Table of Contents
J.

1. Time To Rebuild? ......... AccumulatedMileage Oil Consumption . Poor Performance DiagnosticTests . 2. Engine Removal Preparation Beetles& KarmannGhias (Type 1) .... (TYPes & 4) 2 Bus & Transporters Notchback(Type 3) ..... Squareback, Fastback, 41U412 914 Porsche/VW

5

.7

Crankcase & Cylinder Reconditioning ....75 ......... 75 Parts. Crankcase Clean& Inspect 82 Crankshaft 88 Pistons& ConnectingRods 94 Oil Pump 96 Camshaft Cylinder Head Reconditioning ............ 100 .. 101 Disassembly ..... 105 Valve Guides& Stems .... 101 Valves & Inspecting Reconditioning ...... 110 .. Reconditionittg Valve-Seat ........ 111 S Rocker-Arm ervice & Inspection Installation..... ..... ll2 Valve-Spring .. --. --- lI4 Assembly .. CylinderHead ...... 115 Manifolds Intake& Exhaust

l3 l8 18 19
LJ

26 26
1, 1

3. Parts Identification & Interchange ........ 3 1 -'tz .... Indentification 34 Engine Descriptions 35 Cases 38 Crankshafts ^ a +J Flywheels 44 ConnectingRods . 45 Pistons& Cylinders 46 Cylinder Heads 53 ..... Oil Pumps& Camshafts 55 Oil Coolers & SheetMetal . 4. Teardown .......... AccessoryRemoval-Uprights Removal-Flat .. Accessory E B a s i c n g i n e. . . . . Valve Train CylinderHeads Oil Pump Splitting Cases . Teardown Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 58 62 66 66 68 68 10 12

7 . Engine Assembly
Assembly Crankcase Install Crankshaft InstallCamshaft Prep Cylinders ... valveTrain Accessories External T y p e1 & P r e : 7 2 B u s . . Type 3 Post:12 Bus, 914 4111412,

. 116 ........ 119 .... l2l ..... 122 ---. 132 "' 134 ........ 138 ....." 138 .... 143 .. 148

8. EngineInstallation,Break-in, Tuneup .. 156
Prep . Transaxle EngineInstallation 1 Type Type 2 Type 3 4 Type 9 1 4. . FirstStarrl B r e a k - i& T u n e u p n Index ...... 156 .. I5'1 ' . . . . . . .1 6 0 . ........161 . 1 ..'....-- 62 1 ......... 63 ... 166 .... 169 . . . . . . . . .1 7 0 ...... 173

never time to do it right the first time. ingrained automotive knowledge and takes some time to get used to. presentedat the 1939 Berlin Motor Show. Bus and Squareback with equal success. and I think you'll agree the intricacies of VW engine rebuilding are more thoroughly documented here than anywhere else. With the wrong turns clearly marked. This is an engine that needs step-by-step instructions for rebuilding. Justrememberthe saying. get starled and handle each point one at a time. Without a government.Introduction The Volkswagen Beetle hardly needs an introduction. First. there weien't many cars of any type on German roads. But in the mid-'3Os there were no Volkswagens. long after the introduction of faster. air-cooled Volkswagenscontinue to be popular. Soon you'll be listening to your Volks puttering smoothly in the driveway-a sound of wonderful personal satisfaction. all experts in their field. But just as unfamiliar roads are easily traveled if you have a good map. a fact Adolf Hitler said he was gorng to change. the VW offers opportunities to measure and adjust basic and engine parameters. it's difficult to imagine roads without them. Just as a Beetle or Bus is fun to own and drive. it's difficult to remember to keep the positions front and back properly oriented.high-cruising-speed car were met (if not without difficulty) by a bright ensineer named Ferdinand Porsche.Americanscame to respectand ultimately adore the round-backed car.Thus. So read ahead. as in the removal and installation sequences. rebuilding air-cooled Volkswagen engines. Pitfalls can be avoided if you know about them ahead of time. and the crankshaft pulley is at therear. I've traveled to machine shops. His requirements for an inexpenstve. Additionally. and the 914 is it. rebuilding an air-cooled VW is fun. and 3 and 4 are on the left. now known as the Thing' Although 70. If this is your first engine rebuild. the "Parts Identification & Interchange" chapter offers considerablemoney-savinginformation. It's just that the engine is so completely different. In fact. not even in Germany' In fact. tools and cash. this book helps make VW enginerebuilding easy. such a basic design was hardly suitable for popular ffansportation when hostilities ended. but there's always time to do it over'" It's a lot faster to double-check than it is to rebuild it twice. what Germany got was a long ways from the people's dream of motoring down the autobahn. but none offer the old-world craftsmanship or personality of a Volkswagen. to gather the information presented hire. it seemedthe Volkswagen had been stillborn.000 Type 82s were built for the Wehrmacht. After awhile it becomes natural. I rebuilt several air-cooled engines. This goes againstcommon. buying it in numbers other import builders could only versionsfollowed envy. quieter and roomier economy cars. more common engine slyles. it may seem like there are too many steps or points to remember. you haveto keep reminding yourself that the flywheel end is the engine's front. Also. while VWs are a common sight and don't commandhigh prices.As in other worldwide markets. and keep this book on the bench where it will be handy.not just disassemble engine comPonents. the Beetle sold on its economy and superior workmanship. Unlike many engines. And so we reach the point of this book. with minimal patience.racers and other VW rp-iiulirt. and like a detailed map. War brought Volkswagen production only in the ffansmuted Type 82 military fotm. Traditional rebuilding technioues and books based on them don't have mich to offer the VW rebuilder. In any society with pdvate transportation they're ubiquitous in the extreme. currency or economy. For the camera and personal experience. So when I speak of the front oil seal I mean the one at the flywheel end' whether you have a Bus or 914. this book points out the hazards. until you've been around VWs for some time. To that I say. parts iuppliers.that doesn'tmean they are a cheap. rebuilding these engines is probably more satisfying than going through other. Cylinders I and 2 are on the right. Other cars may be more modern. It's not that it's so difficult to rebuild. The knowledge in these words and pictures represents the combined experience of many people. the air-cooled VW is easily overhauled. Now.914 engines are treated like any ottier. front and back in this book are basedon the engine while it is in the chassis. mass-produced. A few specific understandingsand cautions are appropriate here. you'd have difficulty coming up with a design more out of the ordinary if you tried. there has to be an exception. Finally. The Volksiuug"n *u. the 914 engineis turned around so its flywheel is at the car's rear' Unlessthis is imporlant. But from the rubble of 1945 a few cars were built from spare parts' The British officer in charge of the Wolfsburg factory assistedthe German workers in building more cars. Read aheadof your progressin the shop to keep the job in perspectiveand alert yourself to needed tools or supplies. the flywheel is at the engine'sfront. tures i basic are br what' ACC Tol engini . manufacturers. throw-away car. not available anYwhereelse. Of course. assemble This book eliminates a lot of legwork for you. No. A factory was built in Wolfsburg for Beetle production and Germany was about to get lts car. and the Beetlewas on its way' Eventuallythe Volkswagencame to the United States. and treating the carefully constructedair-cooledengine like an appliancewon't pay off' VW engines are full of precision tolerances that resoond to cleanliness and careful assembly. A mid-engine car. always take the time to double-check "There's your work. A lot of care and thought went into every VW built. Like left and right. Of course. Therefore. or for the chaos in what was left of Germany. *ffi n I :::S+i'* I ffiffi Solid years Sin engin sary when the tol is nee In tl tic st( follou the Er rebuil Bel this b able.

n e w .n p.. T h e r e a t a r er i g h t. Busengine A revshigherthan sedan.When an ensineis a sedanengineshouldlast this long.diugnoii. m munJatrtrtior long enginelit'e.. i l l h e l p y o u d c c i d ei l " r a rebuildis required.leaf rhrough . so the engine "travels farther" than a sedan d i m e n s i o n is c r e a s e .o*.s p c c i a l l v resistance t e to oil flow.Studythe pic_ tures skim the high pointsof the text. (exceptin the late Bus and thosemiles. whentwo. lnrsbookand any other VW lirerltureavail_ able.first decicle a rebuil-d neies_ if is sary. i o u r n a lw h e r er t ' r f l u n g o t f . we'll examinesomediagnos_ . Sometimesthis is easy. n g i n e .connecting roclsare poking through thetopof case. . w a n d h i g ho i l p r c s s u r a t l h e e of extraweight.su you can undersland w n a l\ g o t n go n w h e nt h e y l a l l a p a r t . W e n g i n c s r e s u s c c p t i b lte h c r t . w t h e m . i. isn't well-known for extreme OIL CONSUMPTION longevity. n T h e n .it will go more than 100. rod and and camshaftbeanngs. gearin-e. e u l s ri h c p i s i o n u c a l l yl a s rl e s s . ACCUMULATED MILEAGE Totalmileageisn't a very good yardstickof engrne condition.. s VW just doesn'thold that rr-ruch It alsohas This causes oil.tlLttely rccurnulrted iles. gageof enginecondition. S t a t e f o l n eL . the owner'smanual. s e r v i c e . . a A s m i l e sa ( . B:iur: beginning lour ct'forts. Get and a Dasrc comprehension how air_cooled of VWs are bolled together.op. T h e a i i .especially Types l-3.c o . for instance.1 o u ' l l g e t a n e x a c r. i t s i n l e r n ac l e a r a n c c sr ee a s i l yU i i O s e d l a B u sc n g i n e s n d r h o s c l r i v e no l i r o r d t v o i _ b y a no i l f i l m . l o d c l e r m i n e n g i n ec o n d i t i o n iS y e lI:o l ltop t l n g .B u se n g i n c s c a rl a \ t c rb e c i u r e n n g s a n d v a l v e s .e. V a o At the crankshaft. so fiequentoil changesareal:tsr. While the air-cooledVW engine. In thischapter. .. r..excessclcarance has less D r i r e nh a r d .befbrebeginningan as engine rebuild. l e i l h e e n t l so f t h e o .You'll seea wispy trail of blue smoke l h e p o o r c n g i n e s r i v e n h l r d a n c lg i v e n l i i l l e from the exhaust d pipe. h e yc a nb eo r e r h e u i e d . more oil to try and fill the voiil and .w h i c h r .Tirne To Rebuild? Simple it rnay sound. wind resistance their low marn.Thesearernoreimportant thanthi Type 4). the Othertim"r.000miles Oil consumption is determinedby an en_ betweenrebuilds.. rs needed.ui. When driven inside its oer_ g i n e ' s i n l e r n a l clctrances nd is an excellent a formance limitations.ancl giv. pay more attentionto how tne car was operatedand maintaineddurins no paper oil filter. c u m u l a l eh e s e a n su e a r a n d p t.t . and oil works its wav to i f ' t h c o i l i s n ' t c h a n g c d l t e n . Dirt is the thegapsbetween rings andcylinderwalls andls enemy of ofT-roadengines sucked into the combustion chambcr and Thoseengineswith the shorlestlif-espan are burned.o i l c r n n o tb r i d s e powerplantfbr each mile covered.

merely venting it to the atmosphere. into the crankcase. the guides is common. but the oer_ .Both let oil enterthe combustion cham_ ber where it is partially bumed and sent out the exhaust. but it has beenroutedio the cooled VW enginesare hard on guides because air filter by a hose and metered orifice (valve) ofthe angle with which the rocker arm contacts since rhe mid-'60s. ice picks and other oil _Excessive lossthroughtheguidesoccurs barbaric instruments. Type 2 engines. there's no harm in buming a quart of oil eveiy 1000 miles or more. ifthe rings andguideswere sealed oil_tisht. Tighten the oil_pump when guide-to-valve clearanceis too larse. a. A puff of smokeindicatesworn guides or rings.Oil stays But.contaminating ber. atmosphere. make sure oil is level with top line. it will affect these fisures. they would wear out in less than l0 miles fiom They result from prying the-crankcasefrdves metal-to-metal contact. Much of the time. and lesspollutants are spewedinto the bad leak. If that doesn't stop the^leak. plastic center.:rij!l:iiiiir._When level drops to the tirst finJnote oil mileage and subtract first reading from second.: :irii::!tr. Suchoil consumptiin can result lrom parts on the loose end oi the acceptable-tolerance range. After Oil Pump-Leaks from around the oil pump all. Fresh air from internals.. If it is loose.r:. This lets roo much oil berweenthe guide a"nd remove the pump and rry repairingihe mating valve stem. the leaks m-inor. excessive clearance there Blowby used to be vented to the atmosphere results in blowby into the rocker cover. So you won't be fooled by an oil leak when There is no PCV valve on Type I and upright trying to figure how much oil is being burned.To check. When oil consumptionis high and oil pressurelow. high-pressure area. Record odometerreading. How Much Is Too Much?_Certainly. This Oil Leaks-Many air-cooled VW ensinesleak p ositiv e crankcase ventilation (pCV) plumbing oil. There are two parts that contribute to an engine burning oil: worn rings and valve guides. the the top of the valve stem. oil pressuredrops. Differenceis oil consumptio-n rate. Air_ at the oil-filler hole. Telltale signs areblowby vapor blowin! But becausean exhausiport is a hot. a rebuild is required to correct excessclearances. But. A single puff of smoke immediately upon start-upafler sirting overnight usually meanswom guides and piston rings. oil loss through blowby is burnedin thecombustion chambers.i:. ifthe enginehasmoreihan one leakor one cleaner.Sffi air ittii fltfvensing andmissing filrerwiltshorren eus.oil is suckedinto the combustioncham_ makes a good temporary fix here. the engineneedsattention. So. Valve Guides-Some oil passagepast the Original-equipment (Bosch)senders besr. along with the normal airlfuel mixture.nli*ffiii of service and pooroperating practices destroy engine. Between 500_1000 miles per quart indicates a slightly wide clear_ ance somewherein the engine. PCV valve in the hoseleading from rhe crank_ Because someoil leaksresultfrom worn engine caseto the intake-air distributor.remost common in recently rebuilt engines. Blowby-Just as worn rings and cylinders al_ low oil to enter the combusiion chamber. oil the oil.If a new quart is neided every 500 miles or less. When y6u reach rneDottom. or from partial re_ buildswherethecylinders andpistoniwerenot replaced.itiil. Oil consumptionis an excellentinOicator ot an. A flame arrestor is Oil-Pressure Sender-Oil-pressure senders placed in both hosesrunning from the air filter often dribble from their plastic centers. covers on these engines. It also causesincreasedoil consumption becausemore oil is splashedon the cylinder bores. Then. RTV silicone sealei opens. they also let combustiongasespass in the other orrectron. From the air filrer. you can bet the rings are at fault. this review should be an integral"part the air filter enters the engine at the rocker of the enginediagnosis.. apart with screwdrivers. replacethJs"ender. air-iootet-vtlv'" will any -' out inlp"rti"ular require regular changes spot-on oil and igniiion [imin6. glance lhe mirrorasyou openthe in throttle.Type 3 and'4 engines^usE Iet's a review some of the common oil leaks. mostiy out the oil-filler and dipsrick holei.Wiggle thi reachingthe crankcase. but not enough to justify tearingit down. Another good test is to find a ione hill to coastdown while in top gear. if the engine lays down a i-moke screen. next time the intike valve area of the crankcase. are and draws more blowby out of the crankcasethai won't affect oil-consumptioncalculations.causins to the rocker covers to stop backfires from a puddle right under the sender.il ii::.and readdipstickregular_ ly. cover plate first.These blowby 6 gasespressurlzethe crankcase. Exhaust valvescan pass the sameway. are valve stems and piston rings is normal.engine's internalcondition.

the Removing engineand installing anotherone is the only cure.calledend p lay. Case Leaks-These can be anywhere along the case parting line. Putting this problem off engine canbe very exPenslve. dwell.ffi< yields poor fuel economy and power. the one closestto the flywheel. performance refers to both engine power and fuel consumption. engineinternalsmay or may not be the cause. Diagnosisshoulddetermine the engine is usingthe right amountoffuel to produce the expected amount of power. that the transaxleseal and is leaking. but the only enduring cure is to weld or replacethe case' A case can also leak through a crack' The magnesiumcase of Type 1-3 engines will crack soonet or later from fatigue. openthe transaxlefiller hole and take a Compareit to the bellhousing leak' If sample.Thewearis in two directions.fen-d off constint bilmbardment of dirt. Thereisn't any method for detecting crankwobblewhile the engineis in the chassis. it is looseon its mountings'Both leaks are real gushers because of the large volume of oil passingthrough the cooler. Ontheotherhand.excessive oil the distort neoprene sealat the bearing bore. the crankshaftis free to wobble. but lets hot. Cooling efficiency drops and air filte(s) must. Remove the cooler to inspect the mountings and have it pressure-checked. the main-bearing bore can be and machined the casesaved. If theenginehas a lot of miles on it. and the sealhas not been changed recently.one parallel to thecrankshaft. specific problem.Mount a dial indicatorto read directly off the crankshaft pulley and end measure play.too. wearing out. it is inif efficient. There'sa chance.the cure is disassembling engine and manent addingmaterial by welding Engine/Transaxle Mating Surface-Most leak some oil at the front. cure. lf you're unfamiliar with thesmellandtasteof gear oil used in the transaxle. Chapter 5 has more infbrmation on case cracking. lf this problem is detected soonenough. Get a complete analysisof the engine's condition from the shop.This meansa valve adjustment.Devconor some other material to fill the gap. undet-car air into engine bay.gasketless German production technique. The perforce wears the main-bearing bore oendicular so iggshaped. then the rearmain bearing may be pounded out-the is case actuallydeformed-from excessiveend p/ny. points. there is a iargeoil leak at the bellhousing.and the end pull the to playis or evenseems be excessive.When oil poursfrom betweenthe casehalves. pull the engineor transaxleandreplacethe transaxle seal right away' won't go away. may havebeeninstalledincorrectly. You can try RTV sealer.iny. is thetransaxle leaking. trluny cars and have learnedto quickly and accuratelydiagnosetheir problems. POOR PERFORMANCE Performanceis best defined for our pulposes when an engine iency. They see . . timing and carburetor or injection tuning. it alsodripsout the bellhousing' Geta dabof the dripping liquid on a finger tlp. Unfortunately. the result of engines anoverworkedcrankshaftoil seal. If the problem is machiningprobablywon't continue. sure. engine life is shortened. and will cause a leak.If power or fuel economy drops. Remember. plugs.This is because as a. shaft end play. if the areais washedclean byoil flowing from the bellhousing area.The diagnostictestslater in this chapter are designed to systematicallyuncover the Drivinq without engine compartment seal mav ieem harmless. This results on in a mess theengine'sbottom. To locate the source of poor performance. See page 76. and the other perpendicularto the crankshaft. someonehas used a screwdriver to pry the case aoart therel a definite mistake. Complete the tuneup yourself before performing any diagnostictestsor have it doneby a professional tJneup shop. but shouldn't any cause alatm. allowedto do any good. The machining on VW casehalvesis ofthe highestquality. Oil Cooler-Oil coolersleak for two reasons' Eitherthecoolerhas split apart anywherealong or thetubes. andoi1pourspastit.however. If the seal was recently reit placed. and the case will have to be replaced-an expensivefix. if necessary.To staba screwdriver into this joint is criminal. and joint is a marvel of their precision. Usually these are little weeping leaks and pose no danger. at leastin BeeButyoucanmeasure tlesandearlyBuses. end play and wobble Of course. investigated originatesfrom the # I main bearThecause ing. It can take lots of muscle to movethecrankwhen the engine is together. andrebuild it. thensmellor tasteit. and the longer it Thisproblem leaks the greater the chance of ruining the clutchdisc. stafi with a tuneup. there is no cheap. dirty. so the deoress clutch and then monitor the pulley' Usethe detaileddirections for measuring end If play on page 126. This is a serious problem and should be right awaY.the oil leak is serious.

This is most likely causedby worn rings and cylinders. The engine then runs on only three cylinders. allowing all compression to escapeout the exhaustport. or the engine will not run right or respond to tuning. or some of the diagnostic tests will be inaccurate. a chunk may be burned from the valve head.Think of combustiongases as an inefficient cutting torch and you'll understandwhy valves burn. Later fuelequipment. Fuel-injected Type 3 throttle switchesoften needadjustment. For example. They perform work by inhaling air. if not expense. but can be solved with minimal work. valve broug . If the flap won't move freely after a little fiddling. The idle may be erratic. eliminating external variables from the diagnostictests. But it is also possible for engine performanceto be low Examiningengine will often reveal interestbuyinga if ing details.especially considering car. first make sure all fuelsystemparts are correctly installed. Keep in mind that internal-combustionengines are nothing more than air pumps. CAUSES OF POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE A quick look at the most likely internal engine problems will help put them in perspective before you start testing for them individually. rings. Underneath. The key to an engine's pumping efficiency is the tightness of the combustion chamber: the area formed by the piston top. the valves. to injectedenginescan be impossible tune withoutprofessional Basic Fuel-Injection TroubleshootingLater engineshave lots of vacuum and fuel hoses that arepafi ofthe fuel-injectionsystem. by showing there is something internally wrong and two. anotherclue. Every part must be in place.camshaft. it's indicated immediately during a seated guide closed cleara cool a The br Eve piece r heada valve erosio bumin be not The lesspr becau valve l sodiun ing ter when valver in the Whr stem. too. go ahead and do diagnostic tests as a double-check. cylinder wall. One. you've probably cured any problems and a rebuild isn't necessary. compl speed pressl no con Eve droppt head b Type I and ste arate a head d andcy the pis The usual\ in the with tt lifters i will bL warnir It's a valv three c (and e engine One corTec '78 an lic val the val for pe air-cor needp servic ance c A ! to and oil consumption be normal.l coole stem. do the following diagnostictests. If any of from the combusthesepartsallow air to escape tion chamber. If the engine responds to the tuneup with renewed performance. All hosesmust be in perfect shapeand tightly sealed. this is called hunting. remove the cover and note the wrper contacts lhat signal throttle position. valves and sparkplug. A burned exhaust-valve face can't make a gas-tight seal against its seat. head. Cloudsof black smokeout the exhaust and poor running below full throttle indicate electronic control unit (ECU) failve or a coldstart valve that has stuck open. In this case. Tuning the enginewill have helpedin two ways. this means that some some of the valve's/ace (sealingsurface)has beeneroded away or crackedby the blast ofhot combustiongases. Additionally. which causesa large drop in power and compression. But. buy a new one. including the air filter.the dipsticktube is an add-onunit. Bending the arms so they wipe a new areaoften helps. As this condition worsens. engine performance will drop. If an injected engine won't run. anything that hinders an engine's breathing reduces its efficiencyboth power and fuel economy. A stuck dirflow sensor. A worn-out engine will generally perform poorly and use a lot of oil. Other fuel-injection problems can convince you the engineis at fault. the flap in the box next to the air filter. can cause driveability problems. Finicky idle problems and weird throttle responseon fuelinjectedBusesand 914s are often tracedto the throttle switch mounted right next to the throttle. stumbling and searching(increasingand decreasing). harnessingthe expansionand exhaling the byproducts. When a chunk is missing. Burned Exhaust Valve-When a mechanic says a valve \s burned. compressing it and expanding it. enginebreathing will suffer if the valves and valve train are in poor shape. Unscrew the switch from the throttle. So. Check all hosesfor connectionand condition. Vacuum test results will also be affected.or valve springscould be at fault.Don't skip the tuneup. 8 If a tuneupdoesn'trestorelost performance. Beetleenginehere is builton a Type3 case! Large oil passage(top photo) and U letter code (bottom) were first tip-offs. Burning fuel only makes the air expand. a cylinder won't have full compression if the valves are incorrectly adjusted.Early engines have few adjustmentsand are great at-hometuneup proiects.

on a metal-to-metal sealbetween the top of the cylinder and the cylinder head to contain combustion gases. The hammering ruins the engine and it's not even a worthwhile core. although a rich airlfuel mixture can be just as bad. The problem is the threadsin the case. not the studs. If these parts loosen for any reason. the heat passesto the head and ultimately to the cooling air. Still. pulled threadsare no longer a common problem. so this is some warning before it destroys the entire engine. The engine expandsoversizewhen it is overheated. Another factor affecting valve burning on engines with upright cooling-fan mounting is oil-cooler placement.curing . So. Some people may look at the low torque specificationsgiven for these cylinder heads and figure they aren't enough. it leavesthe cylinder free to hammer the crankcase and cylinder heads.It will immediately begin running on by three cylindersaccompanied a lot of honible (and rattling. partially filled with sodium. Instantly shut off the expensive) engine help minimize damage. a valve staysopen longer due to tight clearances whatever. Becausemany valvesaremadewith heads Type 1-3 exhaust joined together. so it is a liquid of when the engine is running. camshaft liftersandoil pump. Carbon Deposits-Although carbon deposits don't fall under the categoryofengine damage. when they assemblethe engine. putting more strain on the cylinder studs. This preheatedcylinder #3's cooling air. and they sometimes sepstems arate thejoint. Even well-maintained valves can bum if a piece carbongets caught between the valve of head seatasthe valve closes. Reciprocating valvemotionthrows the sodium back and forth in the hollow stem. Type 3 and 4 engines never had this problem because flat mounting ofthe cooling fan has the always positioned the oil cooler away from any one particular cylinder. Loose Cylinder Heads-Type 1-3 VW enInstead.Type lthroughthe '77have steelthread insertsinstalled in 3s from the case at the factory. Type 4 engines get combustion leaks just like Types 1-3. spring. Then it getstossedto the cooler stem-end. a few words about carbon will help you with engine diagnosis. With casesaversinstalled. causingall sortsofhavoc in the rocker cover. are cooled by each passing intake charge and are heated only on the combustion-chamberside. Excessivecylinder-head torque will also destroy thesethreadsin short order. in the path of cooling air going to the #3 cylinder. barrels and case halves are replaced. No wonder the studspull out of the case! Overheating the engine has the same effect as overtorquing the cylinder-head nuts.000 miles or less.the valve at head destroysthe piston crown. It's painfully obvious when an engine drops a valve. Both gasoline and motor oil are hydrocarbons. perhapsthey arehaving cylinder-head sealingproblems. If an enginewith case saversis overheated. it has both less time to or cooland absorbseven more combustion heat. so it can cool well if heat is broushtto it bv sodium or some other mech- anism. The studs are strained and being pulled from the case. In '71. Some cooling takes place through the guide. Intake valves. cylinder wall and cylinderheadas it gets slammedaround by thepiston. retainer and keepers usually separate also. Such doghousefan shrouds stop #3's exhaust valve from burning any sooner than the rest. they add ten poundstorque to the cylinder-head nuts. longer-lasting Exhaustvalves are much more prone to burnvalves exhaust ing than intakes. Prolonged idling and slow driving can also cause carbon buildup. for example. which is no match for steel when it comesto mating threads.is the torque applied to the cylinder-headnuts is not the same amountof torque that sealsthe heads.however. The threadsin the case are magnesium.Skipping this need or service maintaining insufficient valve clearance can easily lead to burned valves. letting the cylinder head and cylinders bang back and forth with piston motion. So.If the problem is caught soon enough. not the source' Merely ridding the engine of carbon won't cure the problem.This isn't a factor on '78 andlater Busesbecausethey have hydraulic valvelifters. the valveburningprocessis rapid. on the other hand. to Oneprimary cause of burned valves is inconect valve adjustment. heat is transferredby the sodium from the headto the stem. The most common sourceof harmful carbon depositsis excessiveoil consumption. while there may be ways to get rid of carbon an buildupwithoutoverhauling engine. If the at-rest torque is misapplied. Carbon is a solid byproduct of incomplete combustion. The net result is a cooler-running. Evenworse than a burned exhaustvalve is a d t droppe exhaus valve. Pulled studs are a very common problem up '70 Type 1-3 engines. but don't count on this remedy all the time. only delay the symptoms. there is only 18 or 23 frlb of torque on the studs. to and a rebuild is not necessary remove them. But after 100. to 40 ft-lb. But when the enginewarms up and expands like a balloon.you've just aboutboughta new engine. then it will reach over 70 ft-lb at operating temperature. and their threadsare strong.it absorbs heat.compressiontest because engine cranking speed doesn'tchangeon that cylinder's compression strokeand the gagereadsvery little or nocompression. A v alve drops when the head breaksoff from the stem. the heads and case can be machined back to service. Once it starts. Luckily. What typically happensis the cylinder head studs pull out of the case. so burning them in the combustion chamber in the wrong amounts causesexcess carbon deposits. Before'71 . Theburningprocesshas begun.This holds the and valve partially open and can start the gaserosionprocess. The steel thread inserts are commonly called case savers.Under normal conditions. They can be added when rebuilding to earlier cases that don't have them. Or. Then the weak threadsare ripped right out of the case by cylinder-head torque and combustion pressure.The stem is in constant contact with the valve guide. where it passes heat to the the stem. Metal particles circulate withtheoil and scorethe crankshaft. What they don't understand. the cylinder heads can warp. the exhaustvalve will burnbadly before it drops.When the engine is cold. Theexhaust valvesused in 914 enginesare proneto burning than other Type 4 engines less because they are sodium-filled. Therefore. So they whip out the breaker bar and crank the headnuts down anothertum. the oil cooler was movedout of #3's airstreamand an offset sectionwas addedto the fan housing to enclose the relocated cooler.000 miles. Sodium melts well below the operating temperature the valve. exhaustvalve. letting combustion pressure escapebetween the cylinders and cylinder heads. Thus. When the studsdo pull. the aluminum cylinder heads and cast-iron barrels grow a lot longer than the steel studs. Becauseintakes run so much cooler than exhausts. the studs won't pull.This is because are exposed to combustion heat on both the combustion-chamber and port sides.Hammering of the caseand headsby the cylinders is not a problem with warped heads. combustion pressureand gaseswill be lost through the gap. The first point to give is the cylinder stud threadsin the case. The studs are steel.and some at the seat when the valve is If closed. causing high cylinder temperatures and prematurely burned exhaustvalves. All other VW air-cooled engines use solid valve lifters and periodicvalve adjustments. From the guide. Whenthe sodiumis at the hot head-endofthe stem. the oil cooler was mounted inside the fan shroud. the magnesiumcan fatique and the threadsweaken. Becauseonce the cylinder heads. some of which sticks to the combustion-chamber surfaces. Thevalve stem. Now the effective torque on the studs is nearer 55 ft-lb. they are much less apt to burn. A valve cools best only when it is fully seated. Type 4 engineshave a thin metal gasket for better sealing. Hydraulic valve lifters adjust thevalvesautomaticallyand eliminate the need for periodicvalve adjustments. Usually a valve will benoticeablyburned in 2.they rely ginesdon't useheadgaskets. This type of valvehas a hollow stem. carbon deposits are a symptom of a problem. When this happens. which shedsthe heat quickly to the valve guide.

preignition without detonation causes excess combustion-chamber pressure and temperature.hole a piston and spew metal throughout the lubrication system.asmentioned earlier. Carbon easily heats to incandescence. you may pay for it with an engine overhaul.but with today'sfuel it might inside wire i the wi bad a "dead Stethoscopeis preferred tool for pin-pointinginternal engine noises because it amplifies sound coming through probe and reduces surroundingnoise with earplugs. They of areusually associated with low-octane gasoline ot over-advanced timing. considervehicle operation. If you advance the ignition past specification. or foreign objects in the fan housing. Carbon deposits build up on the backside of a valve and restrict airlfuel mixture flow into the cylinder. Nevertheless. When the ignition is turned off. substantialengine damagefrom preignition or detonation isn't prevalent. Besides carbon buildup. This timing setting may be retardedfrom the specified stocksetting. detonation can be causedby staleor low-octanegasoline. It's no secret that advancing the spark in aircooled VW engines increases their power.the glowing carbon. prompt attention to the causes abnormalcombustionis wise. they may shroud the valves. As a final note on carbon. slow-speed. valve andring damagecan result ifpreignition or detonation is prolonged. lights the mtxture after the sparkplughas fired. If a piece ofcarbon sticksbetweenthe plug electrodes. over-advanced ignition timing andengineoverheating. Ignition timing is also commonly overadvancedby owners looking for more power. pistons and cylinders more quickly. If the cooling flaps remain shut from a broken or missing spring. Now touch the lead to the solenoidconnection. solen when Fue when shouk De necessary. So. cylinder temperatureswill quickly go sky-high.slow- ing the idle and reducing spark advance a few degreeswill help reduce dieseling. the solenoid should click (the plunger is moving DIAC No' probk witho may 0 the tes it. concerned be ifthe engineis knocking heavily.So. carbon will build up because low cylinder of temperatures. Imagine red-hot carbon in the combustion chamber.but without any accompanying pinging or knocking. Pay specialattentionto the ignition timing of a VW engine. This devastationcan happen in less than one minute if the engine has been running for 10 minutes and is fully warm. If r the er decid NOIS Interr a diffi fluenc leastt ing ar Open cil. it is very susceptibleto overheatingand preignition causedby too-advanced timing. This shouldstop the dieselingmentionedabove.anddeformthe main-bearing bores in the crankcase. Fin are he gine. the hot carbonpreignites themixture.Checkfor theseproblemsif the engine detonates.Also. sometimes producing an explosiondetonation-rather than even buming.Thetwoflamefronts collide. the sparkplug will short out and the cylinder will misfire or go totally dead. fault. These types of abnormal combustion can damagean engine by placing a heavy load on engine internals. s in ba< noises hear l Peo eyesi tion tc your ( sound front. But the penalty for too much total advance is severe detonation.excessiveoil consumptionmay meanan engine overhaul. or get betweena valve headand its seat. short-tripdriving. Look for the small can on the side of the carburetor with the wire leadingto it. Carbon deposits causetrouble in two ways. Again. Detonation is very similar to preignition. Heed another warning: These engines selfdestructratherquickly when the cooling system fails. To test the solenoid. Loose carbon depositscan also lodge between the electrodes of a sparkplug. Audible signs of detonation are pinging or knocking. First.You can easily burn-oul excess carbon accumulatedthis way by taking the car for a long trip.This will heat the combustion chamber and burn away excesscarbon. Admittedly. A hot piece of carbon acts like a diesel-engine glow plug by supplying an ignition source other than the sparkplug. throttle response and improves engine acceleration. Each time you touch the lead.causing preignition and detonation.the sparkplugfires and the mixture also startsburning near the plug. If the engine pings at the slightestload. If that doesn't help. This is sometimescalled light pinging. Recent researchindicates a small amount of knocking or pinging is not harmful to an engine. As an air-cooledengine. Plug replacementor cleaning usually cures theseproblems. A carbon-aggravatedproblem most people arefamiliar withis dieseling-the enginerunson after the key is turned off. A moment 1ater. Worn ringsandvalve guideswill alsocause excessive carbon buildup from incomplete oil buming. combustion-chambertemperature and pressure exceedsenginedesign limits and damage occurs. Although not as severe. Drive it a half hour or more at freeway speeds. the engine may need a professional tuneup or carburetor overhaul. When a fresh intake charge is compressedon the compressionstroke. Turn on the ignition without starting the engine.onthe right side on earlier carbs. or do a lot of in-town. if thereis a problem with it. sound you ci sound to hea Aid 10 . but the secondignition source. stuck thermostat. sounds akin to colliding billiard balls. long-term light detonation will wear the rings. The excessheat will causeseveredetonation. The solenoid is on the left side on '71 and later carbs (34mm) and.Ridding the engineof carbon. retardthe timing a degree at a time until it doesn't ping. If you drive a delivery route. the solenoid is deactivatedand a spring-loaded plungerclosesthe idle circuit. breakrings. remove its electrical lead. Carbondepositsin the combustion chambers can also causedamage. The resulting suddenpressureand temperaturerise is more than the engine was designedfor. They contribute excess oil to the combustion chamberand it can't be completelyburned. Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid-Type I and 2carbureted engines since '70 have an electric fuel shut-off solenoid attachedto the idle circuit of the carburetor. but severe cases can burn or blast holesin oistons. Sor with i probk stall tl origin have i speed stop d On solenc Theor particl usuall On solen discor other. Piston. the fuel shut-off solenoid may be faulty. but doesreducefuel economyandpower.

Remove any debris. There is one bottom-end noise that can happen at every other revolutionpiston slap. measurement. the problem is in the fan' A sharp. just forward of your ear. On pre-'71 carburetors. trace and repair the wiring fault. If it does. Consequently. those that you can noises hearwill sound different from each spot'. Many factors influencethe way sounds are perceived.Leaning forward into the engine compartmentwill help mask the exhaust. there's no problem. and try to to wiggle the fan on its hub. If the wire is "dead"(no voltage). so engine vibrations don't bounce the dowel into your ear. lifters or camshaft. Try the rocker arms. Valve adjusting proceduresare on page 136-138. intermittent rattling noise from the sheet-metalfan shroud of Type I and 2 engines may be a loose or broken fan. Rocker arms can be checkedby moving each by hand with the valve completely closed. Aids for locating noises are a stethoscope. Isolating Normal Noises-Now for the hard part: What do theseproblemssoundlike? Let's startwith normal enginesounds. It's a great way to pinpoint a noise. so you can more easily hear internal engine noises. Then all the valve-adjustment tightening in the world won't quiet the engine. it occurs on every other crank revolution.The engine will die when you unplug the that's working and show little change solenoid whenyou unplug the one that's not. It works best when held against a solid part-head.006-in. a Type 4 engine with hydraulic lifters. But. This.biased People so eyesight. the fuel shut-off end doubles as the idle metering jet. valve clearance.which increases er inspection require engine disassembly. a noisy valve can best be heardby listening at the edgeof the rocker cover or cylinder head. you'll have established baselineof the engine's condition. hook up a timing light and see if the noise coincides with flashesof the light. If so. and thoseoccurring at every other crank revolution. before the pistons have expanded. first one solenoid and then the disconnecting other. Unlike the stethoscopea doctor uses.If the noise disappears. Check the tightness of the large fan retaining nut. solenoid's Theorifice is very small and eventhe tiniest dirt particlecan clog it. Type 3s and flatengine Type 2s project more fan noise than Type ls.006 in. or if all the valves are making more of a harsh clacking sound.If ithas aproblem. the low-pitch noise associated and a high-pitch whistle. look elsewherefor the source. As a secondchoice.With a hose. the noise is at one-half crankshaft speed-a top-end problem or piston slap. Cam and liftclearance. you can locate it on a warm engine. the initial impression is a big jumble of By sounds. becausethere's only one power stroke for every two crank revolutions. if you still have the noise with their fan belts removed. it's possible there is a wom camshaft lobe or lifter. These are external sornds coming from loose brackets. If "hot" (has voltage). For example. a whining or screaming from the fan area usually means something is caught in the fan. Never close a valve adjustment tighter than 0. check if the wireis supplying electricity with a test light.Cupping your hands around your ears may look funny. and probe the fan area with your hand. Once oast the exhaust. the solenoid is thewire is bad and needs to be replaced.you've got a crackedfan or bad generator or alternator bearings. Piston slap is the sound produced by the piston slamming againstthe cylinder as that cylinder fires at the top ofthe power stroke. Piston slap is audible when piston{o-bore clearanceis excessive.you'll find thetests a it. worn rod bearingsand main bearings. not the leastbeing the human factor. There have been other clearancesspecified by VW in by the past. position the receiving end of the dowel againstyour skull. It may be necessary remove the fan and generator assembly to investigate this noise. it's at crankshaft speed-a bottom-endproblem. All air-cooled jt unless is VWs use 0. Piston slap is easiestto detect on a cold engine. close the hood. stand in back. rocker arms and lifters. A proper valve adjustmentcan only be done while the engine is cold. If there is any appreciable movement other than 90'to the shaft. It can make several different sounds. the dominantsoundwill be the exhaust. you can more easily block out the unimportant while concentratingon those you want sounds to hear. case. an automotive stethoscopehas a solid metal probe at the business end. hold one end firmly against the engine and the other end to your ear. For example. DIAGNOSIS Now that we've examined some engine oroblems. Noises occurring at every turn of the crankshaft come from the bottom end: worn piston pins.unlessthe engine diesels. in effect.If you don't hear a click. and then recheck the solenoid operation. This test will isolate only the generator or alternator on Type 3 and 4 engines because their fans are driven directly off the crankshaft. Raise the rpm past idle and the ticking should turn into a whirr. If you don't find anything. Just rememberto properly adjust the valves after the engine cools. length of heater hope or a wooden dowel.As you listen to an air-cooledVW.let's start in on how to find themwithout taking the engine apart. reducing piston-to-bore clearance. Fuel-injection systems stop fuel delivery when the engine is shut-off.And. you can single out and stop thesenoises. Openthe hood. the rocker-arm bushing or shaft is worn. those occurring eachcrankshaftrevolution.. but it helps mask soundsfrom the sides and amplifies those in front. learn to mentally dissect what you arehearing. not at the middle of the rocker cover. critically identifying each sound. Someonemay have replaced the solenoid with a standard idle screw. you can decidewhether to rebuild now or later. items stuck in the fan and so forth. And. First. ranging from with ahouse fan. By poking around the engine compartment.Upon first hearinga running engine.006-in. place the stethoscope nearby bolt head or solid rail. Carburetorsnot originally equipped with the solenoid can't haveit added. The other major noise in a air-cooled VW engine compartmentcomesfrom the fan. or the valve will burn. On Type 3s with dual carburetors (and two determinewhich one is defective by solenoids). try different spots. bolt heador the like. Abnormal Fan Noises-A lot of abnormal noises come from outside the engine. but do anyway. You won't hear all from each spot. a length ofhose or dowel can be used instead of a stethoscope. adjust the valves. Finally. When using a dowel. Therefore. toward perceiving via their aro. sit inside the car. If you have trouble telling whether a noise is at one-half or at crankshaft speed. rubbing hoses. 11 . it will only bum the valve. early Type 2s and 9l4s becausethe fan is right in front ofyou when looking into the engine compartment.the main noise of an idling engine should be the soft ticking of the valve train. If the noise occurs twice for every flash. if you are checking for one loose valve. lay down in back and to the side. manifold. From there.inside). increases the valve noise. If not. standto one side. Then reinstallthe fuel shut-off solenoid. Stop the engine. broken rings. but all have been superseded the 0. A shot of compressedair usuallyclears the orifice. When investigating an automotive sound. timing and idleare adjustments required in thesecasesto speed stopdieseling. Ifyou suspecta noise from againsta beneatha cover. Ifvalve adjustmentdoesn't cure a valve-train noise. NOISE DIAGNOSIS Internal Noises-Diagnosing engine noisesis a difficult and imprecise art. If the valve noise remains after adjustment. The engine mayor may not be exhibiting problems. remove the fan belt and run the engine for a few seconds. so dieseling shouldn'tbe a problem with them. Noises that occur at every other turn of the crank-at camshaft speed-are most likely coming from the valve train: valves. Engine noises can be lumped into three categories: intermittent ones. Ifyou hear one valve over the rest. close your eyesto help focus attention to the sounds. the intermittent sounds-the oddballs.

tt Placetl ly with tor slov load thr main br right al and trar the tral test is ( WV Piston-Pin Noise-All air-cooled VWs use full-floating piston pins. If there are leaks.Rhythmic scraping soundsare likely to be a bent crankshaft pu11ey the cooling fan rubor bing the fan shroud. Engine rpm must drop sharply. so don't be confused by them. the better. plus the air intake and metering areain general. with the engine idling. then quickly unloaded. A few well-placed wooden block and hammer blows can straighten out a bent pulley. it covers the oil holes in the crankshaft. cover the exhaust outlets with palms that are swathedin wet rags or block the pipes with your shoes. so it sounds off in time with the valve train. it won't raise any racket. See the sidebar for more information on disabling the ignition. Be sure to ground the plug lead when disabling a cylinder. commonly called a vacuum leak. The rod. In fact. The best way is to removethe high-tension leadfromthe center of the distributor cap and ground it. On engines wilh electronic ignition. Rods also wear with accumulated mileage. Piston Slap-Piston slap has already been mentioned becauseof its timing. examine the rubber hose sections of the intake manifold. Many times. The sheet-metalshrouding can be bent out of the way with a wooden dowel. but mating flanges at the cylinders. Reconnecting the plug lead will restorethe noise. With the transaxlein neutral. The high-tension lead is the large. tired bearings. This is becausethe rods float on their joumals as they pass through the transition of being loaded. Disabling the cylinder will reduce piston slap because combustion loads no longer exist. Main bearings knock for the same reasons as rods-excessive oil clearance-but under different conditions. Metal-to-metal contact startsas the rod bearing is slammed against the crankshaft. It occurs at every power stroke.simplyreinsert the lead into the distributor cap. if that's easier. Bent crank pulleys areeasily seen by sighting acrossthem while the engine idles. for the they rar especi bearinl knocki are a ri DIAGl Crank is an en the pur ing thr crankir sealed in goo< vacuun portion Beg temper ute drir There' warm i Onc the ign nect y VACUUr intake vacuur of the buretor Port \ mary create ious e vacuu applic 12 . Now. for an instant. Usr speed a don't k throttle bearing frequen this betl for rnor the clutr while gr periods with axle. Rod knock describesthe knocking sound made by a connecting rod when there is excessiveclearancebetween it and the crankshaft. you may hear the rod knock start out as a light tap. so it's a good idea to check the exhaust system before jumping to any conclusions.The twisthelpsbreakany corrosion that resistswire removal. the bearing is no longer clamped by the connecting rod. remove and replacethe sparkplugwire to each cylinder one at a time. but deeper than. For quicker throttle response when testing for rod knock. oil can't fill the gap between the rod bearing and crankshaft. they don't make any noise. screwdriver or the like. Make surethe distributor cam and points rubbing block are well-lubricated and then recheck. seizeand break. and pull out the lead. Then they wear in sets. insteadof continuing build voltage to andtryingto arcto groundinside coil. depending on how you hear it.but dashpotsare found on all air-cooledVWs. worn rod bearings are bad main bearings. It's difficult to hear over the normally loud VW engine mechanicals and not easy to isolate. Oil ceasesto flow to that rod and it rapidly overheats. Rod Knock-If there is one internal engine noise associated with air-cooled VWs.twistthe lead slightly. Piston slap is a dull. serious damage has been done to the crankshaft and rod. Exhaust Leaks-These are often confused with other.there are severalways to short-circuit electrical the supplyto the plugs. lt dows throttle closingvia rod restingagainst throttle linkage. the noise will greatly diminish. put the thoroughly warmed engine under load. hollow sound. Check the tightness of the carburetor{ointake manifold connections. To remove it. When thesepins wear. thoroughly warm the engine to operating temperature. and camshaft are sure to be broken. They are very rarely a problem. and all other precision clearances have been destroyed by the passingmetal.. say from 1000-2000 rpm. some are betterthan others. To test for rod knock. A spun bearing is one that is rotating relative to the rod and the crankshaft. Ifyou are on a long trip and overheat the engine. muffler and tailpipe extensions are the usual spots. ortheir bushingsget loose. andabruptly lift offthe accelerator. This givesthe high-voltage electricity somewhere to go. rod knock is it. knock or pound. To test for main-bearingknock. Another typical exhaustsound is a whistle as the engine is accelerated. you'lI hear one steady knocking beat. sealing the ends of the pipes wilt stop the engine. disconnectand plugvacuumlineleading dashpot. Cold-start enrichment devices normally make some sucking or hissing sound while they are operating. graspthe bootaroundthe distributor-cap terminal. In other words. The sooneryou stop and overhaul the engine. case. so you'll hear a castanet-like rattling with old. the rods should rattle. move into a medium rap and finally develop into a knock. phuft sound coming from the leak. or they'll get burned. Oncethe testis done. On dualport and fuel-injected engines. Main-Bearing Knock-Sounding similar to.You'll have to apply considerablepressure to exhaust openings as a well-sealed system has a lot of pressure. DISABLINGTHE IGNITION Many diagnostic tests call for the ignition system to be disabled.It is causedby loose or cheap replacementtailpipe baffles on Beetles and early Buses.groundthe leadto the head or engineblock. Round can at right is throttle dashpot. more serious problems. so don't lose any sleep over them. phuft. you'll hear a phuft. Usually metal particles from the rod have been pumped through the engine with the oil. So. lightly rev the engine. Ifyou think you hearpiston slap. Intake-Air Hissing-A loud hissing accompanied by poor idling usually indicates an intake-air leak. As rpm drops. When you hear a rod knock.This the can destroyan expensive electronic-ignition module. STOP! Rebuild the engine while there is still enough to rebuild. If one rod is bad.rtto detect bad piston pins. When rod-bearing clearanceis large. When you get to the affected cylinder. Thisis a to 411 engine. plus the intake manifold-to-cylinder head hardware.gap between the free end of the lead and ground. With conventional ignitionsystems. there's a better chance of hearing it while driving than listening for it with the hood open. This sound is often heard during a cold start before oil pressurebuilds. or ignitiotn-system damage may occur. which is being disconnected. Exhaust is very hot. Continued driving may spin the bearing. Don't leave your hands or shoesover the exhaust pipes very long. By the time a rod is knocking. phuft.If the exhaust system is tight. Exhaust systems can leak from anywhere.heavily insulatedwire running from the coil to the center of the distributor cap. Ihere shouldbe no morethanal/4-in. Pushing or pulling on the top of the fan shroud will probably eliminate the fan noise. Even when a clip is broken and the pin is free to score the cylinder. Ona by sele until tht engine 1 on the t tor. Distributor Chirping-Dry distributor-cam surfaces can cause the points to give a highpitched chirping. When the bearing spins. the rod will weld itself to the crankshaft. You have to take the engine apa.

pistonsor rings. vacuum will be pro. A note about altitude and how it affects vacuum readings. Just make sure the then there is a problem.On a manuai-transaxle load the engine car. But.Hg) for each 1000-ft increasein altitude. of fail. tester A professionaloscilloscope/diagnostic easilydoesthis. the knocking main and will sound off with a heavy.Use the parking brake.They are equipped tion that can't be open-fired. then set the leads lightly back on the tops. it's a Power-Balance Test-This test shows how vacuumsignal that reads low on part-throttle much each cylinder contributes to the power which outputofan engine. You cando the sameby inserting a metal spring between the sparkplug and lead.you are really testing how wellthe sealed cylinders are. Don't overdoit. warped cylinder heads and worn buretors fuel-injectionsystems. it alsoisolates applications-opposite of the high manifold- cylinders contribute little to manifold vacuum. '-%iffi' "Y::. use a dwell/tachometer measure rpm drop for eachcylinder. or cylinders. of With an Auto-Stick or full automatic transis axle.pulled head studs. disable it's normal on a four-cylinder engine. touch a grounded wire to the spring.valves. you'll have to perfbrm more maryventuri. they'11 so are do rightaway.ringsare probably vacuum readings under the same conditions. or have a friend crank portionately the engine.There is no needto keep the engine andtransaxle straining-this is very tough on (5-10) and the A thetransaxle. too. the Place transaxlein gear.The car's tachis not 't3 .through the rear window. Manifold much vacuumduring problemsin secondswith a vacuumgage. lowbearings pounding. If the main bearings going to knock. With a little throttle clutchjuggling. byselecting first gear and letting out the clutch untiltheenginebeginsto labor. There's need to overheatthe engine. racuumsource. It creates vacuum signal usedfor operating var.pecially slow-cranking ones with 6-volt startlng systems. Judgingfrom grit and lackof air filter.This engineisn't drawing shot. to however. worn cam lobes. The idea is to pull the lead away from the plug and ground it against the head and stop that plug from firing-this is called open-firing. Be careful! Don't do this for morethan three secondsor you'll burn out theclutch. Don't be no alarmedif the needleswings about 2 in."''* You can detect maior of vacuumis excellentindicator overallenginecondition. too.Hg. wearout. Prop the vacuum gage so you can see it in goodshape. you can determinewhich cylinder is at fault.burnedvalves. If you are looking for a more subtle problem. test To do a power-balance on them. but lower reading.Therefore. ear-calibrated powerbalancetest will tell what you want to knowwhich cylinder is it? BecauseVWs have only four cylinders.Check for heat out of the heater. a bad one showsright away. the lead has to be grounded without open-firing it first. the Once engineis warm. You can perform a power-balancetest at home '79 and later on any air-cooled VW except for with electronicigniBuses. Any vacuum nipple on the intakemanifold will do. You're going to lift a lead off its plug without a lot of tugging.This is they rarely true of Type 4 engines. and con.tests. By comparingthe resulting rpm drop for each disabled cylinder. canalsohearbadmain bearings You goinguphill. Colisanengine-cranking ability of the engine.Hg thepumping below areading taken at sealevel. To pinpoint the cylPortedvacuum exists in the carburetor priinder at fault. a ious emission-control switches. iunningidle test. chances area rod is about to fail. few seconds test over. hold the brake firmthe ly with your left foot and depressthe acceleratorslowlywith your right.the engine will produce a lot of vacuum-if not. crankingvacuumvalueswill be 5 in. just loadthe engineso the car tries to creep. test is the best method. for example in Denver. shut it off. Such a vacuum drop vacuum sourceisn't ported vacuum-from one can have numerous causes: poorly adjusted of the small diameter nipples on later car.This is easiersaidthan done in the confines of a Bus engine compartment.orado. a If you suspect burnedvalve or other major problem. just above the throttle plates. Keep engine speed about 1000 rpm during the test and at don'tlet the car creep forward. Beginby warming the engine to operating pull a steadyvacuum ofabout l0 in.Becauseatmosphericpressure drops as altitude increases. tesl for bad main bearings easier. If you hear are knocking orpounding from the engine. (This 5 sameenginein Denver is registering in. Then load the furtherby putting half of your right foot engine onthebrakeand the other half on the accelerator.pull all sparkplugleadsoff the sparkplugs. Then to ground the lead. The engine will then be running on three cylinders. This checks So.) temperature-tenminutes idling or a five minA wom engine with no major problems will utedrive. The vacuum ing the vacuum an engine produces while at valuesgiven below are for measurements sea cranking. An engine in good condition will lower.Hg.Hg. Vacuum-The next diagnostic Cranking vacuum test. The rod especially bearings much more suspect.Hgwarmit up.Thus. If all internal parts are level. just have a steady.By measur. at 5000 ft. cranking vacuum will drop about I inch of mercury DIAGNOSTIC TESTS step (in. or makenoise. so a professional To perform a power-balance test on other engines. estheignition so the engine can't start. is VW mainbearingsare quite large and strong for thehorsepower the engines. nect your vacuum gage to a fulL manfoldIf the needleregularlydropsto near0 in. accelerating during other while or periods high engine load. You can practically feel fiequency this better thanhearit. a quick.

Becausethe compressiontest follows. Normally.)KY. Noteoffset of slot: thicker arc faces different positiondeiending on engine. sparkplu.) to if the much are 1o Re grve( 14 . With thc tachometerconnected. plug c is carbon-fouled. It doesn't matter so much how far rpm drops as how close the readings are to each other. ) helper any ca compr The disabk out for engine fully c openin using i linkag helps. flat-blackcoating comes from ex. a really bad cylinder may not drop in rpm at all. f engine oily plr with tt Compr pressio conditi There r taperec and he the scr difficu mount coolinl hold a bent ir screwtype. Remember.possiblyfrom worn rings and valve guides. write down the reading and reconnect the plug lead. the plug will be powdered with a white coating.A carbon-fouledplug's dry. distributorpositionat TDC (Top Dead Center)and firingorder..Oil in the combustionchamber will leavethe plug wet and shiny black. plug D is trodethan the metal shell. But when thesereadings start varying by more than 40 or 50 rpm.K" Type3 Type2 i1 \ | i Cylinderlayout. Go to the next plug and do the same until you've done all four. crankpulleysahdfans rotateclockwise. The insulator can also turn a pastel green or yellow in normal operation. when . none will drop very much. ground the first plug lead and wait for engine rpm to stabilize. ingam will ct engine Scr use.Shiny-black-coating inciicaiesexcesd oil that won't rub off easily. t/ i(il i .---\iI vi l\ i\ FLYWHEEL + . Il busyp plug h wit c and cr about cranki come fast cr highe \ same of cor Lik are de surec in. depending on the individual fuel blend beihg used. indicaiing ii well coloring and more likely to show symptoms of all in the combustionchamber. Rub Reading.stop-and-go drivingor-a too-coldplug heit range. which requires sparkplug removal.Photoscourtesy ChampionSpark Hu! C'ompany.gs can-yieldimportanttroubleshooting clues. a plug should be dry. Distributor driveshaftslot positionat TDC. Late Type 2 & Type 4 Type 1 & EarlyType2 @ Type 3 rype l&Earry f-b-l' rype2 ( ((a\ 6-Ll . with an even tan coating and slight rounding of the electrodes. and the porcelain insulator will appear burned.Jl self. Good VW cylinders usually register a drop of about 200 rpm. Replacesuch plugs and engin6 that into your palm and you get an oily mess performancewill improve. pay more attention to consumption. lt's worn out. Don't expect the readingsto be any closer than 20 rpm. let's discusssparkplugreadingnow. don't confuse it with oil-fouling. flat-black carbon. When reading plugs.the porcelain insulator around the center eleccessively_rich airlfuelmixtures.All distributorroiors. Note vacuumadvancecan positibnand rotor tip points at #1 when installed. If the fuel mixture is too rich. Rub the carbon onto the palm of your hand. *. = |LINE PARTINGE ---. take notice.the cylinders with the leastdrop are the bad ones. if all cylinders are bad. The black depositsshould wipe off easily. unusual combustion. If the mixture is too lean. PlugA suffers from heavily rounded electrodes and pitted insulator. Of course. accurate enough for this test.cylinder#1. the plug will be coatedwith dry. Also be aware that soark- plugs I show tl cause0 driven You who re turn ad race. Therefore. Plug B is oiFfouled.andyou'll seeit hasusefuldiagnostic potential. - i p ao"= rir cAsE a E l T r N r . It's most sensitive to normal.Electroderoundingisrnoderateand insulatbris even tan dr gray.FLYWHEEL + "":? 'tEtrcET - | --\^Y/-7-l-. B Reading Sparkplugs-Think of a sparkplug as a removable portion of the combustion chamber. Now..

l2Oor 125psi. prop the throttle acceptatle.sfamiliar comCompressionTesting-The rut" . then compression An acceptable be pulled head studs or a lessinDenver' Dependingon the engine' pres. SAE 30W is fine' To depsi) by the factorfor the engine'soperating If se1f.. and tempressure "Screw-in (accounting decreased for To help determinethe causeof low compresto compressiontesters are easier Just multlply for oerature) difterentaltitudes.r. cylinders and valves' tery will run down during a compresslontests' are There two types of compression testers: a But if it does.ito crankthe engine. so comwhin crankingthe engine.havehim fully depressthe accelerator is sood and all below are bad' In the example tude increasesabove sea level. Compressionreadingsare influencedby psi. ' Factor ing the squirts.Atmospnenc ic pressure linkageopen with a screwdriver.9711 1000 andcrankthe engine so the testedcylinder is full so you don't squirt air into the cylinder' . if a cylinderyietded the because airlfuel charge ingandopenflames sion-testresults.7860 8000 increase much' about 5 compression doesn't strokes. you'll be termine how many squirts it takes to make a conditions. ignition Double-check your findings with the 7570rule: ind all sparkplugs removed' Watch disabled HIGHERALTITUDE& cylinders must read within 757oof the highA11 outfor hot partswheneverworking on a warm LOWER COMPRESS]ON est cylinder. Retestthe low cylinder' If com4000 its compressionstroke' Note how . al operatingaltitude.t method. it isn't likely that the batof condition the rings. trouble reaching 40 psi and. I would be wary of the the *ilt ro*i out of the sparkplug holes when The chart supplies correction factors low cylinder.8881 soreadthe oil. Note: Avoid smokcompresonly 97 psi and-the pensatefor this when interpreting ei. tively high readings can result' can't be read that way' Check for the ensine There are variables that affect the readings a reveals problem engine. They will registerlower valuesthe higher difficult useon VWs because cone and its rubber'conetype likeone shownis atttrouglr are mount usuallytoo shortto reachthrough the thE altitude. mulriply 125by 0. Problem cylinders arelow. So. to tumadjustmenl the carburetor and won the if you crank this type of cylinder enough.r. if you're compressionvalues are usually based. is ensine uanked.at about 5000 ft' the sure rangefrom 75 psi (pounds per square warped be You may notice a cylinder that takes a long equivalenicompressionreading would. The rubber-cone thescrew-in even as it influences manifold-vacuum readthe to test. urinn standard Notice I said acceptable.so allow 15 .if possible."idingt and vice versa. If a friend hard to set a wear limit and say anything above decreaseas alllpressureand temperature helps. A helper is bestjn breathing. Wet tLst such a cylinder. you use a rubber-conetester. also give lower compress^ton tester. and ancl Altitude will affect compressron reaorngs version is Foputar diagnostic check is compression type.to. With a small.lt plug oit"y ona street obtained from compression testing' One is withtheringsor valveguldes' cranking speed. Usually' a cylinder will pr-oTrouble is idS if the figures seem generally low' wltn seaduce40 psi on the first piston stroke' another35 could be reading low comp-ared muchmorelikely if only one or two cylinders Lu"Lm"u.you'll need a remote starter switch or a low-rpm breathing for improved high-rpm tt. even reaolngs psi. Give eachcylinder the same .. instead.)to psi X . plugs in a street race. . can ioi e*impre.t up on .ip. they in oo.on that. not desirable' It is and 59F at sea level.8617 : 108 psi' The cylinders time to pump up. Just make sure the oil can has . do iwet testby value for compression1in Justscrewit in and crank the engine youruse. There. with their longbentinto a VW engine compartment.9428 strokes' You can hear 2000 6-8 compression about .8359 6000 ihe trouble is poor ring{o-bore sealing' A rereading' Test all four cylinders the highest .they'll come close to the other cylinolussfrom a street-drivenengine can onty ders. hold the thottle open oil into the cylinder.different compresslon testers hay have inciease by l0 psi at a time. consider them faulty' Below 14.or. don't be too concerned in. a cylinder suffering from engineis subjectedto' driven excessiveoiling-from bad rings even-can Youmayhaveheardabout the ace mechanic readingsbecause vield hieh compression-test whoreadihe plugs' then made a one-eighth the seals rings'Again' oil in thecylinder L*. tuy. Worn camshaft lobes can also just as accurate' also awkward to shrouding. if the highestreading is^l25 The throttle and choke plate must be engine.jump the battery to anotherone to type that is inserted into rubber-cone tapered maintain cranking sPeed.75 to get94 Therefore' test-part-throttle for ful'ivopenfor an accurate Specifications altitudeand temperature. heldagainstthe open sparkplug hole.enough. Use a duration profiles.They are cooling cause lower-than-normal readings' Highcylinder pressure while you are hold against oerformance camshafts. butiustfinefor the actupsi on tire next and so on. of squirtinga teaspoon oil sion. So. the pushing conetightly againstthe sparkbusy teaspoonget a teaspoonand fill it while countolushole. starlerswitch. ihe specification into that cylinder. becausethis conditionsbethe sholw mostbasiccombustion condition is usually causedby poor nngs' ofthemanyoperatingconditions a streetcause On the other hand.en.ith. psi at sea levelwouldregister cylinder head.8617 5000 pression comes up markedly.higher speedgives higher pre.9151 Crank the engine two revolutions or so to 30O0 crankingspeed slow as the tested cylinder . Screw-in tester is easiest to use' ings.8106 7000 number builtl is neededto restorethe lost clearances'If ruL. over150psi. If you crank them some leeway' givedifferentreadings. Compression testing takes place at it because leavesyou free to watch the case anv cranking speed-well below idle speed' gageduring the test' compression The engine must be warmed up. jot down the increasesand fast compression .ninitresult low readingsSo. relaThat'son a race engine.. oI compression the problem is probably with the of reading 125 Like the power-balancetest.valves. Remember. *. If using the conescrew-in readings. are if all cylindersread above 94 psi. It could also aredesirable.7psratmospnerday cnnditions: u"r. i"r. 40 psi or more. Then squirt the sameamount oI Altitude (ft) frith .This is becausesuch cams sacntrce type. pression is a good way to measure tne test four-cylinder engine.ur"tents.

They aren't. have a helper hold the crank with a socket on the crank-pulley nut. Leakage past intake valves can be heard at the carburetor or intake-airsensor. And. valve duration. if you have accessto a leak-down tester. Then the lifter tendsnot to rotate.so lts center protrudes more than the edges. But becausethe valve was adjuste clearan valve < started runs oI If y< find it adjuste loosen engine starts c its lovr now. a leak-down test is an excellentidea. others are available separatetools. and inspectthe camshaft and lifters directly. Reconnect the leak-down tester and watch the meter. if the engine seemswellsealed at the valves and cylinders. both the rings and valvesmay be leaking. Then testcylinders#3 and. As the cam lobes wear.If so.this is one test to farm out. Otherwise. Need as for air compressor. rotate the engineI 80' to cylinder #4 and testit.the lifter's bottomis convex. the less valve lift and horsepower. Sometimes leakage is evenly divided and hard to attribute to one source. Once finished with the first cylinder. A 30Va leakage is serious enough for an engine overhaul or valve job. they should have an HC/CO meter available. lOVoor less. unlessyou do a lot of enginediagnosis. They only reduce the valve clearancefor the short time it takes the lobe to wear down some more. the working surface of a lifter and the top edge of a camshaft lobe look flat. Pulled head studsmay causehissing leaks between the cylinder heads and cylinders. so that when the lifter restsagainstit. a9OVo leakageindicatesseriousdamage.A20Voleakage indicate can a high-mileageengine. Leak-downtestequipmentis expensive. alternator. If the diagnostic tests thus far indicate worn engine internals. It is also a test that can be skipped most of the time. the worn spolis. Therefore. even just a little. This makes the lifter rotate with each valve opening and spreadswear over the surface of the lifter. Testing is done with the engine stationary. This unit is part of professional diagnostictester. the worsetheproblem.cost and more involved test procedure usually prohibit homemechanicuse. skip thecompression andtestthecylinders resl witir the more accurate leak-down tester. ir's a sure iign of multiple problems.A length ofhose can aid listeningin somechassis holding by oneendat yourearind the other where you suspect leakage: carburetor. but ifthe exhaustvalve is leaking. Of course. there is little need to consider valve lift. until the lobe is considerably shorter than when new. holed piston or the like. partof the the a lifter which is closeto originalthickn-essnow is against the lobe. altitude or excessiveoiling. If it's slightly off. a leak-down test is more accuratethan comJiession testing.If the exhaustvalve is lenking. During the test. the HC portion of the meter will peg instantaneously If you usea ! tuneup shop for the leak-down test. If you are diagnosing a car before buying it. Leakage for an engine in good condition is 16 valve is to hook an HC/CO meterto the tailpipe and squirt some carburetorcleanerinto the cylinder. With the screwdriver contacting pistontop. the engine witl kick over without warning the instant the cylinder is pressurized. the test is not influenced by cranking speed.Bad-sealing rings and cylinders can be detectedat the oil-breather or dipstick holes. Remember. #2.Leak-Down Testing-Although it's also a measure of combustion-chamber sealins. At first glance. but lacks power and has noisy valves that won't stay in adjustment. However. This is especially true if there is a burnedvalve. valve lift is likely your problem. One way to spot a suspected leaky exhaust . This wears the lifter and especially the lobe very rapidly. Problems start when the lifter wearsa sroove into its concavesurface. The cost should be minimal. It is possible to disable one cylinder by adjusting its valves. Next. Many tuneup shopscan do the test for you. you can the feel when the piston is at the top of its stroke. even frequent valve adjustments don't stop the wear once it is started. valve lift decreases and the ensine doesn't breath as well. To understandthe wear cycte.Insteacl. So.or the cam lobe'wears flat. On the other hand. That will provoke some mystery! What happensis the lifter rotatesright aftera valveadjustment. This will keep the engine for turning over. then connectthe testerto the adapter and the air compressor. or fan. generator. thin screwdriver into the combustion chamberthrough the sparkplug hole. It takes a minute for the leakage to reach the meter. VALVE LIFT Valve lift is the distancethe valve is moved off its seat by the camshaft. however. The higher the leakage rate. If the compressionreadings are baffling. holed piston or other catastrophic cylinder damage. You'll need an air compressor(a l/2-Hp model will do) and the leak-down tester if performing the test yourself. the contact point is off-center. You can usuallytell what's leakingby listening to the engine with the tester attached. This test actually doesn't require a leak-down tester. The top of the lobe is cut at a slight angle. tl and ne If th needsi cam al replace quired timely Chanc Leak-downtesting can indicatemore about engine conditionthan any other test. Compressed aii is pumped to the cylinder while the tester monitors how much air it takes to make uo for cylinder leakage.leakagewill approachl007o as all the compressed blows by an open valve. Power is reducedand valve train noise increasesbecausethe valve clearanceincreaseswith cam and lifter wear. disconnect the tester. you can hear the hiss of escaping air in the tailpipe.the piston must be at TDC of its compression stroke so both valves are closed.The readoutis in percent leakage. Start by reading the instructionsthat came with the tester. Increased noise is part of the wear process becausevalve clearance increasesas the lobe and lifter grind down. You might as well get on with rebuilding the engine. A compression test gives an accurate enoughpicture ofan engine's condition 90Zoof the time. Instead. Check the engine timing marksto make sureit's exactly on TDC.by againrotaringthe crank 180oeach time.just an adapter for the sparkplug hole and a compressed-airsource. but doesn't normally warrant a rebuild. first consider how camshafts and lifters are made. and wear concentratesln one spot. Bring the # I cylinder to top deadcenter (TDC) of the its compressionstroke. intake-air sensor or breather. The shorter the lobe. Farmthis test out to get accurate evaluationof engine condition. A leak-down tester uses an external airpressuresource. a leak-down tester will definitely help you make a decision. install the hose adapter in the sparkplug hole. such as a badly burned valve.o so longerover cam Iobe. or air the engine will tum over.Accuracy is improved beiause variables affecting compression-test readings-those that have no bearingon the sealing capability of an engine-are eliminated. A good way to check for TDC is to insert a long. Frequent valve adjustments become necessary keep noise down to and the valves adjusted.

valve clearance will subtract. Bring the indicator's plunger to bear on the valve-spring retainer. actual valve for clearance zero and the lobe is holdins the is valve openal! rhe time. though.000 or more miles and needs valve adjustmentevery 500 miles. Complete engine disassembly is requiredto service the cam and lifters. Rotate the engine until that valve is completely closed. Racer'scan't hearnoisy valves over open exhaust. don't be concerned about the absolute valve lift. because you are measuring valve lift. this measurement is out ofthe question unlessthe engineis out of the car. Zero the dial indicator. Measuring valve lift lets them determine there is no camshaftwear. so endless valve adjustments are usually another clue that the engine needs an overhaul. consequentty.like 914s. Measuring Valve Lift-Some VW specialists. When the ensine is started. compression can't buildandtheingine runson three cylinders. you'Il need a dial indicator.adjusted the worn section. Note the space available for a dial indicator before considering measuring valve lift. so it's timely rebuild the rest of the engine. Rocker-arm ratio w111 add to lift measuredat the cam lobe. No puzzle now. look for a valve that is liftine considerably rhanits neighbors. For a test of this kind. On somechassis.theengine'scam and lifters are worn out andneedreplacing. they don't have to split the casesto determine the cam's condition. So.but might mount on the cooling shroud or exhaust. the cam is worn and will need to be replaced or reground. the a camand lifters are worn out and need to be replaced. a bit puzzled. you'll findit tight on rharcylinder. Indicator magneticbaseswon't attachto aluminum cylinder heads. allow for the rocker-arm ratio and valve clearance. you loosen adjustmentto specificationsand the the engine runs fine. If you recheck the valve clearance. but valve lift relative to the other valves. which was iust adjusted conectly. to Chances the valves and cylinders are worn are anyway. then rotate the crank pulley until the valve is completely open. . like drag racers. Read valve lift directly on the dial. use a dial indicator to measurevalve lift at the valve-spring retainer. In other words. If measuringvalve lift. some way to mount it near the valve springs and enough room to fit the instrument. Then five minutes later it starts clackingaway as the dished lifter rotates its low spot over the lobe again. a valvi less If is lifting less than the others. If the enginehas 50. and don't have time to split the caseto look at the camshaftbetween races. as well. Remember. They can then determine if the cam lobe is wearingdown.

Never use any jack (bumper. It under Con when movin The cl pendir about angry cities.It's alsodangerous. car while you are underneath.Haphazardly in remov. you warm the jacking point for loweringthe engineis right Additionally. jack stands.For Powertrain on 914 is somewhatheavy. many different types of chassis. r Get O engint where an enf big bc do ge find y the ch wil disco and di memc and fi and br housi and s dropp Ge .the mechanic and is trapped atop the engine by A for raising and lowering. little pebblescan chock 18 the jar jerkinl ing gn full sh on. little prepara. check with a tractor or heavy. Threemethods general. It works well gOVo when it does. a 1-1/2but all accessories. Containers for degreaser can penetrate. If not. A balanced jack.rolling. piece of ll2-in.sprayit with degreaser.coil and engine less likely to slip off the jack's pad. Engine Cleaning-A dirty engineis miserable driveway.The steam cleaningor solventblasting. Wdd short length of pipe over gland-nut bore to secure flywheel in jack. Typically. For the samereason. Evenon equipmentshop.ifyou're planningto buy a floorjack. clean the enginebefore working engine. you'll have a hard time restartingthe engine.standsto hold up the rear of the car. use afloor jack andjack stands.You'll need a sizeable let on it anddecidewhereto pull it. have a gardenhose. it happens!) engineon a dirt surface.clutch. a piece of plywood. it could be fatal. Theseparts must be kept dry or It's frustratingto pull on the engine. Engine removal and installationare imporConsiderhaving only the bottom of the enOnce the car is up.try not to removea VW hour. If Y try rer the ph hobby base. Steam cleaning is for truly filthy enginesWith patience. transmission. Solve that by doing the job at a car Besidesprotectingthe enginefrom gouges.very hard packeddirt. A thorfloorjack andjack standscan be rented. solvent to blow off the dirt. fasteners hide under wash.but the same steamcleaning.The floor jack resists ment. you must support it with tantsteps any overhaul. spray and leave the messthere. Cost is comparable steamclean. screw or otherwise) as a stand.carburetorwith plastic bags or aluminum foil are making engineremoval safer and a lot easier. the stinky mess ends up on your betweenthe engine and floor jack.for supportinga tion and caution before and during engine re. Wrenches slip. costis reasonable thejob takesabouta half and to remove this waterproofingbefore driving.(Yes. Use the high-pressure water/detergent the soft plywood givesthe hardengineandjack the goo and grime gets underyour fingernails. This makesthe Avoid theseproblemsby cleaningthe engine Rememberto cover the distributor.differentialand coolingsystem)out of a Camarowith ton jack is sturdierand usually will lift higher.Engine Removal ffi Use g. and. not. Both the to PREPARATION ing and practically any shop can do it. ly available:steam cleaning.gine steamcleaned. to work on. moval will reward you when installing your Solvent blasting uses compressedair and Ajack can fail.Steamcleaningthe top is jack stands. A VW air-cooled engine is lowered fromils special tools are needed for all cars: a floor Spray degreasercan be usedat home if you raised chassiswith a floor iack. Jacksare stallation.it will sink into the dirt instead.Lifting & Lowering Tools-To raiseand sup. Use two jack of the time. Problem is. Most service stations have the equip. roll the engine/jackcombinationtoward you. or thicker plywood to place hardwaremust also be readied.the sheetmetal. only a floorjack! Besides.but imaginepullingequivalent package(enginewith VWs a l-ton version is adequate.The floor jack is a hydraulicjack in a wheeledframe.Don't forget off. Suppr ward qoncrr betwe tion. and if you are underthe car rebuilt engine. surfaces somethingto dig into. solvent blasting shapedto fit.hopingto and spray degreasing.ldflywheelto make widerfloorjacksaddle. able. it set so the under the oil strainer.Look Air-cooledVolkswagenengines found in are ough solvent blasting takes about as long as in the phone book under Rentals. beforeremovingit. port the car during engineremovaland installa. scising an engine guarantees headaches during intoo messyasthe hot solution is reflectedback at sors.then hoseoff the crud. you'll needa l-112-tonversionfor lifting most other cars.this method works as well as only to have the jack stop and the engineslip suchas an oil leakerdriven on dirt roads.

Disconnect it at the air filter. Label andremovethe crankcase oil drain while you make the variouselectrical breatherhose.Next. From August '67. and 412 look under the driver's seat. Consider what you'll do with the chassis whenyou removethe engine. hose 1 and where it attaches with a 1. theyoften have auto hobby shopsavailable. On the Beetle. pulling anengine throwing all the hardware in one and bigbox amounts the sameeffort. try rentingspaceat a service station. On the Type 4. Yet. too. On Type I -3 right of the engine. Labeling disconnections is a critical step.Its hoseattachtery negativecablefirst. keep it upright. depending how fast you work. but no problem. Save yourself considerabletrouble andfrustrationby getting several coffee cans and boxes labelingthem. you'll find your memory can't make any order from thechaos. Squareback and Fastback.You'll thank yourself at installation.ments are different.set them on These labelsare your insurancefor correctlyinstallingconnections @ncrete best foundation.taminatethe upperhalf of the filter and spill out cooled VWs are mountedin.On soft asphaltor dirt. then removethe posi.even the authorities in some cities. The It's not essential.On the 41 I marker. Label tive one. The Iongerthe from its mounting bracketand remove it from oil drains. Karmann Ghia air filters are mountedto the Drain Oil-Now drain the oil.Labelallwire hoseconnections tapeandpermanent car with marker. or oil will conchassisbecauseof the different chassisair. the the warm-air control flap cablefrom its arm on drain plug is separate from the strainer. lift it off the carburetor and set it aside. When you to do getaroundto installing the engine. ENGINE REMOVAL Remember. hosesand cables. moving chassis the meanspushingor towing. The batteryis undertherearseatin the them with masking tape and your permanent Beetle.waterproofmarking pen. The cable is connectedto the engine thermostatand controls engineinlet air temperature response enin to gine temperature. Fuel-Injection Air Filter-Undo the four permanent. During completelyremovethe batteryfor cleaningand engineinstallationall you'll have to do is concharging. Once it's out. 19 .the lessmessyou'll have later when the engine compartment. so don't skip it! There isn't enoughroom in this book to list all the hose and wire diagrams for the various chassis. backbreaking grunts. complete with some of the larger tools.or you won't use them. Who knows where those all nutsandboltsso? Well. GetOrganized-It's a trying taskto install an engine someone else removed. disconnections ofcomponentsaboutthe engine ln'73 a paper-element filter replaced air the aresimilar in all models. Or use a plastic label maker. Use one for belland housing hardware. you open the engine.disconnectthe bat. On the You don't have to know exactly what the Bus. Stationary cars attract vandals. Without tipping the filter. the first few of the unit. angrylandlords.If you are stationed at a military base. making engine movement a jerkingseriesof barely controlled. vacuum. It will also keep you cleaner as you work underthe car.just mark the first the right side of the engine compaftment. Look in thephone book for a do-it-yourself auto shopor hobbyshop. thejack wheels. Earlier cars had oilbath air filters with a minimum of hoses attachedto them. 2s to 2s and so on.tified by its rectangular shape. Karmann Ghia and 914. The paperelementis easilyidenBattery-On all chassis. and wardol rear wheels on sturdy chassis component. placeplywood during engine installation. but now is a good time to next disconnection getsa 2 andso forth. Unclamp and remove the engines. Have the containersready before dropping engine. label and disconnectany hoses. oil-bath unit.It's aggravating try and start your nect the ls to ls. If youdon't havea dedicatedworking room. to fiesh engine only to find the battery dead. lay a full sheet ofplywood down to roll the floorjack on. a cable is fitted to the warm air flap on the filter inlet. mechanicaland fuel lines.then unscrewthe clamp at the air-filter housing base. the Geta roll of masking otherstouttapeanda or BEETLES & KARMANN GHIAS fiYPE 1) Air Filter & Housing-Open theenginecover and remove the air filter. the battery is on hosedoesyou are removing. up to It's to you to label and keep track ofthe electrical.when handling and storing an oilWe'll examine engine removal chassisby bath air filter. Use these for labeling the vacuum and electrical disconnectionsyou'll make. Placestands for. Thechassis will be immobile for awhile. don't rely on memoryalone! for so between standand ground to prevent settling and tipping. Three weeks is on about average. there aren't many disconnectionsremember.the drain plug is the large bolt in the filterto-engine and hot-air hoses.If a dirt floor is all you have. Draw your own schematics ofthe various connections help at reassembly.Support with jackstandsany time it is raised.but later engines to and different chassis definitely tax the best can memory.Let the the filter inlet. With the earlier Beetle. undo center of the oil stainer.another for heater tubing andso on. then unlatchthe filter assembly and mechanical disconnections.

cast-aluminum box. There Electrical Connections-Look underthe disare severalbreatherlines intersecting with this sendingunit.removethe three slip-on connectlons. ( and att Also one retl Get the Thrott tle pc diaphrt under positio but it i lowerir housin will cl Rear I of the partmc piece t After throttle cable is removed from linkage.you can push the off as a unit.Tipping filterany morethanthis willsloshoil insideagainst air upper section.The voltage '66 regulatoris mounted on the generatoron Beetles. Generatordisconnections normallythree wires right on top of the generator. brownis have nc out of 1 tically t connec Sometir end. the regulator is integrally mounted on top of the alternator. tributor for the oil-pressure Carburetor-Mark and remove the automatic connect and mark its single wire. Fuel Injection-Unfortunately. which is the cable toward the fan housing. when the engine is paftially out of the nector. VW's Bosch fuel injection addsa lot of little stepsto engine R&R (Removal and Replacement). terminalsfor a * signif you don'tknow which wire alsoruns is the positivewire. Disconnect the positivecoil wire. remove the multiple-wireconnector.This releases Also remove the fuel line and throttle cable. Now disconnectthe multiple unbolting the clamping bolt and pushing the wire plug onthe intake air sensor. nearthe choke heating element and fuel-cutofT wires. are and alternators. In this case. pull cable guide from fan housing. Clean filter canister and changeoil beforefilter is installed rebuiltengine. wires l other. Disduct.In that case. it will also drain from under lid. If the car has an altemator. Be careful when pulling back the rubber boot and tugging on the conLater. on pliers hold throttle cable and linkagewhile cable is Needle-nose or disconnected. and remove Generator/Alternator-Mark the three wires on the generator.Neverpull by the wires. them. Sometimes a hose clamp is placed on guide in front of fan housing as a retainer. With the sensorout of the way. Pull the cable guide out of the fan housing and set it aside. just leave guide in place. unclamp and remove the rubber air duct. you can pull the cable out the fan housing the rest of the way. You have extramarking andremovingof necessary wires engine Bec diseng rear el earlY t screw Latt from I Comp ber ga screw over t fuel-it small aloun manif Thr endsc attach UnSCfl screw Raise until 20 .Remove the trvo air cleanermounting nuts on either side ofthe hood clampedbehindthe fan housingto hold a homehinge and lift the air sensorand filter housing madegrommet. chassis. throttle cable into the guide now. but it's not the right one. Ol The Follow labelinl and ten be pusl Mak. you'll kink cable.Always hold linkagestationaryinstead. The throttlecableis removedby unscrewingor the air filter housing cover and the paper air filter element. lf so.The voltageregulator '73 '74 is mounted separately on and early alternators. voltageregulators slip-onconnectors used on generator-mounted are clips aroundthe air filter housing. After that. Next unscrew the rubber boot's clamp at the A lot of throttle cable guides have been other end of the air sensor. Mark and remove them. and hos connec tra fuel installat The r push-on other d. and pull it completelyout when lowering the engine. The negative to the distributor.However. Don'tloosencinchboltagainst cabletension. Look on the coil.

VWs haveto be raised a lot to get the engine out. and them reversed the enginewill not start.A bolt passes throughthe leverand cableend and is nuttedon the other side. Most manuals say the positioner must come off for engine removal. slowly lower the caronto them. This is especiallytrue of those You usually connectors.Takeyour time when labelingthese hoses. When you remove the cable. wires and hosesduring engine trafuelsystem in$allation. tray so the enginecan easilyslide rearward. two wrenchesand inventive language. Justleaveit alone.Most plugs separate other don't. remove the two covers tubesleading to the intake around heat-riser the manifold. the Alsoremove two fuel lines: one supply. On rear engine-cover early40-HPengines. Theelectricaldisconnections easily. then the cablewill pull free. rectangular brownish. connection the Sometimes wire pulls out of its terminal repair the wire in that case.and there's no reason to disconnect Onlyremovea wire if it leavesthe engine them. which are meansmostjack stands raisedto their highest. the cylinder shouldfall free. bepushed Makesure you follow the harness. The These are clean aft hoses connecting fan housing and heat exchangers. Heater Cables-At the front and sides of the engine you'll find the two heater-control cablesfrom valves.you can each the unscrew rear engine cover-plate attaching screws pull the plate out of the car. (Unless you have a overthe crankshaft engine. but push-on plugs.which works by sealing the top of the from air passingunder it. Then unscrewand remove the small separateshroud pully.position. the plate must be removed. butit isn't so.With thosepartsgone. When cable and lock bolt are hopelessly frozen. sureto correctly mark their flow. Check the stability of the car on the standsby gentlyshakingit from sideto side. Use two wrenchesto remove the bolt and nut. They don't have this fuel-injected smallplate. so be readyfor it. Some leadfrom one side of the engine to the wires other. rearbodywork mustbe high enoughto clearthe top of the fan housing. Of wiring is in a harness. have two large hoses leading Laterengines fromthe fan housing to the heat exchangers. Immediately place the jack standsto suppofi and the chassis.Then the hamesscan and temperature aside. Be one return. Freeing the cable end requires pliers to grip the lever.never tnder You can crack the case the engineor transaxle. and least stabLe. when lowering engine. engine the Because enginemust be slid to the rear to it disengagefrom the transaxleinput shaft. have choicebut to grasp the wires leading no outof this type of connector and pull. edge to find its attachment 21 . Thehealrisertubecoversare at the outboard coverplate. Thereis alsoa small cylinder in the lever which the cable passesthrough. you'll have to tilt the fan the the forward. Just slip them ofi at both ends and set aside. This raises positionerso it housing will clear rearbodywork. by jacking under the engine. and theseexYou'll be reconnecting connections. This is piece sheet metalis part of the cooling sysof tem. disconnectingand labeling wiresat the coil. Later. course.Removethe heater-control their leverson the controlvalves.Followtray's leading Removerear sheet-metal screws. Put the jack under the framejust forward of the transaxle. end.Four screws ends oftherearengine attach one.)Finally. you'll see an aluminum unit diaphragm-and-cylinder sticking out from underthe carburetor. Replace or tape-repair damaged hoses. Loosen small bolt on heater-control valve arm to free heater cables. are pull-off. to and attaches the chassis.merely remove the fbur and screws lift out the plate.crankcase sensors. The fuel-injection it Follow aroundthe engine. you have extra stepsif the heater controlshaverustedshutand then beenpeened over by rocks. the usual rust penetrant. injectors. Practicallyevery time you succeedand the spade inside the connector separates. Alternately. Get ThrottlePositioner-If the enginehas a throttle positioner. Be sure your standsare stout and stablebefore getting under the car. the RearEngine Cover Plate-Between the rear of theengineand the rear of the engine compartment the rear engine cover plate. snip cable and buy new ones. removethesehoses and their rubCompletely at ber gaskets the cover plate end. and Raise Car-Use the floor jack to raise the car until the ensineis about a vard in the air.

the other to the oil pump.' Vise-C wrencl Lower out. they are easy to get at' This drivetrainis a candidatefor steamcleaning' Once you have the cablesfree. Slip off the flexible line and use a pencil or bolt to plug it. More Auto-Stick disconnectlonsare necessary inside the engine compartment. Replace the oil sealif that's the case. like a flywheel. Continueuntil you haveremovedall four bolts. Look on the firewall. If you don't have tubing wrenches. the left heater-control Fuel Line-Above valve is the fuel line connection from the fuel tank. Some mechanics pinch the line shut with locking pliers. Thesebolts are accessible through a hole in the bottom backside of the engineshave a rubbellhousing. Don't lift it too much or you'll bind the engineon thebellhousing studs and have trouble sliding it off them Upper Bellhousing Bolts-Slide out from under the car and turn your attentlon to removlng the upper engine-to-transaxle fasteners. Support Engine-Get the piece of plywood and set it on the jack saddle. then pull it off. Bellhousing Nuts-Remove the two 17mm hex nuts and washersat the lower cornersof the bellhousing. Plug the disconnectedfittings so they won't leak.Then roll thejack under the engine and raise the saddleuntil it is just carryingthe engineweight.or l2-point. to find the control valve.Heaterducts are largeflexiblehosesleading Be preparedfor spillage when disconnecting Thisone was tuei tin'e. all carsuse two bolts but only one nut' At the right side is the usual nut and bolt assembly' into but the left side usesonly a bolt. 6.but often they clip on the exchang' ible hose will stop fuel tank from siphoning ers and easilYslide off. brazed or welded shut. too. Remove the bolt.but I don't like squeezing hard. In bolt. tt have tt floor. engine bind th work. Have a helper rotate the engine with the crankshaftpully while you watch hole. so don't worry aboutit. You the can separate stud and nut later and reinstall the stud. Stop rotation when the bolt is the access squarelycenteredin the hole.A bolt stuffed and clampedin flexforwardfrom heatexchangers. remove them onLy after checking that the upper bolts are still in the placeandthe floorjack is setup lo support engine. That's fine if the engine t0 seized and you can't rotate it to gain access the bolts. one nut fastening.1 compu Sta the in workir clear t left to On jack. also called flare-nut wrenches. Two ATF (Automatic TransOne mission Fluid) lines need disconnecting. so their bellcars in housingshave four studs:two at bottom. nutsmay be very tight The lowerbellhousing on their studs becauseof rust or impact damage. if you have the right size. not roundedoff and lined up straight with the bolts. It threads a special round nut pressedinto the enginecase.The best plug is a pipe fitting that has been soldered.lnvestigate vacuum electrical to see which ones must come off. Don't worry about the engine falling.a regular open end will do. to the left of the ignition coil. Startingin '71. then have your helper rotate the engine 90" where another bolt will appear in the hole.The enginecan fall on you ifthe upper bolts aren't in place. Thosethat Therest don't go to the enginecanbe left alone. Still. The driveplate is bolted at its center to the crankshaft. It's fast and fuel hosethat clean. All '70 have bolts manual transaxle cars through and nuts at the upper bellhousing. At its outer edgeit is bolted to the torque converler. Whatever the attachmentmethod. this far. two at '71 the Auto-Stickswent with the two top.Fuel-injected ber plug in the accesshole. Auto-Stick '70 use nuts on studs. and so dirt can't enter the transmission system. Use two tubing wrenches. there are four driveplate bolts to remove. line runs to the ATF tank. not the nut from the stud. dry. Be ready for ATF to pour out of the line from the tank. i ward stantl wire r catch snag Wi the fa on th This 22 . But the transaxle oil seal will be ruined if it's necessaryto pull the torqueconverter with the engine. but you probably don't have one laying around' Those small plastic caps new brake master cylinders are shipped with work well. Thesenuts arethreadedonto a pair of studs that fit into the transaxle. like on brake lines. becausethe offset oil coolThis is necessary '7 roorn er usedfrom I on doesn'tleaveenough to get at a nut from the engine side. A fully threaded bolt can let gasoline leak past through the threads. but take extra care to not round off the hex. clamped. Lower bellhousingnuts are higher up be' tween transaxleand engine than you might think. on the fittings. If you usea bolt. The lines are steelbraided and use high pressurehydraulic fittings. pull the large flexible hoses off the heater-control valves' Push the hoses away from the engine so they won't get torn as the engine is lowered. few Automatic Stick Shift (Auto-Stick)-A on are extradisconnections necessau carswith the Auto-Stick. Aluminum foil wrapped several times around the fitting and securedwith a hose clamp works. carburetedengines have an open hole. Mark and disconnectthe hoses the leads. make sureit has an unthreaded shoulder. If you don't remove the driveplate bolts' the toroue converter will slide out of the transaxle is with the engine. you need At first. Thesebolts are small and will break or round off if not treated with care. need to be labeled and disconnected. Make sure your socketis clean. There's no problemwith this. Have a pan underneathand work fast. Someof thesebolts are8mm. There are two more bolts still attached on top of the engine' WARNING: If the lower bellhousing fastenersare nuts and bolts. compat to remo membe and the access both nu the bol though Havr bolts. the stud may unthread from the transaxle. If so. BecauseAuto-Stick transaxleshave a torque converter between the engine and clutch.

The Bus chassisis so tall. as Buses stand pretty tall.powerplantsto drop: a couple ofdisconnections Remove them and the engine is ready to come stantly monitor the engine so it won't snag a and it practically falls out of the chassis.K'eep eye on hoises. The out. In fact. specially bent box-end wrench if you do loop it out of the way. the tioner can get past the rear body panel. Read the Type 1 section if you need more help with these. hot-air hoses and unclamp the filter gine. Slip off the starter solebind boltsso they won't turn.Continueto pull the engine and jack rear. coil. the torque converter can have to add a wood block to the two supporting floor jack and another to eyeball the engine slip out of the transaxle.|It s t. stop the jack.style Bus engines are one of the eisiest VW vertical bolt at each end of the crossmember. You shouldn't have to raise the chassisvery '70 andthebolt headsare on the transmissionside. If you are BUS & TRANSPORTER (TYPE 2 & 4) doubles as a bolt for the starter mountins. but both nutswill come off without anyoneholding body. Alterslide under the rear bodywork. That might thin. the generator and exhaust. Then the bolts from under the car. oilpressuresenderand carburetor wires. disconnectthe vacuum hosesat the throttlepositioner. Six are in the left. With thoseout of the way the enginecan be slid straight back out of the chassis.Re. Don't tip the oil-bath air down. then let the is out.move the jack. Then lower the enginewhile guiding it by the shroud. from underneath. simply remove the crankcase and the bellhousing studs are clear of the enWatchfor the throttle cable as it oulls from breather. you'll have your handsfull with disconnectthe heater-controlcablesand hoses. '68-70 models. If that doesn't this with the engine in the car. If no helper is handy. Busesusethe uprighffan Beetle engineand '72 some engine weight with the jack. Haveyour helper get under the car to hold the nately. but the '71 watch for wire and hose snass on the wav This is another good reason to have a helper version has no cable. member. Hoses-Disconnect the distributor. so get under the engine and toremovethe upper bellhousing fasteners.the arein theengine nuts compartment the engine. on the clutch is clear of the transaxle input shaft snag continuedown.the engineis ready to lower. Disconnect Wires. you must tip the engine to clear the might not want to raise the chassisnow. you accessible only from under the car. generator.and right-forward comers of the plate.enginemust come back and down in small. workingon an Auto-Stick.the chassishas to go up so the fan housing will though. Undo the throttle cable at the carburetor and push it forward through the fan housing asfar as it will go. mounted vertically on the plate's rear face.or. the torque converter. If the engine later engine is more difficult.once the engine ible fuel hose.high. You'll be looking at the nutted end of the bolts from inside the enginecompartment. you could remove the carburetor and More Cables & Fuel Hose-Pull the throttle bolts. Removal requires a very cable all the way free of the fan housing. Heater-Control Cables-It's time to go underneath anyway. try pulling the throttle positioner. aslow. the driveplate will Two sections are necessary to examine Lower Engine-Place the floor jack and ply'71 clear torqueconverterright away. once you get thisfar. More typically tipped toward the firewall so the throttle posi. which the input shaft clears the clutch. bohs will turn. smoothloweringis allthat'sneeded. 23 . disconnectthe hot-air flap cable. Engine-Plate Screws-Unscrew the l0 rear engine-plate screws and lift out the plate. Early connect the rear crossmember. On '70-71 Buses. The other four are in the rear corners.quicklyalternating steps. the noid connectionsand remove and plug the flexwork. With the transaxlesupported. you might have peoplefor this job: one to managethe Without this brace.now Startby pulling back on the floor jack until remove the left upper bellhousing bolt. There is one jack. Bellhousing Bolts-Now reach way to the front of the engine compartment and remove the two upper bellhousing bolts. and it Vise-Grip pliers to the bolt heads. but not overly so. Con. Label the disconneuiors. On Atfirst. a '71 Bus.lower the and later Buses use the Type 4 engine. be damagedand its oil jack. Just barely take up left to do is clear the bellhousing studs. remove the compaftment watch for hangups. With luck. tioner. Use one of the second floor jack or prop it up with wood out.On '71 Buses. run a braceacrossthe bellhousine to hold is not clamped. wireor cable on the way down. Pull the engine and floor jack rearward until catches something. All that's removing Bus enginesbecause the and earlier wood under the engine.you'll have to attacha box end wrench or With Auto-Stick transaxles. It's just a slip joint. It's best to transaxle studs and nuts to secure the brace. and Up to '68. Have your helper the On onthefan shroud and the other on the muffler. then disOncethe engine has disengaged. Cables. The fuel line is on the left. ward while slowly lowering the jack. clear the Early Bus (Pre-'72)-Start with the air fitter. The other upper bolt must be removed compartment seal. On and later engineswith a throttle posi. two lower bellhousing nuts. fan Steady enginew itir onehand housingat the carburel. then engineaway from the transaxle.'wires engine only the right upper bolt is accessiblefrom the an and top. An optional method is to continue rearward and remove the rear bumper and body panel. to seal ruined. wrench turn against the body. The top of the fan housing needs to be wait until the engine is ready to come out. s ) f filters when removing them. blocks. A simple piecJ of flat Transaxle-Support the transaxle with a Lower Engine-Once the upper fastenersare metal with a hole in it will do.

i pump on carbureted engines. r move thc Electric: the elec pressure injected t the vario The fr left-rear comes fr( connecti< case sen perature Also ren pressure wall. burelors. Automatic Transmission-This causes some previousType I sectionfbr the reasons this. Take out four boltsand Lift off the top half of the filter and setit aside. The enPull the accelerator cable all the wav throush Then unclip it at its bottom edgeand lift it out. Removethe ginesthere is a hosemounted the to the top of the wood assembly againstthe engine. remove the plate. lt's usuallybest to dis. thenunclipping cover. and remove the two Locate the intake air sensorat the left. Keep it upright. oil_ pleces on the late Bus. Air Filter-Remove the air filter. the Weak. rhen rhe lefr rear. the hose is attached the to Gravel Guard-Before getting all the way carburetedengines.remove the two large diameter are out. Avoro Knocktngthis somewhat delicateand expensive part when connect hoses so they lift otf with filter. Take off the risht rear jack. Lal ing them correctly Check with dua ders with of the ca foul the t so unscr Oil Dips clamp ar This is th tube and cooling e nectorbr 'Ihrottle . elementfilter. On dual_ carbureted models. rotate the pipe counterclockwise pull transaxle mounts on Buses without rear and throttlecablefrom the crossbar at the throttle it out. intake air distributor is the black. More Cables & Fuel Hoses-Now slideuoto oil will drain into the upper half of the filter and Coil & More Hoses-Look near thecoil lor an the front of the engineand disconnecttheheater contaminate Unclamp and removethe fresh inline fuseholder. Disbolts at the eachend of the crossmember which protectiveboot. n t h i sc h a s s i s . If not storedupright.W ithiabeli ne mate_ filler bellows and dipstick.Seepage22 in thi lead to the fuel-injection triggering contacts.When thosebolts nector. Remove the three Locatethe elecrric connecror plug.ilip off its valve mounted near the blower motor. hosesattachedto the intake air distributor.flip open the clips at the balance tube. I. hot-air c elbow be carburetc breather Filters nuts ovel center. U air contn filter. Unclamp the large S-shapedrubber On all chassis. If the the enginecompanmenl. It is bestremovedas a unif with filter is the can suspended from the upper right Transaxle-Support the transaxlewith a jack its intake air sensor.Watch fbr hangups rials in hand. residual sectionin the center of the intake system. Sr buretors fore rem< the lockn only get t Justpop 1 screwdri Air fil only the removed remainin label the moved.early Bus ground.sifver stickingup from Bus exhaustpipeis oxygen sensor. Fuel-injectedmodels have the under the engine.ate Bus (Post-'72)-Removing this engineis the front engine plate. thecase as may be. mushy mountsarecited body. Look undertheplay engine. . the backup lighrs) at the fuse holder. Then go to the rearand the aluminum box with the cast-in grid work. Take out the ignition coil and remove the ulator of the fuel-injectedmodel. Look on the Fuel-injected engineshave a different paper hoseleadingto the charcoal filter. A paper-element filter is used on 'j3_74 mounted in the upper right engine compartDisconnect plug thefuel linesfromthefuej and carbureted engines. plus with automa. for It's attached nearthe bottom of the distributor. removeit. e s e o l t ra r ea c c e s s i b l e as a prime reasonthe casescracked O th b on these 24 FASTBI NOTCH AirFilte oil draini air filters during re unscrew canister. Type tube 3 air filter removalstarts with hoses. On of the case. and fuel injectors or car_ plate lirsr. check the rubber Throttle Cable & Vacuum Hoses-Undo the nuts. remove the oil engrneclearsthe transaxle. tic transmissions havea vacuumadvance cutofT remove the crossmember. this wire (it's for cablesand hosesat the heater-control valves.Setthejaik cover and paper element. alternatorregulator.Startby disconnecting all ceiling of the engine bay. Get the cablestarledthroughits guide in b o l l s . the engine is ready to come out.remove tic plug in the upperleli mounring flange area make on the Type 4 engrne. Disconnect it.At the distributor. You definitely needa helperwith a heavy pressuresender. or pressure reg_ oil-bath type. The under the rear bumper. remove the ATF filler pipe Once the engine is out.and it is removed like the m e n t . after removingthe engine. Then or remove driveplare-to-convertercrossmembers.lorverbellhousingnuts. which and guide the engine so it won't fall off the is in two from the distributor.l f s o . Followthe wirins wrapsaroundtheengineside and runsforward Fit a brace acrossthe torque converteron harnesses over the engineto find all the tlisl alittle. On ceLrbureted enor wood blocks. lt is '74s All'12-13 engines. Now raise the iack and olvhoses. Then set about the engine compaftment. so it isn't a mirror image oftherightrear automatictransmission transaxles immediately connections. Later. disconnect the electricalleatls removingthe rearengineplate. gine may also have a temperature sensor the front engineplateand put it out oi the wav. y place wor Smaff. then lower it outof ElectricalConnections. snug againstthe ensine. you can comthrough a hole in the bellhousingfrom inside basically the same as dropping the early Bus pletely pull it through from undemeath. but there are more disconnections to car ls an automatic transmission model. First. The charcoal front right of the engine for the fuel lines. Oil Filler-As on Type 3s. and hot air hoses from the filter bottom half. hose from the air sensorand removethe air blower hoses. threaddirectlyinto the frame. left carburelor. Lower Engine-Pull the jack back until the filter body and int:Lke sensortosether. remove the gravel guardfronr carburetors and at the [ilter's centersection. Thc lelt olare Type 4 engine. the vacuumhosefrom the intake manifold. and carefully pull out the con_ connect electrical the andvacuumleadsfrom it. sheet-metal this thin bent strip will come off. extra work. d i s c o n n e c t s w i r e .

There is supposed be an engine mount to attached to the fan housing on cars without a crossmember. Throttle Cable-Disconnect the throttle Intake and dipstick bellows are two Type 3 & 4 disconnections. Lower Engine-Now you arereadyto pull the enginebackand lower it. Follow the harnessto the connections the distributor. Disconnect and plug the fuel return line on the right side of the engine if you didn't get it from the top. which is part of the intake air distibutor. Pull the throttle cable through the front engine cover plate and gently loop it out of the way. it must be off to remove the engine. single-carbureted On engines. All Type 3 airfilters are oil-bath units. Then you can get at both sidesof the upper bellhousingbolts from the top. The fuel manilblds are the metal sections of fuel line right abovethe injectors.unscrew the center wing nut and remove unit. Watch for hangups on 25 . On dual-carburetor engines. so don't tio them during removal. pick up rear mat and store wires underneath. doesn'tprovidemuch support. and intake air distributor. SQUAREBACK & NOTCHBACK (TYPE 3) Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. slip off the vacuum hose at the balance pipe anddisconnect kickdown-switchwire. then unclampand remove the oil filler rubber boot. The entire circuit or U offuel lines is called thefuel ring. the Because the crankshaft pulley nut is inaccessible Type 3s. It joins the right fuel manifold. On'72 Type 3s. disconnection the should be made on the left and. unscrew wing nut in the center of the filter the canister.The elbow is clamped and the remaining hoses slip ons. The fuel injecrionECU mounti inside rhe leffrear inner fender. That's the sheet-metal center section of the intake manifold.On '71 and later engines. Mark and disconnectthe crankcase breather hose. pop Just therod endsoff the ball socketswith a screwdriver. Unclampthe hot-air hose from the hotair controlbox and remove the box with the filter. and the wiring harness comes from that side. Reach the ring gear teeth through the bolt accesshole. The rubbermountsarecentered their mountby ing bolts. out of the enginecompartment through the rear sheetmetal. Also removethe vacuum hose from the fuel pressure sensor the lelt enginecompartment on wall. Thisis theaccordionpiece betweenthe dipstick tube andbody. Undo the two horizontalbolts at eachendof the crossmember which connectthe crossmember to its rubbermounts. It so a lot of ownersleavethemoff. Then slide rearwardand unbolt the enginecrossmember. Storein a level position. Remove this bolt from undemeath.the left bolt threads into a special nut permanently attached to the case. supportthe transaxle with anotherjack or wood blocks. Bellhousing Bolts-Finish the topsidechores by removing the two upper bellhousingbolts. plus the air intake bellows from the hot-air control box. Don't unbolt the vertical rubbercushion-tobody bolts or the crossmemberto-engine bolts.Also on the automatictransmission. injectors. On cars with an automatic transmission. Oil Dipstick-Remove the dipstick. Two boltsand it's in hand. bui rememberto are labelthemduring removal. the Electrical Connections-Label and remove the electrical leads at the carburetors. use a stout screwdriver on against the ring gear teeth to rotate the engine.the full automatic transmission has only three driveplate-to-converter bolts. On fuelinjected engines. Support Engine-Disconnect the lower bellhousingnuts.generator and coil.thenplacethe floorjack underthe engine. It returnsexcessfuel to the fuel tank. Air filters on fuel-injected engines require only the intake elbow and several hoses be removed. With a single carburetor this is done at the carburetor. Disconnect the intake elbowbetweenthe filter and carburetor at the carburetor. On fuel-injected engines. If nothing else. Fuel Line-Remove and plug the fuel line. Check fuel shut-off solenoidson ensines the withdual carburetors.If the transaxlesagsalmost to the ground. Snap the throttle linkage off the carburetors the center-mountedbellcrank beand foreremovingthe air filters. Unlike the Auto-Stick transmission. On Type 3s. Another way of doing this is to wait until the engineis on its way down.This is the big rubberconair nector betweenthe engine and rear bodywork. FASTBACK. The rubber fuel line coming from the left front of the engine compartmentand running to the left fuel manifold is thefuel inlet line. Another line leadsoff the back of the left manifold and runs to the other side of the engine.you'll haveto recenterthe engine during installation. With all hosesremoved. remove the air cleaner.Ifyou undothese bolts. Undo the heater control-box cable connections and stow the large diameter air hosesout of the way.unbolt the driveplate from the torque converter. cylinder-head temperature sensors. This last line isthefuel return line. Label each hose and wire before removing them so you'll be able to reconnect them conectly. Raise Car-Raise the rear of the car 3 ft and support it with jack stands. know the mounts are useless.Don't forget the plywood cushion. These are small c-ylinders with a wire mounted on the outboard side of the carburetor.remove the wiring harnessat thevariousconnectionson the ensine. oilpressure sender.Also unclampand removethe cooling bellows.early Buses. disconnect the cable at the throttle linkase crossbar. Be carefulnot to lower the enginetoo far or you'll damagethe transaxlemounts. s0unscrew them from the carburetors.Reyou place wom transaxle mounts. disconnect exhaust the gas recirculation (EGR) wire from its transmission switch. Fuel injectionthrortlelinkageis undone at the throttle body. Don't kink the cable or the throttle will be sticky.They usually catch on and foulthebodywork when the engine is lowered. you'11 onlygetthecarburetorsout of synchronization. Don't fiddle with thelocknuts and rod endsof the linkage. You may needa helper under the car to hold the bolt heads. Completely remove intake bellows at left to avoid cutting it when engine is slid back during removal. Wiring alwaysseems to be in your way. crankat case sensors and grounds. cable. The fuel lines then connect to the injectors via the manifold. They are accessible through a hole in the fronfbottom ofthe bellhousing. plus one at frontcenter. Filters dual-carbureted on engineshave wing nutsover each carburetor.right fuel manifulds.On double-jointed-axle cars. and finally runs forward.

Moving Driveshaft-To reach the driveshaft.except it is longer than a normal input shaft. about2-ll2-1n.distributor. Rotatethe engine with a wrench on the cooling fan mounting bolts or by simply grasping the fan in your hand. Unclampand remove the cooling air intake bellows. then the oil-pressure sender lead and throttle cable. Follow the wiring harness over the engine to find the connections. case connectionunder left axle flange. Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. center wing nut undone and the filter removed.u 914. not wheremountmeetsbody.off the upper half. Find the round.but there are several notable differences. and steady the engine so it doesn't fall off the jack. Becausethe differential is betweenthe engineand transmission. Look on the left engine-casevertical flange for a round plastic plug. a driveshaft runs forward from the clutch to the transmission.the way down. Next. Under the cushion is an accesspanel. Push the throttle cable through the front engine panel. per engine mounting bolts from bellhousing. Insidethe transaxle will be the end ofthe driveshaft with a nut threadedonto it. and pull pieces apart.They are at the intake air Automatic transmissions havea vacuumdis. Disconnect and remove the ignition coil. plus the temperaturesensors the case at ably just as easy to pull off this hose at and heads. in diameter. Be sure you label all discontransmission at engine. connected at chassis. Now unclip the bottom half and remove it. remove two uptransmission bellhousing. screw-in plug. Rotate the engine to expose the driveplate bolts one at a time. Automatic Transmission-Remove the three driveplate bolts from inside the engine compartment. Wire up the transaxle double-jointed-axle so you on cars can move the chassis. It is mounted on the right front side of the engine compartment and the connectorcomesup to the regulator from the bottom.lf mountsaredis.The front of the driveshaft looks and functions the same as an input shaft on other transmissions. begin the engine bay disconnections. Before '72 all 4l1l4l2 filters were oil-bath type. lt's prob. as nections. engin . Voltage Regulator-Pull the plug connector from under the voltage regulator. To remove the engine the driveshaft must be unlocked and moved forward in the car 4 in. spring and unusually shaped cable end. Brace the torqueconverter so it can't fall out of the transaxleand be damaged. they will have to be alignedat engineinstallation keep engine to straightin compartment. Use a mirror to see this connectlon. On carburetedengines. This task is much easier with the soarkplugs removed. remove it to exposethe front of the transaxle. and the engine will operate correctly. its crr engin Wa body transa as the housi engae then r auton verter bellht 26 PORI Alr Type on thr 914 ' engin seats S o . A metal tab nutted to one of the bellhousing studs works fine. Manual Transmission-An unusual desisn featureof the Type 4 manualtransaxle requiris an extra step in engine removal.ground. Pry out the plug with a screwdriver to expose the driveplate underneath. Remove the fresh air and crankcasebreather hoses. Start with the air filter. post-'72shave paper elements. Reassemblywill be so much easier. Disconnect Type 3 crossmembers where crossmembermeets engine mount. ignition distributor. remove the rear seat cushion. Fuel-Injection Connections-Label and disconnect the fuel-injection leads at the engine. Wires & Cables-Remove the dipstick and oil filler bellows. Fuel-injection air filters needthe flage these connections. then Iift clamps.Oil and dirt can combineto camou. injectors. Disconnect the vacuum accessible through windows in automatic hose from balancepipe. Pop clip ofl with screwdriver (don't lose it). Take off any ducting for the heater blower motor. they are heldby at the carburetors and center section. Theseparls protrude from the forward left sheet metal in the Bellhousing and driveplate hardware are engine compartment. Unthread the nu behin< some! move move Lower move both tl by crt move ber in chass tilt do engin Thr requir and ar port tl ward. too.Unscrewthe plug. Remove the transmission dipstick and bellows sectionof the filler tube. (l00mm). 4ru4r2 (TYPE4) Engine removal in the Type 4 is roughly similar to droppingthe '72 andlaterBus engine because they sharelhe sameengine. Ducts. unclip the upper filter half lf heaterductswon't pulloff. W MM Disco widng deant Throttle linkage on Type 4 uses a clip.

Voltage Regulator-Remove the voltage regulator by extracting the two screws on its mounting tang and then lifting off the unit. Watch the fuel injectors' clearance to the bodybecausethey are a tight fit.While it is possible to removethe engine with the transaxlecrossmemberin place. behind nut. rusho the w-1n v the fthe read Instead of removing injection wiring from engine on 914s. PORSCHE/VW 914 Although there is little difference among the Type later Bus and 914 engines 4. and undo its crossmemberat each end. the engine can only be removed with the transaxle or after the transaxle has been removed separately.supportthe engine with ajack. Reinstall the plastic cover and setthe ECU in a safeplace. You can pull the shaft forward the somewhat with the circlip still attached. then unscrew the ECU's bracket. Now lower the englne. Remove one and have a friend hold that side up. as it will have to be lowered transaxle astheengineis lowered. First. giving a clearer path for engine removal. completely remove the carburetors. use a hooked instrument to carefully remove it. 27 . on the plug.you first seethe transaxle. Unscrew the metal clamp around the wiring bundle. The 914 is a midenginedcar. Supportthe transaxle with a jack. You'Il have plenty of extra room to work and no lid banging your head to get your attention. Engine Cover-First stepin removing a 914's engineis to take offthe enginecover.and the transaxle is behind the engine. There is one supply and one return line.Hand driveplatehardwareon Type 4 engines. if not. There may be a plastic handle rnng p off pull :sign uires r the mlsutch rhaft rhaft than ethe forhaft. Monitor the jack too. Tip it up so the inboard end with the connector is visible. disconnect the connector from the fuel injection ECU located in front of the battery. So. then replace the cover and regulator. Remove the four bellhousingnuts and the engine is ready to disfrom the transaxle. oncethey're on the bench. then slide offthe plastic cover from the ECU. ECU connector is at one end. the steps are the same. You don't have to remove the fuel injection wiring and fuel line ring. remove the air filter and disconnect the fuel lines near the battery. Note that boththe engine and transmissionare supported by crossmembers. take it otf at ECU. remove the battery for clearance. Label and remove all the connections. plastic handle on multFpin connector eases disconnecting. So. Set Hole in bellhousing(arrow) is for reachingautomatictransmission (labeltherir!)are made. If using a larger floor jack with a wide saddle.when you crawl forward under the back of a 914. The transaxle crossmembermounting bolts require personinside the car to tum the nuts one andanotherundemeathto hold the bolts. there sure is a difference in the 914 engine mounting. Inside the car is a good spot. The engine/transmission unit can then tilt down at the rear. it's best to remove the transaxlefirst. then the engine. Extract the engine. removethe circlip. or working on dirt. though. the car is equipped with Fuel Injection-If fuel injection. except you must also remove the four bellhousing fastenersto free the transaxle. If you remove the transaxlefirst. it is easier to unbolt it from the chassis.followed by the engine. 914shave had the Bosch Carburetors-Many fuel injection removed and dual carburetors installed.securethe torque converter in place with a metal tab nutted to a bellhousingstud. cleaner is great hose and wire cleanerto detail wiring. The connectorplug takesup almostthe entire side of the ECU. Ileater Blower Ducting-Remove the heater blower motor ducting and the rubber intake air elbow. Rotatecrankshaftto bring wiring loomasidednce disconnections gel hardwareinto view. then remove the circlip from the shaft. Now unscrew the round nut on top of the large black plastic cover next to the regulator. removethe slotted lower splash pan. remove the engine and transaxle as a unit.but to movethe shaft forward the required 4 in. Lower Engine-Under the rear bumper. Because of the mid-engine mounting. so the engine is right behind the seats. Lift off the cover and find several electrical connections. If using a small floor jack. I explain removing the engine/transaxleas a unit here. thenut. relays and other connections. Instead. Then move forward.. On automatic transmissions. then remove the other bolt and lift off the cover. intake manifolds and throttle linkage in your installation. Two bolts can be felt under the hinges. engage thenreinstall the transaxle crossmember.Disconnect fueFinjectionwiring on Bus and Type 4 engines.

Removing Cables & Exhaust-It helps to remove the bodywork panel below the rear bumper.And the less time you spend pushing the disconnectedaxles out of th"-*au.e heatexchansers. The clutch cable is undone by removing the self-locking nut in the center of the cable pivot: Ihe round plastic wheel. and disconnectthe heater control valveJand associated plumbing. With the support removed. Look under the rubber boot where the shifter enters the bodywork at the front of the engine compartment. Un wrench to unlockshift rod from transmission linkage. Somecommon hosesgo to the charcoalcanister and pressuresensor. Removethe muffler from the exhaustpipes and the muffler bracefrom the rear ofthe transaxle. disconnecr cabli rhe from the throttle arm and push the cable throughthe hole in the right sideengineplate. Loop the cable and bracketaside.Drape all the disconnected hoses over the center of the engine so they won't be in the way when removingit. they will kink when lowering engine. With the forward connection removed.but if the chassis lifted fairly high. This will give a lot more room and light under the car. nave other flangt .Instead. the shift rod can be extracted from the caf.leave the air filter supportalone. removeshift rod.Use a long screwdriverto reach down to the case where the two front support legs attach. Another set-screwarrangement 28 t Anothershift-rodset screw is locatedin front Transaxlegroundstrapbolts to chassisnear of engine where rod enters chassis. Now's the time. Unplug the reverse-light leadsfrom the lefi side of the transaxle. valve securesthe front end of the shift rod. Lift Car-Raise the car and support it on tall jack stands.Don't put them under the suspension or front engine crossmember. Air Filter & Throttle Catrle-Remove the formed sheet-metalair filter support from the centerofthe engine. Usea firm tug to pullreverse-light wiringfrom transaxle-mounted switch. On these. Under the wheel are two nuts. and extract it. and the metal pivot bracket and cable come free.Pull rear mounts. ih" b"tt"r. is the engine can be removed with it in place. Shift linkageis underneathplastic box with Speed sardine-canband clamp. Remove the rear wheels and tires.Use a small Allen wrenchto remove the set screw. Once screw is out. Use small Allen le. unscrew the speedometer cable and remove the clutch cable.Pass 914 throttle cables through sheet metal so they completely clear engine. Someengines mountthe air filter to one side. so rotatethe axleto getstraieht acces Hold 1 two h brake They requir les a ( T tt : Jotnts bolts. back rubber boot to expose screw. the throttle cable can be removed. Once the exhaustpipes areout ofthe way. Otherwise. Vacuum & Vapor Hoses-Label and disconnect the remaining vacuum and vapor hoses.Unwind the sardinecan clamp over the rear shifterboot and disconnect the shifter. outboard and forward of the engine compartment. placethem at the two small round protrusionsin the body. Undo the flat sheet-metal shielcls under tf. Unbolt the groundstrapabovethe reartransaxle. il n fi Heate metal mum gine.Removeeach exhaust pipe/heat exchanger. you'll actuallybe ableto see t h ee n g i n e . The other rear attachment is boltedto the caseusingoneofthe caseflange bolts. Return to the exhaustsystem. Axles & CV Joints-I've left the axles until now because they are sucha gooey mess. Remove them. Unthread the lockins nulson thecablehousing. You can remove the throttle cable without detaching the support.

Go forward and remove the two nuts from the center of the solid metal crossmember.so it will protect the metal surfaces. cable and easilyremoveit at clutch release. Then removethe two largebolts from the crossmember ends. Support Engine-Place the floor jack and plywood under the bellhousing. 914s. Rotatethe axa lesa coupleof times to reach all the bolts. Don't insertmore screwdriver bladethan necessary you'll scar or the mating surfaces. They 12-point. Hold axle by inserting a breakerbar through the twolug bolts. After clutch pulleyis removed.this clampjust beforeheater flexibleducting. there are dowels at the joint. but special 3/8-drive socket. Besides the bolts. expensive CV joints dirt free. This frees bracket from nut retention.Justget a toe hold.The crossmember will drop free (it's heavy) complete with the cables that pass through it. or have a helper step on the brakes. yourchassis a mini. Keep alternating actionfrom onesideof thejoint this to the otheruntil it separates. place a plastic sandwich bags over the joint and its flange.need to disconnectheater-control of cablesor gine.Unscrew large nut and pull cable out. As soon as you separate CV joint. Gently set it asidewithout kinking 29 . this maneuver will keepyou a lot cleaner. Besides keepingthe closetolerance. It takesquite a prying effort to free the CV jorntsfrom lhe tansaxle flanges. These are the front engine mount nuts. There's no Examine so mum heaterducting is removedwith en.Extra lengthwill help balancethe awkward engine/transaxle on the unit jack. push metaltubing.heater valves out of the way. access theconstant-velocity to (CV) joint bolts. That's why I try to put the screwdriverright throughthe gasket.then twist the blade. is Clean dirt from tiny splines in CV-joint bolts. Unscrew and remove the CV bolts. Removenut and pulleyto loosen transaxle. Sacrificethe gasket betweenjoint and flange stickinga flat-bladed by screwdriver be- tweenthem. about1/16in. 12-point 6mm Allen head tool is easier to use. These bolts are heavily torqued to prevent loosening. Use a rubber band to securethe bags. Short Allen head tool and wrench duo shown here is cheapest method.6mm Allen head bolts that are tequire specialremoving tool.The largerthe plywood.Speedometer is at rightrearof transaxcable le. then the to other. the better. On valves best separationpoint. splines will strip if not completely clean.connection bearingarm. leaving clutch cable-to-bracket undisturbed. Heater ductingon Type 4 engines is often After ductingfrom engineis removed.unthreadthe Clutchcablepivot uses a self-locking for two bracket nuts. so you'll have work to free one side of it. of blade inserted.

it weighs abouttwice as much as a Type 1.Th L 30 . not the sheet-metalpushrod tubes or another vulnerable part. You'll thank yourself at reassembly. Lower Engine-Gently start lowering the engine and transaxle while a helper checks the engine compartment. Front crossmember attaches to engine mountsusingsmallnuts found in recesled wells. Remove the unit and support it on the floor with wood blocks. CLEAN-UP (ALL MODBLS) Once the engineis clearof the chassis. That's about300 lb for a Type 4. Grasp it by the endsofthe cylinder heads. then remove larger bolts at center. Remove these. it can be stored by its mounts on chassis.Store all hardware and partsin clearlymarkedboxesand cans. hardware and parts before they get scattered.Use the trunk or Bus interior for storageifgarage space is tisht. then large bolts at each end of crossmember. Then the entire bolt. r I I | [ . This wll save a lot of aggravation when you drag your hairover them. prop one 9nd up with a block of wood. wrap them an-d transaxleflangeswith plasticbajs. This iron piece is heavy. Pick up all tools. Once the engine is out. a get helper and lift it off the jack. Don't let it lay unsupported over clutch and speedometer cables.not the fan housing. I o"s tcv I . It will take a minute or two to jockey the engine free of the chassis. so pay extra attention to them. Be careful to get the blocks bearing against the cylinder heads. so take your time. If lifting a Type 4 enginebe preparedfor a heavy load. flywheel or the like. Two strong people are needed when moving it. rubber cushion and washers will come out with the unit. Disconnect the starter motor leads. Crossmember will drop after both sets ol bolts are out. pushrod tubes. so be careful. Go to the rear and remove the transaxle mounts at the body.It's easy to bang the injectors against the bodywork or have their fuel lines hangup. Set the engine on the floor.twith small mount-to-chassis hardware.tr As soon as CVjoints come free. M one are kl Bear engine mounts must come completely off transaxleto clear bodywork. rags. Use the floorjack to get the chassis backon the ground and pushed to its storagelocation. Stai. remove the four bellhousing fastenersand separatelhe transaxle from the eneine.Do this now while they're still fresh in your memory. or smashingthe cables.

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