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Table of Contents

1. Time To Rebuild? ......... AccumulatedMileage Oil Consumption . Poor Performance DiagnosticTests . 2. Engine Removal Preparation Beetles& KarmannGhias (Type 1) .... (TYPes & 4) 2 Bus & Transporters Notchback(Type 3) ..... Squareback, Fastback, 41U412 914 Porsche/VW



Crankcase & Cylinder Reconditioning ....75 ......... 75 Parts. Crankcase Clean& Inspect 82 Crankshaft 88 Pistons& ConnectingRods 94 Oil Pump 96 Camshaft Cylinder Head Reconditioning ............ 100 .. 101 Disassembly ..... 105 Valve Guides& Stems .... 101 Valves & Inspecting Reconditioning ...... 110 .. Reconditionittg Valve-Seat ........ 111 S Rocker-Arm ervice & Inspection Installation..... ..... ll2 Valve-Spring .. --. --- lI4 Assembly .. CylinderHead ...... 115 Manifolds Intake& Exhaust

l3 l8 18 19

26 26
1, 1

3. Parts Identification & Interchange ........ 3 1 -'tz .... Indentification 34 Engine Descriptions 35 Cases 38 Crankshafts ^ a +J Flywheels 44 ConnectingRods . 45 Pistons& Cylinders 46 Cylinder Heads 53 ..... Oil Pumps& Camshafts 55 Oil Coolers & SheetMetal . 4. Teardown .......... AccessoryRemoval-Uprights Removal-Flat .. Accessory E B a s i c n g i n e. . . . . Valve Train CylinderHeads Oil Pump Splitting Cases . Teardown Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 58 62 66 66 68 68 10 12

7 . Engine Assembly
Assembly Crankcase Install Crankshaft InstallCamshaft Prep Cylinders ... valveTrain Accessories External T y p e1 & P r e : 7 2 B u s . . Type 3 Post:12 Bus, 914 4111412,

. 116 ........ 119 .... l2l ..... 122 ---. 132 "' 134 ........ 138 ....." 138 .... 143 .. 148

8. EngineInstallation,Break-in, Tuneup .. 156
Prep . Transaxle EngineInstallation 1 Type Type 2 Type 3 4 Type 9 1 4. . FirstStarrl B r e a k - i& T u n e u p n Index ...... 156 .. I5'1 ' . . . . . . .1 6 0 . ........161 . 1 ..'....-- 62 1 ......... 63 ... 166 .... 169 . . . . . . . . .1 7 0 ...... 173

*ffi n I :::S+i'* I ffiffi Solid years Sin engin sary when the tol is nee In tl tic st( follou the Er rebuil Bel this b able. a fact Adolf Hitler said he was gorng to change. the VW offers opportunities to measure and adjust basic and engine parameters. manufacturers. In any society with pdvate transportation they're ubiquitous in the extreme. Traditional rebuilding technioues and books based on them don't have mich to offer the VW rebuilder. the Beetle sold on its economy and superior workmanship. After awhile it becomes natural. A factory was built in Wolfsburg for Beetle production and Germany was about to get lts car. and the crankshaft pulley is at therear. but there's always time to do it over'" It's a lot faster to double-check than it is to rebuild it twice. the "Parts Identification & Interchange" chapter offers considerablemoney-savinginformation. Justrememberthe saying. A mid-engine car. This is an engine that needs step-by-step instructions for rebuilding. while VWs are a common sight and don't commandhigh prices. throw-away car. But just as unfamiliar roads are easily traveled if you have a good map. you'd have difficulty coming up with a design more out of the ordinary if you tried. It's just that the engine is so completely different. tools and cash. the air-cooled VW is easily overhauled. A lot of care and thought went into every VW built. get starled and handle each point one at a time.Americanscame to respectand ultimately adore the round-backed car. there has to be an exception. rebuilding an air-cooled VW is fun. Unlike many engines. I've traveled to machine shops. assemble This book eliminates a lot of legwork for you. the 914 engineis turned around so its flywheel is at the car's rear' Unlessthis is imporlant. Additionally. ingrained automotive knowledge and takes some time to get used to. it's difficult to imagine roads without them. So read ahead. rebuilding air-cooled Volkswagen engines. until you've been around VWs for some time. to gather the information presented hire. air-cooled Volkswagenscontinue to be popular. To that I say. you haveto keep reminding yourself that the flywheel end is the engine's front. never time to do it right the first time. The knowledge in these words and pictures represents the combined experience of many people. Pitfalls can be avoided if you know about them ahead of time. not available anYwhereelse.racers and other VW rp-iiulirt. Now. more common engine slyles. it seemedthe Volkswagen had been stillborn. it may seem like there are too many steps or points to remember. Just as a Beetle or Bus is fun to own and drive. as in the removal and installation sequences. This goes againstcommon. Read aheadof your progressin the shop to keep the job in perspectiveand alert yourself to needed tools or supplies. The Volksiuug"n *u. Without a government.914 engines are treated like any ottier. and like a detailed map. such a basic design was hardly suitable for popular ffansportation when hostilities ended. Bus and Squareback with equal success. For the camera and personal experience. So when I speak of the front oil seal I mean the one at the flywheel end' whether you have a Bus or 914. First. Finally. Therefore.high-cruising-speed car were met (if not without difficulty) by a bright ensineer named Ferdinand Porsche. and the 914 is it. the flywheel is at the engine'sfront. But from the rubble of 1945 a few cars were built from spare parts' The British officer in charge of the Wolfsburg factory assistedthe German workers in building more cars. always take the time to double-check "There's your work. If this is your first engine rebuild. but none offer the old-world craftsmanship or personality of a Volkswagen. His requirements for an inexpenstve. and treating the carefully constructedair-cooledengine like an appliancewon't pay off' VW engines are full of precision tolerances that resoond to cleanliness and careful assembly. But in the mid-'3Os there were no Volkswagens. this book points out the hazards. And so we reach the point of this book. Like left and right. Also. Other cars may be more modern. Of course. quieter and roomier economy cars. all experts in their field. parts iuppliers. front and back in this book are basedon the engine while it is in the chassis.Thus. long after the introduction of faster. buying it in numbers other import builders could only versionsfollowed envy. and I think you'll agree the intricacies of VW engine rebuilding are more thoroughly documented here than anywhere else. mass-produced. and the Beetlewas on its way' Eventuallythe Volkswagencame to the United States. It's not that it's so difficult to rebuild. now known as the Thing' Although 70. Cylinders I and 2 are on the right. In fact. it's difficult to remember to keep the positions front and back properly oriented.not just disassemble engine comPonents. War brought Volkswagen production only in the ffansmuted Type 82 military fotm. what Germany got was a long ways from the people's dream of motoring down the autobahn. not even in Germany' In fact. No. Soon you'll be listening to your Volks puttering smoothly in the driveway-a sound of wonderful personal satisfaction. and keep this book on the bench where it will be handy. this book helps make VW enginerebuilding easy. With the wrong turns clearly marked. currency or economy. Of course. or for the chaos in what was left of Germany. with minimal patience. I rebuilt several air-cooled engines. presentedat the 1939 Berlin Motor Show.that doesn'tmean they are a cheap. there weien't many cars of any type on German roads. tures i basic are br what' ACC Tol engini .000 Type 82s were built for the Wehrmacht.Introduction The Volkswagen Beetle hardly needs an introduction. A few specific understandingsand cautions are appropriate here.As in other worldwide markets. and 3 and 4 are on the left. rebuilding these engines is probably more satisfying than going through other.

gageof enginecondition. h e yc a nb eo r e r h e u i e d ..1 o u ' l l g e t a n e x a c r. n e w . w a n d h i g ho i l p r c s s u r a t l h e e of will go more than 100. gearin-e.ui. T h e r e a t a r er i g h t.excessclcarance has less D r i r e nh a r d .o*. wind resistance their low marn. n T h e n . e u l s ri h c p i s i o n u c a l l yl a s rl e s s ..Studythe pic_ tures skim the high pointsof the text.especially Types l-3. .n p. and oil works its wav to i f ' t h c o i l i s n ' t c h a n g c d l t e n . Get and a Dasrc comprehension how air_cooled of VWs are bolled together. the owner'smanual. When driven inside its oer_ g i n e ' s i n l e r n a l clctrances nd is an excellent a formance limitations. s e r v i c e . l o d c l e r m i n e n g i n ec o n d i t i o n iS y e lI:o l ltop t l n g . c u m u l a l eh e s e a n su e a r a n d p t.connecting roclsare poking through thetopof case. ACCUMULATED MILEAGE Totalmileageisn't a very good yardstickof engrne condition.c o . In thischapter. m munJatrtrtior long enginelit'e. i. i t s i n l e r n ac l e a r a n c c sr ee a s i l yU i i O s e d l a B u sc n g i n e s n d r h o s c l r i v e no l i r o r d t v o i _ b y a no i l f i l m .diugnoii.t . T h e a i i . n g i n e . l e i l h e e n t l so f t h e o .w h i c h r .o i l c r n n o tb r i d s e powerplantfbr each mile covered..leaf rhrough . w t h e m .befbrebeginningan as engine rebuild. isn't well-known for extreme OIL CONSUMPTION longevity. i o u r n a lw h e r er t ' r f l u n g o t f .B u se n g i n c s c a rl a \ t c rb e c i u r e n n g s a n d v a l v e s .. rs needed. for instance. . so the engine "travels farther" than a sedan d i m e n s i o n is c r e a s e . Sometimesthis is easy. W e n g i n c s r e s u s c c p t i b lte h c r t . i l l h e l p y o u d c c i d ei l " r a rebuildis required. r.. rod and and camshaftbeanngs. V a o At the crankshaft.When an ensineis a sedanengineshouldlast this long.tlLttely rccurnulrted iles.Thesearernoreimportant thanthi Type 4). whentwo.first decicle a rebuil-d neies_ if is sary.op.You'll seea wispy trail of blue smoke l h e p o o r c n g i n e s r i v e n h l r d a n c lg i v e n l i i l l e from the exhaust d pipe. a A s m i l e sa ( .000miles Oil consumption is determinedby an en_ betweenrebuilds. S t a t e f o l n eL . lnrsbookand any other VW lirerltureavail_ able.Tirne To Rebuild? Simple it rnay sound.s p c c i a l l v resistance t e to oil flow. (exceptin the late Bus and thosemiles. so fiequentoil changesareal:tsr.e. the Othertim"r. s VW just doesn'thold that rr-ruch It alsohas This causes oil.. While the air-cooledVW engine. Dirt is the thegapsbetween rings andcylinderwalls andls enemy of ofT-roadengines sucked into the combustion chambcr and Thoseengineswith the shorlestlif-espan are burned. Busengine A revshigherthan sedan. . more oil to try and fill the voiil and . pay more attentionto how tne car was operatedand maintaineddurins no paper oil filter. B:iur: beginning lour ct'forts. we'll examinesomediagnos_ .su you can undersland w n a l\ g o t n go n w h e nt h e y l a l l a p a r t .ancl giv.

Much of the ii::.Oil stays But. if the engine lays down a i-moke screen... or from partial re_ buildswherethecylinders andpistoniwerenot replaced. but the oer_ . Air_ at the oil-filler hole.Type 3 and'4 engines^usE Iet's a review some of the common oil leaks. into the crankcase. Exhaust valvescan pass the sameway. It also causesincreasedoil consumption becausemore oil is splashedon the cylinder bores. ice picks and other oil _Excessive lossthroughtheguidesoccurs barbaric instruments._When level drops to the tirst finJnote oil mileage and subtract first reading from second. but it has beenroutedio the cooled VW enginesare hard on guides because air filter by a hose and metered orifice (valve) ofthe angle with which the rocker arm contacts since rhe mid-'60s.Wiggle thi reachingthe crankcase. Differenceis oil consumptio-n rate. cover plate first. Valve Guides-Some oil passagepast the Original-equipment (Bosch)senders besr. covers on these engines. If that doesn't stop the^leak. Suchoil consumptiin can result lrom parts on the loose end oi the acceptable-tolerance range. there's no harm in buming a quart of oil eveiy 1000 miles or more.remost common in recently rebuilt engines. air-iootet-vtlv'" will any -' out inlp"rti"ular require regular changes spot-on oil and igniiion [imin6. are and draws more blowby out of the crankcasethai won't affect oil-consumptioncalculations. A puff of smokeindicatesworn guides or rings.Sffi air ittii fltfvensing andmissing filrerwiltshorren eus. they would wear out in less than l0 miles fiom They result from prying the-crankcasefrdves metal-to-metal contact. ifthe enginehasmoreihan one leakor one cleaner. make sure oil is level with top line. you can bet the rings are at fault. But. Blowby-Just as worn rings and cylinders al_ low oil to enter the combusiion chamber. next time the intike valve area of the crankcase.If a new quart is neided every 500 miles or less. This Oil Leaks-Many air-cooled VW ensinesleak p ositiv e crankcase ventilation (pCV) plumbing oil.: :irii::!tr.nli*ffiii of service and pooroperating practices destroy engine. it will affect these fisures. plastic center. When oil consumptionis high and oil pressurelow. Type 2 engines. high-pressure area. So.and readdipstickregular_ ly. If it is loose. oil the oil.contaminating ber. a rebuild is required to correct excessclearances. a. After Oil Pump-Leaks from around the oil pump all. ifthe rings andguideswere sealed oil_tisht. From the air filrer. Fresh air from internals. Telltale signs areblowby vapor blowin! But becausean exhausiport is a hot. apart with screwdrivers. oil pressuredrops. A single puff of smoke immediately upon start-upafler sirting overnight usually meanswom guides and piston rings.Both let oil enterthe combustion cham_ ber where it is partially bumed and sent out the exhaust. Another good test is to find a ione hill to coastdown while in top gear. Tighten the oil_pump when guide-to-valve clearanceis too larse. the leaks m-inor. they also let combustiongasespass in the other orrectron.itiil.To check. There are two parts that contribute to an engine burning oil: worn rings and valve guides.oil is suckedinto the combustioncham_ makes a good temporary fix here.r:. PCV valve in the hoseleading from rhe crank_ Because someoil leaksresultfrom worn engine caseto the intake-air distributor. Between 500_1000 miles per quart indicates a slightly wide clear_ ance somewherein the engine. Record odometerreading.These blowby 6 gasespressurlzethe crankcase. the engineneedsattention. mostiy out the oil-filler and dipsrick holei. along with the normal airlfuel mixture. This lets roo much oil berweenthe guide a"nd remove the pump and rry repairingihe mating valve stem. How Much Is Too Much?_Certainly. Then.i:. When y6u reach rneDottom. Oil consumptionis an excellentinOicator ot an. merely venting it to the atmosphere. and lesspollutants are spewedinto the bad leak.causins to the rocker covers to stop backfires from a puddle right under the sender. So you won't be fooled by an oil leak when There is no PCV valve on Type I and upright trying to figure how much oil is being burned. are valve stems and piston rings is normal. replacethJs"ender. atmosphere. but not enough to justify tearingit down. glance lhe mirrorasyou openthe in throttle.:rij!l:iiiiir. this review should be an integral"part the air filter enters the engine at the rocker of the enginediagnosis. A flame arrestor is Oil-Pressure Sender-Oil-pressure senders placed in both hosesrunning from the air filter often dribble from their plastic centers. oil loss through blowby is burnedin thecombustion chambers. the the top of the valve stem.engine's internalcondition. RTV silicone sealei opens. excessive clearance there Blowby used to be vented to the atmosphere results in blowby into the rocker cover. the guides is common.

but the only enduring cure is to weld or replacethe case' A case can also leak through a crack' The magnesiumcase of Type 1-3 engines will crack soonet or later from fatigue.fen-d off constint bilmbardment of dirt. engineinternalsmay or may not be the cause. See page 76. if necessary. lf you're unfamiliar with thesmellandtasteof gear oil used in the transaxle. pull the engineor transaxleandreplacethe transaxle seal right away' won't go away.Devconor some other material to fill the gap. dirty. It can take lots of muscle to movethecrankwhen the engine is together. may havebeeninstalledincorrectly. To locate the source of poor performance. Remove the cooler to inspect the mountings and have it pressure-checked.calledend p lay. if the areais washedclean byoil flowing from the bellhousing area. POOR PERFORMANCE Performanceis best defined for our pulposes when an engine iency.and the end pull the to playis or evenseems be excessive. there is no cheap. the Removing engineand installing anotherone is the only cure. that the transaxleseal and is leaking. is thetransaxle leaking.however. shaft end play. Oil Cooler-Oil coolersleak for two reasons' Eitherthecoolerhas split apart anywherealong or thetubes. The perforce wears the main-bearing bore oendicular so iggshaped. There'sa chance. andrebuild it. Ontheotherhand. specific problem.ffi< yields poor fuel economy and power. the crankshaftis free to wobble. but lets hot. plugs.This meansa valve adjustment. They see . Usually these are little weeping leaks and pose no danger.Mount a dial indicatorto read directly off the crankshaft pulley and end measure parallel to thecrankshaft. This results on in a mess theengine'sbottom. the one closestto the flywheel.Thewearis in two directions. The machining on VW casehalvesis ofthe highestquality. and the sealhas not been changed recently.the oil leak is serious. someonehas used a screwdriver to pry the case aoart therel a definite mistake. performance refers to both engine power and fuel consumption. Diagnosisshoulddetermine the engine is usingthe right amountoffuel to produce the expected amount of power. Cooling efficiency drops and air filte(s) must. and the case will have to be replaced-an expensivefix. there is a iargeoil leak at the bellhousing. Putting this problem off engine canbe very exPenslve.When oil poursfrom betweenthe casehalves. cure. Thereisn't any method for detecting crankwobblewhile the engineis in the chassis.excessive oil the distort neoprene sealat the bearing bore.gasketless German production technique. Case Leaks-These can be anywhere along the case parting line. Chapter 5 has more infbrmation on case cracking. it is looseon its mountings'Both leaks are real gushers because of the large volume of oil passingthrough the cooler. so the deoress clutch and then monitor the pulley' Usethe detaileddirections for measuring end If play on page 126. and joint is a marvel of their precision. but shouldn't any cause alatm.To staba screwdriver into this joint is criminal. points. and the other perpendicularto the crankshaft. at leastin BeeButyoucanmeasure tlesandearlyBuses. thensmellor tasteit. allowedto do any good. investigated originatesfrom the # I main bearThecause ing.too. engine life is shortened. it is inif efficient. Complete the tuneup yourself before performing any diagnostictestsor have it doneby a professional tJneup shop. stafi with a tuneup. sure. If theenginehas a lot of miles on it. the main-bearing bore can be and machined the casesaved. trluny cars and have learnedto quickly and accuratelydiagnosetheir problems. dwell. undet-car air into engine bay.the cure is disassembling engine and manent addingmaterial by welding Engine/Transaxle Mating Surface-Most leak some oil at the front. openthe transaxlefiller hole and take a Compareit to the bellhousing leak' If sample. end play and wobble Of course.If power or fuel economy drops. Remember. Unfortunately.iny.The diagnostictestslater in this chapter are designed to systematicallyuncover the Drivinq without engine compartment seal mav ieem harmless. . This is a serious problem and should be right awaY. and the longer it Thisproblem leaks the greater the chance of ruining the clutchdisc. then the rearmain bearing may be pounded out-the is case actuallydeformed-from excessiveend p/ny. and will cause a leak. timing and carburetor or injection tuning.This is because as a. it alsodripsout the bellhousing' Geta dabof the dripping liquid on a finger tlp. If the seal was recently reit placed. wearing out. lf this problem is detected soonenough. Get a complete analysisof the engine's condition from the shop. andoi1pourspastit. You can try RTV sealer. the result of engines anoverworkedcrankshaftoil seal. If the problem is machiningprobablywon't continue.

which causesa large drop in power and compression.camshaft. Beetleenginehere is builton a Type3 case! Large oil passage(top photo) and U letter code (bottom) were first tip-offs. the valves. compl speed pressl no con Eve droppt head b Type I and ste arate a head d andcy the pis The usual\ in the with tt lifters i will bL warnir It's a valv three c (and e engine One corTec '78 an lic val the val for pe air-cor needp servic ance c A ! to and oil consumption be normal. anotherclue. remove the cover and note the wrper contacts lhat signal throttle position. you've probably cured any problems and a rebuild isn't necessary. head. anything that hinders an engine's breathing reduces its efficiencyboth power and fuel economy. Vacuum test results will also be affected. eliminating external variables from the diagnostictests. If the flap won't move freely after a little fiddling. So. harnessingthe expansionand exhaling the byproducts. this is called hunting. this means that some some of the valve's/ace (sealingsurface)has beeneroded away or crackedby the blast ofhot combustiongases. Unscrew the switch from the throttle. In this case. too. Burning fuel only makes the air expand. valve broug . engine performance will drop. allowing all compression to escapeout the exhaustport. Cloudsof black smokeout the exhaust and poor running below full throttle indicate electronic control unit (ECU) failve or a coldstart valve that has stuck open. Tuning the enginewill have helpedin two ways. a chunk may be burned from the valve head. Finicky idle problems and weird throttle responseon fuelinjectedBusesand 914s are often tracedto the throttle switch mounted right next to the throttle. A burned exhaust-valve face can't make a gas-tight seal against its seat. As this condition worsens. The engine then runs on only three cylinders. Fuel-injected Type 3 throttle switchesoften needadjustment.or valve springscould be at fault.especially considering car.Early engines have few adjustmentsand are great at-hometuneup proiects. Additionally. Bending the arms so they wipe a new areaoften helps. For example. by showing there is something internally wrong and two. go ahead and do diagnostic tests as a double-check. If the engine responds to the tuneup with renewed performance. if not expense. cylinder wall. If an injected engine won't run. or some of the diagnostic tests will be inaccurate. Check all hosesfor connectionand condition. The key to an engine's pumping efficiency is the tightness of the combustion chamber: the area formed by the piston top. stumbling and searching(increasingand decreasing). it's indicated immediately during a seated guide closed cleara cool a The br Eve piece r heada valve erosio bumin be not The lesspr becau valve l sodiun ing ter when valver in the Whr stem. a cylinder won't have full compression if the valves are incorrectly adjusted. Keep in mind that internal-combustionengines are nothing more than air pumps. buy a new one. If any of from the combusthesepartsallow air to escape tion chamber. One. rings. But it is also possible for engine performanceto be low Examiningengine will often reveal interestbuyinga if ing details. CAUSES OF POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE A quick look at the most likely internal engine problems will help put them in perspective before you start testing for them individually. valves and sparkplug. can cause driveability problems.the dipsticktube is an add-onunit. When a chunk is missing.Don't skip the tuneup. All hosesmust be in perfect shapeand tightly sealed. enginebreathing will suffer if the valves and valve train are in poor shape. Later fuelequipment. Underneath. including the air filter. The idle may be erratic. Burned Exhaust Valve-When a mechanic says a valve \s burned. or the engine will not run right or respond to tuning.l coole stem. A worn-out engine will generally perform poorly and use a lot of oil. Every part must be in place. compressing it and expanding it. first make sure all fuelsystemparts are correctly installed. but can be solved with minimal work. the flap in the box next to the air filter. to injectedenginescan be impossible tune withoutprofessional Basic Fuel-Injection TroubleshootingLater engineshave lots of vacuum and fuel hoses that arepafi ofthe fuel-injectionsystem. do the following diagnostictests. 8 If a tuneupdoesn'trestorelost performance. They perform work by inhaling air. But. A stuck dirflow sensor.Think of combustiongases as an inefficient cutting torch and you'll understandwhy valves burn. Other fuel-injection problems can convince you the engineis at fault. This is most likely causedby worn rings and cylinders.

and their threadsare strong. so it can cool well if heat is broushtto it bv sodium or some other mech- anism. Such doghousefan shrouds stop #3's exhaust valve from burning any sooner than the rest. Another factor affecting valve burning on engines with upright cooling-fan mounting is oil-cooler placement.000 miles or less. The net result is a cooler-running. Some cooling takes place through the guide. Pulled studs are a very common problem up '70 Type 1-3 engines.they rely ginesdon't useheadgaskets.'ve just aboutboughta new engine. What typically happensis the cylinder head studs pull out of the case.When the engine is cold. If the at-rest torque is misapplied. So. When the studsdo pull. The engine expandsoversizewhen it is overheated. it has both less time to or cooland absorbseven more combustion heat. Luckily. But after 100. Type 3 and 4 engines never had this problem because flat mounting ofthe cooling fan has the always positioned the oil cooler away from any one particular cylinder. causingall sortsofhavoc in the rocker cover. The threadsin the case are magnesium. letting the cylinder head and cylinders bang back and forth with piston motion. cylinder wall and cylinderheadas it gets slammedaround by thepiston. But when the enginewarms up and expands like a balloon. Or. so it is a liquid of when the engine is running. Type 4 engines get combustion leaks just like Types 1-3. Becauseintakes run so much cooler than exhausts. Thevalve stem. So.Type lthroughthe '77have steelthread insertsinstalled in 3s from the case at the factory. to and a rebuild is not necessary remove them. Prolonged idling and slow driving can also cause carbon buildup. for example. All other VW air-cooled engines use solid valve lifters and periodicvalve adjustments. Carbon Deposits-Although carbon deposits don't fall under the categoryofengine damage. putting more strain on the cylinder studs. A valve cools best only when it is fully seated. to 40 ft-lb.Skipping this need or service maintaining insufficient valve clearance can easily lead to burned valves. not the source' Merely ridding the engine of carbon won't cure the problem. If these parts loosen for any reason. Both gasoline and motor oil are hydrocarbons. Intake valves.the valve at head destroysthe piston crown.If the problem is caught soon enough. longer-lasting Exhaustvalves are much more prone to burnvalves exhaust ing than intakes. the studs won't pull. From the absorbs heat. Loose Cylinder Heads-Type 1-3 VW enInstead.It will immediately begin running on by three cylindersaccompanied a lot of honible (and rattling. Still. to Oneprimary cause of burned valves is inconect valve adjustment. Excessivecylinder-head torque will also destroy thesethreadsin short order.compressiontest because engine cranking speed doesn'tchangeon that cylinder's compression strokeand the gagereadsvery little or nocompression. then it will reach over 70 ft-lb at operating temperature. With casesaversinstalled. Some people may look at the low torque specificationsgiven for these cylinder heads and figure they aren't enough. Thus. pulled threadsare no longer a common problem. So they whip out the breaker bar and crank the headnuts down anothertum.and some at the seat when the valve is If closed. the heat passesto the head and ultimately to the cooling air. although a rich airlfuel mixture can be just as bad. Hydraulic valve lifters adjust thevalvesautomaticallyand eliminate the need for periodicvalve adjustments.Hammering of the caseand headsby the cylinders is not a problem with warped heads. Type 4 engineshave a thin metal gasket for better sealing. partially filled with sodium. some of which sticks to the combustion-chamber surfaces. spring. What they don't understand. It's painfully obvious when an engine drops a valve. The problem is the threadsin the case. the oil cooler was movedout of #3's airstreamand an offset sectionwas addedto the fan housing to enclose the relocated cooler. and they sometimes sepstems arate thejoint. when they assemblethe engine.Under normal conditions. The studs are strained and being pulled from the case. Before'71 . perhapsthey arehaving cylinder-head the torque applied to the cylinder-headnuts is not the same amountof torque that sealsthe heads. are cooled by each passing intake charge and are heated only on the combustion-chamberside. Then the weak threadsare ripped right out of the case by cylinder-head torque and combustion pressure. Reciprocating valvemotionthrows the sodium back and forth in the hollow stem. which is no match for steel when it comesto mating threads. the heads and case can be machined back to service. Now the effective torque on the studs is nearer 55 ft-lb. The steel thread inserts are commonly called case savers.This isn't a factor on '78 andlater Busesbecausethey have hydraulic valvelifters. so burning them in the combustion chamber in the wrong amounts causesexcess carbon deposits. the exhaustvalve will burnbadly before it drops. When this happens.This is because are exposed to combustion heat on both the combustion-chamber and port sides. the magnesiumcan fatique and the threadsweaken. Metal particles circulate withtheoil and scorethe crankshaft. there is only 18 or 23 frlb of torque on the studs. on a metal-to-metal sealbetween the top of the cylinder and the cylinder head to contain combustion gases. If an enginewith case saversis overheated. they add ten poundstorque to the cylinder-head nuts. A v alve drops when the head breaksoff from the stem. In '71. letting combustion pressure escapebetween the cylinders and cylinder heads. Becausemany valvesaremadewith heads Type 1-3 exhaust joined together. The hammering ruins the engine and it's not even a worthwhile core. only delay the symptoms.however. Evenworse than a burned exhaustvalve is a d t droppe exhaus valve. camshaft liftersandoil pump.000 miles. so this is some warning before it destroys the entire engine. No wonder the studspull out of the case! Overheating the engine has the same effect as overtorquing the cylinder-head nuts. exhaustvalve. it leavesthe cylinder free to hammer the crankcase and cylinder heads. a valve staysopen longer due to tight clearances whatever. Theburningprocesshas begun.This holds the and valve partially open and can start the gaserosionprocess. Then it getstossedto the cooler stem-end. a few words about carbon will help you with engine diagnosis. This preheatedcylinder #3's cooling air. heat is transferredby the sodium from the headto the stem. carbon deposits are a symptom of a problem. Instantly shut off the expensive) engine help minimize damage. barrels and case halves are replaced. the aluminum cylinder heads and cast-iron barrels grow a lot longer than the steel studs. on the other hand. Usually a valve will benoticeablyburned in 2. while there may be ways to get rid of carbon an buildupwithoutoverhauling engine. This type of valvehas a hollow stem. Theexhaust valvesused in 914 enginesare proneto burning than other Type 4 engines less because they are sodium-filled. the oil cooler was mounted inside the fan shroud. but don't count on this remedy all the time. Once it starts. not the studs. they are much less apt to burn. causing high cylinder temperatures and prematurely burned exhaustvalves. Even well-maintained valves can bum if a piece carbongets caught between the valve of head seatasthe valve closes. the valveburningprocessis rapid. where it passes heat to the the stem. The first point to give is the cylinder stud threadsin the case. Sodium melts well below the operating temperature the valve. which shedsthe heat quickly to the valve guide. The most common sourceof harmful carbon depositsis excessiveoil consumption. retainer and keepers usually separate also. Becauseonce the cylinder heads. Whenthe sodiumis at the hot head-endofthe stem.curing .The stem is in constant contact with the valve guide. the cylinder heads can warp. The studs are steel. They can be added when rebuilding to earlier cases that don't have them. Carbon is a solid byproduct of incomplete combustion. combustion pressureand gaseswill be lost through the gap. in the path of cooling air going to the #3 cylinder.

but with today'sfuel it might inside wire i the wi bad a "dead Stethoscopeis preferred tool for pin-pointinginternal engine noises because it amplifies sound coming through probe and reduces surroundingnoise with earplugs. the fuel shut-off solenoid may be faulty. or do a lot of in-town. Look for the small can on the side of the carburetor with the wire leadingto it. sound you ci sound to hea Aid 10 . cylinder temperatureswill quickly go sky-high. pistons and cylinders more quickly. First. Loose carbon depositscan also lodge between the electrodes of a sparkplug. Each time you touch the lead. detonation can be causedby staleor low-octanegasoline. If the engine pings at the slightestload. but doesreducefuel economyandpower. A hot piece of carbon acts like a diesel-engine glow plug by supplying an ignition source other than the sparkplug. Ignition timing is also commonly overadvancedby owners looking for more power. As an air-cooledengine. it is very susceptibleto overheatingand preignition causedby too-advanced timing. Turn on the ignition without starting the engine. The resulting suddenpressureand temperaturerise is more than the engine was designedfor.Ridding the engineof carbon. substantialengine damagefrom preignition or detonation isn't prevalent. the sparkplug will short out and the cylinder will misfire or go totally dead. the solenoid is deactivatedand a spring-loaded plungerclosesthe idle circuit. the engine may need a professional tuneup or carburetor overhaul. The solenoid is on the left side on '71 and later carbs (34mm) and. Drive it a half hour or more at freeway speeds.Also. Admittedly. if thereis a problem with it. Pay specialattentionto the ignition timing of a VW engine. lights the mtxture after the sparkplughas fired. remove its electrical lead. Carbon easily heats to incandescence. Imagine red-hot carbon in the combustion chamber. When a fresh intake charge is compressedon the compressionstroke. sometimes producing an explosiondetonation-rather than even buming. but severe cases can burn or blast holesin oistons. fault. Carbon deposits causetrouble in two ways. Plug replacementor cleaning usually cures theseproblems.slow- ing the idle and reducing spark advance a few degreeswill help reduce dieseling. long-term light detonation will wear the rings.hole a piston and spew metal throughout the lubrication system. If r the er decid NOIS Interr a diffi fluenc leastt ing ar Open cil. This timing setting may be retardedfrom the specified stocksetting. slow-speed. combustion-chambertemperature and pressure exceedsenginedesign limits and damage occurs. retardthe timing a degree at a time until it doesn't ping.onthe right side on earlier carbs. solen when Fue when shouk De necessary. The excessheat will causeseveredetonation. They of areusually associated with low-octane gasoline ot over-advanced timing.Thetwoflamefronts collide.So. Again. concerned be ifthe engineis knocking heavily. valve andring damagecan result ifpreignition or detonation is prolonged. Worn ringsandvalve guideswill alsocause excessive carbon buildup from incomplete oil buming.excessiveoil consumptionmay meanan engine overhaul. When the ignition is turned off. short-tripdriving. over-advanced ignition timing andengineoverheating. These types of abnormal combustion can damagean engine by placing a heavy load on engine internals. Piston. Nevertheless. This devastationcan happen in less than one minute if the engine has been running for 10 minutes and is fully warm. Detonation is very similar to preignition. considervehicle operation. Carbondepositsin the combustion chambers can also causedamage. A carbon-aggravatedproblem most people arefamiliar withis dieseling-the enginerunson after the key is turned off.Checkfor theseproblemsif the engine detonates. Sor with i probk stall tl origin have i speed stop d On solenc Theor particl usuall On solen discor other. To test the solenoid. They contribute excess oil to the combustion chamberand it can't be completelyburned. As a final note on carbon. they may shroud the valves. Carbon deposits build up on the backside of a valve and restrict airlfuel mixture flow into the cylinder. If you advance the ignition past specification. It's no secret that advancing the spark in aircooled VW engines increases their power.the glowing carbon. Recent researchindicates a small amount of knocking or pinging is not harmful to an engine. but the secondignition source. you may pay for it with an engine overhaul. the hot carbonpreignites themixture. breakrings. This shouldstop the dieselingmentionedabove. carbon will build up because low cylinder of temperatures.This will heat the combustion chamber and burn away excesscarbon. or foreign objects in the fan housing. But the penalty for too much total advance is severe detonation. Audible signs of detonation are pinging or knocking. stuck thermostat. Although not as severe. throttle response and improves engine acceleration. sounds akin to colliding billiard balls. or get betweena valve headand its seat.You can easily burn-oul excess carbon accumulatedthis way by taking the car for a long trip. s in ba< noises hear l Peo eyesi tion tc your ( sound front. So. If the cooling flaps remain shut from a broken or missing spring.the sparkplugfires and the mixture also startsburning near the plug. If you drive a delivery route. Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid-Type I and 2carbureted engines since '70 have an electric fuel shut-off solenoid attachedto the idle circuit of the carburetor. Fin are he gine. Besides carbon buildup. This is sometimescalled light pinging. A moment 1ater. preignition without detonation causes excess combustion-chamber pressure and temperature. If a piece ofcarbon sticksbetweenthe plug electrodes. Heed another warning: These engines selfdestructratherquickly when the cooling system fails.anddeformthe main-bearing bores in the crankcase.but without any accompanying pinging or knocking. the solenoid should click (the plunger is moving DIAC No' probk witho may 0 the tes it. If that doesn't help.asmentioned earlier.causing preignition and detonation. Now touch the lead to the solenoidconnection. prompt attention to the causes abnormalcombustionis wise.

trace and repair the wiring fault. DIAGNOSIS Now that we've examined some engine oroblems. a Type 4 engine with hydraulic lifters. All air-cooled jt unless is VWs use 0. critically identifying each sound. position the receiving end of the dowel againstyour skull. toward perceiving via their aro. And. lifters or camshaft. From there. Piston slap is audible when piston{o-bore clearanceis'll find thetests a it. When using a dowel. If there is any appreciable movement other than 90'to the shaft.unlessthe engine diesels. It can make several different sounds. place the stethoscope nearby bolt head or solid rail. Ifyou suspecta noise from againsta beneatha cover. Engine noises can be lumped into three categories: intermittent ones. learn to mentally dissect what you arehearing. the rocker-arm bushing or shaft is worn.006-in. It may be necessary remove the fan and generator assembly to investigate this noise. There have been other clearancesspecified by VW in by the past.As you listen to an air-cooledVW. solenoid's Theorifice is very small and eventhe tiniest dirt particlecan clog it. and probe the fan area with your hand. the dominantsoundwill be the exhaust. This. an automotive stethoscopehas a solid metal probe at the business end. Raise the rpm past idle and the ticking should turn into a whirr. the intermittent sounds-the oddballs. hook up a timing light and see if the noise coincides with flashesof the light. Abnormal Fan Noises-A lot of abnormal noises come from outside the engine. increases the valve noise. Just rememberto properly adjust the valves after the engine cools. A shot of compressedair usuallyclears the orifice. Unlike the stethoscopea doctor uses. stand in back. the solenoid is thewire is bad and needs to be replaced. Once oast the exhaust. But. so engine vibrations don't bounce the dowel into your ear. A proper valve adjustmentcan only be done while the engine is cold. Check the tightness of the large fan retaining nut. NOISE DIAGNOSIS Internal Noises-Diagnosing engine noisesis a difficult and imprecise art. it will only bum the valve. Rocker arms can be checkedby moving each by hand with the valve completely closed. lay down in back and to the side. but do anyway. case. just forward of your ear. timing and idleare adjustments required in thesecasesto speed stopdieseling. The other major noise in a air-cooled VW engine compartmentcomesfrom the fan. it's at crankshaft speed-a bottom-endproblem. not at the middle of the rocker cover. the noise is at one-half crankshaft speed-a top-end problem or piston slap. Type 3s and flatengine Type 2s project more fan noise than Type ls. Piston slap is the sound produced by the piston slamming againstthe cylinder as that cylinder fires at the top ofthe power stroke. On Type 3s with dual carburetors (and two determinewhich one is defective by solenoids). bolt heador the like. It's a great way to pinpoint a noise. remove the fan belt and run the engine for a few seconds. Piston slap is easiestto detect on a cold engine. and thoseoccurring at every other crank revolution. look elsewherefor the source. length of heater hope or a wooden dowel. Then all the valve-adjustment tightening in the world won't quiet the engine.If you don't hear a click. If not.biased People so eyesight. When investigating an automotive sound. For example. manifold. If you have trouble telling whether a noise is at one-half or at crankshaft speed. adjust the valves. rocker arms and lifters. The engine mayor may not be exhibiting problems. Then reinstallthe fuel shut-off solenoid. early Type 2s and 9l4s becausethe fan is right in front ofyou when looking into the engine compartment. Noises occurring at every turn of the crankshaft come from the bottom end: worn piston pins. As a secondchoice.Leaning forward into the engine compartmentwill help mask the exhaust. in effect.With a hose. you can single out and stop thesenoises.If ithas aproblem. Someonemay have replaced the solenoid with a standard idle screw. a noisy valve can best be heardby listening at the edgeof the rocker cover or cylinder head. first one solenoid and then the disconnecting other. Finally. Remove any debris. you can more easily block out the unimportant while concentratingon those you want sounds to hear. sit inside the car. it occurs on every other crank revolution. and then recheck the solenoid operation. Noises that occur at every other turn of the crank-at camshaft speed-are most likely coming from the valve train: valves. rubbing hoses. If so. If you don't find anything. There is one bottom-end noise that can happen at every other revolutionpiston slap. 11 . Valve adjusting proceduresare on page 136-138. If "hot" (has voltage).inside). there's no problem. Many factors influencethe way sounds are perceived.006 in. worn rod bearingsand main bearings. It works best when held against a solid part-head. Consequently.. intermittent rattling noise from the sheet-metalfan shroud of Type I and 2 engines may be a loose or broken fan. or the valve will burn. hold one end firmly against the engine and the other end to your ear. On pre-'71 carburetors.If the noise disappears.Cupping your hands around your ears may look funny. This test will isolate only the generator or alternator on Type 3 and 4 engines because their fans are driven directly off the crankshaft. Try the rocker arms. Stop the engine.And. Cam and liftclearance. becausethere's only one power stroke for every two crank revolutions. For example. Openthe hood. check if the wireis supplying electricity with a test light.006-in.which increases er inspection require engine disassembly. Therefore.the main noise of an idling engine should be the soft ticking of the valve train. Fuel-injection systems stop fuel delivery when the engine is shut-off. a length ofhose or dowel can be used instead of a stethoscope. try different spots. before the pistons have expanded. Carburetorsnot originally equipped with the solenoid can't haveit added. the fuel shut-off end doubles as the idle metering jet. close the hood. and try to to wiggle the fan on its hub. a whining or screaming from the fan area usually means something is caught in the fan. Aids for locating noises are a stethoscope.Upon first hearinga running engine. you can decidewhether to rebuild now or later. so dieseling shouldn'tbe a problem with them. Never close a valve adjustment tighter than 0. the problem is in the fan' A sharp. not the leastbeing the human factor. ranging from with ahouse fan. Ifyou hear one valve over the rest. Isolating Normal Noises-Now for the hard part: What do theseproblemssoundlike? Let's startwith normal enginesounds. those occurring eachcrankshaftrevolution.let's start in on how to find themwithout taking the engine apart. you'll have established baselineof the engine's condition. but all have been superseded the 0. if you still have the noise with their fan belts removed. if you are checking for one loose valve. reducing piston-to-bore clearance. standto one side. or if all the valves are making more of a harsh clacking sound. so you can more easily hear internal engine noises. If the noise occurs twice for every flash. but it helps mask soundsfrom the sides and amplifies those in front. If the wire is "dead"(no voltage). measurement. You won't hear all from each spot. the initial impression is a big jumble of By sounds. Ifvalve adjustmentdoesn't cure a valve-train noise. broken've got a crackedfan or bad generator or alternator bearings. close your eyesto help focus attention to the sounds. you can locate it on a warm engine. valve clearance. First. the low-pitch noise associated and a high-pitch whistle. items stuck in the fan and so forth. By poking around the engine compartment.The engine will die when you unplug the that's working and show little change solenoid whenyou unplug the one that's not. If the valve noise remains after adjustment. it's possible there is a wom camshaft lobe or lifter. If it does. those that you can noises hearwill sound different from each spot'. These are external sornds coming from loose brackets.

Make surethe distributor cam and points rubbing block are well-lubricated and then recheck. Disabling the cylinder will reduce piston slap because combustion loads no longer exist. rod knock is it. Metal-to-metal contact startsas the rod bearing is slammed against the crankshaft. See the sidebar for more information on disabling the ignition. Ihere shouldbe no morethanal/4-in. oil can't fill the gap between the rod bearing and crankshaft. To remove it.You'll have to apply considerablepressure to exhaust openings as a well-sealed system has a lot of pressure. On dualport and fuel-injected engines. When rod-bearing clearanceis large. Rod Knock-If there is one internal engine noise associated with air-cooled VWs.but dashpotsare found on all air-cooledVWs. The sheet-metalshrouding can be bent out of the way with a wooden dowel. disconnectand plugvacuumlineleading dashpot. Another typical exhaustsound is a whistle as the engine is accelerated. which is being disconnected. Exhaust is very hot. ortheir bushingsget loose. This sound is often heard during a cold start before oil pressurebuilds.groundthe leadto the head or engineblock. sealing the ends of the pipes wilt stop the engine. For quicker throttle response when testing for rod knock.If the exhaust system is tight. Ifyou think you hearpiston slap. so it's a good idea to check the exhaust system before jumping to any conclusions. screwdriver or the like. Reconnecting the plug lead will restorethe noise. It occurs at every power stroke. muffler and tailpipe extensions are the usual spots. the bearing is no longer clamped by the connecting rod.It is causedby loose or cheap replacementtailpipe baffles on Beetles and early Buses. When thesepins wear. say from 1000-2000 rpm. This is becausethe rods float on their joumals as they pass through the transition of being loaded. So. some are betterthan others. worn rod bearings are bad main bearings. This givesthe high-voltage electricity somewhere to go. depending on how you hear it. With the transaxlein neutral. you'll hear a phuft. To test for main-bearingknock. then quickly unloaded. or they'll get burned. DISABLINGTHE IGNITION Many diagnostic tests call for the ignition system to be disabled. Continued driving may spin the bearing. They are very rarely a problem. so don't lose any sleep over them. Main-Bearing Knock-Sounding similar to. the better.there are severalways to short-circuit electrical the supplyto the plugs. they don't make any noise.heavily insulatedwire running from the coil to the center of the distributor cap. Usr speed a don't k throttle bearing frequen this betl for rnor the clutr while gr periods with axle. Intake-Air Hissing-A loud hissing accompanied by poor idling usually indicates an intake-air leak. it won't raise any racket. The rod.Rhythmic scraping soundsare likely to be a bent crankshaft pu11ey the cooling fan rubor bing the fan shroud. and all other precision clearances have been destroyed by the passingmetal.simplyreinsert the lead into the distributor cap. but deeper than. Round can at right is throttle dashpot. so you'll hear a castanet-like rattling with old. remove and replacethe sparkplugwire to each cylinder one at a time. graspthe bootaroundthe distributor-cap terminal. A spun bearing is one that is rotating relative to the rod and the crankshaft. Be sure to ground the plug lead when disabling a cylinder. andabruptly lift offthe accelerator. move into a medium rap and finally develop into a knock. On engines wilh electronic ignition. plus the air intake and metering areain general. In fact. the rods should rattle. When you get to the affected between the free end of the lead and ground. The sooneryou stop and overhaul the engine. Distributor Chirping-Dry distributor-cam surfaces can cause the points to give a highpitched chirping. Cold-start enrichment devices normally make some sucking or hissing sound while they are operating. To test for rod knock. phuft. the rod will weld itself to the crankshaft. thoroughly warm the engine to operating temperature. If there are leaks. but mating flanges at the cylinders. When the bearing spins. Don't leave your hands or shoesover the exhaust pipes very long. A few well-placed wooden block and hammer blows can straighten out a bent pulley. Rod knock describesthe knocking sound made by a connecting rod when there is excessiveclearancebetween it and the crankshaft. or ignitiotn-system damage may occur. Piston slap is a dull. the noise will greatly diminish. seizeand break. In other words. Pushing or pulling on the top of the fan shroud will probably eliminate the fan noise. tired bearings. knock or pound. With conventional ignitionsystems. Piston Slap-Piston slap has already been mentioned becauseof its timing. Then they wear in sets. you'lI hear one steady knocking beat. insteadof continuing build voltage to andtryingto arcto groundinside coil. so don't be confused by them. more serious problems. commonly called a vacuum leak. If one rod is bad. Oil ceasesto flow to that rod and it rapidly overheats. Ona by sele until tht engine 1 on the t tor. Even when a clip is broken and the pin is free to score the cylinder. Now. Bent crank pulleys areeasily seen by sighting acrossthem while the engine idles. Rods also wear with accumulated mileage.This the can destroyan expensive electronic-ignition module.twistthe lead slightly. STOP! Rebuild the engine while there is still enough to rebuild. for the they rar especi bearinl knocki are a ri DIAGl Crank is an en the pur ing thr crankir sealed in goo< vacuun portion Beg temper ute drir There' warm i Onc the ign nect y VACUUr intake vacuur of the buretor Port \ mary create ious e vacuu applic 12 . Usually metal particles from the rod have been pumped through the engine with the oil. case. phuft sound coming from the leak. Ifyou are on a long trip and overheat the engine. By the time a rod is knocking. The high-tension lead is the large. and camshaft are sure to be broken. It's difficult to hear over the normally loud VW engine mechanicals and not easy to isolate.. lightly rev the engine. hollow sound. cover the exhaust outlets with palms that are swathedin wet rags or block the pipes with your shoes. with the engine idling. You have to take the engine apa. Engine rpm must drop sharply. lt dows throttle closingvia rod restingagainst throttle linkage. The best way is to removethe high-tension leadfromthe center of the distributor cap and ground it. and pull out the lead. When you hear a rod knock. Exhaust systems can leak from anywhere. you may hear the rod knock start out as a light tap. there's a better chance of hearing it while driving than listening for it with the hood open. Exhaust Leaks-These are often confused with other.rtto detect bad piston pins. Oncethe testis done. put the thoroughly warmed engine under load. phuft. examine the rubber hose sections of the intake manifold. Many times. Main bearings knock for the same reasons as rods-excessive oil clearance-but under different conditions. plus the intake manifold-to-cylinder head hardware. so it sounds off in time with the valve train. Thisis a to 411 engine. it covers the oil holes in the crankshaft. for an instant. Check the tightness of the carburetor{ointake manifold connections.The twisthelpsbreakany corrosion that resistswire removal. if that's easier. As rpm drops. serious damage has been done to the crankshaft and rod. tt Placetl ly with tor slov load thr main br right al and trar the tral test is ( WV Piston-Pin Noise-All air-cooled VWs use full-floating piston pins.

the lead has to be grounded without open-firing it first. hold the brake firmthe ly with your left foot and depressthe acceleratorslowlywith your right. of fail. few seconds test over. iunningidle are really testing how wellthe sealed cylinders are.By measur.orado.Therefore. cranking vacuum will drop about I inch of mercury DIAGNOSTIC TESTS step (in. or have a friend crank portionately the engine. Don't be no alarmedif the needleswings about 2 in.Hgwarmit up.They are equipped tion that can't be open-fired.pulled head studs. The vacuum ing the vacuum an engine produces while at valuesgiven below are for measurements sea cranking. it's a Power-Balance Test-This test shows how vacuumsignal that reads low on part-throttle much each cylinder contributes to the power which outputofan engine. You cando the sameby inserting a metal spring between the sparkplug and lead. Manifold much vacuumduring problemsin secondswith a vacuumgage. nect your vacuum gage to a fulL manfoldIf the needleregularlydropsto near0 in. Colisanengine-cranking ability of the engine. You're going to lift a lead off its plug without a lot of tugging. There's need to overheatthe engine. Be careful! Don't do this for morethan three secondsor you'll burn out theclutch. shut it off.valves. for example in Denver.This is easiersaidthan done in the confines of a Bus engine compartment. tester A professionaloscilloscope/diagnostic easilydoesthis. Don't overdoit.This engineisn't drawing shot. Any vacuum nipple on the intakemanifold will do.Check for heat out of the heater. If you are looking for a more subtle problem. You can perform a power-balancetest at home '79 and later on any air-cooled VW except for with electronicigniBuses. estheignition so the engine can't start. It creates vacuum signal usedfor operating var. a quick. Beginby warming the engine to operating pull a steadyvacuum ofabout l0 in. But. just above the throttle plates.This is they rarely true of Type 4 engines. touch a grounded wire to the spring.The car's tachis not 't3 . the Place transaxlein gear.Hg thepumping below areading taken at sealevel. If the main bearings going to knock. or makenoise.On a manuai-transaxle load the engine car. ear-calibrated powerbalancetest will tell what you want to knowwhich cylinder is it? BecauseVWs have only four cylinders. is VW mainbearingsare quite large and strong for thehorsepower the engines.the engine will produce a lot of vacuum-if not. you can determinewhich cylinder is at fault. By comparingthe resulting rpm drop for each disabled cylinder. Prop the vacuum gage so you can see it in goodshape. Vacuum-The next diagnostic Cranking vacuum test. A note about altitude and how it affects vacuum readings. The rod especially bearings much more suspect. To pinpoint the cylPortedvacuum exists in the carburetor priinder at fault.Hg. you'll have to perfbrm more maryventuri. wearout. they'11 so are do rightaway. Just make sure the then there is a problem. the knocking main and will sound off with a heavy. use a dwell/tachometer measure rpm drop for eachcylinder. byselecting first gear and letting out the clutch untiltheenginebeginsto labor.burnedvalves.) temperature-tenminutes idling or a five minA wom engine with no major problems will utedrive. chances area rod is about to fail. too.Thus. of With an Auto-Stick or full automatic transis axle. just have a steady.There is no needto keep the engine andtransaxle straining-this is very tough on (5-10) and the A thetransaxle. it alsoisolates applications-opposite of the high manifold- cylinders contribute little to manifold vacuum. '-%iffi' "Y::. test To do a power-balance on them. a If you suspect burnedvalve or other major problem. just loadthe engineso the car tries to creep. worn cam lobes. Judgingfrom grit and lackof air filter.pull all sparkplugleadsoff the sparkplugs. or cylinders. disable it's normal on a four-cylinder engine. then set the leads lightly back on the tops.Use the parking brake.tests. accelerating during other while or periods high engine load. If all internal parts are level. This checks So. the Once engineis warm. The idea is to pull the lead away from the plug and ground it against the head and stop that plug from firing-this is called open-firing.ringsare probably vacuum readings under the same conditions. at 5000 ft.Becauseatmosphericpressure drops as altitude increases. racuumsource. If you hear are knocking orpounding from the engine."''* You can detect maior of vacuumis excellentindicator overallenginecondition.Hg) for each 1000-ft increasein altitude. a bad one showsright away. canalsohearbadmain bearings You goinguphill. With a little throttle clutchjuggling. so a professional To perform a power-balance test on other engines. but lower reading. tesl for bad main bearings easier. An engine in good condition will lower.through the rear window. warped cylinder heads and worn buretors fuel-injectionsystems. and con. Keep engine speed about 1000 rpm during the test and at don'tlet the car creep forward. vacuum will be pro. test is the best method. Then load the furtherby putting half of your right foot engine onthebrakeand the other half on the accelerator.Hg. Such a vacuum drop vacuum sourceisn't ported vacuum-from one can have numerous causes: poorly adjusted of the small diameter nipples on later car.pecially slow-cranking ones with 6-volt startlng systems. The engine will then be running on three cylinders.Hg. a ious emission-control switches. You can practically feel fiequency this better thanhearit. crankingvacuumvalueswill be 5 in. (This 5 sameenginein Denver is registering in.pistonsor rings. lowbearings pounding. to however. Then to ground the lead. too.

---\iI vi l\ i\ FLYWHEEL + .) to if the much are 1o Re grve( 14 . distributorpositionat TDC (Top Dead Center)and firingorder. The black depositsshould wipe off easily.Shiny-black-coating inciicaiesexcesd oil that won't rub off easily. Rub Reading. a plug should be dry. plug c is carbon-fouled. indicaiing ii well coloring and more likely to show symptoms of all in the combustionchamber. Of course. unusual combustion. if all cylinders are bad.cylinder#1. It doesn't matter so much how far rpm drops as how close the readings are to each other. Now. none will drop very much. Also be aware that soark- plugs I show tl cause0 driven You who re turn ad race. - i p ao"= rir cAsE a E l T r N r .Jl self. pay more attention to consumption. which requires sparkplug removal. flat-blackcoating comes from ex. and the porcelain insulator will appear burned. don't confuse it with oil-fouling.the porcelain insulator around the center eleccessively_rich airlfuelmixtures.the cylinders with the leastdrop are the bad ones.stop-and-go drivingor-a too-coldplug heit range. Normally. crankpulleysahdfans rotateclockwise. f engine oily plr with tt Compr pressio conditi There r taperec and he the scr difficu mount coolinl hold a bent ir screwtype. *. If the mixture is too lean. Distributor driveshaftslot positionat TDC.A carbon-fouledplug's dry. Therefore.Photoscourtesy ChampionSpark Hu! C'ompany. When reading can-yieldimportanttroubleshooting clues.K" Type3 Type2 i1 \ | i Cylinderlayout. a really bad cylinder may not drop in rpm at all. Noteoffset of slot: thicker arc faces different positiondeiending on engine.)KY. take notice. Plug B is oiFfouled. Note vacuumadvancecan positibnand rotor tip points at #1 when installed. It's most sensitive to normal. the plug will be powdered with a white coating. ) helper any ca compr The disabk out for engine fully c openin using i linkag helps. the plug will be coatedwith dry. With thc tachometerconnected. flat-black carbon. t/ i(il i .Oil in the combustionchamber will leavethe plug wet and shiny black. Rub the carbon onto the palm of your hand. The insulator can also turn a pastel green or yellow in normal operation. B Reading Sparkplugs-Think of a sparkplug as a removable portion of the combustion chamber. Late Type 2 & Type 4 Type 1 & EarlyType2 @ Type 3 rype l&Earry f-b-l' rype2 ( ((a\ 6-Ll .andyou'll seeit hasusefuldiagnostic potential. ingam will ct engine Scr use.. Il busyp plug h wit c and cr about cranki come fast cr highe \ same of cor Lik are de surec in. Replacesuch plugs and engin6 that into your palm and you get an oily mess performancewill improve.FLYWHEEL + "":? 'tEtrcET - | --\^Y/-7-l-. accurate enough for this test. Good VW cylinders usually register a drop of about 200 rpm. plug D is trodethan the metal shell. when .possiblyfrom worn rings and valve guides. write down the reading and reconnect the plug lead.All distributorroiors. Don't expect the readingsto be any closer than 20 rpm. But when thesereadings start varying by more than 40 or 50 rpm. Go to the next plug and do the same until you've done all four. with an even tan coating and slight rounding of the electrodes. PlugA suffers from heavily rounded electrodes and pitted insulator..Electroderoundingisrnoderateand insulatbris even tan dr gray. depending on the individual fuel blend beihg used. let's discusssparkplugreadingnow. Becausethe compressiontest follows. Remember. ground the first plug lead and wait for engine rpm to stabilize. sparkplu. If the fuel mixture is too rich. lt's worn out. = |LINE PARTINGE ---.

ninitresult low readingsSo.8881 soreadthe oil. you'll be termine how many squirts it takes to make a conditions. They will registerlower valuesthe higher difficult useon VWs because cone and its rubber'conetype likeone shownis atttrouglr are mount usuallytoo shortto reachthrough the thE altitude. even reaolngs psi.ur"tents. Wet tLst such a cylinder. The rubber-cone thescrew-in even as it influences manifold-vacuum readthe to test.. Screw-in tester is easiest to use' ings.r. starlerswitch. hold the thottle open oil into the cylinder. it isn't likely that the batof condition the rings. trouble reaching 40 psi and. becausethis conditionsbethe sholw mostbasiccombustion condition is usually causedby poor nngs' ofthemanyoperatingconditions a streetcause On the other hand. ihe specification into that cylinder. ' Factor ing the squirts.t up on . i"r. they in oo. Problem cylinders arelow.8617 : 108 psi' The cylinders time to pump up. So. consider them faulty' Below 14. relaThat'son a race engine. 40 psi or more. prop the throttle acceptatle.jump the battery to anotherone to type that is inserted into rubber-cone tapered maintain cranking sPeed.ito crankthe engine.higher speedgives higher pre. are if all cylindersread above 94 psi.havehim fully depressthe accelerator is sood and all below are bad' In the example tude increasesabove sea level. not desirable' It is and 59F at sea level. over150psi. tuy.en.enough. of squirtinga teaspoon oil sion. to tumadjustmenl the carburetor and won the if you crank this type of cylinder enough.t method. ignition Double-check your findings with the 7570rule: ind all sparkplugs removed' Watch disabled HIGHERALTITUDE& cylinders must read within 757oof the highA11 outfor hot partswheneverworking on a warm LOWER COMPRESS]ON est cylinder."idingt and vice versa.ith. if the highestreading is^l25 The throttle and choke plate must be urinn standard Notice I said acceptable. Compressionreadingsare influencedby psi. you use a rubber-conetester.7psratmospnerday cnnditions: u"r.8106 7000 number builtl is neededto restorethe lost clearances'If ruL. If you crank them some leeway' givedifferentreadings. tively high readings can result' can't be read that way' Check for the ensine There are variables that affect the readings a reveals problem engine. also give lower compress^ton tester.. pression is a good way to measure tne test four-cylinder engine. with their longbentinto a VW engine compartment. . if a cylinderyietded the because airlfuel charge ingandopenflames sion-testresults. There.7860 8000 increase much' about 5 compression doesn't strokes. Give eachcylinder the same . jot down the increasesand fast compression . oI compression the problem is probably with the of reading 125 Like the'll need a remote starter switch or a low-rpm breathing for improved high-rpm tt.sfamiliar comCompressionTesting-The rut" . plugs in a street race. So.8617 5000 pression comes up markedly. Compression testing takes place at it because leavesyou free to watch the case anv cranking speed-well below idle speed' gageduring the test' compression The engine must be warmed up.This is becausesuch cams sacntrce allow 15 . the pushing conetightly againstthe sparkbusy teaspoonget a teaspoonand fill it while countolushole. *.if possible. don't be too concerned in. If a friend hard to set a wear limit and say anything above decreaseas alllpressureand temperature helps.8359 6000 ihe trouble is poor ring{o-bore sealing' A rereading' Test all four cylinders the highest .9151 Crank the engine two revolutions or so to 30O0 crankingspeed slow as the tested cylinder .valves. cylinders and valves' tery will run down during a compresslontests' are There two types of compression testers: a But if it does.Atmospnenc ic pressure linkageopen with a screwdriver. Worn camshaft lobes can also just as accurate' also awkward to shrouding. heldagainstthe open sparkplug hole.r. Use a duration profiles. Remember.ip.on that. If using the conescrew-in readings. al operatingaltitude. and tempressure "Screw-in (accounting decreased for To help determinethe causeof low compresto compressiontesters are easier Just multlply for oerature) difterentaltitudes. butiustfinefor the actupsi on tire next and so on.9428 strokes' You can hear 2000 6-8 compression about .They are cooling cause lower-than-normal readings' Highcylinder pressure while you are hold against oerformance camshafts. Usually' a cylinder will pr-oTrouble is idS if the figures seem generally low' wltn seaduce40 psi on the first piston stroke' another35 could be reading low comp-ared muchmorelikely if only one or two cylinders Lu"Lm"u. mulriply 125by 0.9711 1000 andcrankthe engine so the testedcylinder is full so you don't squirt air into the cylinder' .75 to get94 Therefore' test-part-throttle for ful'ivopenfor an accurate Specifications altitudeand temperature. then compression An acceptable be pulled head studs or a lessinDenver' Dependingon the engine' pres. l2Oor 125psi. do iwet testby value for compression1in Justscrewit in and crank the engine youruse.different compresslon testers hay have inciease by l0 psi at a time. With a small. Just make sure the oil can has . I would be wary of the the *ilt ro*i out of the sparkplug holes when The chart supplies correction factors low cylinder. a cylinder suffering from engineis subjectedto' driven excessiveoiling-from bad rings even-can Youmayhaveheardabout the ace mechanic readingsbecause vield hieh compression-test whoreadihe plugs' then made a one-eighth the seals rings'Again' oil in thecylinder L*.they'll come close to the other cylinolussfrom a street-drivenengine can onty ders. It could also about 5000 ft' the sure rangefrom 75 psi (pounds per square warped be You may notice a cylinder that takes a long equivalenicompressionreading would.or. instead. if you're compressionvalues are usually based. SAE 30W is fine' To depsi) by the factorfor the engine'soperating If se1f. psi at sea levelwouldregister cylinder head.. Then squirt the sameamount oI Altitude (ft) frith . is ensine uanked. can ioi e*impre. A helper is bestjn breathing. Note: Avoid smokcompresonly 97 psi and-the pensatefor this when interpreting ei. Retestthe low cylinder' If com4000 its compressionstroke' Note how . and ancl Altitude will affect compressron reaorngs version is Foputar diagnostic check is compression type. so comwhin crankingthe engine.)to psi X .lt plug oit"y ona street obtained from compression testing' One is withtheringsor valveguldes' cranking speed.

If so. This wears the lifter and especially the lobe very rapidly. Leakage past intake valves can be heard at the carburetor or intake-airsensor. generator. the less valve lift and horsepower. Many tuneup shopscan do the test for you. Then the lifter tendsnot to rotate. until the lobe is considerably shorter than when new. Frequent valve adjustments become necessary keep noise down to and the valves adjusted. alternator. both the rings and valvesmay be leaking.the lifter's bottomis convex. even just a little. you can hear the hiss of escaping air in the tailpipe. Bring the # I cylinder to top deadcenter (TDC) of the its compressionstroke. A leak-down tester uses an external lts center protrudes more than the edges. valve lift is likely your problem. Otherwise.A20Voleakage indicate can a high-mileageengine. Then testcylinders#3 and. they should have an HC/CO meter available. This will keep the engine for turning over. the HC portion of the meter will peg instantaneously If you usea ! tuneup shop for the leak-down test.Leak-Down Testing-Although it's also a measure of combustion-chamber sealins. valve lift decreases and the ensine doesn't breath as well. If the diagnostic tests thus far indicate worn engine internals. you can the feel when the piston is at the top of its stroke. This is especially true if there is a burnedvalve. This makes the lifter rotate with each valve opening and spreadswear over the surface of the lifter.just an adapter for the sparkplug hole and a compressed-airsource. a leak-down tester will definitely help you make a decision. Testing is done with the engine stationary. You can usuallytell what's leakingby listening to the engine with the tester attached. Next. first consider how camshafts and lifters are made. A compression test gives an accurate enoughpicture ofan engine's condition 90Zoof the time.o so longerover cam Iobe.leakagewill approachl007o as all the compressed blows by an open valve. so that when the lifter restsagainstit. intake-air sensor or breather.Accuracy is improved beiause variables affecting compression-test readings-those that have no bearingon the sealing capability of an engine-are eliminated. As the cam lobes wear. valve duration. If the compressionreadings are baffling. It is possible to disable one cylinder by adjusting its valves. If it's slightly off. VALVE LIFT Valve lift is the distancethe valve is moved off its seat by the camshaft. if you have accessto a leak-down tester. Pulled head studsmay causehissing leaks between the cylinder heads and cylinders. there is little need to consider valve lift. lOVoor less. the worsetheproblem. the engine witl kick over without warning the instant the cylinder is pressurized. You might as well get on with rebuilding the engine. It takes a minute for the leakage to reach the meter. a9OVo leakageindicatesseriousdamage. Check the engine timing marksto make sureit's exactly on TDC. others are available separatetools. tl and ne If th needsi cam al replace quired timely Chanc Leak-downtesting can indicatemore about engine conditionthan any other test. Farmthis test out to get accurate evaluationof engine condition. Power is reducedand valve train noise increasesbecausethe valve clearanceincreaseswith cam and lifter wear. It is also a test that can be skipped most of the time. One way to spot a suspected leaky exhaust . but lacks power and has noisy valves that won't stay in adjustment. The top of the lobe is cut at a slight angle.Bad-sealing rings and cylinders can be detectedat the oil-breather or dipstick holes. thin screwdriver into the combustion chamberthrough the sparkplug hole. You'll need an air compressor(a l/2-Hp model will do) and the leak-down tester if performing the test yourself. On the other hand. At first glance. Increased noise is part of the wear process becausevalve clearance increasesas the lobe and lifter grind down. even frequent valve adjustments don't stop the wear once it is started. altitude or excessiveoiling. They only reduce the valve clearancefor the short time it takes the lobe to wear down some more. holed piston or other catastrophic cylinder damage.the piston must be at TDC of its compression stroke so both valves are closed. Reconnect the leak-down tester and watch the meter. That will provoke some mystery! What happensis the lifter rotatesright aftera valveadjustment. A good way to check for TDC is to insert a long. To understandthe wear cycte.cost and more involved test procedure usually prohibit homemechanicuse. Leakage for an engine in good condition is 16 valve is to hook an HC/CO meterto the tailpipe and squirt some carburetorcleanerinto the cylinder. Need as for air compressor. Of course. So. have a helper hold the crank with a socket on the crank-pulley nut. install the hose adapter in the sparkplug hole.Insteacl. Once finished with the first cylinder. then connectthe testerto the adapter and the air compressor. if the engine seemswellsealed at the valves and cylinders. a leak-down test is an excellentidea. This test actually doesn't require a leak-down tester. however. #2. The shorter the lobe. Therefore. the contact point is off-center. The higher the leakage rate. Instead. A 30Va leakage is serious enough for an engine overhaul or valve job. Compressed aii is pumped to the cylinder while the tester monitors how much air it takes to make uo for cylinder leakage. holed piston or the like. rotate the engineI 80' to cylinder #4 and testit. They aren't. Sometimes leakage is evenly divided and hard to attribute to one source. disconnect the tester. a leak-down test is more accuratethan comJiession testing. ir's a sure iign of multiple problems. The cost should be minimal.A length ofhose can aid listeningin somechassis holding by oneendat yourearind the other where you suspect leakage: carburetor. However. partof the the a lifter which is closeto originalthickn-essnow is against the lobe. If you are diagnosing a car before buying it.The readoutis in percent leakage. unlessyou do a lot of enginediagnosis. againrotaringthe crank 180oeach time. skip thecompression andtestthecylinders resl witir the more accurate leak-down tester. the worn spolis. the test is not influenced by cranking speed. But becausethe valve was adjuste clearan valve < started runs oI If y< find it adjuste loosen engine starts c its lovr now. Start by reading the instructionsthat came with the tester. During the test. and wear concentratesln one spot. or fan. the working surface of a lifter and the top edge of a camshaft lobe look flat. With the screwdriver contacting pistontop. and inspectthe camshaft and lifters directly.this is one test to farm out. And. or air the engine will tum over.or the cam lobe'wears flat. Problems start when the lifter wearsa sroove into its concavesurface. but ifthe exhaustvalve is leaking. but doesn't normally warrant a rebuild. Leak-downtestequipmentis expensive.If the exhaustvalve is lenking. This unit is part of professional diagnostictester. such as a badly burned valve.

and don't have time to split the caseto look at the camshaftbetween races. Read valve lift directly on the dial. some way to mount it near the valve springs and enough room to fit the instrument. If you recheck the valve clearance. Remember. No puzzle now. Rotate the engine until that valve is completely closed. Measuring valve lift lets them determine there is no camshaftwear. Rocker-arm ratio w111 add to lift measuredat the cam lobe. Then five minutes later it starts clackingaway as the dished lifter rotates its low spot over the lobe again.theengine'scam and lifters are worn out andneedreplacing. For a test of this kind. Complete engine disassembly is requiredto service the cam and 914s. allow for the rocker-arm ratio and valve clearance. so endless valve adjustments are usually another clue that the engine needs an overhaul. actual valve for clearance zero and the lobe is holdins the is valve openal! rhe time. this measurement is out ofthe question unlessthe engineis out of the car. look for a valve that is liftine considerably rhanits neighbors.adjusted the worn section. you loosen adjustmentto specificationsand the the engine runs fine. Indicator magneticbaseswon't attachto aluminum cylinder heads. don't be concerned about the absolute valve lift. In other words. valve clearance will subtract. Measuring Valve Lift-Some VW specialists. If measuringvalve lift. you'll findit tight on rharcylinder.000 or more miles and needs valve adjustmentevery 500 miles.but might mount on the cooling shroud or exhaust. as well. like drag racers. the a camand lifters are worn out and need to be replaced. So. On somechassis. Zero the dial indicator. use a dial indicator to measurevalve lift at the valve-spring retainer. you'Il need a dial indicator. . a bit puzzled. to Chances the valves and cylinders are worn are anyway. so it's timely rebuild the rest of the engine. Racer'scan't hearnoisy valves over open exhaust. If the enginehas 50. which was iust adjusted conectly. the cam is worn and will need to be replaced or reground. they don't have to split the casesto determine the cam's condition. Note the space available for a dial indicator before considering measuring valve lift. a valvi less If is lifting less than the others. though. but valve lift relative to the other valves. They can then determine if the cam lobe is wearingdown. because you are measuring valve lift. Bring the indicator's plunger to bear on the valve-spring retainer. consequentty. compression can't buildandtheingine runson three cylinders. When the ensine is started. then rotate the crank pulley until the valve is completely open.

check with a tractor or heavy. surfaces somethingto dig into.clutch. If Y try rer the ph hobby base.You'll need a sizeable let on it anddecidewhereto pull it.Look Air-cooledVolkswagenengines found in are ough solvent blasting takes about as long as in the phone book under Rentals.Steamcleaningthe top is jack stands. to work on.very hard packeddirt. Evenon will sink into the dirt instead. moval will reward you when installing your Solvent blasting uses compressedair and Ajack can fail. Problem is. For the samereason.ifyou're planningto buy a floorjack. you'll have a hard time restartingthe engine.Don't forget off.Lifting & Lowering Tools-To raiseand sup. Suppr ward qoncrr betwe tion. screw or otherwise) as a stand. If not. A balanced jack. Never use any jack (bumper.this method works as well as only to have the jack stop and the engineslip suchas an oil leakerdriven on dirt roads. scising an engine guarantees headaches during intoo messyasthe hot solution is reflectedback at sors. Theseparts must be kept dry or It's frustratingto pull on the engine. roll the engine/jackcombinationtoward you.then hoseoff the crud. Wdd short length of pipe over gland-nut bore to secure flywheel in jack. not. jack stands.standsto hold up the rear of the car. only a floorjack! Besides.Haphazardly in remov. many different types of chassis. piece of ll2-in. This makesthe Avoid theseproblemsby cleaningthe engine Rememberto cover the distributor.gine steamcleaned.Engine Removal ffi Use g. Steam cleaning is for truly filthy enginesWith patience. car while you are underneath. Wrenches slip.coil and engine less likely to slip off the jack's pad. fasteners hide under wash. costis reasonable thejob takesabouta half and to remove this waterproofingbefore driving. Most service stations have the equip. Cost is comparable steamclean. able. It works well gOVo when it does. Containers for degreaser can penetrate. spray and leave the messthere. It under Con when movin The cl pendir about angry cities. you warm the jacking point for loweringthe engineis right Additionally. A thorfloorjack andjack standscan be rented. little pebblescan chock 18 the jar jerkinl ing gn full sh on.the mechanic and is trapped atop the engine by A for raising and lowering. you'll needa l-112-tonversionfor lifting most other cars.carburetorwith plastic bags or aluminum foil are making engineremoval safer and a lot easier. solvent to blow off the dirt. the stinky mess ends up on your betweenthe engine and floor jack. port the car during engineremovaland installa. beforeremovingit.The floor jack is a hydraulicjack in a wheeledframe. r Get O engint where an enf big bc do ge find y the ch wil disco and di memc and fi and br housi and s dropp Ge . and. it happens!) engineon a dirt surface.The floor jack resists ment. it set so the under the oil strainer.for supportinga tion and caution before and during engine re. transmission. a piece of plywood.ldflywheelto make widerfloorjacksaddle. Both the to PREPARATION ing and practically any shop can do it. it could be fatal. Engine Cleaning-A dirty engineis miserable driveway.sprayit with degreaser. little prepara.(Yes. have a gardenhose. ly available:steam cleaning.It's alsodangerous. A VW air-cooled engine is lowered fromils special tools are needed for all cars: a floor Spray degreasercan be usedat home if you raised chassiswith a floor iack.For Powertrain on 914 is somewhatheavy. Jacksare stallation. Use two jack of the time. a 1-1/2but all accessories. Typically.but the same steamcleaning. use afloor jack andjack stands. solvent blasting shapedto fit.The steam cleaningor solventblasting.rolling.hopingto and spray degreasing. Solve that by doing the job at a car Besidesprotectingthe enginefrom gouges. Threemethods general.differentialand coolingsystem)out of a Camarowith ton jack is sturdierand usually will lift higher. Engine removal and installationare imporConsiderhaving only the bottom of the enOnce the car is up. you must support it with tantsteps any overhaul.the sheetmetal. and if you are underthe car rebuilt engine. Use the high-pressure water/detergent the soft plywood givesthe hardengineandjack the goo and grime gets underyour fingernails.but imaginepullingequivalent package(enginewith VWs a l-ton version is adequate.try not to removea VW hour. clean the enginebefore working engine. or thicker plywood to place hardwaremust also be readied.

so don't skip it! There isn't enoughroom in this book to list all the hose and wire diagrams for the various chassis. 2s to 2s and so on. theyoften have auto hobby shopsavailable. to fiesh engine only to find the battery dead. Three weeks is on about average.On the 41 I marker.If you are stationed at a military base.the lessmessyou'll have later when the engine compartment. The It's not essential.Disconnect it at the air filter. or oil will conchassisbecauseof the different chassisair.then unscrewthe clamp at the air-filter housing base. up to It's to you to label and keep track ofthe electrical. the battery is on hosedoesyou are removing. Without tipping the filter. the first few of the unit.It's aggravating try and start your nect the ls to ls. the the warm-air control flap cablefrom its arm on drain plug is separate from the strainer. a cable is fitted to the warm air flap on the filter inlet.tified by its rectangular shape. From August '67. Consider what you'll do with the chassis whenyou removethe engine. oil-bath unit. backbreaking grunts. When you to do getaroundto installing the engine. there aren't many disconnectionsremember.Its hoseattachtery negativecablefirst. Stationary cars attract vandals. The cable is connectedto the engine thermostatand controls engineinlet air temperature response enin to gine temperature. hosesand cables. Labeling disconnections is a critical step. moving chassis the meanspushingor towing. On the Beetle. try rentingspaceat a service station. and 412 look under the driver's seat. thejack wheels. Squareback and Fastback. pulling anengine throwing all the hardware in one and bigbox amounts the sameeffort. lift it off the carburetor and set it aside. angrylandlords. Placestands for. The paperelementis easilyidenBattery-On all chassis.the drain plug is the large bolt in the filterto-engine and hot-air hoses. making engine movement a jerkingseriesof barely controlled. the Geta roll of masking otherstouttapeanda or BEETLES & KARMANN GHIAS fiYPE 1) Air Filter & Housing-Open theenginecover and remove the air filter. then unlatchthe filter assembly and mechanical disconnections.or you won't use them. Look in thephone book for a do-it-yourself auto shopor hobbyshop. Unclamp and remove the engines. 19 . depending how fast you work.Let the the filter inlet. keep it upright.Next. Karmann Ghia and 914. and wardol rear wheels on sturdy chassis component. Thechassis will be immobile for awhile. Or use a plastic label maker. If youdon't havea dedicatedworking room. too.Labelallwire hoseconnections tapeandpermanent car with marker. Label andremovethe crankcase oil drain while you make the variouselectrical breatherhose. placeplywood during engine installation. With the earlier Beetle. hose 1 and where it attaches with a 1. GetOrganized-It's a trying taskto install an engine someone else removed. Karmann Ghia air filters are mountedto the Drain Oil-Now drain the oil.another for heater tubing andso on. Use these for labeling the vacuum and electrical disconnectionsyou'll make. ENGINE REMOVAL Remember. Draw your own schematics ofthe various connections help at reassembly. Fuel-Injection Air Filter-Undo the four permanent.but later engines to and different chassis definitely tax the best can memory.disconnectthe bat.even the authorities in some cities. It will also keep you cleaner as you work underthe car. During completelyremovethe batteryfor cleaningand engineinstallationall you'll have to do is concharging. Once it's out.You'll thank yourself at installation. Label tive one. you'll find your memory can't make any order from thechaos. On Type I -3 right of the engine. Who knows where those all nutsandboltsso? Well. you open the engine. On the Type 4. The Iongerthe from its mounting bracketand remove it from oil drains. vacuum. Earlier cars had oilbath air filters with a minimum of hoses attachedto them. The batteryis undertherearseatin the them with masking tape and your permanent Beetle. don't rely on memoryalone! for so between standand ground to prevent settling and tipping. complete with some of the larger tools. Use one for belland housing hardware. but now is a good time to next disconnection getsa 2 andso forth.set them on These labelsare your insurancefor correctlyinstallingconnections @ncrete best foundation. disconnections ofcomponentsaboutthe engine ln'73 a paper-element filter replaced air the aresimilar in all models.taminatethe upperhalf of the filter and spill out cooled VWs are mountedin. undo center of the oil stainer. mechanicaland fuel lines.just mark the first the right side of the engine compaftment.when handling and storing an oilWe'll examine engine removal chassisby bath air filter.On soft asphaltor dirt. Have the containersready before dropping engine. label and disconnectany hoses. On the You don't have to know exactly what the Bus.ments are different.If a dirt floor is all you have.Support with jackstandsany time it is raised. Save yourself considerabletrouble andfrustrationby getting several coffee cans and boxes labelingthem.waterproofmarking pen. lay a full sheet ofplywood down to roll the floorjack on. but no problem. Yet. then removethe posi.

Ol The Follow labelinl and ten be pusl Mak.removethe three slip-on connectlons. you'll kink cable. and remove Generator/Alternator-Mark the three wires on the generator. Look on the coil. are and alternators. and pull it completelyout when lowering the engine. Clean filter canister and changeoil beforefilter is installed rebuiltengine. and hos connec tra fuel installat The r push-on other d. cast-aluminum box. With the sensorout of the way. VW's Bosch fuel injection addsa lot of little stepsto engine R&R (Removal and Replacement). Now disconnectthe multiple unbolting the clamping bolt and pushing the wire plug onthe intake air sensor.Tipping filterany morethanthis willsloshoil insideagainst air upper section. Mark and remove them. on pliers hold throttle cable and linkagewhile cable is Needle-nose or disconnected. wires l other. tributor for the oil-pressure Carburetor-Mark and remove the automatic connect and mark its single wire. the regulator is integrally mounted on top of the alternator.Neverpull by the wires. Don'tloosencinchboltagainst cabletension. when the engine is paftially out of the nector. but it's not the right one. voltageregulators slip-onconnectors used on generator-mounted are clips aroundthe air filter housing. lf so. Fuel Injection-Unfortunately. Sometimes a hose clamp is placed on guide in front of fan housing as a retainer.Always hold linkagestationaryinstead. throttle cable into the guide now. Disduct.The voltageregulator '73 '74 is mounted separately on and early alternators. If the car has an altemator.The voltage '66 regulatoris mounted on the generatoron Beetles. There Electrical Connections-Look underthe disare severalbreatherlines intersecting with this sendingunit. it will also drain from under lid.In that case. Be careful when pulling back the rubber boot and tugging on the conLater. them. Pull the cable guide out of the fan housing and set it aside. In this case. Generatordisconnections normallythree wires right on top of the generator. unclamp and remove the rubber air duct.Remove the trvo air cleanermounting nuts on either side ofthe hood clampedbehindthe fan housingto hold a homehinge and lift the air sensorand filter housing madegrommet. chassis. You have extramarking andremovingof necessary wires engine Bec diseng rear el earlY t screw Latt from I Comp ber ga screw over t fuel-it small aloun manif Thr endsc attach UnSCfl screw Raise until 20 .However.This releases Also remove the fuel line and throttle cable. terminalsfor a * signif you don'tknow which wire alsoruns is the positivewire. brownis have nc out of 1 tically t connec Sometir end. The negative to the distributor. The throttlecableis removedby unscrewingor the air filter housing cover and the paper air filter can push the off as a unit. you can pull the cable out the fan housing the rest of the way. which is the cable toward the fan housing. pull cable guide from fan housing. After that. just leave guide in place. Next unscrew the rubber boot's clamp at the A lot of throttle cable guides have been other end of the air sensor. nearthe choke heating element and fuel-cutofT wires. ( and att Also one retl Get the Thrott tle pc diaphrt under positio but it i lowerir housin will cl Rear I of the partmc piece t After throttle cable is removed from linkage. Disconnect the positivecoil wire. remove the multiple-wireconnector.

A bolt passes throughthe leverand cableend and is nuttedon the other can each the unscrew rear engine cover-plate attaching screws pull the plate out of the car. and theseexYou'll be reconnecting connections. the Alsoremove two fuel lines: one supply. Be sure your standsare stout and stablebefore getting under the car. Get ThrottlePositioner-If the enginehas a throttle positioner.VWs haveto be raised a lot to get the engine out.With thosepartsgone. to and attaches the chassis.)Finally. Immediately place the jack standsto suppofi and the chassis. sureto correctly mark their flow. when lowering engine. Just slip them ofi at both ends and set aside. Heater Cables-At the front and sides of the engine you'll find the two heater-control cablesfrom valves. Practicallyevery time you succeedand the spade inside the connector separates. connection the Sometimes wire pulls out of its terminal repair the wire in that case. bepushed Makesure you follow the harness. Freeing the cable end requires pliers to grip the lever. Put the jack under the framejust forward of the transaxle.Four screws ends oftherearengine attach one. end. Later.Then the hamesscan and temperature aside. you have extra stepsif the heater controlshaverustedshutand then beenpeened over by rocks. rearbodywork mustbe high enoughto clearthe top of the fan housing. by jacking under the engine. then the cablewill pull free.which works by sealing the top of the from air passingunder it. tray so the enginecan easilyslide rearward. The These are clean aft hoses connecting fan housing and heat exchangers. Alternately.Takeyour time when labelingthese hoses. On rear engine-cover early40-HPengines.merely remove the fbur and screws lift out the plate. have choicebut to grasp the wires leading no outof this type of connector and pull. wires and hosesduring engine trafuelsystem in$allation. This is piece sheet metalis part of the cooling sysof tem. rectangular brownish. so be readyfor it. Justleaveit alone. but push-on plugs. When cable and lock bolt are hopelessly frozen. and them reversed the enginewill not start. two wrenchesand inventive language.never tnder You can crack the case the engineor transaxle. The fuel-injection it Follow aroundthe engine.crankcase sensors. Most manuals say the positioner must come off for engine removal. remove the two covers tubesleading to the intake around heat-riser the manifold. Thereis alsoa small cylinder in the lever which the cable passesthrough. slowly lower the caronto them. Use two wrenchesto remove the bolt and nut.position. the cylinder shouldfall free. the usual rust penetrant. the RearEngine Cover Plate-Between the rear of theengineand the rear of the engine compartment the rear engine cover plate. Some leadfrom one side of the engine to the wires other.Followtray's leading Removerear sheet-metal screws. you'll have to tilt the fan the the forward. Loosen small bolt on heater-control valve arm to free heater cables. This raises positionerso it housing will clear rearbodywork. Then unscrewand remove the small separateshroud pully. which are meansmostjack stands raisedto their highest. injectors. you'll see an aluminum unit diaphragm-and-cylinder sticking out from underthe carburetor. are pull-off. When you remove the cable.Removethe heater-control their leverson the controlvalves. and Raise Car-Use the floor jack to raise the car until the ensineis about a vard in the air.and there's no reason to disconnect Onlyremovea wire if it leavesthe engine them. This is especiallytrue of those You usually connectors. Thehealrisertubecoversare at the outboard coverplate. They don't have this fuel-injected smallplate. edge to find its attachment 21 . Replace or tape-repair damaged hoses. butit isn't so. Be one return. (Unless you have a overthe crankshaft engine. Of wiring is in a harness. disconnectingand labeling wiresat the coil. snip cable and buy new ones. course. Theelectricaldisconnections easily.Most plugs separate other don't. removethesehoses and their rubCompletely at ber gaskets the cover plate end. engine the Because enginemust be slid to the rear to it disengagefrom the transaxleinput shaft. Check the stability of the car on the standsby gentlyshakingit from sideto side. have two large hoses leading Laterengines fromthe fan housing to the heat exchangers. and least stabLe. the plate must be removed.

Two ATF (Automatic TransOne mission Fluid) lines need disconnecting. Mark and disconnectthe hoses the leads. More Auto-Stick disconnectlonsare necessary inside the engine compartment. Thesebolts are small and will break or round off if not treated with care. this far. pull the large flexible hoses off the heater-control valves' Push the hoses away from the engine so they won't get torn as the engine is lowered. clamped. line runs to the ATF tank.lnvestigate vacuum electrical to see which ones must come off.' Vise-C wrencl Lower out. tt have tt floor. and so dirt can't enter the transmission system.but I don't like squeezing hard. The driveplate is bolted at its center to the crankshaft.Fuel-injected ber plug in the accesshole. two at '71 the Auto-Stickswent with the two top. i ward stantl wire r catch snag Wi the fa on th This 22 . All '70 have bolts manual transaxle cars through and nuts at the upper bellhousing.Heaterducts are largeflexiblehosesleading Be preparedfor spillage when disconnecting Thisone was tuei tin'e. on the fittings. then have your helper rotate the engine 90" where another bolt will appear in the hole. Don't lift it too much or you'll bind the engineon thebellhousing studs and have trouble sliding it off them Upper Bellhousing Bolts-Slide out from under the car and turn your attentlon to removlng the upper engine-to-transaxle fasteners. At its outer edgeit is bolted to the torque converler. to the left of the ignition coil. If you don't have tubing wrenches. 6. engine bind th work. nutsmay be very tight The lowerbellhousing on their studs becauseof rust or impact damage. need to be labeled and disconnected. like a flywheel. not the nut from the stud.but often they clip on the exchang' ible hose will stop fuel tank from siphoning ers and easilYslide off. carburetedengines have an open hole. all carsuse two bolts but only one nut' At the right side is the usual nut and bolt assembly' into but the left side usesonly a bolt.a regular open end will do. not roundedoff and lined up straight with the bolts. Whatever the attachmentmethod. one nut fastening. becausethe offset oil coolThis is necessary '7 roorn er usedfrom I on doesn'tleaveenough to get at a nut from the engine side. so don't worry aboutit. In bolt. It threads a special round nut pressedinto the enginecase. Aluminum foil wrapped several times around the fitting and securedwith a hose clamp works. Someof thesebolts are8mm. like on brake lines. but take extra care to not round off the hex. If so. but you probably don't have one laying around' Those small plastic caps new brake master cylinders are shipped with work well. dry. BecauseAuto-Stick transaxleshave a torque converter between the engine and clutch. Still. Continueuntil you haveremovedall four bolts.1 compu Sta the in workir clear t left to On jack. Plug the disconnectedfittings so they won't leak. then pull it off. If you don't remove the driveplate bolts' the toroue converter will slide out of the transaxle is with the engine. compat to remo membe and the access both nu the bol though Havr bolts. Startingin '71. It's fast and fuel hosethat clean.Then roll thejack under the engine and raise the saddleuntil it is just carryingthe engineweight. Stop rotation when the bolt is the access squarelycenteredin the hole. also called flare-nut wrenches. Some mechanics pinch the line shut with locking pliers. Thosethat Therest don't go to the enginecanbe left alone. Use two tubing wrenches. Have a helper rotate the engine with the crankshaftpully while you watch hole. There are two more bolts still attached on top of the engine' WARNING: If the lower bellhousing fastenersare nuts and bolts. brazed or welded shut. the left heater-control Fuel Line-Above valve is the fuel line connection from the fuel tank.The best plug is a pipe fitting that has been soldered. there are four driveplate bolts to remove. so their bellcars in housingshave four studs:two at bottom. Make sure your socketis clean. too. Have a pan underneathand work fast. There's no problemwith this. Thesebolts are accessible through a hole in the bottom backside of the engineshave a rubbellhousing. remove them onLy after checking that the upper bolts are still in the placeandthe floorjack is setup lo support engine. If you usea bolt. if you have the right size. Auto-Stick '70 use nuts on studs. make sureit has an unthreaded shoulder. few Automatic Stick Shift (Auto-Stick)-A on are extradisconnections necessau carswith the Auto-Stick. they are easy to get at' This drivetrainis a candidatefor steamcleaning' Once you have the cablesfree. Don't worry about the engine falling. A fully threaded bolt can let gasoline leak past through the threads. Look on the firewall. The lines are steelbraided and use high pressurehydraulic fittings. Thesenuts arethreadedonto a pair of studs that fit into the transaxle.or l2-point. Replace the oil sealif that's the case. you need At first. Slip off the flexible line and use a pencil or bolt to plug it. Support Engine-Get the piece of plywood and set it on the jack saddle.The enginecan fall on you ifthe upper bolts aren't in place. You the can separate stud and nut later and reinstall the stud. Remove the bolt. Be ready for ATF to pour out of the line from the tank. Lower bellhousingnuts are higher up be' tween transaxleand engine than you might think. the other to the oil pump. Bellhousing Nuts-Remove the two 17mm hex nuts and washersat the lower cornersof the bellhousing.A bolt stuffed and clampedin flexforwardfrom heatexchangers. to find the control valve. the stud may unthread from the transaxle. That's fine if the engine t0 seized and you can't rotate it to gain access the bolts. But the transaxle oil seal will be ruined if it's necessaryto pull the torqueconverter with the engine.

you'll have to attacha box end wrench or With Auto-Stick transaxles. Disconnect Wires.enginemust come back and down in small. Alterslide under the rear bodywork. coil. clear the Early Bus (Pre-'72)-Start with the air fitter. wrench turn against the body. On Atfirst. fan Steady enginew itir onehand housingat the carburel. There is one jack. oilpressuresenderand carburetor wires. '68-70 Bus engines are one of the eisiest VW vertical bolt at each end of the crossmember. That might thin. tioner. All that's removing Bus enginesbecause the and earlier wood under the engine. you might have peoplefor this job: one to managethe Without this brace. Don't tip the oil-bath air down. It's just a slip joint. The fuel line is on the left. the driveplate will Two sections are necessary to examine Lower Engine-Place the floor jack and ply'71 clear torqueconverterright away. Just barely take up left to do is clear the bellhousing studs. You'll be looking at the nutted end of the bolts from inside the enginecompartment. aslow. Removal requires a very cable all the way free of the fan housing. If that doesn't this with the engine in the car.the arein theengine nuts compartment the engine. 23 . then disOncethe engine has disengaged. the torque converter.Continueto pull the engine and jack rear.K'eep eye on hoises. generator. from underneath. you must tip the engine to clear the might not want to raise the chassisnow. which the input shaft clears the clutch. Read the Type 1 section if you need more help with these. Six are in the left. Engine-Plate Screws-Unscrew the l0 rear engine-plate screws and lift out the plate.and right-forward comers of the plate. Then lower the enginewhile guiding it by the shroud. If the engine later engine is more Startby pulling back on the floor jack until remove the left upper bellhousing bolt. In fact. On '70-71 Buses. two lower bellhousing nuts. Bellhousing Bolts-Now reach way to the front of the engine compartment and remove the two upper bellhousing bolts.|It s t. once you get thisfar.Re. Undo the throttle cable at the carburetor and push it forward through the fan housing asfar as it will go. hot-air hoses and unclamp the filter gine. The out.the engineis ready to lower. With the transaxlesupported. The other four are in the rear corners. then let the is out. Hoses-Disconnect the distributor.'wires engine only the right upper bolt is accessiblefrom the an and top. The Bus chassisis so tall. disconnectthe hot-air flap cable.high. to seal ruined. Label the disconneuiors. you could remove the carburetor and More Cables & Fuel Hose-Pull the throttle bolts.On '71 Buses.lower the and later Buses use the Type 4 engine. then engineaway from the transaxle. Con.or. blocks. simply remove the crankcase and the bellhousing studs are clear of the enWatchfor the throttle cable as it oulls from breather. s ) f filters when removing them. you accessible only from under the car.powerplantsto drop: a couple ofdisconnections Remove them and the engine is ready to come stantly monitor the engine so it won't snag a and it practically falls out of the chassis. If you are BUS & TRANSPORTER (TYPE 2 & 4) doubles as a bolt for the starter mountins. the torque converter can have to add a wood block to the two supporting floor jack and another to eyeball the engine slip out of the transaxle. Early connect the rear crossmember. With thoseout of the way the enginecan be slid straight back out of the chassis. so get under the engine and toremovethe upper bellhousing fasteners.move the jack.once the engine ible fuel hose. the generator and exhaust. disconnectthe vacuum hosesat the throttlepositioner. You shouldn't have to raise the chassisvery '70 andthebolt headsare on the transmissionside. The other upper bolt must be removed compartment seal. Heater-Control Cables-It's time to go underneath anyway. The top of the fan housing needs to be wait until the engine is ready to come out. Use one of the second floor jack or prop it up with wood out. as Buses stand pretty tall. workingon an Auto-Stick. and Up to '68. the noid connectionsand remove and plug the flexwork. Busesusethe uprighffan Beetle engineand '72 some engine weight with the jack. With luck. Then the bolts from under the car. More typically tipped toward the firewall so the throttle posi. the tioner can get past the rear body panel. on the clutch is clear of the transaxle input shaft snag continuedown. A simple piecJ of flat Transaxle-Support the transaxle with a Lower Engine-Once the upper fastenersare metal with a hole in it will do. It's best to transaxle studs and nuts to secure the brace. a '71 Bus. you'll have your handsfull with disconnectthe heater-controlcablesand hoses. On and later engineswith a throttle posi. but both nutswill come off without anyoneholding body.quicklyalternating steps. ward while slowly lowering the jack. and it Vise-Grip pliers to the bolt heads. An optional method is to continue rearward and remove the rear bumper and body panel. Cables. Slip off the starter solebind boltsso they won't turn. smoothloweringis allthat'sneeded. stop the jack. but not overly so. try pulling the throttle positioner. wireor cable on the way down. but the '71 watch for wire and hose snass on the wav This is another good reason to have a helper version has no cable. remove the compaftment watch for hangups. be damagedand its oil jack. If no helper is handy. specially bent box-end wrench if you do loop it out of the way. run a braceacrossthe bellhousine to hold is not clamped. Haveyour helper get under the car to hold the nately. bohs will turn. mounted vertically on the plate's rear face. member. Pull the engine and floor jack rearward until catches something.the chassishas to go up so the fan housing will though. Have your helper the On onthefan shroud and the other on the muffler.

Lower Engine-Pull the jack back until the filter body and int:Lke sensortosether. I.remove tic plug in the upperleli mounring flange area make on the Type 4 engrne. hot-air c elbow be carburetc breather Filters nuts ovel center. Look undertheplay engine. alternatorregulator. for It's attached nearthe bottom of the distributor. Take off the risht rear jack. On ceLrbureted enor wood blocks. gine may also have a temperature sensor the front engineplateand put it out oi the wav. removeit. Automatic Transmission-This causes some previousType I sectionfbr the reasons this.remove the two large diameter are out. On of the case.At the distributor.Watch fbr hangups rials in hand. which and guide the engine so it won't fall off the is in two from the distributor.sifver stickingup from Bus exhaustpipeis oxygen sensor. this wire (it's for cablesand hosesat the heater-control valves. lt is '74s All'12-13 engines.When thosebolts nector. after removingthe engine. and remove the two Locate the intake air sensorat the left. y place wor Smaff. Remove the three Locatethe elecrric connecror plug. but there are more disconnections to car ls an automatic transmission model. or pressure reg_ oil-bath type. n t h i sc h a s s i s . the vacuumhosefrom the intake manifold. . Get the cablestarledthroughits guide in b o l l s .ate Bus (Post-'72)-Removing this engineis the front engine plate.and it is removed like the m e n t . Keep it upright. U air contn filter.Seepage22 in thi lead to the fuel-injection triggering contacts.flip open the clips at the balance tube. e s e o l t ra r ea c c e s s i b l e as a prime reasonthe casescracked O th b on these 24 FASTBI NOTCH AirFilte oil draini air filters during re unscrew canister. remove the oil engrneclearsthe transaxle. The charcoal front right of the engine for the fuel lines. and hot air hoses from the filter bottom half. disconnect the electricalleatls removingthe rearengineplate. Unclamp the large S-shapedrubber On all chassis. Now raise the iack and olvhoses. left carburelor. Oil Filler-As on Type 3s.W ithiabeli ne mate_ filler bellows and dipstick. so it isn't a mirror image oftherightrear automatictransmission transaxles immediately connections.ilip off its valve mounted near the blower motor. mushy mountsarecited body. r move thc Electric: the elec pressure injected t the vario The fr left-rear comes fr( connecti< case sen perature Also ren pressure wall. threaddirectlyinto the frame. Type tube 3 air filter removalstarts with hoses. Thc lelt olare Type 4 engine. Then or remove driveplare-to-convertercrossmembers. On dual_ carbureted models. Look on the Fuel-injected engineshave a different paper hoseleadingto the charcoal filter. The under the rear bumper. i pump on carbureted engines. thecase as may be. extra work. d i s c o n n e c t s w i r e . Avoro Knocktngthis somewhat delicateand expensive part when connect hoses so they lift otf with filter. you can comthrough a hole in the bellhousingfrom inside basically the same as dropping the early Bus pletely pull it through from undemeath. If not storedupright. rotate the pipe counterclockwise pull transaxle mounts on Buses without rear and throttlecablefrom the crossbar at the throttle it out. remove the plate. Take out the ignition coil and remove the ulator of the fuel-injectedmodel. tic transmissions havea vacuumadvance cutofT remove the crossmember.early Bus ground. First. hosesattachedto the intake air distributor. snug againstthe ensine. the engine is ready to come out. and carefully pull out the con_ connect electrical the andvacuumleadsfrom it. A paper-element filter is used on 'j3_74 mounted in the upper right engine compartDisconnect plug thefuel linesfromthefuej and carbureted engines. thenunclipping cover. More Cables & Fuel Hoses-Now slideuoto oil will drain into the upper half of the filter and Coil & More Hoses-Look near thecoil lor an the front of the engineand disconnecttheheater contaminate Unclamp and removethe fresh inline fuseholder. Later. Sr buretors fore rem< the lockn only get t Justpop 1 screwdri Air fil only the removed remainin label the moved. rhen rhe lefr rear.Startby disconnecting all ceiling of the engine bay. plus with automa. It is bestremovedas a unif with filter is the can suspended from the upper right Transaxle-Support the transaxlewith a jack its intake air sensor. Disbolts at the eachend of the crossmember which protectiveboot. The enPull the accelerator cable all the wav throush Then unclip it at its bottom edgeand lift it out.l f s o . You definitely needa helperwith a heavy pressuresender. the backup lighrs) at the fuse holder. remove the gravel guardfronr carburetors and at the [ilter's centersection. and fuel injectors or car_ plate lirsr.lorverbellhousingnuts. burelors. Followthe wirins wrapsaroundtheengineside and runsforward Fit a brace acrossthe torque converteron harnesses over the engineto find all the tlisl alittle. Take out four boltsand Lift off the top half of the filter and setit aside. Disconnect it. Fuel-injectedmodels have the under the engine. sheet-metal this thin bent strip will come off. check the rubber Throttle Cable & Vacuum Hoses-Undo the nuts. remove the ATF filler pipe Once the engine is out. Lal ing them correctly Check with dua ders with of the ca foul the t so unscr Oil Dips clamp ar This is th tube and cooling e nectorbr 'Ihrottle . hose from the air sensorand removethe air blower hoses. lt's usuallybest to dis.Setthejaik cover and paper element. residual sectionin the center of the intake system. Then go to the rearand the aluminum box with the cast-in grid work. elementfilter. Removethe ginesthere is a hosemounted the to the top of the wood assembly againstthe engine. the Weak. then lower it outof ElectricalConnections. the hose is attached the to Gravel Guard-Before getting all the way carburetedengines. Air Filter-Remove the air filter. oil_ pleces on the late Bus. If the the enginecompanmenl. intake air distributor is the black. Then set about the engine compaftment.

Another way of doing this is to wait until the engineis on its way down.Reyou place wom transaxle mounts.generator and coil. The entire circuit or U offuel lines is called thefuel ring. cable. On'72 Type 3s.On double-jointed-axle cars. Pull the throttle cable through the front engine cover plate and gently loop it out of the way. SQUAREBACK & NOTCHBACK (TYPE 3) Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. Label each hose and wire before removing them so you'll be able to reconnect them conectly. bui rememberto are labelthemduring removal. Undo the heater control-box cable connections and stow the large diameter air hosesout of the way. Check fuel shut-off solenoidson ensines the withdual carburetors. single-carbureted On engines. The fuel manilblds are the metal sections of fuel line right abovethe injectors. Completely remove intake bellows at left to avoid cutting it when engine is slid back during removal. which is part of the intake air distibutor.They usually catch on and foulthebodywork when the engine is lowered. unscrew wing nut in the center of the filter the canister. and finally runs forward. Filters dual-carbureted on engineshave wing nutsover each carburetor. The fuel injecrionECU mounti inside rhe leffrear inner fender. It so a lot of ownersleavethemoff. These are small c-ylinders with a wire mounted on the outboard side of the carburetor.Don't forget the plywood cushion.remove the wiring harnessat thevariousconnectionson the ensine. crankat case sensors and grounds. and the wiring harness comes from that side. Then you can get at both sidesof the upper bellhousingbolts from the top. plus the air intake bellows from the hot-air control box. s0unscrew them from the carburetors. Two boltsand it's in hand. Don't unbolt the vertical rubbercushion-tobody bolts or the crossmemberto-engine bolts.On '71 and later engines. Support Engine-Disconnect the lower bellhousingnuts. supportthe transaxle with anotherjack or wood blocks. They are accessible through a hole in the fronfbottom ofthe bellhousing. and intake air distributor. Thisis theaccordionpiece betweenthe dipstick tube andbody.If the transaxlesagsalmost to the ground. On Type 3s.unbolt the driveplate from the torque converter. This last line isthefuel return line.unscrew the center wing nut and remove unit. Wiring alwaysseems to be in your way. Fuel injectionthrortlelinkageis undone at the throttle body.The elbow is clamped and the remaining hoses slip ons. Be carefulnot to lower the enginetoo far or you'll damagethe transaxlemounts. Don't fiddle with thelocknuts and rod endsof the linkage. On dual-carburetor engines.right fuel manifulds. Throttle Cable-Disconnect the throttle Intake and dipstick bellows are two Type 3 & 4 disconnections. injectors. That's the sheet-metal center section of the intake manifold. use a stout screwdriver on against the ring gear teeth to rotate the engine. Unclampthe hot-air hose from the hotair controlbox and remove the box with the filter. Air filters on fuel-injected engines require only the intake elbow and several hoses be removed. the Electrical Connections-Label and remove the electrical leads at the carburetors. Oil Dipstick-Remove the dipstick. Remove this bolt from undemeath. plus one at frontcenter. so don't tio them during removal. The fuel lines then connect to the injectors via the manifold. disconnect the cable at the throttle linkase crossbar.early Buses. Fuel Line-Remove and plug the fuel line. it must be off to remove the engine. Raise Car-Raise the rear of the car 3 ft and support it with jack stands. With a single carburetor this is done at the'll haveto recenterthe engine during installation. disconnect exhaust the gas recirculation (EGR) wire from its transmission switch. oilpressure sender. Lower Engine-Now you arereadyto pull the enginebackand lower it. Unlike the Auto-Stick transmission. Another line leadsoff the back of the left manifold and runs to the other side of the engine. On fuelinjected engines. On fuel-injected engines. then unclampand remove the oil filler rubber boot. You may needa helper under the car to hold the bolt heads. pop Just therod endsoff the ball socketswith a screwdriver. Watch for hangups on 25 . Disconnect the intake elbowbetweenthe filter and carburetor at the carburetor.This is the big rubberconair nector betweenthe engine and rear bodywork. cylinder-head temperature sensors. you'11 onlygetthecarburetorsout of synchronization. the Because the crankshaft pulley nut is inaccessible Type 3s. remove the air cleaner. It joins the right fuel manifold. know the mounts are useless. All Type 3 airfilters are oil-bath units.the full automatic transmission has only three driveplate-to-converter bolts. On cars with an automatic transmission. Don't kink the cable or the throttle will be sticky. With all hosesremoved.thenplacethe floorjack underthe engine. It returnsexcessfuel to the fuel tank. out of the enginecompartment through the rear sheetmetal. Follow the harnessto the connections the distributor. slip off the vacuum hose at the balance pipe anddisconnect kickdown-switchwire. FASTBACK.Also unclampand removethe cooling bellows. Then slide rearwardand unbolt the enginecrossmember. disconnection the should be made on the left and. Disconnect and plug the fuel return line on the right side of the engine if you didn't get it from the top. Storein a level position. There is supposed be an engine mount to attached to the fan housing on cars without a crossmember. The rubbermountsarecentered their mountby ing bolts. Bellhousing Bolts-Finish the topsidechores by removing the two upper bellhousingbolts. If nothing else. Undo the two horizontalbolts at eachendof the crossmember which connectthe crossmember to its rubbermounts.Also on the automatictransmission. pick up rear mat and store wires underneath. Mark and disconnectthe crankcase breather hose. The rubber fuel line coming from the left front of the engine compartmentand running to the left fuel manifold is thefuel inlet line. Reach the ring gear teeth through the bolt accesshole. doesn'tprovidemuch support. Also removethe vacuum hose from the fuel pressure sensor the lelt enginecompartment on wall.Ifyou undothese bolts. Snap the throttle linkage off the carburetors the center-mountedbellcrank beand foreremovingthe air filters.the left bolt threads into a special nut permanently attached to the case.

unclip the upper filter half lf heaterductswon't pulloff. Automatic Transmission-Remove the three driveplate bolts from inside the engine compartment.ground. A metal tab nutted to one of the bellhousing studs works fine. Look on the left engine-casevertical flange for a round plastic plug. Disconnect Type 3 crossmembers where crossmembermeets engine mount. a driveshaft runs forward from the clutch to the transmission. Unclampand remove the cooling air intake bellows. they will have to be alignedat engineinstallation keep engine to straightin compartment. Rotatethe engine with a wrench on the cooling fan mounting bolts or by simply grasping the fan in your hand. Remove the transmission dipstick and bellows sectionof the filler tube. its crr engin Wa body transa as the housi engae then r auton verter bellht 26 PORI Alr Type on thr 914 ' engin seats S o . Insidethe transaxle will be the end ofthe driveshaft with a nut threadedonto it. W MM Disco widng deant Throttle linkage on Type 4 uses a clip. Wires & Cables-Remove the dipstick and oil filler bellows. lt's prob. remove the rear seat cushion. and the engine will operate correctly.u 914. then Iift clamps. Take off any ducting for the heater blower motor. Moving Driveshaft-To reach the driveshaft. case connectionunder left axle flange. then the oil-pressure sender lead and throttle cable. This task is much easier with the soarkplugs removed. Theseparls protrude from the forward left sheet metal in the Bellhousing and driveplate hardware are engine compartment. Be sure you label all discontransmission at engine. Under the cushion is an accesspanel. Becausethe differential is betweenthe engineand transmission. Wire up the transaxle double-jointed-axle so you on cars can move the chassis. Disconnect the vacuum accessible through windows in automatic hose from balancepipe. Disconnect and remove the ignition coil. in diameter. remove two uptransmission bellhousing. Start with the air filter.the way down.Oil and dirt can combineto camou. and pull pieces apart. Brace the torqueconverter so it can't fall out of the transaxleand be damaged. they are heldby at the carburetors and center section. Before '72 all 4l1l4l2 filters were oil-bath type. not wheremountmeetsbody. per engine mounting bolts from bellhousing. Follow the wiring harness over the engine to find the connections. plus the temperaturesensors the case at ably just as easy to pull off this hose at and heads. Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. remove it to exposethe front of the transaxle. engin . Ducts.lf mountsaredis. Fuel-injection air filters needthe flage these connections.distributor. as nections. Now unclip the bottom half and remove it.Unscrewthe plug. On carburetedengines. Pop clip ofl with screwdriver (don't lose it). spring and unusually shaped cable end. Next.except it is longer than a normal input shaft. Rotate the engine to expose the driveplate bolts one at a time. about2-ll2-1n.They are at the intake air Automatic transmissions havea vacuumdis.but there are several notable the upper half. connected at chassis. screw-in plug.The front of the driveshaft looks and functions the same as an input shaft on other transmissions. Pry out the plug with a screwdriver to expose the driveplate underneath. and steady the engine so it doesn't fall off the jack. It is mounted on the right front side of the engine compartment and the connectorcomesup to the regulator from the bottom. 4ru4r2 (TYPE4) Engine removal in the Type 4 is roughly similar to droppingthe '72 andlaterBus engine because they sharelhe sameengine. Push the throttle cable through the front engine panel. (l00mm). post-'72shave paper elements. center wing nut undone and the filter removed. Fuel-Injection Connections-Label and disconnect the fuel-injection leads at the engine. Unthread the nu behin< some! move move Lower move both tl by crt move ber in chass tilt do engin Thr requir and ar port tl ward. Find the round. Use a mirror to see this connectlon. injectors. Voltage Regulator-Pull the plug connector from under the voltage regulator. too. To remove the engine the driveshaft must be unlocked and moved forward in the car 4 in. ignition distributor. begin the engine bay disconnections. Remove the fresh air and crankcasebreather hoses. Manual Transmission-An unusual desisn featureof the Type 4 manualtransaxle requiris an extra step in engine removal. Reassemblywill be so much easier.

so the engine is right behind the seats. Tip it up so the inboard end with the connector is visible. Unscrew the metal clamp around the wiring bundle. Supportthe transaxle with a jack. remove the engine and transaxle as a unit. If you remove the transaxlefirst. disconnect the connector from the fuel injection ECU located in front of the battery. oncethey're on the bench. take it otf at ECU. though. 914shave had the Bosch Carburetors-Many fuel injection removed and dual carburetors first seethe transaxle.Disconnect fueFinjectionwiring on Bus and Type 4 engines.Hand driveplatehardwareon Type 4 engines. ECU connector is at one end. Reinstall the plastic cover and setthe ECU in a safeplace. Label and remove all the connections. PORSCHE/VW 914 Although there is little difference among the Type later Bus and 914 engines 4. then remove the circlip from the shaft. Monitor the jack too. You can pull the shaft forward the somewhat with the circlip still attached. Watch the fuel injectors' clearance to the bodybecausethey are a tight fit. the steps are the same.While it is possible to removethe engine with the transaxlecrossmemberin place. there sure is a difference in the 914 engine mounting. behind nut. remove the air filter and disconnect the fuel lines near the battery. then unscrew the ECU's bracket. engage thenreinstall the transaxle crossmember. Ileater Blower Ducting-Remove the heater blower motor ducting and the rubber intake air elbow. then the engine. If using a small floor jack. Remove the four bellhousingnuts and the engine is ready to disfrom the transaxle. or working on dirt. and undo its crossmemberat each end. giving a clearer path for engine removal. On automatic transmissions. rusho the w-1n v the fthe read Instead of removing injection wiring from engine on 914s. The transaxle crossmembermounting bolts require personinside the car to tum the nuts one andanotherundemeathto hold the bolts. Then move forward.supportthe engine with ajack. Extract the engine.followed by the engine. Lower Engine-Under the rear bumper. then remove the other bolt and lift off the cover. You don't have to remove the fuel injection wiring and fuel line ring. intake manifolds and throttle linkage in your installation. as it will have to be lowered transaxle astheengineis lowered. if not. cleaner is great hose and wire cleanerto detail wiring. it is easier to unbolt it from the chassis. Two bolts can be felt under the hinges. Instead. So. remove the battery for clearance. the engine can only be removed with the transaxle or after the transaxle has been removed separately. I explain removing the engine/transaxleas a unit here. There is one supply and one return line. Set Hole in bellhousing(arrow) is for reachingautomatictransmission (labeltherir!)are made. Rotatecrankshaftto bring wiring loomasidednce disconnections gel hardwareinto view. Inside the car is a good spot. Voltage Regulator-Remove the voltage regulator by extracting the two screws on its mounting tang and then lifting off the unit. The 914 is a midenginedcar. So. on the plug. Because of the mid-engine mounting. thenut. First. then replace the cover and regulator. it's best to remove the transaxlefirst. The connectorplug takesup almostthe entire side of the ECU. Note that boththe engine and transmissionare supported by crossmembers.when you crawl forward under the back of a 914. completely remove the carburetors.and the transaxle is behind the engine. 27 . The engine/transmission unit can then tilt down at the rear. except you must also remove the four bellhousing fastenersto free the transaxle. then slide offthe plastic cover from the ECU. removethe circlip.. Engine Cover-First stepin removing a 914's engineis to take offthe enginecover. You'Il have plenty of extra room to work and no lid banging your head to get your attention. Now unscrew the round nut on top of the large black plastic cover next to the regulator. plastic handle on multFpin connector eases disconnecting. If using a larger floor jack with a wide saddle.but to movethe shaft forward the required 4 in. There may be a plastic handle rnng p off pull :sign uires r the mlsutch rhaft rhaft than ethe forhaft. use a hooked instrument to carefully remove it. relays and other connections. removethe slotted lower splash pan. Lift off the cover and find several electrical connections. the car is equipped with Fuel Injection-If fuel injection. Now lower the englne.securethe torque converter in place with a metal tab nutted to a bellhousingstud. Remove one and have a friend hold that side up.

Removing Cables & Exhaust-It helps to remove the bodywork panel below the rear bumper. back rubber boot to expose screw.e heatexchansers. This will give a lot more room and light under the car. Un wrench to unlockshift rod from transmission linkage. Return to the exhaustsystem. You can remove the throttle cable without detaching the support. il n fi Heate metal mum gine. Vacuum & Vapor Hoses-Label and disconnect the remaining vacuum and vapor hoses. Otherwise. and extract it. Another set-screwarrangement 28 t Anothershift-rodset screw is locatedin front Transaxlegroundstrapbolts to chassisnear of engine where rod enters chassis.Removeeach exhaust pipe/heat exchanger.Use a long screwdriverto reach down to the case where the two front support legs attach. outboard and forward of the engine compartment. they will kink when lowering engine. Somecommon hosesgo to the charcoalcanister and pressuresensor. Removethe muffler from the exhaustpipes and the muffler bracefrom the rear ofthe transaxle. Once screw is out.And the less time you spend pushing the disconnectedaxles out of th"-*au. unscrew the speedometer cable and remove the clutch cable. Loop the cable and bracketaside. placethem at the two small round protrusionsin the body.Pass 914 throttle cables through sheet metal so they completely clear engine. Lift Car-Raise the car and support it on tall jack stands. Under the wheel are two nuts.Unwind the sardinecan clamp over the rear shifterboot and disconnect the shifter. With the forward connection removed.Don't put them under the suspension or front engine crossmember. and disconnectthe heater control valveJand associated plumbing. Remove the rear wheels and tires. is the engine can be removed with it in place. Now's the time. you'll actuallybe ableto see t h ee n g i n e . and the metal pivot bracket and cable come free. Unbolt the groundstrapabovethe reartransaxle.Pull rear mounts. On these. Undo the flat sheet-metal shielcls under tf.Drape all the disconnected hoses over the center of the engine so they won't be in the way when removingit. Usea firm tug to pullreverse-light wiringfrom transaxle-mounted switch. disconnecr cabli rhe from the throttle arm and push the cable throughthe hole in the right sideengineplate. the shift rod can be extracted from the caf. Unthread the lockins nulson thecablehousing.Instead. With the support removed. Use small Allen le. valve securesthe front end of the shift rod. the throttle cable can be removed. The other rear attachment is boltedto the caseusingoneofthe caseflange bolts. Unplug the reverse-light leadsfrom the lefi side of the transaxle.leave the air filter supportalone. removeshift rod. Remove them.but if the chassis lifted fairly high. The clutch cable is undone by removing the self-locking nut in the center of the cable pivot: Ihe round plastic wheel. Someengines mountthe air filter to one side. Shift linkageis underneathplastic box with Speed sardine-canband clamp. Look under the rubber boot where the shifter enters the bodywork at the front of the engine compartment.Use a small Allen wrenchto remove the set screw. so rotatethe axleto getstraieht acces Hold 1 two h brake They requir les a ( T tt : Jotnts bolts. nave other flangt . ih" b"tt"r. Air Filter & Throttle Catrle-Remove the formed sheet-metalair filter support from the centerofthe engine. Axles & CV Joints-I've left the axles until now because they are sucha gooey mess. Once the exhaustpipes areout ofthe way.

The crossmember will drop free (it's heavy) complete with the cables that pass through it. access theconstant-velocity to (CV) joint bolts. of blade inserted. They 12-point. Support Engine-Place the floor jack and plywood under the bellhousing. Keep alternating actionfrom onesideof thejoint this to the otheruntil it separates.unthreadthe Clutchcablepivot uses a self-locking for two bracket nuts. These are the front engine mount nuts.Extra lengthwill help balancethe awkward engine/transaxle on the unit jack. There's no Examine so mum heaterducting is removedwith en. leaving clutch cable-to-bracket undisturbed. 12-point 6mm Allen head tool is easier to use. then the to other. but special 3/8-drive socket.need to disconnectheater-control of cablesor gine. Rotatethe axa lesa coupleof times to reach all the bolts. is Clean dirt from tiny splines in CV-joint bolts.Speedometer is at rightrearof transaxcable le. On valves best separationpoint. Sacrificethe gasket betweenjoint and flange stickinga flat-bladed by screwdriver be- tweenthem. Besides the bolts. This frees bracket from nut retention. place a plastic sandwich bags over the joint and its flange. That's why I try to put the screwdriverright throughthe it will protect the metal surfaces.connection bearingarm. After clutch pulleyis removed.6mm Allen head bolts that are tequire specialremoving tool. Then removethe two largebolts from the crossmember ends. Removenut and pulleyto loosen transaxle. push metaltubing. expensive CV joints dirt free. the better. Don't insertmore screwdriver bladethan necessary you'll scar or the mating surfaces. Use a rubber band to securethe bags. Unscrew and remove the CV bolts. It takesquite a prying effort to free the CV jorntsfrom lhe tansaxle flanges.heater valves out of the way. there are dowels at the joint. about1/16in. As soon as you separate CV joint. 914s. Gently set it asidewithout kinking 29 . yourchassis a mini. splines will strip if not completely clean.The largerthe plywood. Go forward and remove the two nuts from the center of the solid metal crossmember. Hold axle by inserting a breakerbar through the twolug bolts. Short Allen head tool and wrench duo shown here is cheapest method. this maneuver will keepyou a lot cleaner.Justget a toe hold. Besides keepingthe closetolerance.this clampjust beforeheater flexibleducting.Unscrew large nut and pull cable out. so you'll have work to free one side of it. or have a helper step on the brakes. These bolts are heavily torqued to prevent loosening. Heater ductingon Type 4 engines is often After ductingfrom engineis removed.then twist the blade. cable and easilyremoveit at clutch release.

Front crossmember attaches to engine mountsusingsmallnuts found in recesled wells. Grasp it by the endsofthe cylinder heads. pushrod tubes. Go to the rear and remove the transaxle mounts at the body. hardware and parts before they get scattered. Disconnect the starter motor leads. so be careful. r I I | [ . Use the floorjack to get the chassis backon the ground and pushed to its storagelocation. Don't let it lay unsupported over clutch and speedometer cables.Do this now while they're still fresh in your memory. a get helper and lift it off the jack.not the fan housing. Pick up all tools. M one are kl Bear engine mounts must come completely off transaxleto clear bodywork. I o"s tcv I . wrap them an-d transaxleflangeswith plasticbajs. then remove larger bolts at center. flywheel or the like. so pay extra attention to them. CLEAN-UP (ALL MODBLS) Once the engineis clearof the chassis. it weighs abouttwice as much as a Type 1. rubber cushion and washers will come out with the unit. Crossmember will drop after both sets ol bolts are out. If lifting a Type 4 enginebe preparedfor a heavy load.Th L 30 . not the sheet-metalpushrod tubes or another vulnerable part. remove the four bellhousing fastenersand separatelhe transaxle from the eneine.It's easy to bang the injectors against the bodywork or have their fuel lines hangup. Set the engine on the floor. Stai.Use the trunk or Bus interior for storageifgarage space is tisht. so take your As soon as CVjoints come free. Two strong people are needed when moving it. Lower Engine-Gently start lowering the engine and transaxle while a helper checks the engine compartment. It will take a minute or two to jockey the engine free of the chassis. Remove these. This iron piece is heavy. Remove the unit and support it on the floor with wood blocks.twith small mount-to-chassis hardware. Be careful to get the blocks bearing against the cylinder heads. This wll save a lot of aggravation when you drag your hairover them. then large bolts at each end of crossmember. rags. Once the engine is out. it can be stored by its mounts on chassis. or smashingthe cables. Then the entire bolt. You'll thank yourself at reassembly. That's about300 lb for a Type 4. prop one 9nd up with a block of wood.Store all hardware and partsin clearlymarkedboxesand cans.