muchmorelikely if only one or two cylinders Lu"Lm"u. trouble reaching 40 psi and. al operatingaltitude.8881 soreadthe oil. Retestthe low cylinder' If com4000 its compressionstroke' Note how .. Compression testing takes place at it because leavesyou free to watch the case anv cranking speed-well below idle speed' gageduring the test' compression The engine must be warmed up. oI compression the problem is probably with the of reading 125 Like the power-balancetest. Give eachcylinder the same .if possible.havehim fully depressthe accelerator is sood and all below are bad' In the example tude increasesabove sea level.valves. hold the thottle open oil into the cylinder. *. psi at sea levelwouldregister cylinder head. 40 psi or more. Wet tLst such a cylinder.higher speedgives higher pre. It could also aredesirable. tively high readings can result' can't be read that way' Check for the ensine There are variables that affect the readings a reveals problem engine. then compression An acceptable be pulled head studs or a lessinDenver' Dependingon the engine' pres.. with their longbentinto a VW engine compartment. pression is a good way to measure tne test four-cylinder engine. If using the conescrew-in readings. relaThat'son a race engine.

Frequent valve adjustments become necessary keep noise down to and the valves adjusted. unlessyou do a lot of enginediagnosis.the piston must be at TDC of its compression stroke so both valves are closed. and inspectthe camshaft and lifters directly.cost and more involved test procedure usually prohibit homemechanicuse. valve lift decreases and the ensine doesn't breath as well. Compressed aii is pumped to the cylinder while the tester monitors how much air it takes to make uo for cylinder leakage. altitude or excessiveoiling. generator. Many tuneup shopscan do the test for you. Increased noise is part of the wear process becausevalve clearance increasesas the lobe and lifter grind down.A20Voleakage indicate can a high-mileageengine. even just a little. and wear concentratesln one spot.If so. During the test. the worsetheproblem. As the cam lobes wear. A compression test gives an accurate enoughpicture ofan engine's condition 90Zoof the time. Next. #2. then connectthe testerto the adapter and the air compressor.or the cam lobe'wears flat.The readoutis in percent leakage. Instead. holed piston or the like. partof the the a lifter which is closeto originalthickn-essnow is against the lobe. It takes a minute for the leakage to reach the meter. So.by againrotaringthe crank 180oeach time. but ifthe exhaustvalve is leaking. but doesn't normally warrant a rebuild. both the rings and valvesmay be leaking. Leakage for an engine in good condition is 16 valve is to hook an HC/CO meterto the tailpipe and squirt some carburetorcleanerinto the cylinder. or fan. A 30Va leakage is serious enough for an engine overhaul or valve job.Insteacl. Bring the # I cylinder to top deadcenter (TDC) of the its compressionstroke. disconnect the tester. Check the engine timing marksto make sureit's exactly on TDC. the less valve lift and horsepower. install the hose adapter in the sparkplug hole. intake-air sensor or breather. you can hear the hiss of escaping air in the tailpipe. Sometimes leakage is evenly divided and hard to attribute to one source. if the engine seemswellsealed at the valves and cylinders. Once finished with the first cylinder. A good way to check for TDC is to insert a long. the working surface of a lifter and the top edge of a camshaft lobe look flat. a9OVo leakageindicatesseriousdamage. To understandthe wear cycte. You can usuallytell what's leakingby listening to the engine with the tester attached.o so longerover cam Iobe. valve lift is likely your problem. It is also a test that can be skipped most of the time. This will keep the engine for turning over. This makes the lifter rotate with each valve opening and spreadswear over the surface of the lifter. such as a badly burned valve. you can the feel when the piston is at the top of its stroke. This is especially true if there is a burnedvalve. If it's slightly off. But becausethe valve was adjuste clearan valve < started runs oI If y< find it adjuste loosen engine starts c its lovr now. if you have accessto a leak-down tester. Reconnect the leak-down tester and watch the meter. holed piston or other catastrophic cylinder damage. Therefore. One way to spot a suspected leaky exhaust . Start by reading the instructionsthat came with the tester. a leak-down test is an excellentidea. Remember. This wears the lifter and especially the lobe very rapidly. You might as well get on with rebuilding the engine. This unit is part of professional diagnostictester. However. The shorter the lobe. Power is reducedand valve train noise increasesbecausethe valve clearanceincreaseswith cam and lifter wear. A leak-down tester uses an external airpressuresource. the HC portion of the meter will peg instantaneously If you usea ! tuneup shop for the leak-down test.this is one test to farm out.Bad-sealing rings and cylinders can be detectedat the oil-breather or dipstick holes.Accuracy is improved beiause variables affecting compression-test readings-those that have no bearingon the sealing capability of an engine-are eliminated. It is possible to disable one cylinder by adjusting its valves. At first glance. first consider how camshafts and lifters are made. If you are diagnosing a car before buying it. If the diagnostic tests thus far indicate worn engine internals. however.the lifter's bottomis convex. even frequent valve adjustments don't stop the wear once it is started. ir's a sure iign of multiple problems. On the other hand. there is little need to consider valve lift. This test actually doesn't require a leak-down tester. Testing is done with the engine stationary.Leak-Down Testing-Although it's also a measure of combustion-chamber sealins.so lts center protrudes more than the edges. the worn spolis. skip thecompression andtestthecylinders resl witir the more accurate leak-down tester. VALVE LIFT Valve lift is the distancethe valve is moved off its seat by the camshaft. The cost should be minimal. a leak-down tester will definitely help you make a decision. Of course. or air the engine will tum over. Farmthis test out to get accurate evaluationof engine condition. but lacks power and has noisy valves that won't stay in adjustment. Then the lifter tendsnot to rotate. others are available separatetools. You'll need an air compressor(a l/2-Hp model will do) and the leak-down tester if performing the test yourself. so that when the lifter restsagainstit. Otherwise. valve duration. Problems start when the lifter wearsa sroove into its concavesurface. the contact point is off-center.just an adapter for the sparkplug hole and a compressed-airsource. With the screwdriver contacting pistontop. They aren't. Leak-downtestequipmentis expensive. tl and ne If th needsi cam al replace quired timely Chanc Leak-downtesting can indicatemore about engine conditionthan any other test. until the lobe is considerably shorter than when new. And. a leak-down test is more accuratethan comJiession testing. The top of the lobe is cut at a slight angle. Need as for air compressor. have a helper hold the crank with a socket on the crank-pulley nut. The higher the leakage rate. They only reduce the valve clearancefor the short time it takes the lobe to wear down some more. Pulled head studsmay causehissing leaks between the cylinder heads and cylinders. That will provoke some mystery! What happensis the lifter rotatesright aftera valveadjustment. the engine witl kick over without warning the instant the cylinder is pressurized. lOVoor less. Leakage past intake valves can be heard at the carburetor or intake-airsensor.If the exhaustvalve is lenking. they should have an HC/CO meter available.A length ofhose can aid listeningin somechassis holding by oneendat yourearind the other where you suspect leakage: carburetor.leakagewill approachl007o as all the compressed blows by an open valve. Then testcylinders#3 and. thin screwdriver into the combustion chamberthrough the sparkplug hole. the test is not influenced by cranking speed. If the compressionreadings are baffling. rotate the engineI 80' to cylinder #4 and testit. alternator.

Racer'scan't hearnoisy valves over open exhaust. They can then determine if the cam lobe is wearingdown. this measurement is out ofthe question unlessthe engineis out of the car. use a dial indicator to measurevalve lift at the valve-spring retainer.but might mount on the cooling shroud or exhaust. so endless valve adjustments are usually another clue that the engine needs an overhaul. as well. but valve lift relative to the other valves. Note the space available for a dial indicator before considering measuring valve lift. then rotate the crank pulley until the valve is completely open. though. Read valve lift directly on the dial. Indicator magneticbaseswon't attachto aluminum cylinder heads. No puzzle now. like drag racers. Measuring valve lift lets them determine there is no camshaftwear. you'Il need a dial indicator. If the enginehas 50.adjusted the worn section. Complete engine disassembly is requiredto service the cam and lifters. Remember.000 or more miles and needs valve adjustmentevery 500 miles. Rocker-arm ratio w111 add to lift measuredat the cam lobe. . so it's timely rebuild the rest of the engine. a bit puzzled. a valvi less If is lifting less than the others. consequentty. When the ensine is started. So. For a test of this kind. allow for the rocker-arm ratio and valve clearance.theengine'scam and lifters are worn out andneedreplacing. you'll findit tight on rharcylinder. they don't have to split the casesto determine the cam's condition. and don't have time to split the caseto look at the camshaftbetween races. some way to mount it near the valve springs and enough room to fit the instrument. In other words. which was iust adjusted conectly. the a camand lifters are worn out and need to be replaced. the cam is worn and will need to be replaced or reground. compression can't buildandtheingine runson three cylinders. to Chances the valves and cylinders are worn are anyway. because you are measuring valve lift. look for a valve that is liftine considerably rhanits neighbors. On somechassis. valve clearance will subtract. Rotate the engine until that valve is completely closed. If you recheck the valve clearance.like 914s. Zero the dial indicator. you loosen adjustmentto specificationsand the the engine runs fine. actual valve for clearance zero and the lobe is holdins the is valve openal! rhe time. Then five minutes later it starts clackingaway as the dished lifter rotates its low spot over the lobe again. Bring the indicator's plunger to bear on the valve-spring retainer. don't be concerned about the absolute valve lift. If measuringvalve lift. Measuring Valve Lift-Some VW specialists.

ldflywheelto make widerfloorjacksaddle. Jacksare stallation. you'll have a hard time restartingthe engine. have a gardenhose. port the car during engineremovaland installa.Steamcleaningthe top is jack stands. you'll needa l-112-tonversionfor lifting most other cars. you warm the jacking point for loweringthe engineis right Additionally.The floor jack resists ment. r Get O engint where an enf big bc do ge find y the ch wil disco and di memc and fi and br housi and s dropp Ge .Don't forget off. Steam cleaning is for truly filthy enginesWith patience.try not to removea VW hour. Use the high-pressure water/detergent the soft plywood givesthe hardengineandjack the goo and grime gets underyour fingernails.the mechanic and is trapped atop the engine by A for raising and lowering. scising an engine guarantees headaches during intoo messyasthe hot solution is reflectedback at sors. This makesthe Avoid theseproblemsby cleaningthe engine Rememberto cover the distributor.the sheetmetal. clean the enginebefore working engine. little prepara. many different types of chassis. For the samereason. a piece of plywood. solvent blasting shapedto fit.for supportinga tion and caution before and during engine re. spray and leave the messthere. Wrenches slip. able. roll the engine/jackcombinationtoward you. little pebblescan chock 18 the jar jerkinl ing gn full sh on. Engine removal and installationare imporConsiderhaving only the bottom of the enOnce the car is up. Problem is. moval will reward you when installing your Solvent blasting uses compressedair and Ajack can fail. A balanced jack.The floor jack is a hydraulicjack in a wheeledframe. the stinky mess ends up on your betweenthe engine and floor jack. beforeremovingit. or thicker plywood to place hardwaremust also be readied.Lifting & Lowering Tools-To raiseand sup. you must support it with tantsteps any overhaul.It's alsodangerous.but the same steamcleaning. use afloor jack andjack stands. Theseparts must be kept dry or It's frustratingto pull on the engine. It works well gOVo when it does.Look Air-cooledVolkswagenengines found in are ough solvent blasting takes about as long as in the phone book under Rentals. Typically. to work on. A VW air-cooled engine is lowered fromils special tools are needed for all cars: a floor Spray degreasercan be usedat home if you raised chassiswith a floor iack. it could be fatal. Most service stations have the equip. Engine Cleaning-A dirty engineis miserable driveway. Threemethods general.Haphazardly in remov.gine steamcleaned. Both the to PREPARATION ing and practically any shop can do it. A thorfloorjack andjack standscan be rented.For Powertrain on 914 is somewhatheavy. check with a tractor or heavy. screw or otherwise) as a stand. costis reasonable thejob takesabouta half and to remove this waterproofingbefore driving.then hoseoff the crud. not. car while you are underneath. and if you are underthe car rebuilt engine.You'll need a sizeable let on it anddecidewhereto pull it. Wdd short length of pipe over gland-nut bore to secure flywheel in jack. jack stands.but imaginepullingequivalent package(enginewith VWs a l-ton version is adequate. surfaces somethingto dig into. fasteners hide under wash.hopingto and spray degreasing.this method works as well as only to have the jack stop and the engineslip suchas an oil leakerdriven on dirt roads. Use two jack of the time. Evenon equipmentshop. If Y try rer the ph hobby base. Cost is comparable steamclean.very hard packeddirt. piece of ll2-in. solvent to blow off the dirt.clutch. only a floorjack! Besides. a 1-1/2but all accessories. it happens!) engineon a dirt surface.it will sink into the dirt instead. transmission. it set so the under the oil strainer. It under Con when movin The cl pendir about angry cities.Engine Removal ffi Use g. Suppr ward qoncrr betwe tion.sprayit with degreaser. If not. Solve that by doing the job at a car Besidesprotectingthe enginefrom gouges. ly available:steam cleaning. and.standsto hold up the rear of the car.carburetorwith plastic bags or aluminum foil are making engineremoval safer and a lot easier.(Yes. Containers for degreaser can penetrate.coil and engine less likely to slip off the jack's pad.The steam cleaningor solventblasting. Never use any jack (bumper.differentialand coolingsystem)out of a Camarowith ton jack is sturdierand usually will lift higher.ifyou're planningto buy a floorjack.rolling.

Its hoseattachtery negativecablefirst. Look in thephone book for a do-it-yourself auto shopor hobbyshop. thejack wheels. Draw your own schematics ofthe various connections help at reassembly.just mark the first the right side of the engine compaftment.Disconnect it at the air filter. then removethe posi. On Type I -3 right of the engine. Fuel-Injection Air Filter-Undo the four permanent. theyoften have auto hobby shopsavailable. Labeling disconnections is a critical step. keep it upright. It will also keep you cleaner as you work underthe car. or oil will conchassisbecauseof the different chassisair.another for heater tubing andso on. Thechassis will be immobile for awhile. undo center of the oil stainer. you'll find your memory can't make any order from thechaos.If you are stationed at a military base.On soft asphaltor dirt. there aren't many disconnectionsremember.On the 41 I marker. mechanicaland fuel lines.when handling and storing an oilWe'll examine engine removal chassisby bath air filter. Three weeks is on about average.or you won't use them. GetOrganized-It's a trying taskto install an engine someone else removed. and 412 look under the driver's seat. up to It's to you to label and keep track ofthe electrical. Use these for labeling the vacuum and electrical disconnectionsyou'll make. lay a full sheet ofplywood down to roll the floorjack on. Who knows where those all nutsandboltsso? Well. too. a cable is fitted to the warm air flap on the filter inlet. Once it's out. Consider what you'll do with the chassis whenyou removethe engine. With the earlier Beetle. the Geta roll of masking otherstouttapeanda or BEETLES & KARMANN GHIAS fiYPE 1) Air Filter & Housing-Open theenginecover and remove the air filter. 2s to 2s and so on. Without tipping the filter. placeplywood during engine installation. so don't skip it! There isn't enoughroom in this book to list all the hose and wire diagrams for the various chassis. angrylandlords.If a dirt floor is all you have. label and disconnectany hoses. backbreaking grunts. try rentingspaceat a service station. Unclamp and remove the engines. but now is a good time to next disconnection getsa 2 andso forth. Use one for belland housing hardware. The paperelementis easilyidenBattery-On all chassis. pulling anengine throwing all the hardware in one and bigbox amounts the sameeffort. On the Beetle.waterproofmarking pen. The Iongerthe from its mounting bracketand remove it from oil drains. making engine movement a jerkingseriesof barely controlled. On the You don't have to know exactly what the Bus. and wardol rear wheels on sturdy chassis component.You'll thank yourself at installation. Karmann Ghia air filters are mountedto the Drain Oil-Now drain the oil.taminatethe upperhalf of the filter and spill out cooled VWs are mountedin. When you to do getaroundto installing the engine. then unlatchthe filter assembly and mechanical disconnections. Or use a plastic label maker.then unscrewthe clamp at the air-filter housing base. Label andremovethe crankcase oil drain while you make the variouselectrical breatherhose.tified by its rectangular shape. hosesand cables.disconnectthe bat.It's aggravating try and start your nect the ls to ls.Labelallwire hoseconnections tapeandpermanent car with marker. lift it off the carburetor and set it aside. disconnections ofcomponentsaboutthe engine ln'73 a paper-element filter replaced air the aresimilar in all models. The cable is connectedto the engine thermostatand controls engineinlet air temperature response enin to gine temperature. Karmann Ghia and 914.set them on These labelsare your insurancefor correctlyinstallingconnections @ncrete best foundation. Squareback and Fastback. During completelyremovethe batteryfor cleaningand engineinstallationall you'll have to do is concharging. Save yourself considerabletrouble andfrustrationby getting several coffee cans and boxes labelingthem. the first few of the unit.but later engines to and different chassis definitely tax the best can memory. complete with some of the larger tools. The batteryis undertherearseatin the them with masking tape and your permanent Beetle.Support with jackstandsany time it is raised.ments are different. Yet.Next. Stationary cars attract vandals. Label tive one. If youdon't havea dedicatedworking room. you open the engine. Placestands for. From August '67.the lessmessyou'll have later when the engine compartment. Have the containersready before dropping engine.the drain plug is the large bolt in the filterto-engine and hot-air hoses. moving chassis the meanspushingor towing. hose 1 and where it attaches with a 1. 19 .even the authorities in some cities.Let the the filter inlet. The It's not essential. Earlier cars had oilbath air filters with a minimum of hoses attachedto them. but no problem. the the warm-air control flap cablefrom its arm on drain plug is separate from the strainer. to fiesh engine only to find the battery dead. ENGINE REMOVAL Remember. depending how fast you work. vacuum. On the Type 4. don't rely on memoryalone! for so between standand ground to prevent settling and tipping. oil-bath unit. the battery is on hosedoesyou are removing.

However. pull cable guide from fan housing. but it's not the right one. voltageregulators slip-onconnectors used on generator-mounted are clips aroundthe air filter housing. are and alternators. The negative to the distributor. on pliers hold throttle cable and linkagewhile cable is Needle-nose or disconnected. In this case. You have extramarking andremovingof necessary wires engine Bec diseng rear el earlY t screw Latt from I Comp ber ga screw over t fuel-it small aloun manif Thr endsc attach UnSCfl screw Raise until 20 .The voltageregulator '73 '74 is mounted separately on and early alternators. and remove Generator/Alternator-Mark the three wires on the generator. If the car has an altemator. The throttlecableis removedby unscrewingor the air filter housing cover and the paper air filter element. them.Remove the trvo air cleanermounting nuts on either side ofthe hood clampedbehindthe fan housingto hold a homehinge and lift the air sensorand filter housing madegrommet. Generatordisconnections normallythree wires right on top of the generator. nearthe choke heating element and fuel-cutofT wires. Mark and remove them. Clean filter canister and changeoil beforefilter is installed rebuiltengine. wires l other. you can pull the cable out the fan housing the rest of the way. throttle cable into the guide now.removethe three slip-on connectlons. Fuel Injection-Unfortunately. which is the cable toward the fan housing. chassis. Next unscrew the rubber boot's clamp at the A lot of throttle cable guides have been other end of the air sensor.Neverpull by the wires. it will also drain from under lid. you'll kink cable. Don'tloosencinchboltagainst cabletension. There Electrical Connections-Look underthe disare severalbreatherlines intersecting with this sendingunit. Be careful when pulling back the rubber boot and tugging on the conLater. After that. and hos connec tra fuel installat The r push-on other d. Now disconnectthe multiple unbolting the clamping bolt and pushing the wire plug onthe intake air sensor. when the engine is paftially out of the nector.The voltage '66 regulatoris mounted on the generatoron Beetles. remove the multiple-wireconnector. ( and att Also one retl Get the Thrott tle pc diaphrt under positio but it i lowerir housin will cl Rear I of the partmc piece t After throttle cable is removed from linkage.In that case. Ol The Follow labelinl and ten be pusl Mak.you can push the off as a unit. Disconnect the positivecoil wire. tributor for the oil-pressure Carburetor-Mark and remove the automatic connect and mark its single wire. Look on the coil. the regulator is integrally mounted on top of the alternator. just leave guide in place. unclamp and remove the rubber air duct. cast-aluminum box. lf so.Tipping filterany morethanthis willsloshoil insideagainst air upper section. Pull the cable guide out of the fan housing and set it aside. Disduct. Sometimes a hose clamp is placed on guide in front of fan housing as a retainer.This releases Also remove the fuel line and throttle cable. brownis have nc out of 1 tically t connec Sometir end. VW's Bosch fuel injection addsa lot of little stepsto engine R&R (Removal and Replacement).Always hold linkagestationaryinstead. and pull it completelyout when lowering the engine. terminalsfor a * signif you don'tknow which wire alsoruns is the positivewire. With the sensorout of the way.

you can each the unscrew rear engine cover-plate attaching screws pull the plate out of the car.merely remove the fbur and screws lift out the plate. when lowering engine. edge to find its attachment 21 . Justleaveit alone. injectors. to and attaches the chassis. rearbodywork mustbe high enoughto clearthe top of the fan housing.never tnder You can crack the case the engineor transaxle. Of wiring is in a harness. When you remove the cable.Then the hamesscan and temperature aside. The fuel-injection it Follow aroundthe engine. Replace or tape-repair damaged hoses. Just slip them ofi at both ends and set aside. bepushed Makesure you follow the harness. and Raise Car-Use the floor jack to raise the car until the ensineis about a vard in the air. This is especiallytrue of those You usually connectors. Some leadfrom one side of the engine to the wires other. and least stabLe.crankcase sensors. are pull-off.With thosepartsgone. the plate must be removed.and there's no reason to disconnect Onlyremovea wire if it leavesthe engine them. Freeing the cable end requires pliers to grip the lever. butit isn't so. remove the two covers tubesleading to the intake around heat-riser the manifold. you'll see an aluminum unit diaphragm-and-cylinder sticking out from underthe carburetor. you have extra stepsif the heater controlshaverustedshutand then beenpeened over by rocks.A bolt passes throughthe leverand cableend and is nuttedon the other side. so be readyfor it.Takeyour time when labelingthese hoses. engine the Because enginemust be slid to the rear to it disengagefrom the transaxleinput shaft. and them reversed the enginewill not start. Loosen small bolt on heater-control valve arm to free heater cables. the cylinder shouldfall free. and theseexYou'll be reconnecting connections. Practicallyevery time you succeedand the spade inside the connector separates. Thehealrisertubecoversare at the outboard coverplate. Use two wrenchesto remove the bolt and nut. slowly lower the caronto them.Most plugs separate other don't. removethesehoses and their rubCompletely at ber gaskets the cover plate end. which are meansmostjack stands raisedto their highest. the usual rust penetrant. This raises positionerso it housing will clear rearbodywork. tray so the enginecan easilyslide rearward.Four screws ends oftherearengine attach one. have choicebut to grasp the wires leading no outof this type of connector and pull. the Alsoremove two fuel lines: one supply. The These are clean aft hoses connecting fan housing and heat exchangers. This is piece sheet metalis part of the cooling sysof tem. Be one return. you'll have to tilt the fan the the forward. (Unless you have a overthe crankshaft engine. disconnectingand labeling wiresat the coil. then the cablewill pull free. On rear engine-cover early40-HPengines. Most manuals say the positioner must come off for engine removal.VWs haveto be raised a lot to get the engine out.position. by jacking under the engine. rectangular brownish. Put the jack under the framejust forward of the transaxle. Check the stability of the car on the standsby gentlyshakingit from sideto side.)Finally. Heater Cables-At the front and sides of the engine you'll find the two heater-control cablesfrom valves. Alternately. sureto correctly mark their flow.Removethe heater-control their leverson the controlvalves. When cable and lock bolt are hopelessly frozen. Later. Immediately place the jack standsto suppofi and the chassis. Be sure your standsare stout and stablebefore getting under the car. snip cable and buy new ones. course. wires and hosesduring engine trafuelsystem in$allation. connection the Sometimes wire pulls out of its terminal repair the wire in that case. have two large hoses leading Laterengines fromthe fan housing to the heat exchangers. Theelectricaldisconnections easily.Followtray's leading Removerear sheet-metal screws. but push-on plugs. They don't have this fuel-injected smallplate. two wrenchesand inventive language. Then unscrewand remove the small separateshroud pully. the RearEngine Cover Plate-Between the rear of theengineand the rear of the engine compartment the rear engine cover plate. Get ThrottlePositioner-If the enginehas a throttle positioner.which works by sealing the top of the from air passingunder it. end. Thereis alsoa small cylinder in the lever which the cable passesthrough.

few Automatic Stick Shift (Auto-Stick)-A on are extradisconnections necessau carswith the Auto-Stick. Two ATF (Automatic TransOne mission Fluid) lines need disconnecting. Startingin '71. Use two tubing wrenches. Bellhousing Nuts-Remove the two 17mm hex nuts and washersat the lower cornersof the bellhousing.but often they clip on the exchang' ible hose will stop fuel tank from siphoning ers and easilYslide off. so their bellcars in housingshave four studs:two at bottom. BecauseAuto-Stick transaxleshave a torque converter between the engine and clutch. But the transaxle oil seal will be ruined if it's necessaryto pull the torqueconverter with the engine. they are easy to get at' This drivetrainis a candidatefor steamcleaning' Once you have the cablesfree. Look on the firewall. Don't lift it too much or you'll bind the engineon thebellhousing studs and have trouble sliding it off them Upper Bellhousing Bolts-Slide out from under the car and turn your attentlon to removlng the upper engine-to-transaxle fasteners. dry. Auto-Stick '70 use nuts on studs. one nut fastening. Thesebolts are small and will break or round off if not treated with care. to the left of the ignition coil. If you don't remove the driveplate bolts' the toroue converter will slide out of the transaxle is with the engine. More Auto-Stick disconnectlonsare necessary inside the engine compartment. It's fast and fuel hosethat clean. you need At first. It threads a special round nut pressedinto the enginecase. nutsmay be very tight The lowerbellhousing on their studs becauseof rust or impact damage. but take extra care to not round off the hex. Replace the oil sealif that's the case. Be ready for ATF to pour out of the line from the tank. also called flare-nut wrenches. Support Engine-Get the piece of plywood and set it on the jack saddle. The driveplate is bolted at its center to the crankshaft.1 compu Sta the in workir clear t left to On jack. if you have the right size. pull the large flexible hoses off the heater-control valves' Push the hoses away from the engine so they won't get torn as the engine is lowered. Thesebolts are accessible through a hole in the bottom backside of the engineshave a rubbellhousing. the stud may unthread from the transaxle. remove them onLy after checking that the upper bolts are still in the placeandthe floorjack is setup lo support engine. the other to the oil pump. then have your helper rotate the engine 90" where another bolt will appear in the hole. Stop rotation when the bolt is the access squarelycenteredin the hole. Plug the disconnectedfittings so they won't leak. this far.Fuel-injected ber plug in the accesshole.lnvestigate vacuum electrical to see which ones must come off. Still. but you probably don't have one laying around' Those small plastic caps new brake master cylinders are shipped with work well. A fully threaded bolt can let gasoline leak past through the threads. Don't worry about the engine falling. there are four driveplate bolts to remove. That's fine if the engine t0 seized and you can't rotate it to gain access the bolts.Then roll thejack under the engine and raise the saddleuntil it is just carryingthe engineweight. There are two more bolts still attached on top of the engine' WARNING: If the lower bellhousing fastenersare nuts and bolts.' Vise-C wrencl Lower out. on the fittings. need to be labeled and disconnected. If so. like a flywheel. like on brake lines.or l2-point. all carsuse two bolts but only one nut' At the right side is the usual nut and bolt assembly' into but the left side usesonly a bolt. 6. compat to remo membe and the access both nu the bol though Havr bolts. the left heater-control Fuel Line-Above valve is the fuel line connection from the fuel tank. carburetedengines have an open hole. Continueuntil you haveremovedall four bolts. Whatever the attachmentmethod. At its outer edgeit is bolted to the torque converler. and so dirt can't enter the transmission system. i ward stantl wire r catch snag Wi the fa on th This 22 . Aluminum foil wrapped several times around the fitting and securedwith a hose clamp works.The best plug is a pipe fitting that has been soldered. then pull it off. two at '71 the Auto-Stickswent with the two top. not roundedoff and lined up straight with the bolts.Heaterducts are largeflexiblehosesleading Be preparedfor spillage when disconnecting Thisone was tuei tin'e. clamped. tt have tt floor. engine bind th work. brazed or welded shut. Some mechanics pinch the line shut with locking pliers. so don't worry aboutit. Lower bellhousingnuts are higher up be' tween transaxleand engine than you might think. make sureit has an unthreaded shoulder. You the can separate stud and nut later and reinstall the stud.but I don't like squeezing hard. not the nut from the stud. too. Someof thesebolts are8mm. Have a pan underneathand work fast. Have a helper rotate the engine with the crankshaftpully while you watch hole. If you usea bolt. All '70 have bolts manual transaxle cars through and nuts at the upper bellhousing. line runs to the ATF tank. Mark and disconnectthe hoses the leads. to find the control valve. The lines are steelbraided and use high pressurehydraulic fittings. In bolt. Thosethat Therest don't go to the enginecanbe left alone. Thesenuts arethreadedonto a pair of studs that fit into the transaxle. becausethe offset oil coolThis is necessary '7 roorn er usedfrom I on doesn'tleaveenough to get at a nut from the engine side.a regular open end will do. If you don't have tubing wrenches. There's no problemwith this. Remove the bolt. Make sure your socketis clean. Slip off the flexible line and use a pencil or bolt to plug it.A bolt stuffed and clampedin flexforwardfrom heatexchangers.The enginecan fall on you ifthe upper bolts aren't in place.

If the engine later engine is more difficult. oilpressuresenderand carburetor wires. Just barely take up left to do is clear the bellhousing studs. the torque converter. workingon an Auto-Stick.the arein theengine nuts compartment the engine. member.On '71 Buses. Haveyour helper get under the car to hold the nately. With the transaxlesupported. Pull the engine and floor jack rearward until catches something. then disOncethe engine has disengaged. remove the compaftment watch for hangups. Cables. you must tip the engine to clear the might not want to raise the chassisnow. stop the jack. simply remove the crankcase and the bellhousing studs are clear of the enWatchfor the throttle cable as it oulls from breather.quicklyalternating steps. so get under the engine and toremovethe upper bellhousing fasteners. and it Vise-Grip pliers to the bolt heads. With luck. The Bus chassisis so tall. from underneath.lower the and later Buses use the Type 4 engine. On '70-71 Buses. then let the is out. A simple piecJ of flat Transaxle-Support the transaxle with a Lower Engine-Once the upper fastenersare metal with a hole in it will do. wrench turn against the body.enginemust come back and down in small. Alterslide under the rear bodywork. bohs will turn. fan Steady enginew itir onehand housingat the carburel. An optional method is to continue rearward and remove the rear bumper and body panel. More typically tipped toward the firewall so the throttle posi. Slip off the starter solebind boltsso they won't turn. tioner. The other four are in the rear corners. mounted vertically on the plate's rear face. On and later engineswith a throttle posi.|It s t. s ) f filters when removing them. You'll be looking at the nutted end of the bolts from inside the enginecompartment. Use one of the second floor jack or prop it up with wood out. The out. but the '71 watch for wire and hose snass on the wav This is another good reason to have a helper version has no cable. Con.powerplantsto drop: a couple ofdisconnections Remove them and the engine is ready to come stantly monitor the engine so it won't snag a and it practically falls out of the chassis.now Startby pulling back on the floor jack until remove the left upper bellhousing bolt. Then the bolts from under the car. wireor cable on the way down. on the clutch is clear of the transaxle input shaft snag continuedown. Early connect the rear crossmember. If no helper is handy.once the engine ible fuel hose. If that doesn't this with the engine in the car.style Bus engines are one of the eisiest VW vertical bolt at each end of the crossmember. coil. With thoseout of the way the enginecan be slid straight back out of the chassis. you could remove the carburetor and More Cables & Fuel Hose-Pull the throttle bolts.K'eep eye on hoises.the engineis ready to lower. you'll have your handsfull with disconnectthe heater-controlcablesand hoses.Re. '68-70 models. Have your helper the On onthefan shroud and the other on the muffler. Hoses-Disconnect the distributor. two lower bellhousing nuts. 23 . The other upper bolt must be removed compartment seal. aslow. smoothloweringis allthat'sneeded. the driveplate will Two sections are necessary to examine Lower Engine-Place the floor jack and ply'71 clear torqueconverterright away. generator. Disconnect Wires. specially bent box-end wrench if you do loop it out of the way. If you are BUS & TRANSPORTER (TYPE 2 & 4) doubles as a bolt for the starter mountins. be damagedand its oil jack. you might have peoplefor this job: one to managethe Without this brace. In fact.move the jack.and right-forward comers of the plate.high. you accessible only from under the car. Don't tip the oil-bath air down. a '71 Bus. Bellhousing Bolts-Now reach way to the front of the engine compartment and remove the two upper bellhousing bolts. which the input shaft clears the clutch.'wires engine only the right upper bolt is accessiblefrom the an and top.the chassishas to go up so the fan housing will though. ward while slowly lowering the jack. Label the disconneuiors.Continueto pull the engine and jack rear. Engine-Plate Screws-Unscrew the l0 rear engine-plate screws and lift out the plate. Busesusethe uprighffan Beetle engineand '72 some engine weight with the jack.or. There is one jack. It's just a slip joint. disconnectthe hot-air flap cable. run a braceacrossthe bellhousine to hold is not clamped. the tioner can get past the rear body panel. That might thin. once you get thisfar. as Buses stand pretty tall. clear the Early Bus (Pre-'72)-Start with the air fitter. Read the Type 1 section if you need more help with these. disconnectthe vacuum hosesat the throttlepositioner. The top of the fan housing needs to be wait until the engine is ready to come out. try pulling the throttle positioner. and Up to '68. The fuel line is on the left. hot-air hoses and unclamp the filter gine. Six are in the left. but both nutswill come off without anyoneholding body. Undo the throttle cable at the carburetor and push it forward through the fan housing asfar as it will go. to seal ruined. blocks.you'll have to attacha box end wrench or With Auto-Stick transaxles. Removal requires a very cable all the way free of the fan housing. It's best to transaxle studs and nuts to secure the brace. the noid connectionsand remove and plug the flexwork. but not overly so. On Atfirst. All that's removing Bus enginesbecause the and earlier wood under the engine. Then lower the enginewhile guiding it by the shroud. then engineaway from the transaxle. the generator and exhaust. You shouldn't have to raise the chassisvery '70 andthebolt headsare on the transmissionside. Heater-Control Cables-It's time to go underneath anyway. the torque converter can have to add a wood block to the two supporting floor jack and another to eyeball the engine slip out of the transaxle.

sheet-metal this thin bent strip will come off. Lower Engine-Pull the jack back until the filter body and int:Lke sensortosether. On of the case.and it is removed like the m e n t . Take out four boltsand Lift off the top half of the filter and setit aside. More Cables & Fuel Hoses-Now slideuoto oil will drain into the upper half of the filter and Coil & More Hoses-Look near thecoil lor an the front of the engineand disconnecttheheater contaminate Unclamp and removethe fresh inline fuseholder. e s e o l t ra r ea c c e s s i b l e as a prime reasonthe casescracked O th b on these 24 FASTBI NOTCH AirFilte oil draini air filters during re unscrew canister. Disbolts at the eachend of the crossmember which protectiveboot. Fuel-injectedmodels have the under the engine. Thc lelt olare Type 4 engine.remove the two large diameter are out. Avoro Knocktngthis somewhat delicateand expensive part when connect hoses so they lift otf with filter. threaddirectlyinto the frame. for It's attached nearthe bottom of the distributor. Keep it upright. remove the plate. or pressure reg_ oil-bath type. plus with automa. r move thc Electric: the elec pressure injected t the vario The fr left-rear comes fr( connecti< case sen perature Also ren pressure wall. Then or remove driveplare-to-convertercrossmembers. U air contn filter. You definitely needa helperwith a heavy pressuresender. It is bestremovedas a unif with filter is the can suspended from the upper right Transaxle-Support the transaxlewith a jack its intake air sensor. lt is '74s All'12-13 engines. hose from the air sensorand removethe air blower hoses. Removethe ginesthere is a hosemounted the to the top of the wood assembly againstthe engine. Disconnect it. and carefully pull out the con_ connect electrical the andvacuumleadsfrom it. If the the enginecompanmenl. snug againstthe ensine. n t h i sc h a s s i s . Take out the ignition coil and remove the ulator of the fuel-injectedmodel. Get the cablestarledthroughits guide in b o l l s . thenunclipping cover.early Bus ground. Look undertheplay engine. extra work. hot-air c elbow be carburetc breather Filters nuts ovel center. thecase as may be.Seepage22 in thi lead to the fuel-injection triggering contacts. burelors. removeit.remove tic plug in the upperleli mounring flange area make on the Type 4 engrne. . remove the gravel guardfronr carburetors and at the [ilter's centersection. which and guide the engine so it won't fall off the is in two from the distributor.W ithiabeli ne mate_ filler bellows and dipstick. Sr buretors fore rem< the lockn only get t Justpop 1 screwdri Air fil only the removed remainin label the moved.Setthejaik cover and paper element. and hot air hoses from the filter bottom half. the backup lighrs) at the fuse holder. Oil Filler-As on Type 3s. the hose is attached the to Gravel Guard-Before getting all the way carburetedengines.ate Bus (Post-'72)-Removing this engineis the front engine plate. this wire (it's for cablesand hosesat the heater-control valves. On ceLrbureted enor wood blocks. after removingthe engine. disconnect the electricalleatls removingthe rearengineplate.Watch fbr hangups rials in hand. Unclamp the large S-shapedrubber On all chassis. Then set about the engine compaftment. so it isn't a mirror image oftherightrear automatictransmission transaxles immediately connections.Startby disconnecting all ceiling of the engine bay. but there are more disconnections to car ls an automatic transmission model. First. mushy mountsarecited body. I. On dual_ carbureted models. residual sectionin the center of the intake system.ilip off its valve mounted near the blower motor. oil_ pleces on the late Bus.lorverbellhousingnuts. Lal ing them correctly Check with dua ders with of the ca foul the t so unscr Oil Dips clamp ar This is th tube and cooling e nectorbr 'Ihrottle . hosesattachedto the intake air distributor. Take off the risht rear jack. y place wor Smaff.flip open the clips at the balance tube. gine may also have a temperature sensor the front engineplateand put it out oi the wav. Look on the Fuel-injected engineshave a different paper hoseleadingto the charcoal filter. the vacuumhosefrom the intake manifold. Air Filter-Remove the air filter.l f s o . rhen rhe lefr rear. tic transmissions havea vacuumadvance cutofT remove the crossmember. then lower it outof ElectricalConnections. Automatic Transmission-This causes some previousType I sectionfbr the reasons this. The enPull the accelerator cable all the wav throush Then unclip it at its bottom edgeand lift it out. lt's usuallybest to dis.sifver stickingup from Bus exhaustpipeis oxygen sensor. check the rubber Throttle Cable & Vacuum Hoses-Undo the nuts. remove the ATF filler pipe Once the engine is out. Type tube 3 air filter removalstarts with hoses. the Weak. Then go to the rearand the aluminum box with the cast-in grid work. Later. Now raise the iack and olvhoses. remove the oil engrneclearsthe transaxle. i pump on carbureted engines. and remove the two Locate the intake air sensorat the left. A paper-element filter is used on 'j3_74 mounted in the upper right engine compartDisconnect plug thefuel linesfromthefuej and carbureted engines. If not storedupright.At the distributor. The under the rear bumper. Followthe wirins wrapsaroundtheengineside and runsforward Fit a brace acrossthe torque converteron harnesses over the engineto find all the tlisl alittle. and fuel injectors or car_ plate lirsr. elementfilter. left carburelor. The charcoal front right of the engine for the fuel lines. d i s c o n n e c t s w i r e . Remove the three Locatethe elecrric connecror plug. the engine is ready to come out. intake air distributor is the black. you can comthrough a hole in the bellhousingfrom inside basically the same as dropping the early Bus pletely pull it through from undemeath. rotate the pipe counterclockwise pull transaxle mounts on Buses without rear and throttlecablefrom the crossbar at the throttle it out.When thosebolts nector. alternatorregulator.

They are accessible through a hole in the fronfbottom ofthe bellhousing. single-carbureted On engines. Watch for hangups on 25 . Support Engine-Disconnect the lower bellhousingnuts. disconnect the cable at the throttle linkase crossbar. Undo the two horizontalbolts at eachendof the crossmember which connectthe crossmember to its rubbermounts. Don't unbolt the vertical rubbercushion-tobody bolts or the crossmemberto-engine bolts. Wiring alwaysseems to be in your way. On cars with an automatic transmission.early Buses. Another line leadsoff the back of the left manifold and runs to the other side of the engine.On double-jointed-axle cars. Disconnect and plug the fuel return line on the right side of the engine if you didn't get it from the top. pick up rear mat and store wires underneath. so don't tio them during removal.generator and coil. bui rememberto are labelthemduring removal. injectors. Undo the heater control-box cable connections and stow the large diameter air hosesout of the way. On fuelinjected engines. Bellhousing Bolts-Finish the topsidechores by removing the two upper bellhousingbolts.Ifyou undothese bolts. s0unscrew them from the carburetors.the full automatic transmission has only three driveplate-to-converter bolts. The fuel manilblds are the metal sections of fuel line right abovethe injectors. then unclampand remove the oil filler rubber boot.unscrew the center wing nut and remove unit. Air filters on fuel-injected engines require only the intake elbow and several hoses be removed. the Because the crankshaft pulley nut is inaccessible Type 3s. crankat case sensors and grounds.On '71 and later engines. Fuel injectionthrortlelinkageis undone at the throttle body. Be carefulnot to lower the enginetoo far or you'll damagethe transaxlemounts. plus the air intake bellows from the hot-air control box. Snap the throttle linkage off the carburetors the center-mountedbellcrank beand foreremovingthe air filters. you'11 onlygetthecarburetorsout of synchronization. know the mounts are useless.thenplacethe floorjack underthe engine.This is the big rubberconair nector betweenthe engine and rear bodywork. The fuel lines then connect to the injectors via the manifold. supportthe transaxle with anotherjack or wood blocks. On dual-carburetor engines. it must be off to remove the engine. out of the enginecompartment through the rear sheetmetal. Another way of doing this is to wait until the engineis on its way down. You may needa helper under the car to hold the bolt heads. use a stout screwdriver on against the ring gear teeth to rotate the engine. On'72 Type 3s. Mark and disconnectthe crankcase breather hose. Unlike the Auto-Stick transmission. which is part of the intake air distibutor.Also on the automatictransmission. The fuel injecrionECU mounti inside rhe leffrear inner fender. pop Just therod endsoff the ball socketswith a screwdriver. the Electrical Connections-Label and remove the electrical leads at the carburetors. The entire circuit or U offuel lines is called thefuel ring. Oil Dipstick-Remove the dipstick. and intake air distributor. SQUAREBACK & NOTCHBACK (TYPE 3) Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining.remove the wiring harnessat thevariousconnectionson the ensine.right fuel manifulds. Throttle Cable-Disconnect the throttle Intake and dipstick bellows are two Type 3 & 4 disconnections. On Type 3s. It joins the right fuel manifold. Raise Car-Raise the rear of the car 3 ft and support it with jack stands. unscrew wing nut in the center of the filter the canister.the left bolt threads into a special nut permanently attached to the case. It so a lot of ownersleavethemoff. remove the air cleaner. oilpressure sender. The rubber fuel line coming from the left front of the engine compartmentand running to the left fuel manifold is thefuel inlet line. Remove this bolt from undemeath.Reyou place wom transaxle mounts. The rubbermountsarecentered their mountby ing bolts. and finally runs forward. Pull the throttle cable through the front engine cover plate and gently loop it out of the way. Also removethe vacuum hose from the fuel pressure sensor the lelt enginecompartment on wall. Then you can get at both sidesof the upper bellhousingbolts from the top. plus one at frontcenter. Follow the harnessto the connections the distributor. doesn'tprovidemuch support.They usually catch on and foulthebodywork when the engine is lowered. That's the sheet-metal center section of the intake manifold. Check fuel shut-off solenoidson ensines the withdual carburetors. Don't fiddle with thelocknuts and rod endsof the linkage. slip off the vacuum hose at the balance pipe anddisconnect kickdown-switchwire. All Type 3 airfilters are oil-bath units. Fuel Line-Remove and plug the fuel line. These are small c-ylinders with a wire mounted on the outboard side of the carburetor. Label each hose and wire before removing them so you'll be able to reconnect them conectly.The elbow is clamped and the remaining hoses slip ons. Storein a level position. disconnect exhaust the gas recirculation (EGR) wire from its transmission switch. Two boltsand it's in hand. Filters dual-carbureted on engineshave wing nutsover each carburetor. FASTBACK.unbolt the driveplate from the torque converter. cylinder-head temperature sensors. This last line isthefuel return line. and the wiring harness comes from that side. Completely remove intake bellows at left to avoid cutting it when engine is slid back during removal. disconnection the should be made on the left and.you'll haveto recenterthe engine during installation. Then slide rearwardand unbolt the enginecrossmember. Disconnect the intake elbowbetweenthe filter and carburetor at the carburetor. Don't kink the cable or the throttle will be sticky. Unclampthe hot-air hose from the hotair controlbox and remove the box with the filter. Lower Engine-Now you arereadyto pull the enginebackand lower it. With all hosesremoved. On fuel-injected engines. cable. With a single carburetor this is done at the carburetor.Also unclampand removethe cooling bellows. There is supposed be an engine mount to attached to the fan housing on cars without a crossmember. It returnsexcessfuel to the fuel tank.Don't forget the plywood cushion. Reach the ring gear teeth through the bolt accesshole.If the transaxlesagsalmost to the ground. If nothing else. Thisis theaccordionpiece betweenthe dipstick tube andbody.

Insidethe transaxle will be the end ofthe driveshaft with a nut threadedonto it. unclip the upper filter half lf heaterductswon't pulloff.Oil and dirt can combineto camou. case connectionunder left axle flange. On carburetedengines. Fuel-injection air filters needthe flage these connections.the way down. Be sure you label all discontransmission at engine. spring and unusually shaped cable end. Pop clip ofl with screwdriver (don't lose it). about2-ll2-1n.The front of the driveshaft looks and functions the same as an input shaft on other transmissions. Disconnect Type 3 crossmembers where crossmembermeets engine mount. Voltage Regulator-Pull the plug connector from under the voltage regulator. and pull pieces apart. Before '72 all 4l1l4l2 filters were oil-bath type.Unscrewthe plug. then Iift clamps. injectors. begin the engine bay disconnections. its crr engin Wa body transa as the housi engae then r auton verter bellht 26 PORI Alr Type on thr 914 ' engin seats S o . This task is much easier with the soarkplugs removed. Rotate the engine to expose the driveplate bolts one at a time. Ducts. not wheremountmeetsbody. Automatic Transmission-Remove the three driveplate bolts from inside the engine compartment. Rotatethe engine with a wrench on the cooling fan mounting bolts or by simply grasping the fan in your hand. remove the rear seat cushion.except it is longer than a normal input shaft. per engine mounting bolts from bellhousing. Find the round. Disconnect the vacuum accessible through windows in automatic hose from balancepipe. Unthread the nu behin< some! move move Lower move both tl by crt move ber in chass tilt do engin Thr requir and ar port tl ward. lt's prob. Disconnect and remove the ignition coil. Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. Push the throttle cable through the front engine panel.distributor. in diameter. Remove the fresh air and crankcasebreather hoses. post-'72shave paper elements. and steady the engine so it doesn't fall off the jack. and the engine will operate correctly. 4ru4r2 (TYPE4) Engine removal in the Type 4 is roughly similar to droppingthe '72 andlaterBus engine because they sharelhe sameengine. they will have to be alignedat engineinstallation keep engine to straightin compartment. Pry out the plug with a screwdriver to expose the driveplate underneath. Becausethe differential is betweenthe engineand transmission. plus the temperaturesensors the case at ably just as easy to pull off this hose at and heads. Wire up the transaxle double-jointed-axle so you on cars can move the chassis. a driveshaft runs forward from the clutch to the transmission. connected at chassis. Take off any ducting for the heater blower motor. Use a mirror to see this connectlon. remove it to exposethe front of the transaxle. ignition distributor.but there are several notable differences. It is mounted on the right front side of the engine compartment and the connectorcomesup to the regulator from the bottom. To remove the engine the driveshaft must be unlocked and moved forward in the car 4 in. Next. remove two uptransmission bellhousing. too. center wing nut undone and the filter removed.lf mountsaredis. they are heldby at the carburetors and center section. Under the cushion is an accesspanel. Manual Transmission-An unusual desisn featureof the Type 4 manualtransaxle requiris an extra step in engine removal. Moving Driveshaft-To reach the driveshaft. Wires & Cables-Remove the dipstick and oil filler bellows. (l00mm). Now unclip the bottom half and remove it. Start with the air filter. Brace the torqueconverter so it can't fall out of the transaxleand be damaged. screw-in plug. Reassemblywill be so much easier. Follow the wiring harness over the engine to find the connections. then the oil-pressure sender lead and throttle cable.u 914. A metal tab nutted to one of the bellhousing studs works fine. Look on the left engine-casevertical flange for a round plastic plug.ground. Fuel-Injection Connections-Label and disconnect the fuel-injection leads at the engine. W MM Disco widng deant Throttle linkage on Type 4 uses a clip. Unclampand remove the cooling air intake bellows. as nections.off the upper half. Remove the transmission dipstick and bellows sectionof the filler tube. Theseparls protrude from the forward left sheet metal in the Bellhousing and driveplate hardware are engine compartment. engin .They are at the intake air Automatic transmissions havea vacuumdis.

removethe circlip. Two bolts can be felt under the hinges. so the engine is right behind the seats.Disconnect fueFinjectionwiring on Bus and Type 4 engines. the car is equipped with Fuel Injection-If fuel injection.supportthe engine with ajack. You don't have to remove the fuel injection wiring and fuel line ring. You'Il have plenty of extra room to work and no lid banging your head to get your attention. remove the battery for clearance. If using a larger floor jack with a wide saddle. removethe slotted lower splash pan. Then move forward. The 914 is a midenginedcar. Ileater Blower Ducting-Remove the heater blower motor ducting and the rubber intake air elbow. Instead. thenut. Label and remove all the connections. If you remove the transaxlefirst. relays and other connections. rusho the w-1n v the fthe read Instead of removing injection wiring from engine on 914s. on the plug. Reinstall the plastic cover and setthe ECU in a safeplace. First. If using a small floor jack. So.and the transaxle is behind the engine. the engine can only be removed with the transaxle or after the transaxle has been removed separately. ECU connector is at one end. if not. Lift off the cover and find several electrical connections.. except you must also remove the four bellhousing fastenersto free the transaxle. though. There may be a plastic handle rnng p off pull :sign uires r the mlsutch rhaft rhaft than ethe forhaft. then the engine. completely remove the carburetors. You can pull the shaft forward the somewhat with the circlip still attached. engage thenreinstall the transaxle crossmember. plastic handle on multFpin connector eases disconnecting. then slide offthe plastic cover from the ECU. Voltage Regulator-Remove the voltage regulator by extracting the two screws on its mounting tang and then lifting off the unit. take it otf at ECU.you first seethe transaxle. PORSCHE/VW 914 Although there is little difference among the Type later Bus and 914 engines 4. giving a clearer path for engine removal.but to movethe shaft forward the required 4 in. Supportthe transaxle with a jack. it's best to remove the transaxlefirst. Rotatecrankshaftto bring wiring loomasidednce disconnections gel hardwareinto view. behind nut. the steps are the same. 914shave had the Bosch Carburetors-Many fuel injection removed and dual carburetors installed. Unscrew the metal clamp around the wiring bundle. then replace the cover and regulator. Engine Cover-First stepin removing a 914's engineis to take offthe enginecover. The engine/transmission unit can then tilt down at the rear.followed by the engine. The transaxle crossmembermounting bolts require personinside the car to tum the nuts one andanotherundemeathto hold the bolts. On automatic transmissions. oncethey're on the bench. Now lower the englne. remove the air filter and disconnect the fuel lines near the battery. intake manifolds and throttle linkage in your installation. disconnect the connector from the fuel injection ECU located in front of the battery. Lower Engine-Under the rear bumper. Remove the four bellhousingnuts and the engine is ready to disfrom the transaxle. Extract the engine. then remove the circlip from the shaft. or working on dirt. Remove one and have a friend hold that side up. use a hooked instrument to carefully remove it. Note that boththe engine and transmissionare supported by crossmembers. as it will have to be lowered transaxle astheengineis lowered. and undo its crossmemberat each end. there sure is a difference in the 914 engine mounting. Now unscrew the round nut on top of the large black plastic cover next to the regulator. then remove the other bolt and lift off the cover. Inside the car is a good spot. Because of the mid-engine mounting. then unscrew the ECU's bracket. Watch the fuel injectors' clearance to the bodybecausethey are a tight fit.While it is possible to removethe engine with the transaxlecrossmemberin place. remove the engine and transaxle as a unit. So. cleaner is great hose and wire cleanerto detail wiring. There is one supply and one return line. Set Hole in bellhousing(arrow) is for reachingautomatictransmission (labeltherir!)are made. 27 . it is easier to unbolt it from the chassis. The connectorplug takesup almostthe entire side of the ECU.when you crawl forward under the back of a 914. Monitor the jack too.securethe torque converter in place with a metal tab nutted to a bellhousingstud. I explain removing the engine/transaxleas a unit here. Tip it up so the inboard end with the connector is visible.Hand driveplatehardwareon Type 4 engines.

Look under the rubber boot where the shifter enters the bodywork at the front of the engine compartment. The clutch cable is undone by removing the self-locking nut in the center of the cable pivot: Ihe round plastic wheel. ih" b"tt"r.Removeeach exhaust pipe/heat exchanger. Once the exhaustpipes areout ofthe way. Once screw is out.e heatexchansers. Use small Allen le. Otherwise. Return to the exhaustsystem. Loop the cable and bracketaside. unscrew the speedometer cable and remove the clutch cable.Don't put them under the suspension or front engine crossmember. Shift linkageis underneathplastic box with Speed sardine-canband clamp. You can remove the throttle cable without detaching the support.Instead. Somecommon hosesgo to the charcoalcanister and pressuresensor. Lift Car-Raise the car and support it on tall jack stands.And the less time you spend pushing the disconnectedaxles out of th"-*au. il n fi Heate metal mum gine.leave the air filter supportalone.Use a long screwdriverto reach down to the case where the two front support legs attach.Pull rear mounts. Removing Cables & Exhaust-It helps to remove the bodywork panel below the rear bumper. Vacuum & Vapor Hoses-Label and disconnect the remaining vacuum and vapor hoses. back rubber boot to expose screw. With the support removed. This will give a lot more room and light under the car. Unbolt the groundstrapabovethe reartransaxle. removeshift rod. Un wrench to unlockshift rod from transmission linkage. placethem at the two small round protrusionsin the body.Use a small Allen wrenchto remove the set screw. Unthread the lockins nulson thecablehousing.Unwind the sardinecan clamp over the rear shifterboot and disconnect the shifter. disconnecr cabli rhe from the throttle arm and push the cable throughthe hole in the right sideengineplate. Someengines mountthe air filter to one side. Remove them. the throttle cable can be removed. Another set-screwarrangement 28 t Anothershift-rodset screw is locatedin front Transaxlegroundstrapbolts to chassisnear of engine where rod enters chassis. is the engine can be removed with it in place. the shift rod can be extracted from the caf. so rotatethe axleto getstraieht acces Hold 1 two h brake They requir les a ( T tt : Jotnts bolts. Now's the time.but if the chassis lifted fairly high.Drape all the disconnected hoses over the center of the engine so they won't be in the way when removingit. and the metal pivot bracket and cable come free. Air Filter & Throttle Catrle-Remove the formed sheet-metalair filter support from the centerofthe engine. Undo the flat sheet-metal shielcls under tf. Unplug the reverse-light leadsfrom the lefi side of the transaxle. they will kink when lowering engine. The other rear attachment is boltedto the caseusingoneofthe caseflange bolts. On these. you'll actuallybe ableto see t h ee n g i n e . Usea firm tug to pullreverse-light wiringfrom transaxle-mounted switch. Axles & CV Joints-I've left the axles until now because they are sucha gooey mess. and extract it. valve securesthe front end of the shift rod. outboard and forward of the engine compartment. Under the wheel are two nuts. nave other flangt . With the forward connection removed. Removethe muffler from the exhaustpipes and the muffler bracefrom the rear ofthe transaxle.Pass 914 throttle cables through sheet metal so they completely clear engine. and disconnectthe heater control valveJand associated plumbing. Remove the rear wheels and tires.

Heater ductingon Type 4 engines is often After ductingfrom engineis removed. but special 3/8-drive socket. there are dowels at the joint. Gently set it asidewithout kinking 29 .so it will protect the metal surfaces. about1/16in.The largerthe plywood.unthreadthe Clutchcablepivot uses a self-locking for two bracket nuts. After clutch pulleyis removed. This frees bracket from nut retention.Unscrew large nut and pull cable out. That's why I try to put the screwdriverright throughthe gasket. or have a helper step on the brakes. It takesquite a prying effort to free the CV jorntsfrom lhe tansaxle flanges.heater valves out of the way. Use a rubber band to securethe bags.The crossmember will drop free (it's heavy) complete with the cables that pass through it. place a plastic sandwich bags over the joint and its flange.Justget a toe hold.then twist the blade. Unscrew and remove the CV bolts. 12-point 6mm Allen head tool is easier to use. Go forward and remove the two nuts from the center of the solid metal crossmember.this clampjust beforeheater flexibleducting. There's no Examine so mum heaterducting is removedwith en. Keep alternating actionfrom onesideof thejoint this to the otheruntil it separates. then the to other. leaving clutch cable-to-bracket undisturbed. expensive CV joints dirt free.connection bearingarm. Hold axle by inserting a breakerbar through the twolug bolts.6mm Allen head bolts that are tequire specialremoving tool. Removenut and pulleyto loosen transaxle. the better. so you'll have work to free one side of it. These are the front engine mount nuts. access theconstant-velocity to (CV) joint bolts. Besides keepingthe closetolerance. Short Allen head tool and wrench duo shown here is cheapest method. Then removethe two largebolts from the crossmember ends. this maneuver will keepyou a lot cleaner. Rotatethe axa lesa coupleof times to reach all the bolts.need to disconnectheater-control of cablesor gine. yourchassis a mini. is Clean dirt from tiny splines in CV-joint bolts.Extra lengthwill help balancethe awkward engine/transaxle on the unit jack. push metaltubing.Speedometer is at rightrearof transaxcable le. Besides the bolts. of blade inserted. Support Engine-Place the floor jack and plywood under the bellhousing. As soon as you separate CV joint. On valves best separationpoint. cable and easilyremoveit at clutch release. They 12-point. Sacrificethe gasket betweenjoint and flange stickinga flat-bladed by screwdriver be- tweenthem. 914s. Don't insertmore screwdriver bladethan necessary you'll scar or the mating surfaces. splines will strip if not completely clean. These bolts are heavily torqued to prevent loosening.

twith small mount-to-chassis hardware. This iron piece is heavy. Two strong people are needed when moving it. so take your time. r I I | [ . Grasp it by the endsofthe cylinder heads. That's about300 lb for a Type 4. Remove the unit and support it on the floor with wood blocks. prop one 9nd up with a block of wood. so be careful.Use the trunk or Bus interior for storageifgarage space is tisht. Crossmember will drop after both sets ol bolts are out. rubber cushion and washers will come out with the unit. or smashingthe cables.Store all hardware and partsin clearlymarkedboxesand cans. pushrod tubes. It will take a minute or two to jockey the engine free of the chassis. CLEAN-UP (ALL MODBLS) Once the engineis clearof the chassis. Go to the rear and remove the transaxle mounts at the body. Front crossmember attaches to engine mountsusingsmallnuts found in recesled wells. If lifting a Type 4 enginebe preparedfor a heavy load.Th L 30 . Use the floorjack to get the chassis backon the ground and pushed to its storagelocation. Once the engine is out. not the sheet-metalpushrod tubes or another vulnerable part. then large bolts at each end of crossmember. M one are kl Bear engine mounts must come completely off transaxleto clear bodywork.It's easy to bang the injectors against the bodywork or have their fuel lines hangup. so pay extra attention to them. Don't let it lay unsupported over clutch and speedometer cables. then remove larger bolts at center. I o"s tcv I . wrap them an-d transaxleflangeswith plasticbajs. This wll save a lot of aggravation when you drag your hairover them. a get helper and lift it off the jack. hardware and parts before they get scattered. remove the four bellhousing fastenersand separatelhe transaxle from the eneine. Then the entire bolt. Be careful to get the blocks bearing against the cylinder heads. it weighs abouttwice as much as a Type 1. Remove these. it can be stored by its mounts on chassis. Set the engine on the floor. Pick up all tools.tr As soon as CVjoints come free. flywheel or the like. Stai.not the fan housing.Do this now while they're still fresh in your memory. You'll thank yourself at reassembly. Disconnect the starter motor leads. rags. Lower Engine-Gently start lowering the engine and transaxle while a helper checks the engine compartment.