Table of Contents

1. Time To Rebuild? ......... AccumulatedMileage Oil Consumption . Poor Performance DiagnosticTests . 2. Engine Removal Preparation Beetles& KarmannGhias (Type 1) .... (TYPes & 4) 2 Bus & Transporters Notchback(Type 3) ..... Squareback, Fastback, 41U412 914 Porsche/VW



Crankcase & Cylinder Reconditioning ....75 ......... 75 Parts. Crankcase Clean& Inspect 82 Crankshaft 88 Pistons& ConnectingRods 94 Oil Pump 96 Camshaft Cylinder Head Reconditioning ............ 100 .. 101 Disassembly ..... 105 Valve Guides& Stems .... 101 Valves & Inspecting Reconditioning ...... 110 .. Reconditionittg Valve-Seat ........ 111 S Rocker-Arm ervice & Inspection Installation..... ..... ll2 Valve-Spring .. --. --- lI4 Assembly .. CylinderHead ...... 115 Manifolds Intake& Exhaust

l3 l8 18 19

26 26
1, 1

3. Parts Identification & Interchange ........ 3 1 -'tz .... Indentification 34 Engine Descriptions 35 Cases 38 Crankshafts ^ a +J Flywheels 44 ConnectingRods . 45 Pistons& Cylinders 46 Cylinder Heads 53 ..... Oil Pumps& Camshafts 55 Oil Coolers & SheetMetal . 4. Teardown .......... AccessoryRemoval-Uprights Removal-Flat .. Accessory E B a s i c n g i n e. . . . . Valve Train CylinderHeads Oil Pump Splitting Cases . Teardown Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 58 62 66 66 68 68 10 12

7 . Engine Assembly
Assembly Crankcase Install Crankshaft InstallCamshaft Prep Cylinders ... valveTrain Accessories External T y p e1 & P r e : 7 2 B u s . . Type 3 Post:12 Bus, 914 4111412,

. 116 ........ 119 .... l2l ..... 122 ---. 132 "' 134 ........ 138 ....." 138 .... 143 .. 148

8. EngineInstallation,Break-in, Tuneup .. 156
Prep . Transaxle EngineInstallation 1 Type Type 2 Type 3 4 Type 9 1 4. . FirstStarrl B r e a k - i& T u n e u p n Index ...... 156 .. I5'1 ' . . . . . . .1 6 0 . ........161 . 1 ..'....-- 62 1 ......... 63 ... 166 .... 169 . . . . . . . . .1 7 0 ...... 173

Cylinders I and 2 are on the right. It's just that the engine is so completely different.not just disassemble engine comPonents. such a basic design was hardly suitable for popular ffansportation when hostilities ended. A few specific understandingsand cautions are appropriate here. A lot of care and thought went into every VW built. and the 914 is it. rebuilding air-cooled Volkswagen engines. and the Beetlewas on its way' Eventuallythe Volkswagencame to the United States.Americanscame to respectand ultimately adore the round-backed car. Pitfalls can be avoided if you know about them ahead of time. So read ahead. a fact Adolf Hitler said he was gorng to change. But just as unfamiliar roads are easily traveled if you have a good map. tures i basic are br what' ACC Tol engini .high-cruising-speed car were met (if not without difficulty) by a bright ensineer named Ferdinand Porsche. air-cooled Volkswagenscontinue to be popular. To that I say. but none offer the old-world craftsmanship or personality of a Volkswagen. and keep this book on the bench where it will be handy.racers and other VW rp-iiulirt. but there's always time to do it over'" It's a lot faster to double-check than it is to rebuild it twice. For the camera and personal experience. This goes againstcommon. Of course. front and back in this book are basedon the engine while it is in the chassis. the Beetle sold on its economy and superior workmanship. more common engine slyles. After awhile it becomes natural. throw-away car. *ffi n I :::S+i'* I ffiffi Solid years Sin engin sary when the tol is nee In tl tic st( follou the Er rebuil Bel this b able. Like left and right. A factory was built in Wolfsburg for Beetle production and Germany was about to get lts car. Finally.914 engines are treated like any ottier. and I think you'll agree the intricacies of VW engine rebuilding are more thoroughly documented here than anywhere else. now known as the Thing' Although 70. If this is your first engine rebuild. you haveto keep reminding yourself that the flywheel end is the engine's front. the "Parts Identification & Interchange" chapter offers considerablemoney-savinginformation. or for the chaos in what was left of Germany. what Germany got was a long ways from the people's dream of motoring down the autobahn. it's difficult to imagine roads without them. this book points out the hazards. Soon you'll be listening to your Volks puttering smoothly in the driveway-a sound of wonderful personal satisfaction. And so we reach the point of this book. So when I speak of the front oil seal I mean the one at the flywheel end' whether you have a Bus or 914. presentedat the 1939 Berlin Motor Show. I rebuilt several air-cooled engines. and like a detailed map. It's not that it's so difficult to rebuild. His requirements for an inexpenstve. Other cars may be more modern. The Volksiuug"n *u. not even in Germany' In fact. with minimal patience. mass-produced. and the crankshaft pulley is at therear. Traditional rebuilding technioues and books based on them don't have mich to offer the VW rebuilder. there weien't many cars of any type on German roads. Justrememberthe saying. currency or economy. long after the introduction of faster. while VWs are a common sight and don't commandhigh prices. quieter and roomier economy cars. Additionally. Also. the flywheel is at the engine'sfront. The knowledge in these words and pictures represents the combined experience of many people.that doesn'tmean they are a cheap. In fact. manufacturers. until you've been around VWs for some time. this book helps make VW enginerebuilding easy. always take the time to double-check "There's your work. it seemedthe Volkswagen had been stillborn. No. the VW offers opportunities to measure and adjust basic and engine parameters. rebuilding these engines is probably more satisfying than going through other.Thus. it may seem like there are too many steps or points to remember. Without a government. Just as a Beetle or Bus is fun to own and drive. ingrained automotive knowledge and takes some time to get used to. With the wrong turns clearly marked. to gather the information presented hire. Bus and Squareback with equal success. the 914 engineis turned around so its flywheel is at the car's rear' Unlessthis is imporlant. Read aheadof your progressin the shop to keep the job in perspectiveand alert yourself to needed tools or supplies.Introduction The Volkswagen Beetle hardly needs an introduction. never time to do it right the first time.As in other worldwide markets. In any society with pdvate transportation they're ubiquitous in the extreme. assemble This book eliminates a lot of legwork for you. and treating the carefully constructedair-cooledengine like an appliancewon't pay off' VW engines are full of precision tolerances that resoond to cleanliness and careful assembly. But from the rubble of 1945 a few cars were built from spare parts' The British officer in charge of the Wolfsburg factory assistedthe German workers in building more cars. First. as in the removal and installation sequences. parts iuppliers. and 3 and 4 are on the left. not available anYwhereelse. get starled and handle each point one at a time. Unlike many engines. A mid-engine car. the air-cooled VW is easily overhauled. Now. buying it in numbers other import builders could only versionsfollowed envy. you'd have difficulty coming up with a design more out of the ordinary if you tried. tools and cash.000 Type 82s were built for the Wehrmacht. I've traveled to machine shops. This is an engine that needs step-by-step instructions for rebuilding. it's difficult to remember to keep the positions front and back properly oriented. War brought Volkswagen production only in the ffansmuted Type 82 military fotm. Of course. Therefore. But in the mid-'3Os there were no Volkswagens. all experts in their field. rebuilding an air-cooled VW is fun. there has to be an exception.

s e r v i c e .op. the owner'smanual. rs needed. a A s m i l e sa ( . l o d c l e r m i n e n g i n ec o n d i t i o n iS y e lI:o l ltop t l n g .When an ensineis a sedanengineshouldlast this long. Dirt is the thegapsbetween rings andcylinderwalls andls enemy of ofT-roadengines sucked into the combustion chambcr and Thoseengineswith the shorlestlif-espan are burned.Thesearernoreimportant thanthi Type 4). rod and and camshaftbeanngs.first decicle a rebuil-d neies_ if is sary.. While the air-cooledVW engine. . gageof enginecondition. .leaf rhrough . for instance.c o .w h i c h r . V a o At the crankshaft.t . i l l h e l p y o u d c c i d ei l " r a rebuildis required. i o u r n a lw h e r er t ' r f l u n g o t f .. more oil to try and fill the voiil and . so the engine "travels farther" than a sedan d i m e n s i o n is c r e a s e . i t s i n l e r n ac l e a r a n c c sr ee a s i l yU i i O s e d l a B u sc n g i n e s n d r h o s c l r i v e no l i r o r d t v o i _ b y a no i l f i l m . Sometimesthis is easy.excessclcarance has less D r i r e nh a r d . h e yc a nb eo r e r h e u i e d ..Tirne To Rebuild? Simple it rnay sound.ancl giv. and oil works its wav to i f ' t h c o i l i s n ' t c h a n g c d l t e n .B u se n g i n c s c a rl a \ t c rb e c i u r e n n g s a n d v a l v e s . n g i n e . n e w .Studythe pic_ tures skim the high pointsof the text. n T h e n .1 o u ' l l g e t a n e x a c r. i. isn't well-known for extreme OIL CONSUMPTION longevity. ACCUMULATED MILEAGE Totalmileageisn't a very good yardstickof engrne condition.o i l c r n n o tb r i d s e powerplantfbr each mile covered.n p. pay more attentionto how tne car was operatedand maintaineddurins no paper oil filter.You'll seea wispy trail of blue smoke l h e p o o r c n g i n e s r i v e n h l r d a n c lg i v e n l i i l l e from the exhaust d pipe.e.diugnoii. gearin-e. w a n d h i g ho i l p r c s s u r a t l h e e of extraweight. we'll examinesomediagnos_ . whentwo. e u l s ri h c p i s i o n u c a l l yl a s rl e s s .connecting roclsare poking through thetopof case. W e n g i n c s r e s u s c c p t i b lte h c r t . Get and a Dasrc comprehension how air_cooled of VWs are bolled together. When driven inside its oer_ g i n e ' s i n l e r n a l clctrances nd is an excellent a formance limitations.. Busengine A revshigherthan sedan.o*. In thischapter.befbrebeginningan as engine rebuild. c u m u l a l eh e s e a n su e a r a n d p t. lnrsbookand any other VW lirerltureavail_ able. . so fiequentoil changesareal:tsr. r. m munJatrtrtior long enginelit'e. wind resistance their low marn. s VW just doesn'thold that rr-ruch It alsohas This causes oil. (exceptin the late Bus and you can undersland w n a l\ g o t n go n w h e nt h e y l a l l a p a r t .s p c c i a l l v resistance t e to oil flow..especially Types l-3. T h e a i i . w t h e m .it will go more than 100. T h e r e a t a r er i g h t. B:iur: beginning lour ct'forts. the Othertim"r.000miles Oil consumption is determinedby an en_ betweenrebuilds..tlLttely rccurnulrted iles. S t a t e f o l n eL .ui. l e i l h e e n t l so f t h e o .

but not enough to justify tearingit down. This lets roo much oil berweenthe guide a"nd remove the pump and rry repairingihe mating valve stem.i:. Then. Differenceis oil consumptio-n rate. Between 500_1000 miles per quart indicates a slightly wide clear_ ance somewherein the engine. they also let combustiongasespass in the other orrectron. the engineneedsattention. Air_ at the oil-filler hole. There are two parts that contribute to an engine burning oil: worn rings and valve guides. A single puff of smoke immediately upon start-upafler sirting overnight usually meanswom guides and piston rings.causins to the rocker covers to stop backfires from a puddle right under the sender. but it has beenroutedio the cooled VW enginesare hard on guides because air filter by a hose and metered orifice (valve) ofthe angle with which the rocker arm contacts since rhe mid-'60s.nli*ffiii of service and pooroperating practices destroy engine. If that doesn't stop the^leak. a. This Oil Leaks-Many air-cooled VW ensinesleak p ositiv e crankcase ventilation (pCV) plumbing oil. How Much Is Too Much?_Certainly. oil the oil. If it is loose. high-pressure area. ifthe rings andguideswere sealed oil_tisht. oil loss through blowby is burnedin thecombustion chambers.contaminating ber. So you won't be fooled by an oil leak when There is no PCV valve on Type I and upright trying to figure how much oil is being burned. the guides is common. ice picks and other oil _Excessive lossthroughtheguidesoccurs barbaric instruments. Much of the time. the the top of the valve stem. mostiy out the oil-filler and dipsrick holei. Another good test is to find a ione hill to coastdown while in top gear.Both let oil enterthe combustion cham_ ber where it is partially bumed and sent out the exhaust. merely venting it to the atmosphere. RTV silicone sealei opens. you can bet the rings are at fault. the leaks m-inor. Type 2 engines. Telltale signs areblowby vapor blowin! But becausean exhausiport is a hot. plastic center. It also causesincreasedoil consumption becausemore oil is splashedon the cylinder bores. A flame arrestor is Oil-Pressure Sender-Oil-pressure senders placed in both hosesrunning from the air filter often dribble from their plastic centers. excessive clearance there Blowby used to be vented to the atmosphere results in blowby into the rocker cover. into the crankcase. glance lhe mirrorasyou openthe in throttle. cover plate first. air-iootet-vtlv'" will any -' out inlp"rti"ular require regular changes spot-on oil and igniiion [imin6. After Oil Pump-Leaks from around the oil pump all. Record odometerreading. So.Type 3 and'4 engines^usE Iet's a review some of the common oil leaks. this review should be an integral"part the air filter enters the engine at the rocker of the enginediagnosis. and lesspollutants are spewedinto the bad leak. Suchoil consumptiin can result lrom parts on the loose end oi the acceptable-tolerance ii::.To check.. a rebuild is required to correct excessclearances. there's no harm in buming a quart of oil eveiy 1000 miles or more. When oil consumptionis high and oil pressurelow. covers on these engines. apart with screwdrivers.Sffi air ittii fltfvensing andmissing filrerwiltshorren eus. are valve stems and piston rings is normal. Oil consumptionis an excellentinOicator ot an. if the engine lays down a i-moke screen. make sure oil is level with top line. it will affect these fisures.engine's internalcondition. Tighten the oil_pump when guide-to-valve clearanceis too larse.These blowby 6 gasespressurlzethe crankcase. they would wear out in less than l0 miles fiom They result from prying the-crankcasefrdves metal-to-metal contact. are and draws more blowby out of the crankcasethai won't affect oil-consumptioncalculations. PCV valve in the hoseleading from rhe crank_ Because someoil leaksresultfrom worn engine caseto the intake-air distributor. oil pressuredrops.If a new quart is neided every 500 miles or less.oil is suckedinto the combustioncham_ makes a good temporary fix here.Oil stays But. next time the intike valve area of the crankcase. But. replacethJs"ender. along with the normal airlfuel mixture.remost common in recently rebuilt engines.. Fresh air from internals.r:.:rij!l:iiiiir.and readdipstickregular_ ly. or from partial re_ buildswherethecylinders andpistoniwerenot replaced.Wiggle thi reachingthe crankcase. ifthe enginehasmoreihan one leakor one cleaner. When y6u reach rneDottom. atmosphere. From the air filrer.itiil.: :irii::!tr._When level drops to the tirst finJnote oil mileage and subtract first reading from second. A puff of smokeindicatesworn guides or rings. Blowby-Just as worn rings and cylinders al_ low oil to enter the combusiion chamber. Valve Guides-Some oil passagepast the Original-equipment (Bosch)senders besr. Exhaust valvescan pass the sameway. but the oer_ .

Mount a dial indicatorto read directly off the crankshaft pulley and end measure play. there is no cheap.fen-d off constint bilmbardment of dirt. Putting this problem off engine canbe very exPenslve. andoi1pourspastit. thensmellor tasteit. end play and wobble Of course. lf this problem is detected soonenough. They see .however. the crankshaftis free to wobble. shaft end play. someonehas used a screwdriver to pry the case aoart therel a definite mistake. Unfortunately. timing and carburetor or injection tuning. undet-car air into engine bay. Get a complete analysisof the engine's condition from the shop. may havebeeninstalledincorrectly.and the end pull the to playis or evenseems be excessive. at leastin BeeButyoucanmeasure tlesandearlyBuses. allowedto do any good. that the transaxleseal and is leaking. if the areais washedclean byoil flowing from the bellhousing area. See page 76. Remove the cooler to inspect the mountings and have it pressure-checked. The perforce wears the main-bearing bore oendicular so iggshaped.When oil poursfrom betweenthe casehalves. but the only enduring cure is to weld or replacethe case' A case can also leak through a crack' The magnesiumcase of Type 1-3 engines will crack soonet or later from fatigue. there is a iargeoil leak at the bellhousing. it is inif efficient. It can take lots of muscle to movethecrankwhen the engine is together.the oil leak is serious. openthe transaxlefiller hole and take a Compareit to the bellhousing leak' If sample. cure. so the deoress clutch and then monitor the pulley' Usethe detaileddirections for measuring end If play on page 126. is thetransaxle leaking. the one closestto the flywheel. To locate the source of poor performance.excessive oil the distort neoprene sealat the bearing bore. if necessary.To staba screwdriver into this joint is criminal.ffi< yields poor fuel economy and power.iny. performance refers to both engine power and fuel consumption. it is looseon its mountings'Both leaks are real gushers because of the large volume of oil passingthrough the cooler. Diagnosisshoulddetermine the engine is usingthe right amountoffuel to produce the expected amount of power. plugs. wearing out. investigated originatesfrom the # I main bearThecause ing. pull the engineor transaxleandreplacethe transaxle seal right away' won't go away. andrebuild it. specific problem. dirty.Devconor some other material to fill the gap.Thewearis in two directions. and the case will have to be replaced-an expensivefix. Ontheotherhand. and the sealhas not been changed recently. POOR PERFORMANCE Performanceis best defined for our pulposes when an engine iency. the Removing engineand installing anotherone is the only cure.calledend p lay. engineinternalsmay or may not be the cause. This is a serious problem and should be right awaY. but lets hot. This results on in a mess theengine'sbottom. Cooling efficiency drops and air filte(s) must. Thereisn't any method for detecting crankwobblewhile the engineis in the chassis. trluny cars and have learnedto quickly and accuratelydiagnosetheir problems. There'sa chance. points. and will cause a leak. Remember. it alsodripsout the bellhousing' Geta dabof the dripping liquid on a finger tlp.The diagnostictestslater in this chapter are designed to systematicallyuncover the Drivinq without engine compartment seal mav ieem harmless. Complete the tuneup yourself before performing any diagnostictestsor have it doneby a professional tJneup shop. Case Leaks-These can be anywhere along the case parting line.the cure is disassembling engine and manent addingmaterial by welding Engine/Transaxle Mating Surface-Most leak some oil at the front. Oil Cooler-Oil coolersleak for two reasons' Eitherthecoolerhas split apart anywherealong or thetubes. lf you're unfamiliar with thesmellandtasteof gear oil used in the transaxle. but shouldn't any cause alatm. the result of engines anoverworkedcrankshaftoil seal. and joint is a marvel of their precision. You can try RTV sealer. If theenginehas a lot of miles on it.too. Usually these are little weeping leaks and pose no danger.gasketless German production technique. then the rearmain bearing may be pounded out-the is case actuallydeformed-from excessiveend p/ny. dwell. If the seal was recently reit placed.This is because as a. The machining on VW casehalvesis ofthe highestquality. .If power or fuel economy drops. and the other perpendicularto the parallel to thecrankshaft. If the problem is machiningprobablywon't continue. Chapter 5 has more infbrmation on case cracking. sure.This meansa valve adjustment. engine life is shortened. and the longer it Thisproblem leaks the greater the chance of ruining the clutchdisc. the main-bearing bore can be and machined the casesaved. stafi with a tuneup.

a chunk may be burned from the valve head. do the following diagnostictests. 8 If a tuneupdoesn'trestorelost performance.especially considering car. by showing there is something internally wrong and two. valve broug . But. If the engine responds to the tuneup with renewed performance. Every part must be in place. Additionally. eliminating external variables from the diagnostictests. They perform work by inhaling air. compressing it and expanding it. As this condition worsens. A worn-out engine will generally perform poorly and use a lot of oil. For example. too. buy a new one.or valve springscould be at fault.l coole stem. allowing all compression to escapeout the exhaustport. A stuck dirflow sensor. stumbling and searching(increasingand decreasing). head. engine performance will drop. The idle may be erratic. Tuning the enginewill have helpedin two ways. you've probably cured any problems and a rebuild isn't necessary. harnessingthe expansionand exhaling the byproducts.Early engines have few adjustmentsand are great at-hometuneup proiects. One. Burned Exhaust Valve-When a mechanic says a valve \s burned. All hosesmust be in perfect shapeand tightly sealed. the valves. This is most likely causedby worn rings and cylinders.the dipsticktube is an add-onunit.Don't skip the tuneup. The key to an engine's pumping efficiency is the tightness of the combustion chamber: the area formed by the piston top. Unscrew the switch from the throttle.Think of combustiongases as an inefficient cutting torch and you'll understandwhy valves burn. or some of the diagnostic tests will be inaccurate. to injectedenginescan be impossible tune withoutprofessional Basic Fuel-Injection TroubleshootingLater engineshave lots of vacuum and fuel hoses that arepafi ofthe fuel-injectionsystem. which causesa large drop in power and compression. go ahead and do diagnostic tests as a double-check. Fuel-injected Type 3 throttle switchesoften needadjustment. Cloudsof black smokeout the exhaust and poor running below full throttle indicate electronic control unit (ECU) failve or a coldstart valve that has stuck open. this is called hunting. A burned exhaust-valve face can't make a gas-tight seal against its seat. valves and sparkplug. Keep in mind that internal-combustionengines are nothing more than air pumps.camshaft. but can be solved with minimal work. In this case. enginebreathing will suffer if the valves and valve train are in poor shape. it's indicated immediately during a seated guide closed cleara cool a The br Eve piece r heada valve erosio bumin be not The lesspr becau valve l sodiun ing ter when valver in the Whr stem. Later fuelequipment. If an injected engine won't run. Vacuum test results will also be affected. rings. If any of from the combusthesepartsallow air to escape tion chamber. Beetleenginehere is builton a Type3 case! Large oil passage(top photo) and U letter code (bottom) were first tip-offs. the flap in the box next to the air filter. CAUSES OF POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE A quick look at the most likely internal engine problems will help put them in perspective before you start testing for them individually. can cause driveability problems. or the engine will not run right or respond to tuning. anotherclue. Check all hosesfor connectionand condition. a cylinder won't have full compression if the valves are incorrectly adjusted. Finicky idle problems and weird throttle responseon fuelinjectedBusesand 914s are often tracedto the throttle switch mounted right next to the throttle. including the air filter. cylinder wall. Burning fuel only makes the air expand. if not expense. Underneath. remove the cover and note the wrper contacts lhat signal throttle position. If the flap won't move freely after a little fiddling. this means that some some of the valve's/ace (sealingsurface)has beeneroded away or crackedby the blast ofhot combustiongases. first make sure all fuelsystemparts are correctly installed. But it is also possible for engine performanceto be low Examiningengine will often reveal interestbuyinga if ing details. The engine then runs on only three cylinders. When a chunk is missing. So. Bending the arms so they wipe a new areaoften helps. anything that hinders an engine's breathing reduces its efficiencyboth power and fuel economy. Other fuel-injection problems can convince you the engineis at fault. compl speed pressl no con Eve droppt head b Type I and ste arate a head d andcy the pis The usual\ in the with tt lifters i will bL warnir It's a valv three c (and e engine One corTec '78 an lic val the val for pe air-cor needp servic ance c A ! to and oil consumption be normal.

This type of valvehas a hollow stem. and they sometimes sepstems arate thejoint. causing high cylinder temperatures and prematurely burned exhaustvalves. If the at-rest torque is misapplied. Reciprocating valvemotionthrows the sodium back and forth in the hollow stem. The most common sourceof harmful carbon depositsis excessiveoil consumption. Theburningprocesshas begun. Instantly shut off the expensive) engine help minimize damage. so burning them in the combustion chamber in the wrong amounts causesexcess carbon deposits. only delay the symptoms. to Oneprimary cause of burned valves is inconect valve adjustment. The studs are strained and being pulled from the case. Prolonged idling and slow driving can also cause carbon buildup. They can be added when rebuilding to earlier cases that don't have them. the oil cooler was mounted inside the fan shroud. a valve staysopen longer due to tight clearances whatever. the valveburningprocessis rapid. Becausemany valvesaremadewith heads Type 1-3 exhaust joined together. Therefore. Metal particles circulate withtheoil and scorethe crankshaft. the exhaustvalve will burnbadly before it drops. cylinder wall and cylinderheadas it gets slammedaround by thepiston.Skipping this need or service maintaining insufficient valve clearance can easily lead to burned valves. Once it starts. the magnesiumcan fatique and the threadsweaken. letting the cylinder head and cylinders bang back and forth with piston motion. All other VW air-cooled engines use solid valve lifters and periodicvalve adjustments. But after 100. Whenthe sodiumis at the hot head-endofthe stem. it has both less time to or cooland absorbseven more combustion heat. although a rich airlfuel mixture can be just as bad. Becauseonce the cylinder heads. some of which sticks to the combustion-chamber surfaces. Such doghousefan shrouds stop #3's exhaust valve from burning any sooner than the rest. and their threadsare strong. the heads and case can be machined back to service.they rely ginesdon't useheadgaskets. which is no match for steel when it comesto mating threads. Before'71 . combustion pressureand gaseswill be lost through the gap. So. Thus. for example.If the problem is caught soon enough. causingall sortsofhavoc in the rocker cover. So they whip out the breaker bar and crank the headnuts down anothertum. Both gasoline and motor oil are hydrocarbons.000 miles. Another factor affecting valve burning on engines with upright cooling-fan mounting is oil-cooler placement.This holds the and valve partially open and can start the the torque applied to the cylinder-headnuts is not the same amountof torque that sealsthe heads.Type lthroughthe '77have steelthread insertsinstalled in 3s from the case at the factory. What they don't understand. putting more strain on the cylinder studs. so it can cool well if heat is broushtto it bv sodium or some other mech- anism. Theexhaust valvesused in 914 enginesare proneto burning than other Type 4 engines less because they are sodium-filled. The studs are steel. The engine expandsoversizewhen it is overheated. barrels and case halves are replaced. Carbon is a solid byproduct of incomplete combustion. partially filled with sodium. on the other hand. Type 4 engines get combustion leaks just like Types 1-3. Some cooling takes place through the guide.however. Carbon Deposits-Although carbon deposits don't fall under the categoryofengine damage. A v alve drops when the head breaksoff from the stem. Becauseintakes run so much cooler than exhausts. when they assemblethe engine. In ' absorbs heat. Even well-maintained valves can bum if a piece carbongets caught between the valve of head seatasthe valve closes.curing .This isn't a factor on '78 andlater Busesbecausethey have hydraulic valvelifters. but don't count on this remedy all the time. The net result is a cooler-running. When this happens. camshaft liftersandoil pump. If an enginewith case saversis overheated. Hydraulic valve lifters adjust thevalvesautomaticallyand eliminate the need for periodicvalve adjustments.000 miles or less. where it passes heat to the the stem. which shedsthe heat quickly to the valve guide. to and a rebuild is not necessary remove them. pulled threadsare no longer a common problem.It will immediately begin running on by three cylindersaccompanied a lot of honible (and rattling.This is because are exposed to combustion heat on both the combustion-chamber and port sides. Usually a valve will benoticeablyburned in 2. carbon deposits are a symptom of a problem. The threadsin the case are magnesium. letting combustion pressure escapebetween the cylinders and cylinder heads. then it will reach over 70 ft-lb at operating temperature. If these parts loosen for any reason. not the source' Merely ridding the engine of carbon won't cure the problem. there is only 18 or 23 frlb of torque on the studs. What typically happensis the cylinder head studs pull out of the case. to 40 ft-lb. the studs won't pull. so this is some warning before it destroys the entire've just aboutboughta new engine. No wonder the studspull out of the case! Overheating the engine has the same effect as overtorquing the cylinder-head nuts. while there may be ways to get rid of carbon an buildupwithoutoverhauling engine. Some people may look at the low torque specificationsgiven for these cylinder heads and figure they aren't enough.Under normal conditions. heat is transferredby the sodium from the headto the stem. It's painfully obvious when an engine drops a valve. the aluminum cylinder heads and cast-iron barrels grow a lot longer than the steel studs. Pulled studs are a very common problem up '70 Type 1-3 engines.When the engine is cold. This preheatedcylinder #3's cooling air. Sodium melts well below the operating temperature the valve.and some at the seat when the valve is If closed. The first point to give is the cylinder stud threadsin the case. retainer and keepers usually separate also. the cylinder heads can warp. Or.The stem is in constant contact with the valve guide. longer-lasting Exhaustvalves are much more prone to burnvalves exhaust ing than intakes. Now the effective torque on the studs is nearer 55 ft-lb. Thevalve stem. So. The hammering ruins the engine and it's not even a worthwhile core. Type 3 and 4 engines never had this problem because flat mounting ofthe cooling fan has the always positioned the oil cooler away from any one particular cylinder. Luckily. perhapsthey arehaving cylinder-head sealingproblems.the valve at head destroysthe piston crown.compressiontest because engine cranking speed doesn'tchangeon that cylinder's compression strokeand the gagereadsvery little or nocompression. Type 4 engineshave a thin metal gasket for better sealing. exhaustvalve. When the studsdo pull. they add ten poundstorque to the cylinder-head nuts. on a metal-to-metal sealbetween the top of the cylinder and the cylinder head to contain combustion gases. it leavesthe cylinder free to hammer the crankcase and cylinder heads. The steel thread inserts are commonly called case savers. they are much less apt to burn. From the guide. The problem is the threadsin the case. the heat passesto the head and ultimately to the cooling air. spring. the oil cooler was movedout of #3's airstreamand an offset sectionwas addedto the fan housing to enclose the relocated cooler. are cooled by each passing intake charge and are heated only on the combustion-chamberside. A valve cools best only when it is fully seated. Still. Evenworse than a burned exhaustvalve is a d t droppe exhaus valve. But when the enginewarms up and expands like a balloon. Intake valves. Loose Cylinder Heads-Type 1-3 VW enInstead. Then the weak threadsare ripped right out of the case by cylinder-head torque and combustion pressure.Hammering of the caseand headsby the cylinders is not a problem with warped heads. a few words about carbon will help you with engine diagnosis. so it is a liquid of when the engine is running. Excessivecylinder-head torque will also destroy thesethreadsin short order. With casesaversinstalled. Then it getstossedto the cooler stem-end. not the studs. in the path of cooling air going to the #3 cylinder.

If the cooling flaps remain shut from a broken or missing spring. As a final note on carbon. cylinder temperatureswill quickly go sky-high. Pay specialattentionto the ignition timing of a VW engine. retardthe timing a degree at a time until it doesn't ping. Worn ringsandvalve guideswill alsocause excessive carbon buildup from incomplete oil buming. substantialengine damagefrom preignition or detonation isn't prevalent. over-advanced ignition timing andengineoverheating. This devastationcan happen in less than one minute if the engine has been running for 10 minutes and is fully warm. Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid-Type I and 2carbureted engines since '70 have an electric fuel shut-off solenoid attachedto the idle circuit of the carburetor. As an air-cooledengine. Admittedly. Again. but doesreducefuel economyandpower. But the penalty for too much total advance is severe detonation. the fuel shut-off solenoid may be faulty. if thereis a problem with it. the solenoid is deactivatedand a spring-loaded plungerclosesthe idle circuit. Fin are he gine. Carbon deposits causetrouble in two ways. s in ba< noises hear l Peo eyesi tion tc your ( sound front. long-term light detonation will wear the rings. Sor with i probk stall tl origin have i speed stop d On solenc Theor particl usuall On solen discor other. If the engine pings at the slightestload. These types of abnormal combustion can damagean engine by placing a heavy load on engine internals. A carbon-aggravatedproblem most people arefamiliar withis dieseling-the enginerunson after the key is turned off. Each time you touch the lead. the hot carbonpreignites themixture.So.Thetwoflamefronts collide. the solenoid should click (the plunger is moving DIAC No' probk witho may 0 the tes it. If that doesn't help. stuck thermostat. throttle response and improves engine acceleration. When the ignition is turned off. A moment 1ater. it is very susceptibleto overheatingand preignition causedby too-advanced timing. The excessheat will causeseveredetonation. pistons and cylinders more quickly. If a piece ofcarbon sticksbetweenthe plug electrodes. This timing setting may be retardedfrom the specified stocksetting. Audible signs of detonation are pinging or knocking. They of areusually associated with low-octane gasoline ot over-advanced timing. or get betweena valve headand its seat. They contribute excess oil to the combustion chamberand it can't be completelyburned.onthe right side on earlier carbs.You can easily burn-oul excess carbon accumulatedthis way by taking the car for a long trip.excessiveoil consumptionmay meanan engine overhaul.hole a piston and spew metal throughout the lubrication system. Plug replacementor cleaning usually cures theseproblems.anddeformthe main-bearing bores in the crankcase.but without any accompanying pinging or knocking.slow- ing the idle and reducing spark advance a few degreeswill help reduce dieseling. The solenoid is on the left side on '71 and later carbs (34mm) and.the glowing carbon. prompt attention to the causes abnormalcombustionis wise. sound you ci sound to hea Aid 10 . preignition without detonation causes excess combustion-chamber pressure and temperature. but severe cases can burn or blast holesin oistons. When a fresh intake charge is compressedon the compressionstroke. carbon will build up because low cylinder of temperatures. or do a lot of in-town. lights the mtxture after the sparkplughas fired. considervehicle operation. Heed another warning: These engines selfdestructratherquickly when the cooling system fails. Drive it a half hour or more at freeway speeds. It's no secret that advancing the spark in aircooled VW engines increases their power. the engine may need a professional tuneup or carburetor overhaul. Loose carbon depositscan also lodge between the electrodes of a sparkplug. fault.This will heat the combustion chamber and burn away excesscarbon. Recent researchindicates a small amount of knocking or pinging is not harmful to an engine. solen when Fue when shouk De necessary. detonation can be causedby staleor low-octanegasoline. valve andring damagecan result ifpreignition or detonation is prolonged. Carbon deposits build up on the backside of a valve and restrict airlfuel mixture flow into the cylinder. To test the solenoid. So. Although not as severe. The resulting suddenpressureand temperaturerise is more than the engine was designedfor. First. concerned be ifthe engineis knocking heavily. Carbondepositsin the combustion chambers can also causedamage.the sparkplugfires and the mixture also startsburning near the plug. Besides carbon buildup. breakrings. Ignition timing is also commonly overadvancedby owners looking for more power.causing preignition and detonation. Imagine red-hot carbon in the combustion chamber. but the secondignition source. Detonation is very similar to preignition. Look for the small can on the side of the carburetor with the wire leadingto it. combustion-chambertemperature and pressure exceedsenginedesign limits and damage occurs. Turn on the ignition without starting the engine. they may shroud the valves. the sparkplug will short out and the cylinder will misfire or go totally dead. This is sometimescalled light pinging. Piston. remove its electrical lead. Now touch the lead to the solenoidconnection.but with today'sfuel it might inside wire i the wi bad a "dead Stethoscopeis preferred tool for pin-pointinginternal engine noises because it amplifies sound coming through probe and reduces surroundingnoise with earplugs. If you advance the ignition past specification. or foreign objects in the fan housing.Also. A hot piece of carbon acts like a diesel-engine glow plug by supplying an ignition source other than the sparkplug. slow-speed. short-tripdriving. sounds akin to colliding billiard balls. This shouldstop the dieselingmentionedabove. Nevertheless.Ridding the engineof carbon. If you drive a delivery route. Carbon easily heats to incandescence. If r the er decid NOIS Interr a diffi fluenc leastt ing ar Open cil.Checkfor theseproblemsif the engine detonates. you may pay for it with an engine overhaul.asmentioned earlier. sometimes producing an explosiondetonation-rather than even buming.

items stuck in the fan and so forth. if you still have the noise with their fan belts removed. Noises occurring at every turn of the crankshaft come from the bottom end: worn piston pins. you can single out and stop thesenoises. These are external sornds coming from loose brackets. From there. Finally. hold one end firmly against the engine and the other end to your ear.006-in.unlessthe engine diesels.The engine will die when you unplug the that's working and show little change solenoid whenyou unplug the one that's not. look elsewherefor the source. Type 3s and flatengine Type 2s project more fan noise than Type ls. Noises that occur at every other turn of the crank-at camshaft speed-are most likely coming from the valve train: valves. the fuel shut-off end doubles as the idle metering jet. a whining or screaming from the fan area usually means something is caught in the fan. there's no problem. If not. broken rings. Aids for locating noises are a stethoscope. not at the middle of the rocker cover. the low-pitch noise associated and a high-pitch whistle.inside). Just rememberto properly adjust the valves after the engine cools. And. the initial impression is a big jumble of By sounds. and try to to wiggle the fan on its hub. This test will isolate only the generator or alternator on Type 3 and 4 engines because their fans are driven directly off the crankshaft. a Type 4 engine with hydraulic lifters. stand in back. The other major noise in a air-cooled VW engine compartmentcomesfrom the fan. Then reinstallthe fuel shut-off solenoid. and then recheck the solenoid operation. Valve adjusting proceduresare on page 136-138. Many factors influencethe way sounds are perceived. it will only bum the valve. When using a dowel.006 in.If ithas aproblem. becausethere's only one power stroke for every two crank revolutions. a noisy valve can best be heardby listening at the edgeof the rocker cover or cylinder head. close the hood. If so. Therefore. Once oast the exhaust. length of heater hope or a wooden dowel. those occurring eachcrankshaftrevolution. Cam and liftclearance. lifters or camshaft. hook up a timing light and see if the noise coincides with flashesof the'll find thetests a it. just forward of your ear. It can make several different sounds. early Type 2s and 9l4s becausethe fan is right in front ofyou when looking into the engine've got a crackedfan or bad generator or alternator bearings. Isolating Normal Noises-Now for the hard part: What do theseproblemssoundlike? Let's startwith normal enginesounds. case. increases the valve noise. If you have trouble telling whether a noise is at one-half or at crankshaft speed. On pre-'71 carburetors. It may be necessary remove the fan and generator assembly to investigate this noise. you can more easily block out the unimportant while concentratingon those you want sounds to hear. the dominantsoundwill be the exhaust. the intermittent sounds-the oddballs. but do anyway. so you can more easily hear internal engine noises. It works best when held against a solid part-head. you'll have established baselineof the engine's condition. reducing piston-to-bore clearance. in effect. solenoid's Theorifice is very small and eventhe tiniest dirt particlecan clog it.biased People so eyesight. There is one bottom-end noise that can happen at every other revolutionpiston slap. Consequently. so dieseling shouldn'tbe a problem with them. Fuel-injection systems stop fuel delivery when the engine is shut-off. First. NOISE DIAGNOSIS Internal Noises-Diagnosing engine noisesis a difficult and imprecise art. or if all the valves are making more of a harsh clacking sound. Ifvalve adjustmentdoesn't cure a valve-train noise. lay down in back and to the side. If you don't find anything. If there is any appreciable movement other than 90'to the shaft. so engine vibrations don't bounce the dowel into your ear.If you don't hear a click. Try the rocker arms.let's start in on how to find themwithout taking the engine apart. intermittent rattling noise from the sheet-metalfan shroud of Type I and 2 engines may be a loose or broken fan. trace and repair the wiring fault. toward perceiving via their aro. If the noise occurs twice for every flash. close your eyesto help focus attention to the sounds. The engine mayor may not be exhibiting problems.If the noise disappears. For example. before the pistons have expanded. Ifyou suspecta noise from againsta beneatha cover. and thoseoccurring at every other crank revolution.As you listen to an air-cooledVW. Ifyou hear one valve over the rest. A proper valve adjustmentcan only be done while the engine is cold. timing and idleare adjustments required in thesecasesto speed stopdieseling. Stop the engine. ranging from with ahouse fan.the main noise of an idling engine should be the soft ticking of the valve train. measurement. those that you can noises hearwill sound different from each spot'. bolt heador the like. Piston slap is the sound produced by the piston slamming againstthe cylinder as that cylinder fires at the top ofthe power stroke. worn rod bearingsand main bearings. It's a great way to pinpoint a noise. Openthe hood. manifold.With a hose. But. Someonemay have replaced the solenoid with a standard idle screw. place the stethoscope nearby bolt head or solid rail. All air-cooled jt unless is VWs use 0. not the leastbeing the human factor. rubbing hoses.Leaning forward into the engine compartmentwill help mask the exhaust. By poking around the engine compartment. Never close a valve adjustment tighter than 0. a length ofhose or dowel can be used instead of a stethoscope. There have been other clearancesspecified by VW in by the past. but it helps mask soundsfrom the sides and amplifies those in front. position the receiving end of the dowel againstyour skull. it's at crankshaft speed-a bottom-endproblem. Check the tightness of the large fan retaining nut. DIAGNOSIS Now that we've examined some engine oroblems. you can locate it on a warm engine. Abnormal Fan Noises-A lot of abnormal noises come from outside the engine. the rocker-arm bushing or shaft is worn.. 11 . try different spots. rocker arms and lifters. but all have been superseded the 0. On Type 3s with dual carburetors (and two determinewhich one is defective by solenoids). Carburetorsnot originally equipped with the solenoid can't haveit added. Engine noises can be lumped into three categories: intermittent ones. learn to mentally dissect what you arehearing. standto one side. You won't hear all from each spot. When investigating an automotive sound. it occurs on every other crank revolution. Rocker arms can be checkedby moving each by hand with the valve completely closed. As a secondchoice. you can decidewhether to rebuild now or later. the solenoid is thewire is bad and needs to be replaced. Then all the valve-adjustment tightening in the world won't quiet the engine. and probe the fan area with your hand.Upon first hearinga running engine. an automotive stethoscopehas a solid metal probe at the business end. adjust the valves. This. it's possible there is a wom camshaft lobe or lifter. the problem is in the fan' A sharp. the noise is at one-half crankshaft speed-a top-end problem or piston slap. first one solenoid and then the disconnecting other. Piston slap is easiestto detect on a cold engine. If it does. critically identifying each sound. Piston slap is audible when piston{o-bore clearanceis excessive. sit inside the car. Unlike the stethoscopea doctor uses. A shot of compressedair usuallyclears the orifice. Raise the rpm past idle and the ticking should turn into a whirr.006-in.which increases er inspection require engine disassembly. If "hot" (has voltage). if you are checking for one loose valve. If the valve noise remains after adjustment. or the valve will burn. Remove any debris.Cupping your hands around your ears may look funny. remove the fan belt and run the engine for a few seconds. valve clearance. check if the wireis supplying electricity with a test light.And. If the wire is "dead"(no voltage). For example.

muffler and tailpipe extensions are the usual spots. more serious problems. This givesthe high-voltage electricity somewhere to go. graspthe bootaroundthe distributor-cap terminal. When you get to the affected cylinder. In fact. DISABLINGTHE IGNITION Many diagnostic tests call for the ignition system to be disabled. they don't make any noise. Rods also wear with accumulated mileage. When thesepins wear. Intake-Air Hissing-A loud hissing accompanied by poor idling usually indicates an intake-air leak. so don't be confused by them.This the can destroyan expensive electronic-ignition module. Disabling the cylinder will reduce piston slap because combustion loads no longer exist. Ona by sele until tht engine 1 on the t tor. remove and replacethe sparkplugwire to each cylinder one at a time. Piston slap is a dull. and all other precision clearances have been destroyed by the passingmetal. tt Placetl ly with tor slov load thr main br right al and trar the tral test is ( WV Piston-Pin Noise-All air-cooled VWs use full-floating piston pins. then quickly unloaded. you'll hear a phuft. Another typical exhaustsound is a whistle as the engine is accelerated. oil can't fill the gap between the rod bearing and crankshaft. you'lI hear one steady knocking beat. Piston Slap-Piston slap has already been mentioned becauseof its timing.The twisthelpsbreakany corrosion that resistswire removal.You'll have to apply considerablepressure to exhaust openings as a well-sealed system has a lot of pressure. This sound is often heard during a cold start before oil pressurebuilds. so don't lose any sleep over them. knock or pound. hollow sound. disconnectand plugvacuumlineleading dashpot. Exhaust is very hot. the better. lt dows throttle closingvia rod restingagainst throttle linkage. which is being disconnected. or they'll get burned. Even when a clip is broken and the pin is free to score the cylinder.rtto detect bad piston pins. the noise will greatly diminish. So. On dualport and fuel-injected engines. phuft sound coming from the leak. Then they wear in sets. When the bearing between the free end of the lead and ground. and camshaft are sure to be broken. phuft. some are betterthan others. worn rod bearings are bad main bearings. it covers the oil holes in the crankshaft. Be sure to ground the plug lead when disabling a cylinder. Ifyou are on a long trip and overheat the engine. the rod will weld itself to the crankshaft.there are severalways to short-circuit electrical the supplyto the plugs. Metal-to-metal contact startsas the rod bearing is slammed against the crankshaft. Round can at right is throttle dashpot. To test for rod knock. The high-tension lead is the large.groundthe leadto the head or engineblock. In other words. Cold-start enrichment devices normally make some sucking or hissing sound while they are operating. but deeper than. so it sounds off in time with the valve train. For quicker throttle response when testing for rod knock. case.simplyreinsert the lead into the distributor cap. sealing the ends of the pipes wilt stop the engine. the rods should rattle. When rod-bearing clearanceis large. say from 1000-2000 rpm. Distributor Chirping-Dry distributor-cam surfaces can cause the points to give a highpitched chirping. seizeand break. depending on how you hear it. The rod. insteadof continuing build voltage to andtryingto arcto groundinside coil. Ifyou think you hearpiston slap. Rod knock describesthe knocking sound made by a connecting rod when there is excessiveclearancebetween it and the crankshaft. STOP! Rebuild the engine while there is still enough to rebuild.but dashpotsare found on all air-cooledVWs. andabruptly lift offthe accelerator. Usr speed a don't k throttle bearing frequen this betl for rnor the clutr while gr periods with axle. so it's a good idea to check the exhaust system before jumping to any conclusions. Bent crank pulleys areeasily seen by sighting acrossthem while the engine idles. Exhaust systems can leak from anywhere. Reconnecting the plug lead will restorethe noise. plus the air intake and metering areain general. If one rod is bad. examine the rubber hose sections of the intake manifold. commonly called a vacuum leak. The sooneryou stop and overhaul the engine. Engine rpm must drop sharply. cover the exhaust outlets with palms that are swathedin wet rags or block the pipes with your shoes. tired bearings. thoroughly warm the engine to operating temperature. if that's easier. or ignitiotn-system damage may occur. phuft.heavily insulatedwire running from the coil to the center of the distributor cap. They are very rarely a problem. Thisis a to 411 engine. ortheir bushingsget loose. Pushing or pulling on the top of the fan shroud will probably eliminate the fan noise. for an instant. Exhaust Leaks-These are often confused with other. See the sidebar for more information on disabling the ignition. To test for main-bearingknock. Continued driving may spin the bearing. Usually metal particles from the rod have been pumped through the engine with the oil. screwdriver or the like.It is causedby loose or cheap replacementtailpipe baffles on Beetles and early Buses. With conventional ignitionsystems. Make surethe distributor cam and points rubbing block are well-lubricated and then recheck. Oncethe testis done. for the they rar especi bearinl knocki are a ri DIAGl Crank is an en the pur ing thr crankir sealed in goo< vacuun portion Beg temper ute drir There' warm i Onc the ign nect y VACUUr intake vacuur of the buretor Port \ mary create ious e vacuu applic 12 .twistthe lead slightly. with the engine idling. On engines wilh electronic ignition. it won't raise any racket. and pull out the lead. Don't leave your hands or shoesover the exhaust pipes very long. Check the tightness of the carburetor{ointake manifold connections. As rpm drops. It occurs at every power stroke. Main bearings knock for the same reasons as rods-excessive oil clearance-but under different conditions. you may hear the rod knock start out as a light tap.If the exhaust system is tight. Rod Knock-If there is one internal engine noise associated with air-cooled VWs. serious damage has been done to the crankshaft and rod. lightly rev the engine. A spun bearing is one that is rotating relative to the rod and the crankshaft. there's a better chance of hearing it while driving than listening for it with the hood open. put the thoroughly warmed engine under load. Ihere shouldbe no morethanal/4-in. Oil ceasesto flow to that rod and it rapidly overheats. The sheet-metalshrouding can be bent out of the way with a wooden dowel. move into a medium rap and finally develop into a knock. It's difficult to hear over the normally loud VW engine mechanicals and not easy to isolate. A few well-placed wooden block and hammer blows can straighten out a bent pulley. If there are leaks. Main-Bearing Knock-Sounding similar to. Many times. With the transaxlein neutral. plus the intake manifold-to-cylinder head hardware. You have to take the engine apa. so you'll hear a castanet-like rattling with old. When you hear a rod knock. rod knock is it. the bearing is no longer clamped by the connecting rod. By the time a rod is knocking. To remove it. but mating flanges at the cylinders. Now. This is becausethe rods float on their joumals as they pass through the transition of being loaded.. The best way is to removethe high-tension leadfromthe center of the distributor cap and ground it.Rhythmic scraping soundsare likely to be a bent crankshaft pu11ey the cooling fan rubor bing the fan shroud.

Hgwarmit up. A note about altitude and how it affects vacuum readings. few seconds test over. Keep engine speed about 1000 rpm during the test and at don'tlet the car creep forward. cranking vacuum will drop about I inch of mercury DIAGNOSTIC TESTS step (in. accelerating during other while or periods high engine load. Any vacuum nipple on the intakemanifold will do. and con. You cando the sameby inserting a metal spring between the sparkplug and lead.On a manuai-transaxle load the engine car. but lower reading. By comparingthe resulting rpm drop for each disabled cylinder.valves. too. or cylinders. to however. the lead has to be grounded without open-firing it first.Check for heat out of the heater. If the main bearings going to knock. Manifold much vacuumduring problemsin secondswith a vacuumgage.pull all sparkplugleadsoff the sparkplugs.There is no needto keep the engine andtransaxle straining-this is very tough on (5-10) and the A thetransaxle. The idea is to pull the lead away from the plug and ground it against the head and stop that plug from firing-this is called open-firing. of fail. But. canalsohearbadmain bearings You goinguphill. To pinpoint the cylPortedvacuum exists in the carburetor priinder at fault. tesl for bad main bearings easier.the engine will produce a lot of vacuum-if not. If you hear are knocking orpounding from the are really testing how wellthe sealed cylinders are. worn cam lobes.By measur. is VW mainbearingsare quite large and strong for thehorsepower the engines. There's need to overheatthe engine. The vacuum ing the vacuum an engine produces while at valuesgiven below are for measurements sea cranking.This is easiersaidthan done in the confines of a Bus engine compartment.This engineisn't drawing shot.pistonsor rings. crankingvacuumvalueswill be 5 in. it alsoisolates applications-opposite of the high manifold- cylinders contribute little to manifold vacuum. byselecting first gear and letting out the clutch untiltheenginebeginsto labor. The engine will then be running on three cylinders. the Place transaxlein gear. wearout.Hg. use a dwell/tachometer measure rpm drop for eachcylinder. or have a friend crank portionately the engine. the knocking main and will sound off with a heavy. hold the brake firmthe ly with your left foot and depressthe acceleratorslowlywith your right. Beginby warming the engine to operating pull a steadyvacuum ofabout l0 in. a ious emission-control switches. It creates vacuum signal usedfor operating var. a bad one showsright away. The rod especially bearings much more suspect.The car's tachis not 't3 . they'11 so are do rightaway.pecially slow-cranking ones with 6-volt startlng systems. too. just above the throttle plates.They are equipped tion that can't be open-fired. Don't overdoit.burnedvalves. disable it's normal on a four-cylinder engine."''* You can detect maior of vacuumis excellentindicator overallenginecondition.through the rear window. for example in Denver. you can determinewhich cylinder is at fault.Hg thepumping below areading taken at sealevel. iunningidle test. With a little throttle clutchjuggling.Therefore.Hg.orado. Colisanengine-cranking ability of the engine. a If you suspect burnedvalve or other major problem.tests. you'll have to perfbrm more maryventuri. just loadthe engineso the car tries to creep.This is they rarely true of Type 4 engines. ear-calibrated powerbalancetest will tell what you want to knowwhich cylinder is it? BecauseVWs have only four cylinders. test is the best method.Thus. tester A professionaloscilloscope/diagnostic easilydoesthis. just have a steady. estheignition so the engine can't start.) temperature-tenminutes idling or a five minA wom engine with no major problems will utedrive. An engine in good condition will lower.Use the parking brake. of With an Auto-Stick or full automatic transis axle. Don't be no alarmedif the needleswings about 2 in. '-%iffi' "Y::. at 5000 ft. test To do a power-balance on them.Hg. Vacuum-The next diagnostic Cranking vacuum test. a quick. If you are looking for a more subtle problem. warped cylinder heads and worn buretors fuel-injectionsystems. so a professional To perform a power-balance test on other engines. You can perform a power-balancetest at home '79 and later on any air-cooled VW except for with electronicigniBuses. Just make sure the then there is a problem. Be careful! Don't do this for morethan three secondsor you'll burn out theclutch. Such a vacuum drop vacuum sourceisn't ported vacuum-from one can have numerous causes: poorly adjusted of the small diameter nipples on later car. chances area rod is about to fail. This checks So.Hg) for each 1000-ft increasein altitude. racuumsource. touch a grounded wire to the spring. You're going to lift a lead off its plug without a lot of tugging. nect your vacuum gage to a fulL manfoldIf the needleregularlydropsto near0 in. lowbearings pounding. Prop the vacuum gage so you can see it in goodshape. Then load the furtherby putting half of your right foot engine onthebrakeand the other half on the accelerator. Judgingfrom grit and lackof air filter. If all internal parts are level.pulled head studs. vacuum will be pro.Becauseatmosphericpressure drops as altitude increases. You can practically feel fiequency this better thanhearit. then set the leads lightly back on the tops. the Once engineis warm. it's a Power-Balance Test-This test shows how vacuumsignal that reads low on part-throttle much each cylinder contributes to the power which outputofan engine. Then to ground the lead. (This 5 sameenginein Denver is registering in.ringsare probably vacuum readings under the same conditions. or makenoise. shut it off.

and the porcelain insulator will appear burned. with an even tan coating and slight rounding of the electrodes.andyou'll seeit hasusefuldiagnostic potential.A carbon-fouledplug's dry.) to if the much are 1o Re grve( 14 . When reading plugs.possiblyfrom worn rings and valve guides. if all cylinders are bad. Distributor driveshaftslot positionat TDC.Photoscourtesy ChampionSpark Hu! C'ompany. crankpulleysahdfans rotateclockwise.Oil in the combustionchamber will leavethe plug wet and shiny black. flat-black carbon. t/ i(il i .the porcelain insulator around the center eleccessively_rich airlfuelmixtures. Il busyp plug h wit c and cr about cranki come fast cr highe \ same of cor Lik are de surec in. If the mixture is too lean.FLYWHEEL + "":? 'tEtrcET - | --\^Y/-7-l-. plug c is carbon-fouled.cylinder#1. The black depositsshould wipe off easily. depending on the individual fuel blend beihg used. ) helper any ca compr The disabk out for engine fully c openin using i linkag helps.)KY. Therefore. Good VW cylinders usually register a drop of about 200 can-yieldimportanttroubleshooting clues. write down the reading and reconnect the plug lead.---\iI vi l\ i\ FLYWHEEL + . the plug will be coatedwith dry. accurate enough for this test. The insulator can also turn a pastel green or yellow in normal operation. lt's worn out. sparkplu.Jl self. ingam will ct engine Scr use. Becausethe compressiontest follows. Remember. Plug B is oiFfouled. distributorpositionat TDC (Top Dead Center)and firingorder. a really bad cylinder may not drop in rpm at all. Normally. plug D is trodethan the metal shell.K" Type3 Type2 i1 \ | i Cylinderlayout. - i p ao"= rir cAsE a E l T r N r . *. flat-blackcoating comes from ex. let's discusssparkplugreadingnow. Note vacuumadvancecan positibnand rotor tip points at #1 when installed. a plug should be dry. Rub Reading.. pay more attention to consumption. PlugA suffers from heavily rounded electrodes and pitted insulator. If the fuel mixture is too rich. which requires sparkplug removal. = |LINE PARTINGE ---. But when thesereadings start varying by more than 40 or 50 rpm. Now.All distributorroiors.Electroderoundingisrnoderateand insulatbris even tan dr gray.Shiny-black-coating inciicaiesexcesd oil that won't rub off easily. the plug will be powdered with a white coating. Replacesuch plugs and engin6 that into your palm and you get an oily mess performancewill improve. Late Type 2 & Type 4 Type 1 & EarlyType2 @ Type 3 rype l&Earry f-b-l' rype2 ( ((a\ 6-Ll . B Reading Sparkplugs-Think of a sparkplug as a removable portion of the combustion chamber. none will drop very much.the cylinders with the leastdrop are the bad ones. don't confuse it with oil-fouling. Don't expect the readingsto be any closer than 20 rpm.. Also be aware that soark- plugs I show tl cause0 driven You who re turn ad race. Noteoffset of slot: thicker arc faces different positiondeiending on engine. It doesn't matter so much how far rpm drops as how close the readings are to each other. f engine oily plr with tt Compr pressio conditi There r taperec and he the scr difficu mount coolinl hold a bent ir screwtype.stop-and-go drivingor-a too-coldplug heit range. unusual combustion. Go to the next plug and do the same until you've done all four. Rub the carbon onto the palm of your hand. take notice. With thc tachometerconnected. It's most sensitive to normal. when . indicaiing ii well coloring and more likely to show symptoms of all in the combustionchamber. ground the first plug lead and wait for engine rpm to stabilize. Of course.

ignition Double-check your findings with the 7570rule: ind all sparkplugs removed' Watch disabled HIGHERALTITUDE& cylinders must read within 757oof the highA11 outfor hot partswheneverworking on a warm LOWER COMPRESS]ON est cylinder. With a small. instead. you'll be termine how many squirts it takes to make a conditions. If you crank them some leeway' givedifferentreadings.ip. pression is a good way to measure tne test four-cylinder engine. Use a duration profiles. ' Factor ing the squirts. tuy.sfamiliar comCompressionTesting-The rut" . So."idingt and vice versa. and ancl Altitude will affect compressron reaorngs version is Foputar diagnostic check is compression type.. a cylinder suffering from engineis subjectedto' driven excessiveoiling-from bad rings even-can Youmayhaveheardabout the ace mechanic readingsbecause vield hieh compression-test whoreadihe plugs' then made a one-eighth the seals rings'Again' oil in thecylinder L*. then compression An acceptable be pulled head studs or a lessinDenver' Dependingon the engine' pres. SAE 30W is fine' To depsi) by the factorfor the engine'soperating If se1f. starlerswitch.different compresslon testers hay have inciease by l0 psi at a time. If a friend hard to set a wear limit and say anything above decreaseas alllpressureand temperature helps. Worn camshaft lobes can also just as accurate' also awkward to shrouding. Retestthe low cylinder' If com4000 its compressionstroke' Note how . Give eachcylinder the same .8617 5000 pression comes up markedly. Note: Avoid smokcompresonly 97 psi and-the pensatefor this when interpreting ei.if possible. They will registerlower valuesthe higher difficult useon VWs because cone and its rubber'conetype likeone shownis atttrouglr are mount usuallytoo shortto reachthrough the thE altitude. Compressionreadingsare influencedby psi. and tempressure "Screw-in (accounting decreased for To help determinethe causeof low compresto compressiontesters are easier Just multlply for oerature) difterentaltitudes. relaThat'son a race engine.9151 Crank the engine two revolutions or so to 30O0 crankingspeed slow as the tested cylinder . with their longbentinto a VW engine compartment. trouble reaching 40 psi and. Usually' a cylinder will pr-oTrouble is idS if the figures seem generally low' wltn seaduce40 psi on the first piston stroke' another35 could be reading low comp-ared muchmorelikely if only one or two cylinders Lu"Lm"u. al operatingaltitude. Screw-in tester is easiest to use' ings. heldagainstthe open sparkplug hole. they in oo. Remember.. A helper is bestjn breathing.. of squirtinga teaspoon oil sion. consider them faulty' Below 14.ith. it isn't likely that the batof condition the rings. do iwet testby value for compression1in Justscrewit in and crank the engine youruse.r. cylinders and valves' tery will run down during a compresslontests' are There two types of compression testers: a But if it does. over150psi. if you're compressionvalues are usually based. mulriply 125by 0.ur"tents. even reaolngs psi. ihe specification into that cylinder. also give lower compress^ton tester.t up on . is ensine uanked.higher speedgives higher pre. i"r. tively high readings can result' can't be read that way' Check for the ensine There are variables that affect the readings a reveals problem engine. the pushing conetightly againstthe sparkbusy teaspoonget a teaspoonand fill it while countolushole.on that. *.so allow 15 .ninitresult low readingsSo.enough. can ioi e*impre.en. to tumadjustmenl the carburetor and won the if you crank this type of cylinder about 5000 ft' the sure rangefrom 75 psi (pounds per square warped be You may notice a cylinder that takes a long equivalenicompressionreading would.They are cooling cause lower-than-normal readings' Highcylinder pressure while you are hold against oerformance camshafts.valves. So.7psratmospnerday cnnditions: u"r. There. psi at sea levelwouldregister cylinder head.8359 6000 ihe trouble is poor ring{o-bore sealing' A rereading' Test all four cylinders the highest .they'll come close to the other cylinolussfrom a street-drivenengine can onty ders. butiustfinefor the actupsi on tire next and so on. Compression testing takes place at it because leavesyou free to watch the case anv cranking speed-well below idle speed' gageduring the test' compression The engine must be warmed up. not desirable' It is and 59F at sea level.or. If using the conescrew-in : 108 psi' The cylinders time to pump up. oI compression the problem is probably with the of reading 125 Like the plug oit"y ona street obtained from compression testing' One is withtheringsor valveguldes' cranking speed.)to psi X . becausethis conditionsbethe sholw mostbasiccombustion condition is usually causedby poor nngs' ofthemanyoperatingconditions a streetcause On the other hand.8881 soreadthe oil.This is becausesuch cams sacntrce type.r. Wet tLst such a cylinder. Just make sure the oil can has . plugs in a street race. I would be wary of the the *ilt ro*i out of the sparkplug holes when The chart supplies correction factors low cylinder. if a cylinderyietded the because airlfuel charge ingandopenflames sion-testresults. prop the throttle acceptatle. hold the thottle open oil into the cylinder. urinn standard Notice I said acceptable. you use a rubber-conetester.75 to get94 Therefore' test-part-throttle for ful'ivopenfor an accurate Specifications altitudeand temperature. l2Oor 125psi. . are if all cylindersread above 94 psi.7860 8000 increase much' about 5 compression doesn't strokes. if the highestreading is^l25 The throttle and choke plate must be engine.havehim fully depressthe accelerator is sood and all below are bad' In the example tude increasesabove sea level. The rubber-cone thescrew-in even as it influences manifold-vacuum readthe to'll need a remote starter switch or a low-rpm breathing for improved high-rpm tt.8106 7000 number builtl is neededto restorethe lost clearances'If ruL. don't be too concerned in.jump the battery to anotherone to type that is inserted into rubber-cone tapered maintain cranking sPeed.9711 1000 andcrankthe engine so the testedcylinder is full so you don't squirt air into the cylinder' . 40 psi or more.9428 strokes' You can hear 2000 6-8 compression about . It could also aredesirable. so comwhin crankingthe engine.t method. Then squirt the sameamount oI Altitude (ft) frith .Atmospnenc ic pressure linkageopen with a screwdriver.ito crankthe engine. Problem cylinders arelow. jot down the increasesand fast compression .

you can the feel when the piston is at the top of its stroke. Leakage for an engine in good condition is 16 valve is to hook an HC/CO meterto the tailpipe and squirt some carburetorcleanerinto the cylinder. rotate the engineI 80' to cylinder #4 and testit. you can hear the hiss of escaping air in the tailpipe. install the hose adapter in the sparkplug hole. disconnect the tester. but doesn't normally warrant a rebuild.If so. if you have accessto a leak-down tester. At first glance. if the engine seemswellsealed at the valves and cylinders. Frequent valve adjustments become necessary keep noise down to and the valves adjusted. With the screwdriver contacting pistontop. a leak-down tester will definitely help you make a decision.A20Voleakage indicate can a high-mileageengine. Sometimes leakage is evenly divided and hard to attribute to one source. Many tuneup shopscan do the test for you.leakagewill approachl007o as all the compressed blows by an open valve. On the other hand. You might as well get on with rebuilding the engine. skip thecompression andtestthecylinders resl witir the more accurate leak-down tester. Farmthis test out to get accurate evaluationof engine condition. Check the engine timing marksto make sureit's exactly on TDC. and inspectthe camshaft and lifters directly. but lacks power and has noisy valves that won't stay in adjustment. unlessyou do a lot of enginediagnosis. valve lift decreases and the ensine doesn't breath as well.the piston must be at TDC of its compression stroke so both valves are closed. The top of the lobe is cut at a slight angle. generator. Next. thin screwdriver into the combustion chamberthrough the sparkplug hole. Bring the # I cylinder to top deadcenter (TDC) of the its compressionstroke. Leak-downtestequipmentis expensive. However. intake-air sensor or breather. It is possible to disable one cylinder by adjusting its valves. Then testcylinders#3 and. This is especially true if there is a burnedvalve. Need as for air compressor. So. a leak-down test is an excellentidea. the HC portion of the meter will peg instantaneously If you usea ! tuneup shop for the leak-down test. It takes a minute for the leakage to reach the meter. The cost should be minimal. holed piston or the like. a leak-down test is more accuratethan comJiession testing.or the cam lobe'wears flat. there is little need to consider valve lift. Then the lifter tendsnot to rotate. Problems start when the lifter wearsa sroove into its concavesurface. alternator. ir's a sure iign of multiple problems. the less valve lift and horsepower. Compressed aii is pumped to the cylinder while the tester monitors how much air it takes to make uo for cylinder leakage.Bad-sealing rings and cylinders can be detectedat the oil-breather or dipstick holes. To understandthe wear cycte.The readoutis in percent leakage. It is also a test that can be skipped most of the time. however. The higher the leakage rate. One way to spot a suspected leaky exhaust . You'll need an air compressor(a l/2-Hp model will do) and the leak-down tester if performing the test yourself. and wear concentratesln one spot. others are available separatetools.Accuracy is improved beiause variables affecting compression-test readings-those that have no bearingon the sealing capability of an engine-are eliminated. And. Power is reducedand valve train noise increasesbecausethe valve clearanceincreaseswith cam and lifter wear. Testing is done with the engine stationary. holed piston or other catastrophic cylinder damage. This test actually doesn't require a leak-down tester. You can usuallytell what's leakingby listening to the engine with the tester attached. That will provoke some mystery! What happensis the lifter rotatesright aftera valveadjustment. but ifthe exhaustvalve is leaking. the engine witl kick over without warning the instant the cylinder is pressurized. valve duration. This makes the lifter rotate with each valve opening and spreadswear over the surface of the lifter.cost and more involved test procedure usually prohibit homemechanicuse. the worsetheproblem. Leakage past intake valves can be heard at the carburetor or intake-airsensor. so that when the lifter restsagainstit. Remember.this is one test to farm out. This wears the lifter and especially the lobe very againrotaringthe crank 180oeach time. A leak-down tester uses an external airpressuresource. tl and ne If th needsi cam al replace quired timely Chanc Leak-downtesting can indicatemore about engine conditionthan any other test.Insteacl. the working surface of a lifter and the top edge of a camshaft lobe look flat. altitude or excessiveoiling. During the test. A good way to check for TDC is to insert a long. partof the the a lifter which is closeto originalthickn-essnow is against the lobe. even frequent valve adjustments don't stop the wear once it is started.A length ofhose can aid listeningin somechassis holding by oneendat yourearind the other where you suspect leakage: carburetor. such as a badly burned valve. or fan. they should have an HC/CO meter available. A 30Va leakage is serious enough for an engine overhaul or valve job.Leak-Down Testing-Although it's also a measure of combustion-chamber sealins. Therefore. a9OVo leakageindicatesseriousdamage. Pulled head studsmay causehissing leaks between the cylinder heads and cylinders. both the rings and valvesmay be leaking. Of course. the test is not influenced by cranking speed. valve lift is likely your problem.If the exhaustvalve is lenking. If you are diagnosing a car before buying it. then connectthe testerto the adapter and the air compressor. #2. VALVE LIFT Valve lift is the distancethe valve is moved off its seat by the camshaft. until the lobe is considerably shorter than when new. This will keep the engine for turning over. They only reduce the valve clearancefor the short time it takes the lobe to wear down some more. the contact point is off-center. have a helper hold the crank with a socket on the crank-pulley nut. Instead. Once finished with the first cylinder.just an adapter for the sparkplug hole and a compressed-airsource. As the cam lobes lts center protrudes more than the edges.the lifter's bottomis convex. Otherwise. If the diagnostic tests thus far indicate worn engine internals.o so longerover cam Iobe. the worn spolis. This unit is part of professional diagnostictester. They aren't. or air the engine will tum over. first consider how camshafts and lifters are made. even just a little. A compression test gives an accurate enoughpicture ofan engine's condition 90Zoof the time. lOVoor less. But becausethe valve was adjuste clearan valve < started runs oI If y< find it adjuste loosen engine starts c its lovr now. Reconnect the leak-down tester and watch the meter. If it's slightly off. Start by reading the instructionsthat came with the tester. Increased noise is part of the wear process becausevalve clearance increasesas the lobe and lifter grind down. If the compressionreadings are baffling. The shorter the lobe.

then rotate the crank pulley until the valve is completely open. Complete engine disassembly is requiredto service the cam and lifters. as well. the a camand lifters are worn out and need to be replaced. Measuring Valve Lift-Some VW specialists. though. Bring the indicator's plunger to bear on the valve-spring retainer. On somechassis. use a dial indicator to measurevalve lift at the valve-spring retainer. a bit puzzled. When the ensine is started. Then five minutes later it starts clackingaway as the dished lifter rotates its low spot over the lobe again. Measuring valve lift lets them determine there is no camshaftwear. Indicator magneticbaseswon't attachto aluminum cylinder heads. you'Il need a dial indicator. and don't have time to split the caseto look at the camshaftbetween races. actual valve for clearance zero and the lobe is holdins the is valve openal! rhe time. Read valve lift directly on the dial. valve clearance will subtract. so it's timely rebuild the rest of the engine. If measuringvalve lift. the cam is worn and will need to be replaced or reground. because you are measuring valve lift. look for a valve that is liftine considerably rhanits neighbors. In other words.000 or more miles and needs valve adjustmentevery 500 miles.theengine'scam and lifters are worn out andneedreplacing. you'll findit tight on rharcylinder. Note the space available for a dial indicator before considering measuring valve lift. If you recheck the valve clearance. Zero the dial indicator.adjusted the worn section. a valvi less If is lifting less than the 914s. allow for the rocker-arm ratio and valve clearance. compression can't buildandtheingine runson three cylinders. For a test of this kind. to Chances the valves and cylinders are worn are anyway. so endless valve adjustments are usually another clue that the engine needs an overhaul. consequentty. don't be concerned about the absolute valve lift. No puzzle now. you loosen adjustmentto specificationsand the the engine runs fine. Rotate the engine until that valve is completely closed. So. but valve lift relative to the other valves. If the enginehas 50. Remember. . this measurement is out ofthe question unlessthe engineis out of the car.but might mount on the cooling shroud or exhaust. they don't have to split the casesto determine the cam's condition. Racer'scan't hearnoisy valves over open exhaust. some way to mount it near the valve springs and enough room to fit the instrument. They can then determine if the cam lobe is wearingdown. Rocker-arm ratio w111 add to lift measuredat the cam lobe. which was iust adjusted conectly. like drag racers.

The steam cleaningor solventblasting.gine steamcleaned.Engine Removal ffi Use g.Steamcleaningthe top is jack stands. Problem is. only a floorjack! Besides. For the samereason.ifyou're planningto buy a floorjack.but the same steamcleaning. It works well gOVo when it does. to work on.clutch.the sheetmetal. Suppr ward qoncrr betwe tion. clean the enginebefore working engine. solvent blasting shapedto fit. a 1-1/2but all accessories. Solve that by doing the job at a car Besidesprotectingthe enginefrom gouges.Haphazardly in remov. Jacksare stallation. you'll needa l-112-tonversionfor lifting most other cars. Engine Cleaning-A dirty engineis miserable driveway. a piece of will sink into the dirt instead. Theseparts must be kept dry or It's frustratingto pull on the engine. it could be fatal. A thorfloorjack andjack standscan be rented. and. moval will reward you when installing your Solvent blasting uses compressedair and Ajack can fail. It under Con when movin The cl pendir about angry cities.carburetorwith plastic bags or aluminum foil are making engineremoval safer and a lot easier. many different types of chassis. use afloor jack andjack stands. jack stands. Threemethods general. This makesthe Avoid theseproblemsby cleaningthe engine Rememberto cover the distributor.differentialand coolingsystem)out of a Camarowith ton jack is sturdierand usually will lift higher.The floor jack is a hydraulicjack in a wheeledframe. ly available:steam cleaning. check with a tractor or heavy. you warm the jacking point for loweringthe engineis right Additionally. roll the engine/jackcombinationtoward you.the mechanic and is trapped atop the engine by A for raising and lowering.You'll need a sizeable let on it anddecidewhereto pull it.this method works as well as only to have the jack stop and the engineslip suchas an oil leakerdriven on dirt roads. not. port the car during engineremovaland installa. the stinky mess ends up on your betweenthe engine and floor jack.ldflywheelto make widerfloorjacksaddle. Containers for degreaser can penetrate. Typically. Wdd short length of pipe over gland-nut bore to secure flywheel in jack. little prepara. scising an engine guarantees headaches during intoo messyasthe hot solution is reflectedback at sors.It's alsodangerous. and if you are underthe car rebuilt engine. spray and leave the messthere. Never use any jack (bumper.Don't forget off. have a gardenhose.then hoseoff the crud. Most service stations have the equip. A VW air-cooled engine is lowered fromils special tools are needed for all cars: a floor Spray degreasercan be usedat home if you raised chassiswith a floor iack. Evenon equipmentshop. r Get O engint where an enf big bc do ge find y the ch wil disco and di memc and fi and br housi and s dropp Ge .Look Air-cooledVolkswagenengines found in are ough solvent blasting takes about as long as in the phone book under Rentals.hopingto and spray degreasing.The floor jack resists ment. able. surfaces somethingto dig into. Steam cleaning is for truly filthy enginesWith patience. transmission.for supportinga tion and caution before and during engine re. solvent to blow off the dirt. Use two jack of the time. If Y try rer the ph hobby base. costis reasonable thejob takesabouta half and to remove this waterproofingbefore driving.but imaginepullingequivalent package(enginewith VWs a l-ton version is adequate.For Powertrain on 914 is somewhatheavy.standsto hold up the rear of the car.(Yes.very hard packeddirt. little pebblescan chock 18 the jar jerkinl ing gn full sh on. Both the to PREPARATION ing and practically any shop can do it. piece of ll2-in. you'll have a hard time restartingthe engine.try not to removea VW hour. fasteners hide under wash. Cost is comparable steamclean. Use the high-pressure water/detergent the soft plywood givesthe hardengineandjack the goo and grime gets underyour fingernails. Engine removal and installationare imporConsiderhaving only the bottom of the enOnce the car is up. A balanced jack. it happens!) engineon a dirt surface.Lifting & Lowering Tools-To raiseand sup. or thicker plywood to place hardwaremust also be readied. you must support it with tantsteps any overhaul. car while you are underneath. it set so the under the oil strainer.rolling. Wrenches slip.coil and engine less likely to slip off the jack's pad. If not. screw or otherwise) as a stand.sprayit with degreaser. beforeremovingit.

On the Type 4. thejack wheels.Support with jackstandsany time it is raised.It's aggravating try and start your nect the ls to ls.when handling and storing an oilWe'll examine engine removal chassisby bath air filter. a cable is fitted to the warm air flap on the filter inlet. you'll find your memory can't make any order from thechaos. label and disconnectany hoses. Use one for belland housing hardware.On the 41 I marker. then unlatchthe filter assembly and mechanical disconnections.Labelallwire hoseconnections tapeandpermanent car with marker. The cable is connectedto the engine thermostatand controls engineinlet air temperature response enin to gine temperature.waterproofmarking pen.If you are stationed at a military base. Who knows where those all nutsandboltsso? Well. try rentingspaceat a service station. Squareback and Fastback.even the authorities in some cities. Consider what you'll do with the chassis whenyou removethe engine. the first few of the unit. hose 1 and where it attaches with a 1. It will also keep you cleaner as you work underthe car. up to It's to you to label and keep track ofthe electrical. GetOrganized-It's a trying taskto install an engine someone else removed. lift it off the carburetor and set it aside.or you won't use them.Its hoseattachtery negativecablefirst.On soft asphaltor dirt. backbreaking grunts. and 412 look under the driver's seat. Stationary cars attract vandals. then removethe posi. angrylandlords. so don't skip it! There isn't enoughroom in this book to list all the hose and wire diagrams for the various chassis. hosesand cables. complete with some of the larger tools. With the earlier Beetle.just mark the first the right side of the engine compaftment.tified by its rectangular shape. Karmann Ghia and 914.Let the the filter inlet.taminatethe upperhalf of the filter and spill out cooled VWs are mountedin.You'll thank yourself at installation. Karmann Ghia air filters are mountedto the Drain Oil-Now drain the oil. oil-bath unit.Next.the lessmessyou'll have later when the engine compartment. the Geta roll of masking otherstouttapeanda or BEETLES & KARMANN GHIAS fiYPE 1) Air Filter & Housing-Open theenginecover and remove the air filter. Once it's out. the battery is on hosedoesyou are removing. On Type I -3 right of the engine. During completelyremovethe batteryfor cleaningand engineinstallationall you'll have to do is concharging.disconnectthe bat. The paperelementis easilyidenBattery-On all chassis. On the Beetle. don't rely on memoryalone! for so between standand ground to prevent settling and tipping. When you to do getaroundto installing the engine.Disconnect it at the air filter. Look in thephone book for a do-it-yourself auto shopor hobbyshop. but no problem. Use these for labeling the vacuum and electrical disconnectionsyou'll make. Three weeks is on about average. or oil will conchassisbecauseof the different chassisair. mechanicaland fuel lines.another for heater tubing andso on. you open the engine. Thechassis will be immobile for awhile. and wardol rear wheels on sturdy chassis component. making engine movement a jerkingseriesof barely controlled.the drain plug is the large bolt in the filterto-engine and hot-air hoses.but later engines to and different chassis definitely tax the best can memory. theyoften have auto hobby shopsavailable.set them on These labelsare your insurancefor correctlyinstallingconnections @ncrete best foundation. the the warm-air control flap cablefrom its arm on drain plug is separate from the strainer. moving chassis the meanspushingor towing. Earlier cars had oilbath air filters with a minimum of hoses attachedto them. The batteryis undertherearseatin the them with masking tape and your permanent Beetle. undo center of the oil stainer. 2s to 2s and so on. Labeling disconnections is a critical step. placeplywood during engine installation. there aren't many disconnectionsremember. Label tive one. Without tipping the filter. 19 . keep it upright. Or use a plastic label maker.ments are different. Have the containersready before dropping engine. Unclamp and remove the engines. Save yourself considerabletrouble andfrustrationby getting several coffee cans and boxes labelingthem. On the You don't have to know exactly what the Bus. but now is a good time to next disconnection getsa 2 andso forth. From August '67. The It's not essential.If a dirt floor is all you have. Fuel-Injection Air Filter-Undo the four permanent. Draw your own schematics ofthe various connections help at reassembly. disconnections ofcomponentsaboutthe engine ln'73 a paper-element filter replaced air the aresimilar in all models. pulling anengine throwing all the hardware in one and bigbox amounts the sameeffort. to fiesh engine only to find the battery dead. If youdon't havea dedicatedworking room. ENGINE REMOVAL Remember. depending how fast you work. Placestands for. Label andremovethe crankcase oil drain while you make the variouselectrical breatherhose. too.then unscrewthe clamp at the air-filter housing base. vacuum. The Iongerthe from its mounting bracketand remove it from oil drains. Yet. lay a full sheet ofplywood down to roll the floorjack on.

you'll kink cable.This releases Also remove the fuel line and throttle cable. and remove Generator/Alternator-Mark the three wires on the generator. If the car has an altemator. ( and att Also one retl Get the Thrott tle pc diaphrt under positio but it i lowerir housin will cl Rear I of the partmc piece t After throttle cable is removed from linkage. but it's not the right one. After that. it will also drain from under lid. just leave guide in place.The voltageregulator '73 '74 is mounted separately on and early alternators. nearthe choke heating element and fuel-cutofT wires.In that case. Look on the coil.Neverpull by the wires. pull cable guide from fan housing. The negative to the distributor. and pull it completelyout when lowering the engine. Be careful when pulling back the rubber boot and tugging on the conLater. Ol The Follow labelinl and ten be pusl Mak. In this case. Disduct.Remove the trvo air cleanermounting nuts on either side ofthe hood clampedbehindthe fan housingto hold a homehinge and lift the air sensorand filter housing madegrommet.Tipping filterany morethanthis willsloshoil insideagainst air upper section. remove the multiple-wireconnector. the regulator is integrally mounted on top of the alternator.removethe three slip-on connectlons. Next unscrew the rubber boot's clamp at the A lot of throttle cable guides have been other end of the air sensor. Disconnect the positivecoil wire. Now disconnectthe multiple unbolting the clamping bolt and pushing the wire plug onthe intake air sensor. terminalsfor a * signif you don'tknow which wire alsoruns is the positivewire. them. and hos connec tra fuel installat The r push-on other d. are and alternators. voltageregulators slip-onconnectors used on generator-mounted are clips aroundthe air filter housing. which is the cable toward the fan housing. Fuel Injection-Unfortunately. tributor for the oil-pressure Carburetor-Mark and remove the automatic connect and mark its single wire. Don'tloosencinchboltagainst cabletension. There Electrical Connections-Look underthe disare severalbreatherlines intersecting with this sendingunit.The voltage '66 regulatoris mounted on the generatoron Beetles. chassis. Sometimes a hose clamp is placed on guide in front of fan housing as a retainer. Clean filter canister and changeoil beforefilter is installed rebuiltengine. The throttlecableis removedby unscrewingor the air filter housing cover and the paper air filter element. You have extramarking andremovingof necessary wires engine Bec diseng rear el earlY t screw Latt from I Comp ber ga screw over t fuel-it small aloun manif Thr endsc attach UnSCfl screw Raise until 20 .Always hold linkagestationaryinstead.However. Generatordisconnections normallythree wires right on top of the generator. wires l other. lf so. cast-aluminum box. With the sensorout of the way. you can pull the cable out the fan housing the rest of the way. unclamp and remove the rubber air duct. throttle cable into the guide can push the off as a unit. when the engine is paftially out of the nector. Mark and remove them. on pliers hold throttle cable and linkagewhile cable is Needle-nose or disconnected. brownis have nc out of 1 tically t connec Sometir end. Pull the cable guide out of the fan housing and set it aside. VW's Bosch fuel injection addsa lot of little stepsto engine R&R (Removal and Replacement).

Some leadfrom one side of the engine to the wires other. are pull-off. Freeing the cable end requires pliers to grip the lever. snip cable and buy new ones. the cylinder shouldfall free. have two large hoses leading Laterengines fromthe fan housing to the heat exchangers. Loosen small bolt on heater-control valve arm to free heater cables. They don't have this fuel-injected smallplate. removethesehoses and their rubCompletely at ber gaskets the cover plate end. engine the Because enginemust be slid to the rear to it disengagefrom the transaxleinput shaft. Heater Cables-At the front and sides of the engine you'll find the two heater-control cablesfrom valves.crankcase sensors. Immediately place the jack standsto suppofi and the chassis. and them reversed the enginewill not start. Most manuals say the positioner must come off for engine removal. you'll have to tilt the fan the the forward. Replace or tape-repair damaged hoses. slowly lower the caronto them.With thosepartsgone. by jacking under the engine. course. the Alsoremove two fuel lines: one supply. wires and hosesduring engine trafuelsystem in$allation.Followtray's leading Removerear sheet-metal screws. disconnectingand labeling wiresat the coil.VWs haveto be raised a lot to get the engine can each the unscrew rear engine cover-plate attaching screws pull the plate out of the car. butit isn't so. Just slip them ofi at both ends and set aside. Of wiring is in a harness. tray so the enginecan easilyslide rearward.A bolt passes throughthe leverand cableend and is nuttedon the other side.Then the hamesscan and temperature aside. When you remove the cable.)Finally.Four screws ends oftherearengine attach one. This raises positionerso it housing will clear rearbodywork. two wrenchesand inventive language. When cable and lock bolt are hopelessly frozen. Be one return. the plate must be removed. Use two wrenchesto remove the bolt and nut.Most plugs separate other don't. This is piece sheet metalis part of the cooling sysof tem. (Unless you have a overthe crankshaft engine.merely remove the fbur and screws lift out the plate. Theelectricaldisconnections easily. edge to find its attachment 21 . rearbodywork mustbe high enoughto clearthe top of the fan housing. which are meansmostjack stands raisedto their highest. Get ThrottlePositioner-If the enginehas a throttle positioner. The fuel-injection it Follow aroundthe engine. and theseexYou'll be reconnecting connections. Thehealrisertubecoversare at the outboard coverplate. you'll see an aluminum unit diaphragm-and-cylinder sticking out from underthe carburetor.which works by sealing the top of the from air passingunder it. On rear engine-cover early40-HPengines. Be sure your standsare stout and stablebefore getting under the car. but push-on plugs.never tnder You can crack the case the engineor transaxle. the RearEngine Cover Plate-Between the rear of theengineand the rear of the engine compartment the rear engine cover plate. Practicallyevery time you succeedand the spade inside the connector separates. so be readyfor it.Takeyour time when labelingthese hoses. remove the two covers tubesleading to the intake around heat-riser the manifold. Justleaveit alone. Then unscrewand remove the small separateshroud pully. rectangular brownish.and there's no reason to disconnect Onlyremovea wire if it leavesthe engine them. Later. end.Removethe heater-control their leverson the controlvalves. to and attaches the chassis. Check the stability of the car on the standsby gentlyshakingit from sideto side. and Raise Car-Use the floor jack to raise the car until the ensineis about a vard in the air. when lowering engine. you have extra stepsif the heater controlshaverustedshutand then beenpeened over by rocks. connection the Sometimes wire pulls out of its terminal repair the wire in that case. Alternately.position. Thereis alsoa small cylinder in the lever which the cable passesthrough. sureto correctly mark their flow. and least stabLe. The These are clean aft hoses connecting fan housing and heat exchangers. then the cablewill pull free. injectors. the usual rust penetrant. This is especiallytrue of those You usually connectors. Put the jack under the framejust forward of the transaxle. have choicebut to grasp the wires leading no outof this type of connector and pull. bepushed Makesure you follow the harness.

Bellhousing Nuts-Remove the two 17mm hex nuts and washersat the lower cornersof the bellhousing. All '70 have bolts manual transaxle cars through and nuts at the upper bellhousing. 6. Thesenuts arethreadedonto a pair of studs that fit into the transaxle. so their bellcars in housingshave four studs:two at bottom. few Automatic Stick Shift (Auto-Stick)-A on are extradisconnections necessau carswith the Auto-Stick. Two ATF (Automatic TransOne mission Fluid) lines need disconnecting. not roundedoff and lined up straight with the bolts. Slip off the flexible line and use a pencil or bolt to plug it. Someof thesebolts are8mm. to find the control valve. If you don't have tubing wrenches. if you have the right size. engine bind th work.The best plug is a pipe fitting that has been soldered. You the can separate stud and nut later and reinstall the stud. then have your helper rotate the engine 90" where another bolt will appear in the hole.but I don't like squeezing hard. but take extra care to not round off the hex. Replace the oil sealif that's the case. make sureit has an unthreaded shoulder. pull the large flexible hoses off the heater-control valves' Push the hoses away from the engine so they won't get torn as the engine is lowered. Auto-Stick '70 use nuts on studs. to the left of the ignition coil.A bolt stuffed and clampedin flexforwardfrom heatexchangers. There's no problemwith this. If so. Aluminum foil wrapped several times around the fitting and securedwith a hose clamp works. It threads a special round nut pressedinto the enginecase. all carsuse two bolts but only one nut' At the right side is the usual nut and bolt assembly' into but the left side usesonly a bolt. Thosethat Therest don't go to the enginecanbe left alone. on the fittings. you need At first. If you don't remove the driveplate bolts' the toroue converter will slide out of the transaxle is with the engine. Support Engine-Get the piece of plywood and set it on the jack saddle. so don't worry aboutit. If you usea bolt. It's fast and fuel hosethat clean.but often they clip on the exchang' ible hose will stop fuel tank from siphoning ers and easilYslide off. Use two tubing wrenches. one nut fastening. At its outer edgeit is bolted to the torque converler. Plug the disconnectedfittings so they won't leak. Startingin '71. In bolt. clamped. this far. Still. Look on the firewall. line runs to the ATF tank.' Vise-C wrencl Lower out. tt have tt floor. Whatever the attachmentmethod.a regular open end will do. two at '71 the Auto-Stickswent with the two top. nutsmay be very tight The lowerbellhousing on their studs becauseof rust or impact damage. becausethe offset oil coolThis is necessary '7 roorn er usedfrom I on doesn'tleaveenough to get at a nut from the engine side. Stop rotation when the bolt is the access squarelycenteredin the hole.The enginecan fall on you ifthe upper bolts aren't in place. Remove the bolt. need to be labeled and disconnected. Be ready for ATF to pour out of the line from the tank. too. like on brake lines. brazed or welded shut. there are four driveplate bolts to remove. not the nut from the stud. There are two more bolts still attached on top of the engine' WARNING: If the lower bellhousing fastenersare nuts and bolts. dry. The driveplate is bolted at its center to the crankshaft. Don't worry about the engine falling. Some mechanics pinch the line shut with locking pliers. The lines are steelbraided and use high pressurehydraulic fittings. Mark and disconnectthe hoses the leads. But the transaxle oil seal will be ruined if it's necessaryto pull the torqueconverter with the engine. Continueuntil you haveremovedall four bolts. the left heater-control Fuel Line-Above valve is the fuel line connection from the fuel tank. also called flare-nut wrenches. i ward stantl wire r catch snag Wi the fa on th This 22 . they are easy to get at' This drivetrainis a candidatefor steamcleaning' Once you have the cablesfree. like a flywheel.1 compu Sta the in workir clear t left to On jack. Thesebolts are accessible through a hole in the bottom backside of the engineshave a rubbellhousing. Make sure your socketis clean. A fully threaded bolt can let gasoline leak past through the threads. Have a helper rotate the engine with the crankshaftpully while you watch hole. Thesebolts are small and will break or round off if not treated with care. the stud may unthread from the transaxle. Have a pan underneathand work fast.Fuel-injected ber plug in the accesshole. then pull it off. That's fine if the engine t0 seized and you can't rotate it to gain access the bolts. Lower bellhousingnuts are higher up be' tween transaxleand engine than you might think. compat to remo membe and the access both nu the bol though Havr bolts. but you probably don't have one laying around' Those small plastic caps new brake master cylinders are shipped with work well. carburetedengines have an open hole. remove them onLy after checking that the upper bolts are still in the placeandthe floorjack is setup lo support engine. BecauseAuto-Stick transaxleshave a torque converter between the engine and clutch. Don't lift it too much or you'll bind the engineon thebellhousing studs and have trouble sliding it off them Upper Bellhousing Bolts-Slide out from under the car and turn your attentlon to removlng the upper engine-to-transaxle fasteners.Heaterducts are largeflexiblehosesleading Be preparedfor spillage when disconnecting Thisone was tuei tin'e.or l2-point. the other to the oil pump. and so dirt can't enter the transmission system.lnvestigate vacuum electrical to see which ones must come off. More Auto-Stick disconnectlonsare necessary inside the engine compartment.Then roll thejack under the engine and raise the saddleuntil it is just carryingthe engineweight.

Then the bolts from under the car.or.'wires engine only the right upper bolt is accessiblefrom the an and top. s ) f filters when removing them. and it Vise-Grip pliers to the bolt heads. remove the compaftment watch for hangups. You shouldn't have to raise the chassisvery '70 andthebolt headsare on the transmissionside. the noid connectionsand remove and plug the flexwork. the tioner can get past the rear body panel. The out. The fuel line is on the left. Engine-Plate Screws-Unscrew the l0 rear engine-plate screws and lift out the plate. It's just a slip joint. which the input shaft clears the clutch. Then lower the enginewhile guiding it by the shroud. the torque converter. smoothloweringis allthat'sneeded. hot-air hoses and unclamp the filter gine. Haveyour helper get under the car to hold the Startby pulling back on the floor jack until remove the left upper bellhousing bolt. If you are BUS & TRANSPORTER (TYPE 2 & 4) doubles as a bolt for the starter mountins. ward while slowly lowering the jack. disconnectthe vacuum hosesat the throttlepositioner. The other four are in the rear corners.|It s t.powerplantsto drop: a couple ofdisconnections Remove them and the engine is ready to come stantly monitor the engine so it won't snag a and it practically falls out of the chassis. Six are in the left. It's best to transaxle studs and nuts to secure the brace. On and later engineswith a throttle posi. to seal ruined. The other upper bolt must be removed compartment seal. Pull the engine and floor jack rearward until catches something.lower the and later Buses use the Type 4 engine.once the engine ible fuel hose. then let the is out. 23 . blocks. More typically tipped toward the firewall so the throttle posi. try pulling the throttle positioner. Use one of the second floor jack or prop it up with wood out. With thoseout of the way the enginecan be slid straight back out of the chassis. so get under the engine and toremovethe upper bellhousing fasteners. once you get thisfar. the driveplate will Two sections are necessary to examine Lower Engine-Place the floor jack and ply'71 clear torqueconverterright away.Continueto pull the engine and jack rear. you must tip the engine to clear the might not want to raise the chassisnow. All that's removing Bus enginesbecause the and earlier wood under the'll have to attacha box end wrench or With Auto-Stick transaxles. Busesusethe uprighffan Beetle engineand '72 some engine weight with the jack.and right-forward comers of the plate. Early connect the rear crossmember. On Atfirst. An optional method is to continue rearward and remove the rear bumper and body panel. Have your helper the On onthefan shroud and the other on the muffler. stop the jack. fan Steady enginew itir onehand housingat the carburel. simply remove the crankcase and the bellhousing studs are clear of the enWatchfor the throttle cable as it oulls from breather.quicklyalternating steps.the chassishas to go up so the fan housing will though.the arein theengine nuts compartment the engine. Disconnect Wires. you'll have your handsfull with disconnectthe heater-controlcablesand hoses. then engineaway from the transaxle. Undo the throttle cable at the carburetor and push it forward through the fan housing asfar as it will go. disconnectthe hot-air flap cable. If the engine later engine is more difficult. In fact. the torque converter can have to add a wood block to the two supporting floor jack and another to eyeball the engine slip out of the transaxle. Don't tip the oil-bath air down. wireor cable on the way down. With the transaxlesupported. The top of the fan housing needs to be wait until the engine is ready to come out. a '71 Bus. There is one jack. member. '68-70 models. but both nutswill come off without anyoneholding body. Cables. from underneath. the generator and exhaust. Alterslide under the rear bodywork.Re. workingon an Auto-Stick. you accessible only from under the car.the engineis ready to lower.On '71 Buses. If that doesn't this with the engine in the car. Slip off the starter solebind boltsso they won't turn. on the clutch is clear of the transaxle input shaft snag continuedown. run a braceacrossthe bellhousine to hold is not clamped. Heater-Control Cables-It's time to go underneath anyway. but not overly so. you could remove the carburetor and More Cables & Fuel Hose-Pull the throttle bolts.K'eep eye on hoises. then disOncethe engine has disengaged. bohs will turn. clear the Early Bus (Pre-'72)-Start with the air fitter. Bellhousing Bolts-Now reach way to the front of the engine compartment and remove the two upper bellhousing bolts.enginemust come back and down in small. as Buses stand pretty tall. A simple piecJ of flat Transaxle-Support the transaxle with a Lower Engine-Once the upper fastenersare metal with a hole in it will do. coil. With luck. Label the disconneuiors. Con.high. specially bent box-end wrench if you do loop it out of the way. If no helper is handy.move the jack. wrench turn against the body. generator. be damagedand its oil jack. That might thin. Hoses-Disconnect the distributor. mounted vertically on the plate's rear face. aslow. You'll be looking at the nutted end of the bolts from inside the enginecompartment. On '70-71 Buses. Read the Type 1 section if you need more help with these. you might have peoplefor this job: one to managethe Without this brace. Just barely take up left to do is clear the bellhousing Bus engines are one of the eisiest VW vertical bolt at each end of the crossmember. but the '71 watch for wire and hose snass on the wav This is another good reason to have a helper version has no cable. Removal requires a very cable all the way free of the fan housing. and Up to '68. oilpressuresenderand carburetor wires. tioner. The Bus chassisis so tall. two lower bellhousing nuts.

If not storedupright.lorverbellhousingnuts. I. so it isn't a mirror image oftherightrear automatictransmission transaxles immediately connections. the vacuumhosefrom the intake manifold. disconnect the electricalleatls removingthe rearengineplate.flip open the clips at the balance tube.ate Bus (Post-'72)-Removing this engineis the front engine plate. for It's attached nearthe bottom of the distributor. Fuel-injectedmodels have the under the engine. then lower it outof ElectricalConnections. i pump on carbureted engines. and fuel injectors or car_ plate lirsr. Remove the three Locatethe elecrric connecror plug. hosesattachedto the intake air distributor.Seepage22 in thi lead to the fuel-injection triggering contacts. and remove the two Locate the intake air sensorat the left. r move thc Electric: the elec pressure injected t the vario The fr left-rear comes fr( connecti< case sen perature Also ren pressure wall.Setthejaik cover and paper element. On ceLrbureted enor wood blocks. burelors. On of the case. . Keep it upright. Lal ing them correctly Check with dua ders with of the ca foul the t so unscr Oil Dips clamp ar This is th tube and cooling e nectorbr 'Ihrottle . thecase as may be. Look undertheplay engine. elementfilter. plus with automa. residual sectionin the center of the intake system. Air Filter-Remove the air filter. check the rubber Throttle Cable & Vacuum Hoses-Undo the nuts.ilip off its valve mounted near the blower motor.sifver stickingup from Bus exhaustpipeis oxygen sensor.W ithiabeli ne mate_ filler bellows and dipstick. snug againstthe ensine. lt is '74s All'12-13 engines. Automatic Transmission-This causes some previousType I sectionfbr the reasons this. you can comthrough a hole in the bellhousingfrom inside basically the same as dropping the early Bus pletely pull it through from undemeath. Removethe ginesthere is a hosemounted the to the top of the wood assembly againstthe engine. oil_ pleces on the late Bus. rotate the pipe counterclockwise pull transaxle mounts on Buses without rear and throttlecablefrom the crossbar at the throttle it out. thenunclipping cover. Later. Take off the risht rear jack. remove the ATF filler pipe Once the engine is out. Now raise the iack and olvhoses. n t h i sc h a s s i s . If the the enginecompanmenl. lt's usuallybest to dis.l f s o . Unclamp the large S-shapedrubber On all chassis. First. which and guide the engine so it won't fall off the is in two from the distributor. alternatorregulator. Oil Filler-As on Type 3s.early Bus ground. More Cables & Fuel Hoses-Now slideuoto oil will drain into the upper half of the filter and Coil & More Hoses-Look near thecoil lor an the front of the engineand disconnecttheheater contaminate Unclamp and removethe fresh inline fuseholder. Thc lelt olare Type 4 engine. On dual_ carbureted models. Avoro Knocktngthis somewhat delicateand expensive part when connect hoses so they lift otf with filter. removeit. and carefully pull out the con_ connect electrical the andvacuumleadsfrom it. hose from the air sensorand removethe air blower hoses. y place wor Smaff. the engine is ready to come out. or pressure reg_ oil-bath type. after removingthe engine. but there are more disconnections to car ls an automatic transmission model.At the distributor. Then set about the engine compaftment. The under the rear bumper. sheet-metal this thin bent strip will come off. threaddirectlyinto the frame. intake air distributor is the black.Startby disconnecting all ceiling of the engine bay.and it is removed like the m e n t . Look on the Fuel-injected engineshave a different paper hoseleadingto the charcoal filter. tic transmissions havea vacuumadvance cutofT remove the crossmember. remove the plate. remove the oil engrneclearsthe transaxle. U air contn filter. Followthe wirins wrapsaroundtheengineside and runsforward Fit a brace acrossthe torque converteron harnesses over the engineto find all the tlisl alittle. The charcoal front right of the engine for the fuel lines. Disbolts at the eachend of the crossmember which protectiveboot. the hose is attached the to Gravel Guard-Before getting all the way carburetedengines. e s e o l t ra r ea c c e s s i b l e as a prime reasonthe casescracked O th b on these 24 FASTBI NOTCH AirFilte oil draini air filters during re unscrew canister. It is bestremovedas a unif with filter is the can suspended from the upper right Transaxle-Support the transaxlewith a jack its intake air sensor. gine may also have a temperature sensor the front engineplateand put it out oi the wav. A paper-element filter is used on 'j3_74 mounted in the upper right engine compartDisconnect plug thefuel linesfromthefuej and carbureted engines. You definitely needa helperwith a heavy pressuresender.When thosebolts nector. Sr buretors fore rem< the lockn only get t Justpop 1 screwdri Air fil only the removed remainin label the moved. extra work. the backup lighrs) at the fuse holder. left carburelor. Disconnect it.remove tic plug in the upperleli mounring flange area make on the Type 4 engrne. Then or remove driveplare-to-convertercrossmembers. rhen rhe lefr rear. Type tube 3 air filter removalstarts with hoses. the Weak. Then go to the rearand the aluminum box with the cast-in grid work. remove the gravel guardfronr carburetors and at the [ilter's centersection.Watch fbr hangups rials in hand. The enPull the accelerator cable all the wav throush Then unclip it at its bottom edgeand lift it out. Take out four boltsand Lift off the top half of the filter and setit aside. Get the cablestarledthroughits guide in b o l l s . mushy mountsarecited body. hot-air c elbow be carburetc breather Filters nuts ovel center. Lower Engine-Pull the jack back until the filter body and int:Lke sensortosether. Take out the ignition coil and remove the ulator of the fuel-injectedmodel. and hot air hoses from the filter bottom half. d i s c o n n e c t s w i r e . this wire (it's for cablesand hosesat the heater-control valves.remove the two large diameter are out.

generator and coil. use a stout screwdriver on against the ring gear teeth to rotate the engine. It so a lot of ownersleavethemoff. slip off the vacuum hose at the balance pipe anddisconnect kickdown-switchwire. Undo the heater control-box cable connections and stow the large diameter air hosesout of the way. On cars with an automatic transmission. the Because the crankshaft pulley nut is inaccessible Type 3s. know the mounts are useless. single-carbureted On engines. There is supposed be an engine mount to attached to the fan housing on cars without a crossmember. All Type 3 airfilters are oil-bath units. Bellhousing Bolts-Finish the topsidechores by removing the two upper bellhousingbolts. Fuel injectionthrortlelinkageis undone at the throttle body. It joins the right fuel manifold. Filters dual-carbureted on engineshave wing nutsover each carburetor. unscrew wing nut in the center of the filter the canister. oilpressure sender. it must be off to remove the engine. cylinder-head temperature sensors. The rubbermountsarecentered their mountby ing bolts.On '71 and later engines.Ifyou undothese bolts. Two boltsand it's in hand. plus the air intake bellows from the hot-air control box. On'72 Type 3s.unbolt the driveplate from the torque converter. Storein a level position. It returnsexcessfuel to the fuel tank.Don't forget the plywood cushion. you'11 onlygetthecarburetorsout of synchronization. the Electrical Connections-Label and remove the electrical leads at the carburetors. doesn'tprovidemuch support. Check fuel shut-off solenoidson ensines the withdual carburetors. SQUAREBACK & NOTCHBACK (TYPE 3) Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. s0unscrew them from the carburetors.Also on the automatictransmission. Unclampthe hot-air hose from the hotair controlbox and remove the box with the filter. Don't kink the cable or the throttle will be sticky. and intake air distributor. Unlike the Auto-Stick transmission. Then you can get at both sidesof the upper bellhousingbolts from the top. cable. Disconnect and plug the fuel return line on the right side of the engine if you didn't get it from the top. Undo the two horizontalbolts at eachendof the crossmember which connectthe crossmember to its rubbermounts. Snap the throttle linkage off the carburetors the center-mountedbellcrank beand foreremovingthe air filters. Label each hose and wire before removing them so you'll be able to reconnect them conectly. That's the sheet-metal center section of the intake manifold. Lower Engine-Now you arereadyto pull the enginebackand lower it. Don't fiddle with thelocknuts and rod endsof the linkage. and finally runs forward. On dual-carburetor engines. If nothing else. remove the air cleaner. On fuelinjected engines.early Buses. then unclampand remove the oil filler rubber boot. Watch for hangups on 25 . This last line isthefuel return line. Reach the ring gear teeth through the bolt accesshole. disconnection the should be made on the left and. Support Engine-Disconnect the lower bellhousingnuts.right fuel manifulds. which is part of the intake air distibutor. crankat case sensors and grounds.thenplacethe floorjack underthe engine. Follow the harnessto the connections the distributor. With a single carburetor this is done at the carburetor. Fuel Line-Remove and plug the fuel line.This is the big rubberconair nector betweenthe engine and rear bodywork. The fuel manilblds are the metal sections of fuel line right abovethe injectors.Reyou place wom transaxle mounts. With all hosesremoved.The elbow is clamped and the remaining hoses slip ons.unscrew the center wing nut and remove unit. These are small c-ylinders with a wire mounted on the outboard side of the carburetor.If the transaxlesagsalmost to the'll haveto recenterthe engine during installation. Pull the throttle cable through the front engine cover plate and gently loop it out of the way. pick up rear mat and store wires underneath.On double-jointed-axle cars. so don't tio them during removal. injectors.the full automatic transmission has only three driveplate-to-converter bolts. Oil Dipstick-Remove the dipstick. Air filters on fuel-injected engines require only the intake elbow and several hoses be removed. The fuel lines then connect to the injectors via the manifold. disconnect the cable at the throttle linkase crossbar. They are accessible through a hole in the fronfbottom ofthe bellhousing.remove the wiring harnessat thevariousconnectionson the ensine. Don't unbolt the vertical rubbercushion-tobody bolts or the crossmemberto-engine bolts.They usually catch on and foulthebodywork when the engine is lowered. Raise Car-Raise the rear of the car 3 ft and support it with jack stands. pop Just therod endsoff the ball socketswith a screwdriver. Then slide rearwardand unbolt the enginecrossmember. bui rememberto are labelthemduring removal. The rubber fuel line coming from the left front of the engine compartmentand running to the left fuel manifold is thefuel inlet line. disconnect exhaust the gas recirculation (EGR) wire from its transmission switch. The fuel injecrionECU mounti inside rhe leffrear inner fender. Be carefulnot to lower the enginetoo far or you'll damagethe transaxlemounts. You may needa helper under the car to hold the bolt heads. Also removethe vacuum hose from the fuel pressure sensor the lelt enginecompartment on wall. Mark and disconnectthe crankcase breather hose. Wiring alwaysseems to be in your way. Another way of doing this is to wait until the engineis on its way down.the left bolt threads into a special nut permanently attached to the case. plus one at frontcenter.Also unclampand removethe cooling bellows. On Type 3s. Disconnect the intake elbowbetweenthe filter and carburetor at the carburetor. and the wiring harness comes from that side. Thisis theaccordionpiece betweenthe dipstick tube andbody. out of the enginecompartment through the rear sheetmetal. FASTBACK. supportthe transaxle with anotherjack or wood blocks. On fuel-injected engines. Another line leadsoff the back of the left manifold and runs to the other side of the engine. Remove this bolt from undemeath. Throttle Cable-Disconnect the throttle Intake and dipstick bellows are two Type 3 & 4 disconnections. The entire circuit or U offuel lines is called thefuel ring. Completely remove intake bellows at left to avoid cutting it when engine is slid back during removal.

Wires & Cables-Remove the dipstick and oil filler bellows. Disconnect Type 3 crossmembers where crossmembermeets engine mount.They are at the intake air Automatic transmissions havea vacuumdis. Remove the transmission dipstick and bellows sectionof the filler tube. unclip the upper filter half lf heaterductswon't pulloff. Look on the left engine-casevertical flange for a round plastic plug. Find the round.except it is longer than a normal input shaft. Before '72 all 4l1l4l2 filters were oil-bath type. not wheremountmeetsbody. Disconnect and remove the ignition coil. Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining.u 914. its crr engin Wa body transa as the housi engae then r auton verter bellht 26 PORI Alr Type on thr 914 ' engin seats S o . To remove the engine the driveshaft must be unlocked and moved forward in the car 4 in. a driveshaft runs forward from the clutch to the transmission. Push the throttle cable through the front engine panel. connected at chassis. per engine mounting bolts from bellhousing. remove two uptransmission bellhousing. plus the temperaturesensors the case at ably just as easy to pull off this hose at and heads. they will have to be alignedat engineinstallation keep engine to straightin compartment. Disconnect the vacuum accessible through windows in automatic hose from balancepipe. A metal tab nutted to one of the bellhousing studs works fine. about2-ll2-1n.distributor. Reassemblywill be so much easier. Automatic Transmission-Remove the three driveplate bolts from inside the engine compartment. Voltage Regulator-Pull the plug connector from under the voltage regulator. Pry out the plug with a screwdriver to expose the driveplate underneath. Brace the torqueconverter so it can't fall out of the transaxleand be damaged.the way down.but there are several notable differences. Follow the wiring harness over the engine to find the connections. center wing nut undone and the filter removed. in diameter. Use a mirror to see this connectlon. Under the cushion is an accesspanel. and the engine will operate the upper half. 4ru4r2 (TYPE4) Engine removal in the Type 4 is roughly similar to droppingthe '72 andlaterBus engine because they sharelhe sameengine. Fuel-injection air filters needthe flage these connections. Unclampand remove the cooling air intake bellows. post-'72shave paper elements. then the oil-pressure sender lead and throttle cable. It is mounted on the right front side of the engine compartment and the connectorcomesup to the regulator from the bottom. Insidethe transaxle will be the end ofthe driveshaft with a nut threadedonto it.The front of the driveshaft looks and functions the same as an input shaft on other transmissions.Unscrewthe plug. W MM Disco widng deant Throttle linkage on Type 4 uses a clip. Moving Driveshaft-To reach the driveshaft.Oil and dirt can combineto camou. then Iift clamps. Rotatethe engine with a wrench on the cooling fan mounting bolts or by simply grasping the fan in your hand. injectors. case connectionunder left axle flange. (l00mm). Becausethe differential is betweenthe engineand transmission. Manual Transmission-An unusual desisn featureof the Type 4 manualtransaxle requiris an extra step in engine removal. and pull pieces apart. Ducts. On carburetedengines. they are heldby at the carburetors and center section. remove the rear seat cushion. Wire up the transaxle double-jointed-axle so you on cars can move the chassis. engin . Pop clip ofl with screwdriver (don't lose it). Take off any ducting for the heater blower motor. Remove the fresh air and crankcasebreather hoses. Now unclip the bottom half and remove it. begin the engine bay disconnections. Rotate the engine to expose the driveplate bolts one at a time. spring and unusually shaped cable end. ignition distributor. as nections. too. Theseparls protrude from the forward left sheet metal in the Bellhousing and driveplate hardware are engine compartment. Unthread the nu behin< some! move move Lower move both tl by crt move ber in chass tilt do engin Thr requir and ar port tl ward. screw-in plug. This task is much easier with the soarkplugs removed. Fuel-Injection Connections-Label and disconnect the fuel-injection leads at the engine. Next. and steady the engine so it doesn't fall off the jack.lf mountsaredis. Start with the air filter. Be sure you label all discontransmission at engine. lt's prob.ground. remove it to exposethe front of the transaxle.

I explain removing the engine/transaxleas a unit here. If using a small floor jack. the steps are the same. thenut. then the engine. Now unscrew the round nut on top of the large black plastic cover next to the regulator.followed by the engine. Remove one and have a friend hold that side up. Watch the fuel injectors' clearance to the bodybecausethey are a tight fit.securethe torque converter in place with a metal tab nutted to a bellhousingstud. or working on dirt. You'Il have plenty of extra room to work and no lid banging your head to get your attention. remove the battery for clearance. Note that boththe engine and transmissionare supported by crossmembers. If using a larger floor jack with a wide saddle. oncethey're on the bench. Ileater Blower Ducting-Remove the heater blower motor ducting and the rubber intake air elbow. There is one supply and one return line. disconnect the connector from the fuel injection ECU located in front of the battery. intake manifolds and throttle linkage in your installation. then replace the cover and regulator. On automatic transmissions. Lift off the cover and find several electrical connections. Reinstall the plastic cover and setthe ECU in a safeplace.While it is possible to removethe engine with the transaxlecrossmemberin place. The transaxle crossmembermounting bolts require personinside the car to tum the nuts one andanotherundemeathto hold the bolts.but to movethe shaft forward the required 4 in. Monitor the jack too. 27 . Lower Engine-Under the rear bumper. rusho the w-1n v the fthe read Instead of removing injection wiring from engine on 914s. it's best to remove the transaxlefirst. Extract the first seethe transaxle. it is easier to unbolt it from the chassis.when you crawl forward under the back of a 914. Inside the car is a good spot. If you remove the transaxlefirst. removethe slotted lower splash pan. Now lower the englne. Supportthe transaxle with a jack. Label and remove all the connections. if not. There may be a plastic handle rnng p off pull :sign uires r the mlsutch rhaft rhaft than ethe forhaft. So.supportthe engine with ajack. remove the air filter and disconnect the fuel lines near the battery. there sure is a difference in the 914 engine mounting. cleaner is great hose and wire cleanerto detail wiring. The 914 is a midenginedcar. Engine Cover-First stepin removing a 914's engineis to take offthe enginecover. The connectorplug takesup almostthe entire side of the ECU. relays and other connections. though. removethe circlip. behind nut. You can pull the shaft forward the somewhat with the circlip still attached.. Because of the mid-engine mounting.Disconnect fueFinjectionwiring on Bus and Type 4 engines. Rotatecrankshaftto bring wiring loomasidednce disconnections gel hardwareinto view. Instead. then remove the circlip from the shaft. as it will have to be lowered transaxle astheengineis lowered. Two bolts can be felt under the hinges. Voltage Regulator-Remove the voltage regulator by extracting the two screws on its mounting tang and then lifting off the unit. ECU connector is at one end. Remove the four bellhousingnuts and the engine is ready to disfrom the transaxle. engage thenreinstall the transaxle crossmember. PORSCHE/VW 914 Although there is little difference among the Type later Bus and 914 engines 4. and undo its crossmemberat each end. the car is equipped with Fuel Injection-If fuel injection. plastic handle on multFpin connector eases disconnecting. 914shave had the Bosch Carburetors-Many fuel injection removed and dual carburetors installed. You don't have to remove the fuel injection wiring and fuel line ring. the engine can only be removed with the transaxle or after the transaxle has been removed separately. remove the engine and transaxle as a unit. take it otf at ECU. Unscrew the metal clamp around the wiring bundle. The engine/transmission unit can then tilt down at the rear. Tip it up so the inboard end with the connector is visible. then slide offthe plastic cover from the ECU. First. Then move forward. so the engine is right behind the seats. except you must also remove the four bellhousing fastenersto free the transaxle. So. then remove the other bolt and lift off the cover. then unscrew the ECU's bracket.Hand driveplatehardwareon Type 4 engines. giving a clearer path for engine removal. use a hooked instrument to carefully remove it.and the transaxle is behind the engine. completely remove the carburetors. Set Hole in bellhousing(arrow) is for reachingautomatictransmission (labeltherir!)are made. on the plug.

The other rear attachment is boltedto the caseusingoneofthe caseflange bolts.Unwind the sardinecan clamp over the rear shifterboot and disconnect the shifter. valve securesthe front end of the shift rod. The clutch cable is undone by removing the self-locking nut in the center of the cable pivot: Ihe round plastic wheel. Vacuum & Vapor Hoses-Label and disconnect the remaining vacuum and vapor hoses.Instead. On these. is the engine can be removed with it in place. Removing Cables & Exhaust-It helps to remove the bodywork panel below the rear bumper.Pass 914 throttle cables through sheet metal so they completely clear engine. Unplug the reverse-light leadsfrom the lefi side of the transaxle. outboard and forward of the engine compartment. Lift Car-Raise the car and support it on tall jack stands. Another set-screwarrangement 28 t Anothershift-rodset screw is locatedin front Transaxlegroundstrapbolts to chassisnear of engine where rod enters chassis. they will kink when lowering engine.Use a long screwdriverto reach down to the case where the two front support legs attach. unscrew the speedometer cable and remove the clutch cable. Somecommon hosesgo to the charcoalcanister and pressuresensor.but if the chassis lifted fairly high. nave other flangt .Drape all the disconnected hoses over the center of the engine so they won't be in the way when removingit. Unbolt the groundstrapabovethe reartransaxle. Shift linkageis underneathplastic box with Speed sardine-canband clamp. Use small Allen le. Loop the cable and bracketaside. Usea firm tug to pullreverse-light wiringfrom transaxle-mounted switch. the throttle cable can be removed. il n fi Heate metal mum gine. Under the wheel are two nuts. back rubber boot to expose screw. so rotatethe axleto getstraieht acces Hold 1 two h brake They requir les a ( T tt : Jotnts bolts. and the metal pivot bracket and cable come free. ih" b"tt"r. Air Filter & Throttle Catrle-Remove the formed sheet-metalair filter support from the centerofthe engine. You can remove the throttle cable without detaching the support. Axles & CV Joints-I've left the axles until now because they are sucha gooey mess. Look under the rubber boot where the shifter enters the bodywork at the front of the engine compartment. removeshift rod. and disconnectthe heater control valveJand associated plumbing. and extract it.leave the air filter supportalone. Return to the exhaustsystem. Remove them. you'll actuallybe ableto see t h ee n g i n e . With the forward connection removed. Removethe muffler from the exhaustpipes and the muffler bracefrom the rear ofthe transaxle. Someengines mountthe air filter to one side. Undo the flat sheet-metal shielcls under tf. Once screw is out.Removeeach exhaust pipe/heat exchanger. placethem at the two small round protrusionsin the body.Pull rear mounts. disconnecr cabli rhe from the throttle arm and push the cable throughthe hole in the right sideengineplate. This will give a lot more room and light under the car.e heatexchansers. Remove the rear wheels and tires.And the less time you spend pushing the disconnectedaxles out of th"-*au. Un wrench to unlockshift rod from transmission linkage. the shift rod can be extracted from the caf.Don't put them under the suspension or front engine crossmember. With the support removed.Use a small Allen wrenchto remove the set screw. Otherwise. Now's the time. Unthread the lockins nulson thecablehousing. Once the exhaustpipes areout ofthe way.

As soon as you separate CV joint. Keep alternating actionfrom onesideof thejoint this to the otheruntil it separates. These bolts are heavily torqued to prevent loosening. Don't insertmore screwdriver bladethan necessary you'll scar or the mating surfaces. Sacrificethe gasket betweenjoint and flange stickinga flat-bladed by screwdriver be- tweenthem. then the to other.need to disconnectheater-control of cablesor gine.Extra lengthwill help balancethe awkward engine/transaxle on the unit jack. Support Engine-Place the floor jack and plywood under the bellhousing. 12-point 6mm Allen head tool is easier to use. or have a helper step on the brakes. of blade inserted. this maneuver will keepyou a lot cleaner.Unscrew large nut and pull cable out. Hold axle by inserting a breakerbar through the twolug bolts. Rotatethe axa lesa coupleof times to reach all the it will protect the metal surfaces. There's no Examine so mum heaterducting is removedwith en.Speedometer is at rightrearof transaxcable le.6mm Allen head bolts that are tequire specialremoving tool. Short Allen head tool and wrench duo shown here is cheapest method. Use a rubber band to securethe bags.The crossmember will drop free (it's heavy) complete with the cables that pass through it. Gently set it asidewithout kinking 29 . so you'll have work to free one side of it. Removenut and pulleyto loosen transaxle. 914s. leaving clutch cable-to-bracket undisturbed. Besides the bolts.The largerthe plywood. about1/16in. Go forward and remove the two nuts from the center of the solid metal crossmember.heater valves out of the way. Heater ductingon Type 4 engines is often After ductingfrom engineis removed. yourchassis a mini. Then removethe two largebolts from the crossmember ends. push metaltubing.unthreadthe Clutchcablepivot uses a self-locking for two bracket nuts. Besides keepingthe closetolerance.Justget a toe hold. splines will strip if not completely clean. place a plastic sandwich bags over the joint and its flange. Unscrew and remove the CV bolts. but special 3/8-drive socket. access theconstant-velocity to (CV) joint bolts.connection bearingarm. On valves best separationpoint. These are the front engine mount nuts. expensive CV joints dirt free. They 12-point. is Clean dirt from tiny splines in CV-joint bolts. the better. cable and easilyremoveit at clutch release. there are dowels at the joint. This frees bracket from nut retention.this clampjust beforeheater flexibleducting.then twist the blade. That's why I try to put the screwdriverright throughthe gasket. After clutch pulleyis removed. It takesquite a prying effort to free the CV jorntsfrom lhe tansaxle flanges.

wrap them an-d transaxleflangeswith plasticbajs. Set the engine on the floor. Remove these. then remove larger bolts at center. prop one 9nd up with a block of wood. Pick up all tools. rags. it can be stored by its mounts on chassis. it weighs abouttwice as much as a Type 1. Front crossmember attaches to engine mountsusingsmallnuts found in recesled wells.Th L 30 . Use the floorjack to get the chassis backon the ground and pushed to its storagelocation. pushrod tubes. Lower Engine-Gently start lowering the engine and transaxle while a helper checks the engine compartment. This iron piece is heavy.It's easy to bang the injectors against the bodywork or have their fuel lines hangup.not the fan housing. I o"s tcv I . This wll save a lot of aggravation when you drag your hairover them. so pay extra attention to them. It will take a minute or two to jockey the engine free of the chassis. so be careful. Don't let it lay unsupported over clutch and speedometer cables. Once the engine is As soon as CVjoints come free.twith small mount-to-chassis hardware. then large bolts at each end of crossmember. M one are kl Bear engine mounts must come completely off transaxleto clear bodywork. Then the entire bolt. remove the four bellhousing fastenersand separatelhe transaxle from the eneine. hardware and parts before they get scattered. or smashingthe cables. r I I | [ . Two strong people are needed when moving it.Use the trunk or Bus interior for storageifgarage space is tisht.Do this now while they're still fresh in your memory. Crossmember will drop after both sets ol bolts are out. Stai. You'll thank yourself at reassembly. Go to the rear and remove the transaxle mounts at the body. Disconnect the starter motor leads. That's about300 lb for a Type 4. If lifting a Type 4 enginebe preparedfor a heavy load. flywheel or the like. Grasp it by the endsofthe cylinder heads.Store all hardware and partsin clearlymarkedboxesand cans. Be careful to get the blocks bearing against the cylinder heads. not the sheet-metalpushrod tubes or another vulnerable part. rubber cushion and washers will come out with the unit. so take your time. CLEAN-UP (ALL MODBLS) Once the engineis clearof the chassis. Remove the unit and support it on the floor with wood blocks. a get helper and lift it off the jack.