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Table of Contents

1. Time To Rebuild? ......... AccumulatedMileage Oil Consumption . Poor Performance DiagnosticTests . 2. Engine Removal Preparation Beetles& KarmannGhias (Type 1) .... (TYPes & 4) 2 Bus & Transporters Notchback(Type 3) ..... Squareback, Fastback, 41U412 914 Porsche/VW



Crankcase & Cylinder Reconditioning ....75 ......... 75 Parts. Crankcase Clean& Inspect 82 Crankshaft 88 Pistons& ConnectingRods 94 Oil Pump 96 Camshaft Cylinder Head Reconditioning ............ 100 .. 101 Disassembly ..... 105 Valve Guides& Stems .... 101 Valves & Inspecting Reconditioning ...... 110 .. Reconditionittg Valve-Seat ........ 111 S Rocker-Arm ervice & Inspection Installation..... ..... ll2 Valve-Spring .. --. --- lI4 Assembly .. CylinderHead ...... 115 Manifolds Intake& Exhaust

l3 l8 18 19

26 26
1, 1

3. Parts Identification & Interchange ........ 3 1 -'tz .... Indentification 34 Engine Descriptions 35 Cases 38 Crankshafts ^ a +J Flywheels 44 ConnectingRods . 45 Pistons& Cylinders 46 Cylinder Heads 53 ..... Oil Pumps& Camshafts 55 Oil Coolers & SheetMetal . 4. Teardown .......... AccessoryRemoval-Uprights Removal-Flat .. Accessory E B a s i c n g i n e. . . . . Valve Train CylinderHeads Oil Pump Splitting Cases . Teardown Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 58 62 66 66 68 68 10 12

7 . Engine Assembly
Assembly Crankcase Install Crankshaft InstallCamshaft Prep Cylinders ... valveTrain Accessories External T y p e1 & P r e : 7 2 B u s . . Type 3 Post:12 Bus, 914 4111412,

. 116 ........ 119 .... l2l ..... 122 ---. 132 "' 134 ........ 138 ....." 138 .... 143 .. 148

8. EngineInstallation,Break-in, Tuneup .. 156
Prep . Transaxle EngineInstallation 1 Type Type 2 Type 3 4 Type 9 1 4. . FirstStarrl B r e a k - i& T u n e u p n Index ...... 156 .. I5'1 ' . . . . . . .1 6 0 . ........161 . 1 ..'....-- 62 1 ......... 63 ... 166 .... 169 . . . . . . . . .1 7 0 ...... 173

Without a government. quieter and roomier economy cars.000 Type 82s were built for the Wehrmacht. assemble This book eliminates a lot of legwork for you. And so we reach the point of this book. Of course. Therefore. such a basic design was hardly suitable for popular ffansportation when hostilities ended. get starled and handle each point one at a time. But in the mid-'3Os there were no Volkswagens. while VWs are a common sight and don't commandhigh prices. there weien't many cars of any type on German roads. rebuilding these engines is probably more satisfying than going through other. For the camera and personal experience. the VW offers opportunities to measure and adjust basic and engine parameters. what Germany got was a long ways from the people's dream of motoring down the autobahn. A mid-engine car. It's not that it's so difficult to rebuild. you'd have difficulty coming up with a design more out of the ordinary if you tried. After awhile it becomes natural. front and back in this book are basedon the engine while it is in the chassis. but none offer the old-world craftsmanship or personality of a Volkswagen. tures i basic are br what' ACC Tol engini . But from the rubble of 1945 a few cars were built from spare parts' The British officer in charge of the Wolfsburg factory assistedthe German workers in building more cars. I rebuilt several air-cooled engines.racers and other VW rp-iiulirt. Read aheadof your progressin the shop to keep the job in perspectiveand alert yourself to needed tools or supplies. and the crankshaft pulley is at therear. or for the chaos in what was left of Germany. and the Beetlewas on its way' Eventuallythe Volkswagencame to the United States. This goes againstcommon. a fact Adolf Hitler said he was gorng to change. To that I say. currency or economy.As in other worldwide markets. *ffi n I :::S+i'* I ffiffi Solid years Sin engin sary when the tol is nee In tl tic st( follou the Er rebuil Bel this b able. now known as the Thing' Although 70. So read ahead. Pitfalls can be avoided if you know about them ahead of time. A lot of care and thought went into every VW built.not just disassemble engine comPonents. not available anYwhereelse. not even in Germany' In fact. tools and cash. ingrained automotive knowledge and takes some time to get used to. Other cars may be more modern. the flywheel is at the engine'sfront. but there's always time to do it over'" It's a lot faster to double-check than it is to rebuild it twice.Thus. it's difficult to imagine roads without them.Introduction The Volkswagen Beetle hardly needs an introduction. as in the removal and installation sequences. it seemedthe Volkswagen had been stillborn. parts iuppliers. presentedat the 1939 Berlin Motor Show. A few specific understandingsand cautions are appropriate here. The knowledge in these words and pictures represents the combined experience of many people. the 914 engineis turned around so its flywheel is at the car's rear' Unlessthis is imporlant. with minimal patience. This is an engine that needs step-by-step instructions for rebuilding. rebuilding an air-cooled VW is fun. Soon you'll be listening to your Volks puttering smoothly in the driveway-a sound of wonderful personal satisfaction. mass-produced. Unlike many engines.Americanscame to respectand ultimately adore the round-backed car. manufacturers. and 3 and 4 are on the left. throw-away car. First. until you've been around VWs for some time. this book helps make VW enginerebuilding easy. Also. Traditional rebuilding technioues and books based on them don't have mich to offer the VW rebuilder. all experts in their field. rebuilding air-cooled Volkswagen engines. this book points out the hazards. In any society with pdvate transportation they're ubiquitous in the extreme. and keep this book on the bench where it will be handy. War brought Volkswagen production only in the ffansmuted Type 82 military fotm. In fact. Like left and right. there has to be an exception. A factory was built in Wolfsburg for Beetle production and Germany was about to get lts car. Justrememberthe saying. With the wrong turns clearly marked. Just as a Beetle or Bus is fun to own and drive. more common engine slyles. the "Parts Identification & Interchange" chapter offers considerablemoney-savinginformation. Finally. always take the time to double-check "There's your work. it may seem like there are too many steps or points to remember.914 engines are treated like any ottier. buying it in numbers other import builders could only versionsfollowed envy. His requirements for an inexpenstve. It's just that the engine is so completely different. it's difficult to remember to keep the positions front and back properly oriented. The Volksiuug"n *u. and the 914 is it. long after the introduction of faster. So when I speak of the front oil seal I mean the one at the flywheel end' whether you have a Bus or 914. to gather the information presented hire. Cylinders I and 2 are on the right. the Beetle sold on its economy and superior workmanship. and treating the carefully constructedair-cooledengine like an appliancewon't pay off' VW engines are full of precision tolerances that resoond to cleanliness and careful assembly. Additionally.that doesn'tmean they are a cheap. and I think you'll agree the intricacies of VW engine rebuilding are more thoroughly documented here than anywhere else. Of course. But just as unfamiliar roads are easily traveled if you have a good map. Bus and Squareback with equal success. the air-cooled VW is easily overhauled.high-cruising-speed car were met (if not without difficulty) by a bright ensineer named Ferdinand Porsche. I've traveled to machine shops. never time to do it right the first time. air-cooled Volkswagenscontinue to be popular. you haveto keep reminding yourself that the flywheel end is the engine's front. and like a detailed map. Now. No. If this is your first engine rebuild.

i. gearin-e. T h e r e a t a r er i g h t. the Othertim"r. .. h e yc a nb eo r e r h e u i e d ..B u se n g i n c s c a rl a \ t c rb e c i u r e n n g s a n d v a l v e s .first decicle a rebuil-d neies_ if is will go more than 100.n p.befbrebeginningan as engine rebuild. . e u l s ri h c p i s i o n u c a l l yl a s rl e s s .ancl giv.connecting roclsare poking through thetopof case.Tirne To Rebuild? Simple it rnay sound.especially Types l-3.. W e n g i n c s r e s u s c c p t i b lte h c r t . V a o At the crankshaft. Dirt is the thegapsbetween rings andcylinderwalls andls enemy of ofT-roadengines sucked into the combustion chambcr and Thoseengineswith the shorlestlif-espan are burned.Studythe pic_ tures skim the high pointsof the text. isn't well-known for extreme OIL CONSUMPTION longevity.. While the air-cooledVW engine. l o d c l e r m i n e n g i n ec o n d i t i o n iS y e lI:o l ltop t l n g .o i l c r n n o tb r i d s e powerplantfbr each mile covered. n g i n e . i t s i n l e r n ac l e a r a n c c sr ee a s i l yU i i O s e d l a B u sc n g i n e s n d r h o s c l r i v e no l i r o r d t v o i _ b y a no i l f i l m . wind resistance their low marn. for instance. more oil to try and fill the voiil and .t . Get and a Dasrc comprehension how air_cooled of VWs are bolled together. s VW just doesn'thold that rr-ruch It alsohas This causes oil.Thesearernoreimportant thanthi Type 4). c u m u l a l eh e s e a n su e a r a n d p t. so fiequentoil changesareal:tsr. B:iur: beginning lour ct'forts. so the engine "travels farther" than a sedan d i m e n s i o n is c r e a s e . ACCUMULATED MILEAGE Totalmileageisn't a very good yardstickof engrne condition. m munJatrtrtior long enginelit'e.leaf rhrough .su you can undersland w n a l\ g o t n go n w h e nt h e y l a l l a p a r t . r. gageof enginecondition.. lnrsbookand any other VW lirerltureavail_ able.tlLttely rccurnulrted iles.. n e w . w a n d h i g ho i l p r c s s u r a t l h e e of extraweight.excessclcarance has less D r i r e nh a r d .diugnoii.When an ensineis a sedanengineshouldlast this long. rs needed. i o u r n a lw h e r er t ' r f l u n g o t f . l e i l h e e n t l so f t h e o .ui. T h e a i i .c o .w h i c h r . When driven inside its oer_ g i n e ' s i n l e r n a l clctrances nd is an excellent a formance limitations. the owner'smanual. w t h e m .s p c c i a l l v resistance t e to oil flow.1 o u ' l l g e t a n e x a c r. a A s m i l e sa ( . Sometimesthis is easy.o*. rod and and camshaftbeanngs. (exceptin the late Bus and thosemiles. In thischapter.000miles Oil consumption is determinedby an en_ betweenrebuilds. s e r v i c e . and oil works its wav to i f ' t h c o i l i s n ' t c h a n g c d l t e n . S t a t e f o l n eL . i l l h e l p y o u d c c i d ei l " r a rebuildis required. pay more attentionto how tne car was operatedand maintaineddurins no paper oil filter. n T h e n .You'll seea wispy trail of blue smoke l h e p o o r c n g i n e s r i v e n h l r d a n c lg i v e n l i i l l e from the exhaust d pipe.e. whentwo.op. Busengine A revshigherthan sedan. . we'll examinesomediagnos_ .

i:. and lesspollutants are spewedinto the bad leak. they would wear out in less than l0 miles fiom They result from prying the-crankcasefrdves metal-to-metal contact. ifthe rings andguideswere sealed oil_tisht. Oil consumptionis an excellentinOicator ot an. Suchoil consumptiin can result lrom parts on the loose end oi the acceptable-tolerance range. are and draws more blowby out of the crankcasethai won't affect oil-consumptioncalculations. Between 500_1000 miles per quart indicates a slightly wide clear_ ance somewherein the engine.If a new quart is neided every 500 miles or less. apart with screwdrivers. A puff of smokeindicatesworn guides or rings.Sffi air ittii fltfvensing andmissing filrerwiltshorren eus. If that doesn't stop the^leak. you can bet the rings are at fault. Differenceis oil consumptio-n rate. along with the normal airlfuel mixture. So you won't be fooled by an oil leak when There is no PCV valve on Type I and upright trying to figure how much oil is being burned. This Oil Leaks-Many air-cooled VW ensinesleak p ositiv e crankcase ventilation (pCV) plumbing oil.contaminating ber. RTV silicone sealei opens. oil loss through blowby is burnedin thecombustion chambers. oil pressuredrops. are valve stems and piston rings is normal. there's no harm in buming a quart of oil eveiy 1000 miles or more.. This lets roo much oil berweenthe guide a"nd remove the pump and rry repairingihe mating valve stem. Much of the time. excessive clearance there Blowby used to be vented to the atmosphere results in blowby into the rocker cover. When y6u reach rneDottom. But. covers on these engines. the the top of the valve stem._When level drops to the tirst finJnote oil mileage and subtract first reading from second. they also let combustiongasespass in the other orrectron.oil is suckedinto the combustioncham_ makes a good temporary fix here. There are two parts that contribute to an engine burning oil: worn rings and valve guides. this review should be an integral"part the air filter enters the engine at the rocker of the enginediagnosis.Wiggle thi reachingthe crankcase. into the crankcase. After Oil Pump-Leaks from around the oil pump all. air-iootet-vtlv'" will any -' out inlp"rti"ular require regular changes spot-on oil and igniiion [imin6. make sure oil is level with top line. mostiy out the oil-filler and dipsrick holei. From the air filrer. Record odometerreading. ifthe enginehasmoreihan one leakor one cleaner.engine's internalcondition. It also causesincreasedoil consumption becausemore oil is splashedon the cylinder bores. a rebuild is required to correct excessclearances. A flame arrestor is Oil-Pressure Sender-Oil-pressure senders placed in both hosesrunning from the air filter often dribble from their plastic centers. Fresh air from internals. glance lhe mirrorasyou openthe in throttle. it will affect these fisures. cover plate first.To check. or from partial re_ buildswherethecylinders andpistoniwerenot replaced.itiil. high-pressure area. replacethJs"ender. plastic center. When oil consumptionis high and oil pressurelow. but the oer_ . oil the oil. Valve Guides-Some oil passagepast the Original-equipment (Bosch)senders besr..These blowby 6 gasespressurlzethe crankcase. Another good test is to find a ione hill to coastdown while in top gear.Both let oil enterthe combustion cham_ ber where it is partially bumed and sent out the exhaust. Blowby-Just as worn rings and cylinders al_ low oil to enter the combusiion chamber. Then.nli*ffiii of service and pooroperating practices destroy engine. the engineneedsattention. So. the leaks m-inor. but not enough to justify tearingit ii::. Telltale signs areblowby vapor blowin! But becausean exhausiport is a hot. merely venting it to the atmosphere. Exhaust valvescan pass the sameway. atmosphere.: :irii::!tr.Type 3 and'4 engines^usE Iet's a review some of the common oil leaks.remost common in recently rebuilt engines. the guides is common.causins to the rocker covers to stop backfires from a puddle right under the sender. next time the intike valve area of the crankcase.Oil stays But. Air_ at the oil-filler hole. Type 2 engines. but it has beenroutedio the cooled VW enginesare hard on guides because air filter by a hose and metered orifice (valve) ofthe angle with which the rocker arm contacts since rhe mid-'60s. PCV valve in the hoseleading from rhe crank_ Because someoil leaksresultfrom worn engine caseto the intake-air distributor.r:.and readdipstickregular_ ly. How Much Is Too Much?_Certainly. if the engine lays down a i-moke screen. ice picks and other oil _Excessive lossthroughtheguidesoccurs barbaric instruments. A single puff of smoke immediately upon start-upafler sirting overnight usually meanswom guides and piston rings. a. Tighten the oil_pump when guide-to-valve clearanceis too larse. If it is loose.:rij!l:iiiiir.

The perforce wears the main-bearing bore oendicular so iggshaped. . andoi1pourspastit. the crankshaftis free to wobble. Case Leaks-These can be anywhere along the case parting line. dirty. This is a serious problem and should be right awaY. but shouldn't any cause alatm.excessive oil the distort neoprene sealat the bearing bore. it alsodripsout the bellhousing' Geta dabof the dripping liquid on a finger tlp. plugs.too. is thetransaxle leaking. the main-bearing bore can be and machined the casesaved. if the areais washedclean byoil flowing from the bellhousing area. openthe transaxlefiller hole and take a Compareit to the bellhousing leak' If sample. points. engine life is shortened. POOR PERFORMANCE Performanceis best defined for our pulposes when an engine iency. and the longer it Thisproblem leaks the greater the chance of ruining the clutchdisc. If theenginehas a lot of miles on it.This is because as a. at leastin BeeButyoucanmeasure tlesandearlyBuses. stafi with a tuneup. but the only enduring cure is to weld or replacethe case' A case can also leak through a crack' The magnesiumcase of Type 1-3 engines will crack soonet or later from fatigue.however. Oil Cooler-Oil coolersleak for two reasons' Eitherthecoolerhas split apart anywherealong or thetubes.Thewearis in two directions.iny. andrebuild it. and the sealhas not been changed recently. thensmellor tasteit. Remember. Chapter 5 has more infbrmation on case cracking. trluny cars and have learnedto quickly and accuratelydiagnosetheir problems. cure. it is inif efficient. lf you're unfamiliar with thesmellandtasteof gear oil used in the transaxle. the result of engines anoverworkedcrankshaftoil seal. there is no cheap. You can try RTV sealer. shaft end play. so the deoress clutch and then monitor the pulley' Usethe detaileddirections for measuring end If play on page 126. timing and carburetor or injection tuning.The diagnostictestslater in this chapter are designed to systematicallyuncover the Drivinq without engine compartment seal mav ieem harmless. that the transaxleseal and is leaking. engineinternalsmay or may not be the cause.To staba screwdriver into this joint is criminal. If the problem is machiningprobablywon't continue. dwell. allowedto do any good. if necessary. lf this problem is detected soonenough. To locate the source of poor performance. This results on in a mess theengine'sbottom. performance refers to both engine power and fuel consumption.When oil poursfrom betweenthe casehalves.fen-d off constint bilmbardment of parallel to thecrankshaft.the cure is disassembling engine and manent addingmaterial by welding Engine/Transaxle Mating Surface-Most leak some oil at the front.calledend p lay. There'sa chance. Putting this problem off engine canbe very exPenslve. the Removing engineand installing anotherone is the only cure. may havebeeninstalledincorrectly.If power or fuel economy drops. It can take lots of muscle to movethecrankwhen the engine is together. Remove the cooler to inspect the mountings and have it pressure-checked. then the rearmain bearing may be pounded out-the is case actuallydeformed-from excessiveend p/ny. Unfortunately.and the end pull the to playis or evenseems be excessive. and the case will have to be replaced-an expensivefix.gasketless German production technique. They see . there is a iargeoil leak at the bellhousing.ffi< yields poor fuel economy and power. Ontheotherhand. If the seal was recently reit placed. The machining on VW casehalvesis ofthe highestquality. and will cause a leak. undet-car air into engine bay. sure. but lets hot. it is looseon its mountings'Both leaks are real gushers because of the large volume of oil passingthrough the cooler.Devconor some other material to fill the gap. Usually these are little weeping leaks and pose no danger.Mount a dial indicatorto read directly off the crankshaft pulley and end measure play. and joint is a marvel of their precision. Complete the tuneup yourself before performing any diagnostictestsor have it doneby a professional tJneup shop. Get a complete analysisof the engine's condition from the shop. Cooling efficiency drops and air filte(s) must. Thereisn't any method for detecting crankwobblewhile the engineis in the chassis. wearing out. and the other perpendicularto the crankshaft. specific problem. end play and wobble Of course. Diagnosisshoulddetermine the engine is usingthe right amountoffuel to produce the expected amount of power. See page 76.the oil leak is serious. pull the engineor transaxleandreplacethe transaxle seal right away' won't go away. someonehas used a screwdriver to pry the case aoart therel a definite mistake.This meansa valve adjustment. the one closestto the flywheel. investigated originatesfrom the # I main bearThecause ing.

valve broug . The key to an engine's pumping efficiency is the tightness of the combustion chamber: the area formed by the piston top. Burning fuel only makes the air expand. this is called hunting. But it is also possible for engine performanceto be low Examiningengine will often reveal interestbuyinga if ing details. Beetleenginehere is builton a Type3 case! Large oil passage(top photo) and U letter code (bottom) were first tip-offs. a cylinder won't have full compression if the valves are incorrectly adjusted. A worn-out engine will generally perform poorly and use a lot of oil. a chunk may be burned from the valve head.Don't skip the tuneup. cylinder wall. Additionally. anything that hinders an engine's breathing reduces its efficiencyboth power and fuel economy. rings. Bending the arms so they wipe a new areaoften helps.camshaft. The engine then runs on only three cylinders. if not expense. or the engine will not run right or respond to tuning. Finicky idle problems and weird throttle responseon fuelinjectedBusesand 914s are often tracedto the throttle switch mounted right next to the throttle.Think of combustiongases as an inefficient cutting torch and you'll understandwhy valves burn. If the flap won't move freely after a little fiddling. this means that some some of the valve's/ace (sealingsurface)has beeneroded away or crackedby the blast ofhot combustiongases. eliminating external variables from the diagnostictests. Burned Exhaust Valve-When a mechanic says a valve \s burned. compressing it and expanding it. But. which causesa large drop in power and compression. The idle may be erratic. Fuel-injected Type 3 throttle switchesoften needadjustment.or valve springscould be at fault. compl speed pressl no con Eve droppt head b Type I and ste arate a head d andcy the pis The usual\ in the with tt lifters i will bL warnir It's a valv three c (and e engine One corTec '78 an lic val the val for pe air-cor needp servic ance c A ! to and oil consumption be normal. valves and sparkplug. go ahead and do diagnostic tests as a double-check. it's indicated immediately during a seated guide closed cleara cool a The br Eve piece r heada valve erosio bumin be not The lesspr becau valve l sodiun ing ter when valver in the Whr stem. When a chunk is missing. you've probably cured any problems and a rebuild isn't necessary. by showing there is something internally wrong and two. remove the cover and note the wrper contacts lhat signal throttle position. Other fuel-injection problems can convince you the engineis at fault. As this condition worsens. A stuck dirflow sensor. to injectedenginescan be impossible tune withoutprofessional Basic Fuel-Injection TroubleshootingLater engineshave lots of vacuum and fuel hoses that arepafi ofthe fuel-injectionsystem. do the following diagnostictests. In this case. Vacuum test results will also be affected. buy a new one. They perform work by inhaling air. 8 If a tuneupdoesn'trestorelost performance. CAUSES OF POOR ENGINE PERFORMANCE A quick look at the most likely internal engine problems will help put them in perspective before you start testing for them individually. So.l coole stem. anotherclue. allowing all compression to escapeout the exhaustport. too. harnessingthe expansionand exhaling the byproducts. Later fuelequipment. the flap in the box next to the air filter. stumbling and searching(increasingand decreasing). including the air filter. One. This is most likely causedby worn rings and cylinders. Keep in mind that internal-combustionengines are nothing more than air pumps. Unscrew the switch from the throttle. first make sure all fuelsystemparts are correctly installed. engine performance will drop. If an injected engine won't run. Tuning the enginewill have helpedin two ways. Underneath. Cloudsof black smokeout the exhaust and poor running below full throttle indicate electronic control unit (ECU) failve or a coldstart valve that has stuck open. the valves. Check all hosesfor connectionand condition. enginebreathing will suffer if the valves and valve train are in poor shape. can cause driveability problems. For example.Early engines have few adjustmentsand are great at-hometuneup proiects. A burned exhaust-valve face can't make a gas-tight seal against its seat. head.the dipsticktube is an add-onunit. but can be solved with minimal work. If the engine responds to the tuneup with renewed performance.especially considering car. All hosesmust be in perfect shapeand tightly sealed. Every part must be in place. or some of the diagnostic tests will be inaccurate. If any of from the combusthesepartsallow air to escape tion chamber.

Sodium melts well below the operating temperature the valve. then it will reach over 70 ft-lb at operating temperature. Still. Becauseintakes run so much cooler than exhausts. spring. Intake valves. The steel thread inserts are commonly called case savers. for example. Then it getstossedto the cooler stem-end. the studs won't pull.compressiontest because engine cranking speed doesn'tchangeon that cylinder's compression strokeand the gagereadsvery little or nocompression. the heads and case can be machined back to service. they are much less apt to burn. What they don't understand. Then the weak threadsare ripped right out of the case by cylinder-head torque and combustion pressure. and their threadsare strong. when they assemblethe engine. The engine expandsoversizewhen it is overheated. Some cooling takes place through the guide. All other VW air-cooled engines use solid valve lifters and periodicvalve adjustments. pulled threadsare no longer a common problem. combustion pressureand gaseswill be lost through the gap. the oil cooler was mounted inside the fan shroud. Hydraulic valve lifters adjust thevalvesautomaticallyand eliminate the need for periodicvalve adjustments.they rely ginesdon't've just aboutboughta new engine. Reciprocating valvemotionthrows the sodium back and forth in the hollow stem. so it can cool well if heat is broushtto it bv sodium or some other mech- anism. Both gasoline and motor oil are hydrocarbons.Under normal conditions. the heat passesto the head and ultimately to the cooling air. It's painfully obvious when an engine drops a valve. the oil cooler was movedout of #3's airstreamand an offset sectionwas addedto the fan housing to enclose the relocated cooler. This preheatedcylinder #3's cooling air. If the at-rest torque is misapplied.If the problem is caught soon enough. retainer and keepers usually separate also. Once it starts. the valveburningprocessis rapid. No wonder the studspull out of the case! Overheating the engine has the same effect as overtorquing the cylinder-head nuts. to and a rebuild is not necessary remove them. Usually a valve will benoticeablyburned in 2.000 miles. Metal particles circulate withtheoil and scorethe crankshaft. it has both less time to or cooland absorbseven more combustion heat. a few words about carbon will help you with engine diagnosis. the cylinder heads can warp. and they sometimes sepstems arate thejoint. Excessivecylinder-head torque will also destroy thesethreadsin short order. not the source' Merely ridding the engine of carbon won't cure the problem. Or. so this is some warning before it destroys the entire engine. the exhaustvalve will burnbadly before it drops.000 miles or less. Becausemany valvesaremadewith heads Type 1-3 exhaust joined together. carbon deposits are a symptom of a problem. exhaustvalve. Becauseonce the cylinder heads. perhapsthey arehaving cylinder-head sealingproblems. only delay the symptoms. on a metal-to-metal sealbetween the top of the cylinder and the cylinder head to contain combustion gases. camshaft liftersandoil pump. With casesaversinstalled.When the engine is cold.This holds the and valve partially open and can start the gaserosionprocess. letting the cylinder head and cylinders bang back and forth with piston motion. Now the effective torque on the studs is nearer 55 ft-lb. Thus. So. Type 4 engineshave a thin metal gasket for better sealing. so it is a liquid of when the engine is running. The threadsin the case are magnesium. in the path of cooling air going to the #3 cylinder. to Oneprimary cause of burned valves is inconect valve adjustment. A valve cools best only when it is fully seated. Luckily. not the studs. So. When this happens. Such doghousefan shrouds stop #3's exhaust valve from burning any sooner than the rest.This isn't a factor on '78 andlater Busesbecausethey have hydraulic valvelifters.Skipping this need or service maintaining insufficient valve clearance can easily lead to burned valves. From the guide. it leavesthe cylinder free to hammer the crankcase and cylinder heads. The net result is a cooler-running. Thevalve stem. Before'71 . putting more strain on the cylinder studs. The most common sourceof harmful carbon depositsis excessiveoil consumption. Instantly shut off the expensive) engine help minimize damage. When the studsdo pull. The studs are steel. Type 3 and 4 engines never had this problem because flat mounting ofthe cooling fan has the always positioned the oil cooler away from any one particular cylinder. Loose Cylinder Heads-Type 1-3 VW enInstead. on the other hand. heat is transferredby the sodium from the headto the stem. But when the enginewarms up and expands like a balloon. there is only 18 or 23 frlb of torque on the studs. but don't count on this remedy all the time. barrels and case halves are replaced.the valve at head destroysthe piston crown. they add ten poundstorque to the cylinder-head nuts. So they whip out the breaker bar and crank the headnuts down anothertum. Whenthe sodiumis at the hot head-endofthe stem. Another factor affecting valve burning on engines with upright cooling-fan mounting is oil-cooler placement. where it passes heat to the the stem. What typically happensis the cylinder head studs pull out of the case. a valve staysopen longer due to tight clearances whatever. which shedsthe heat quickly to the valve guide. the aluminum cylinder heads and cast-iron barrels grow a lot longer than the steel studs.This is because are exposed to combustion heat on both the combustion-chamber and port sides.and some at the seat when the valve is If closed. causing high cylinder temperatures and prematurely burned the torque applied to the cylinder-headnuts is not the same amountof torque that sealsthe heads.It will immediately begin running on by three cylindersaccompanied a lot of honible (and rattling. letting combustion pressure escapebetween the cylinders and cylinder heads. The studs are strained and being pulled from the case. longer-lasting Exhaustvalves are much more prone to burnvalves exhaust ing than intakes. are cooled by each passing intake charge and are heated only on the combustion-chamberside. Pulled studs are a very common problem up '70 Type 1-3 engines. This type of valvehas a hollow stem. Some people may look at the low torque specificationsgiven for these cylinder heads and figure they aren't enough. Evenworse than a burned exhaustvalve is a d t droppe exhaus valve. to 40 ft-lb. The problem is the threadsin the case.however. A v alve drops when the head breaksoff from the stem. which is no match for steel when it comesto mating threads. some of which sticks to the combustion-chamber surfaces. Theexhaust valvesused in 914 enginesare proneto burning than other Type 4 engines less because they are sodium-filled. Type 4 engines get combustion leaks just like Types 1-3. although a rich airlfuel mixture can be just as bad. If an enginewith case saversis overheated. so burning them in the combustion chamber in the wrong amounts causesexcess carbon deposits.curing . They can be added when rebuilding to earlier cases that don't have them.Hammering of the caseand headsby the cylinders is not a problem with warped heads. But after absorbs heat. Theburningprocesshas begun. If these parts loosen for any reason. The hammering ruins the engine and it's not even a worthwhile core. Therefore. The first point to give is the cylinder stud threadsin the case. Even well-maintained valves can bum if a piece carbongets caught between the valve of head seatasthe valve closes. partially filled with sodium. causingall sortsofhavoc in the rocker cover. while there may be ways to get rid of carbon an buildupwithoutoverhauling engine. Carbon Deposits-Although carbon deposits don't fall under the categoryofengine damage. the magnesiumcan fatique and the threadsweaken. Carbon is a solid byproduct of incomplete combustion. cylinder wall and cylinderheadas it gets slammedaround by thepiston. In '71.Type lthroughthe '77have steelthread insertsinstalled in 3s from the case at the factory. Prolonged idling and slow driving can also cause carbon buildup.The stem is in constant contact with the valve guide.

asmentioned earlier. Carbon easily heats to incandescence. you may pay for it with an engine overhaul. Carbondepositsin the combustion chambers can also causedamage. Nevertheless. the solenoid is deactivatedand a spring-loaded plungerclosesthe idle circuit. but the secondignition source. Drive it a half hour or more at freeway speeds. If you advance the ignition past specification. Turn on the ignition without starting the engine. But the penalty for too much total advance is severe detonation. Loose carbon depositscan also lodge between the electrodes of a sparkplug. carbon will build up because low cylinder of temperatures. valve andring damagecan result ifpreignition or detonation is prolonged. over-advanced ignition timing andengineoverheating. if thereis a problem with it. Imagine red-hot carbon in the combustion chamber. it is very susceptibleto overheatingand preignition causedby too-advanced timing. the sparkplug will short out and the cylinder will misfire or go totally dead. These types of abnormal combustion can damagean engine by placing a heavy load on engine internals. sound you ci sound to hea Aid 10 . Ignition timing is also commonly overadvancedby owners looking for more power. Pay specialattentionto the ignition timing of a VW engine. throttle response and improves engine acceleration.Also. Sor with i probk stall tl origin have i speed stop d On solenc Theor particl usuall On solen discor other. Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid-Type I and 2carbureted engines since '70 have an electric fuel shut-off solenoid attachedto the idle circuit of the carburetor. Although not as severe. When the ignition is turned off. A moment 1ater. short-tripdriving. Again. the engine may need a professional tuneup or carburetor overhaul. breakrings. cylinder temperatureswill quickly go sky-high.excessiveoil consumptionmay meanan engine overhaul. s in ba< noises hear l Peo eyesi tion tc your ( sound front. Heed another warning: These engines selfdestructratherquickly when the cooling system fails. pistons and cylinders more quickly. concerned be ifthe engineis knocking heavily.slow- ing the idle and reducing spark advance a few degreeswill help reduce dieseling. The solenoid is on the left side on '71 and later carbs (34mm) and. If r the er decid NOIS Interr a diffi fluenc leastt ing ar Open cil. solen when Fue when shouk De necessary. or foreign objects in the fan housing. Each time you touch the lead.but with today'sfuel it might inside wire i the wi bad a "dead Stethoscopeis preferred tool for pin-pointinginternal engine noises because it amplifies sound coming through probe and reduces surroundingnoise with earplugs. Recent researchindicates a small amount of knocking or pinging is not harmful to an engine.Thetwoflamefronts collide. detonation can be causedby staleor low-octanegasoline.Ridding the engineof carbon. When a fresh intake charge is compressedon the compressionstroke. but severe cases can burn or blast holesin oistons. This is sometimescalled light pinging. So. or do a lot of in-town.anddeformthe main-bearing bores in the crankcase. Detonation is very similar to preignition.but without any accompanying pinging or knocking. sometimes producing an explosiondetonation-rather than even buming. If a piece ofcarbon sticksbetweenthe plug electrodes. substantialengine damagefrom preignition or detonation isn't prevalent. Plug replacementor cleaning usually cures theseproblems. combustion-chambertemperature and pressure exceedsenginedesign limits and damage occurs. the hot carbonpreignites themixture.This will heat the combustion chamber and burn away excesscarbon. A carbon-aggravatedproblem most people arefamiliar withis dieseling-the enginerunson after the key is turned off. The resulting suddenpressureand temperaturerise is more than the engine was designedfor.So. prompt attention to the causes abnormalcombustionis wise.Checkfor theseproblemsif the engine detonates. stuck thermostat.the glowing carbon. Admittedly. Piston. the solenoid should click (the plunger is moving DIAC No' probk witho may 0 the tes it. Worn ringsandvalve guideswill alsocause excessive carbon buildup from incomplete oil buming. preignition without detonation causes excess combustion-chamber pressure and temperature.hole a piston and spew metal throughout the lubrication system. As an air-cooledengine. slow-speed. This devastationcan happen in less than one minute if the engine has been running for 10 minutes and is fully warm.onthe right side on earlier carbs. If the cooling flaps remain shut from a broken or missing spring. As a final note on carbon. retardthe timing a degree at a time until it doesn't ping. remove its electrical lead.the sparkplugfires and the mixture also startsburning near the plug. lights the mtxture after the sparkplughas fired. This shouldstop the dieselingmentionedabove. A hot piece of carbon acts like a diesel-engine glow plug by supplying an ignition source other than the sparkplug. It's no secret that advancing the spark in aircooled VW engines increases their power. Now touch the lead to the solenoidconnection. Look for the small can on the side of the carburetor with the wire leadingto it.causing preignition and detonation. They contribute excess oil to the combustion chamberand it can't be completelyburned. Besides carbon buildup.You can easily burn-oul excess carbon accumulatedthis way by taking the car for a long trip. but doesreducefuel economyandpower. considervehicle operation. If you drive a delivery route. Audible signs of detonation are pinging or knocking. They of areusually associated with low-octane gasoline ot over-advanced timing. Fin are he gine. or get betweena valve headand its seat. the fuel shut-off solenoid may be faulty. Carbon deposits build up on the backside of a valve and restrict airlfuel mixture flow into the cylinder. The excessheat will causeseveredetonation. If the engine pings at the slightestload. If that doesn't help. sounds akin to colliding billiard balls. To test the solenoid. fault. This timing setting may be retardedfrom the specified stocksetting. they may shroud the valves. Carbon deposits causetrouble in two ways. long-term light detonation will wear the rings. First.

When using a dowel.The engine will die when you unplug the that's working and show little change solenoid whenyou unplug the one that's not. Ifyou hear one valve over the rest. measurement. There is one bottom-end noise that can happen at every other revolutionpiston slap. Then all the valve-adjustment tightening in the world won't quiet the engine. there's no problem. From there. Piston slap is the sound produced by the piston slamming againstthe cylinder as that cylinder fires at the top ofthe power stroke.Upon first hearinga running engine. These are external sornds coming from loose brackets. If the valve noise remains after adjustment. so dieseling shouldn'tbe a problem with them. rocker arms and'll find thetests a it. items stuck in the fan and so forth. For example. and probe the fan area with your hand. It's a great way to pinpoint a noise. so engine vibrations don't bounce the dowel into your ear. Isolating Normal Noises-Now for the hard part: What do theseproblemssoundlike? Let's startwith normal enginesounds.Cupping your hands around your ears may look funny. Once oast the exhaust. the dominantsoundwill be the exhaust. adjust the valves. Remove any debris. The engine mayor may not be exhibiting problems. solenoid's Theorifice is very small and eventhe tiniest dirt particlecan clog it. Never close a valve adjustment tighter than 0. Carburetorsnot originally equipped with the solenoid can't haveit added. It may be necessary remove the fan and generator assembly to investigate this noise. check if the wireis supplying electricity with a test light. On pre-'71 carburetors. Check the tightness of the large fan retaining nut. broken rings. Unlike the stethoscopea doctor uses. becausethere's only one power stroke for every two crank revolutions. position the receiving end of the dowel againstyour skull. rubbing hoses. the problem is in the fan' A sharp. 11 . you can single out and stop thesenoises. If it does. If the noise occurs twice for every flash. not the leastbeing the human factor.006-in. those that you can noises hearwill sound different from each spot'. If "hot" (has voltage). And. ranging from with ahouse fan. in effect. first one solenoid and then the disconnecting other. All air-cooled jt unless is VWs use 0. If you don't find anything. those occurring eachcrankshaftrevolution. Engine noises can be lumped into three categories: intermittent ones. and thoseoccurring at every other crank revolution. valve clearance. As a secondchoice. By poking around the engine compartment. Aids for locating noises are a stethoscope. A proper valve adjustmentcan only be done while the engine is cold. increases the valve noise. close the hood. Fuel-injection systems stop fuel delivery when the engine is shut-off. it's at crankshaft speed-a bottom-endproblem.. For example.006-in. the initial impression is a big jumble of By sounds. timing and idleare adjustments required in thesecasesto speed stopdieseling. Finally. It can make several different sounds.let's start in on how to find themwithout taking the engine apart. an automotive stethoscopehas a solid metal probe at the business end.006 in. Ifyou suspecta noise from againsta beneatha cover. or if all the valves are making more of a harsh clacking sound. the fuel shut-off end doubles as the idle metering jet. if you still have the noise with their fan belts removed. a Type 4 engine with hydraulic lifters. you can decidewhether to rebuild now or later.Leaning forward into the engine compartmentwill help mask the exhaust. worn rod bearingsand main bearings. reducing piston-to-bore clearance. but all have been superseded the 0. hold one end firmly against the engine and the other end to your ear. hook up a timing light and see if the noise coincides with flashesof the light. you'll have established baselineof the engine's condition. look elsewherefor the source. place the stethoscope nearby bolt head or solid rail. trace and repair the wiring fault. but do anyway. Many factors influencethe way sounds are perceived. Try the rocker arms. if you are checking for one loose valve.inside). DIAGNOSIS Now that we've examined some engine oroblems. so you can more easily hear internal engine noises. Type 3s and flatengine Type 2s project more fan noise than Type ls. standto one side. a length ofhose or dowel can be used instead of a stethoscope. the solenoid is thewire is bad and needs to be replaced. If not.unlessthe engine diesels.If you don't hear a click. or the valve will burn.the main noise of an idling engine should be the soft ticking of the valve train. First. The other major noise in a air-cooled VW engine compartmentcomesfrom the fan. Then reinstallthe fuel shut-off solenoid. Cam and liftclearance. Noises that occur at every other turn of the crank-at camshaft speed-are most likely coming from the valve train: valves. A shot of compressedair usuallyclears the orifice. stand in back. you can locate it on a warm engine.If the noise disappears. it will only bum the valve. Raise the rpm past idle and the ticking should turn into a whirr. This test will isolate only the generator or alternator on Type 3 and 4 engines because their fans are driven directly off the crankshaft. NOISE DIAGNOSIS Internal Noises-Diagnosing engine noisesis a difficult and imprecise art.If ithas aproblem. remove the fan belt and run the engine for a few seconds. it occurs on every other crank revolution. Someonemay have replaced the solenoid with a standard idle screw. and try to to wiggle the fan on its hub. learn to mentally dissect what you arehearing. If so. before the pistons have expanded. Valve adjusting proceduresare on page 136-138. You won't hear all from each spot. a whining or screaming from the fan area usually means something is caught in the fan. the intermittent sounds-the oddballs. try different spots. the noise is at one-half crankshaft speed-a top-end problem or piston slap. On Type 3s with dual carburetors (and two determinewhich one is defective by solenoids). just forward of your ear. Consequently. early Type 2s and 9l4s becausethe fan is right in front ofyou when looking into the engine compartment. case. lifters or camshaft. lay down in back and to the side.As you listen to an air-cooledVW. critically identifying each sound. If the wire is "dead"(no voltage). not at the middle of the rocker cover. If there is any appreciable movement other than 90'to the shaft. But. Therefore. manifold. intermittent rattling noise from the sheet-metalfan shroud of Type I and 2 engines may be a loose or broken fan. it's possible there is a wom camshaft lobe or lifter. It works best when held against a solid part-head. This. and then recheck the solenoid operation. There have been other clearancesspecified by VW in by the past. Noises occurring at every turn of the crankshaft come from the bottom end: worn piston pins. Piston slap is easiestto detect on a cold engine. you can more easily block out the unimportant while concentratingon those you want sounds to hear.And. but it helps mask soundsfrom the sides and amplifies those in front. Piston slap is audible when piston{o-bore clearanceis excessive. Just rememberto properly adjust the valves after the engine cools. Stop the engine. length of heater hope or a wooden dowel. When investigating an automotive sound. Ifvalve adjustmentdoesn't cure a valve-train noise.which increases er inspection require engine disassembly. Openthe hood. a noisy valve can best be heardby listening at the edgeof the rocker cover or cylinder head. bolt heador the like. Abnormal Fan Noises-A lot of abnormal noises come from outside the engine. sit inside the car.biased People so eyesight. close your eyesto help focus attention to the sounds. If you have trouble telling whether a noise is at one-half or at crankshaft've got a crackedfan or bad generator or alternator bearings. the low-pitch noise associated and a high-pitch whistle. Rocker arms can be checkedby moving each by hand with the valve completely closed. toward perceiving via their aro. the rocker-arm bushing or shaft is worn.With a hose.

so don't be confused by them. but deeper than. See the sidebar for more information on disabling the ignition. It occurs at every power stroke. say from 1000-2000 rpm. You have to take the engine apa. disconnectand plugvacuumlineleading dashpot. So. The best way is to removethe high-tension leadfromthe center of the distributor cap and ground it. Piston Slap-Piston slap has already been mentioned becauseof its timing. they don't make any noise. As rpm drops. If one rod is bad. ortheir bushingsget loose. To test for rod knock. When you get to the affected cylinder. Engine rpm must drop sharply. Oncethe testis done. For quicker throttle response when testing for rod knock.This the can destroyan expensive electronic-ignition module. When you hear a rod knock.heavily insulatedwire running from the coil to the center of the distributor cap. If there are leaks. it covers the oil holes in the crankshaft. seizeand break.rtto detect bad piston pins. In other words. or ignitiotn-system damage may occur. hollow sound. so don't lose any sleep over them.The twisthelpsbreakany corrosion that resistswire removal.but dashpotsare found on all air-cooledVWs. Another typical exhaustsound is a whistle as the engine is accelerated. To remove it. the rods should rattle. serious damage has been done to the crankshaft and rod. lightly rev the engine. On engines wilh electronic ignition. graspthe bootaroundthe distributor-cap terminal. more serious problems. you'll hear a phuft. phuft. On dualport and fuel-injected engines. Then they wear in sets. Exhaust systems can leak from anywhere. the rod will weld itself to the crankshaft. Many times. screwdriver or the like. The high-tension lead is the large. Ona by sele until tht engine 1 on the t tor. Oil ceasesto flow to that rod and it rapidly overheats. so it sounds off in time with the valve train. This givesthe high-voltage electricity somewhere to go. Main bearings knock for the same reasons as rods-excessive oil clearance-but under different between the free end of the lead and ground. Be sure to ground the plug lead when disabling a cylinder. commonly called a vacuum leak. DISABLINGTHE IGNITION Many diagnostic tests call for the ignition system to be disabled. and all other precision clearances have been destroyed by the passingmetal. Rod knock describesthe knocking sound made by a connecting rod when there is excessiveclearancebetween it and the crankshaft. or they'll get burned. A spun bearing is one that is rotating relative to the rod and the crankshaft. it won't raise any racket. oil can't fill the gap between the rod bearing and crankshaft. STOP! Rebuild the engine while there is still enough to rebuild. there's a better chance of hearing it while driving than listening for it with the hood open. if that's easier. knock or pound. thoroughly warm the engine to operating temperature. case. Ifyou think you hearpiston slap. for the they rar especi bearinl knocki are a ri DIAGl Crank is an en the pur ing thr crankir sealed in goo< vacuun portion Beg temper ute drir There' warm i Onc the ign nect y VACUUr intake vacuur of the buretor Port \ mary create ious e vacuu applic 12 . Rods also wear with accumulated mileage. Bent crank pulleys areeasily seen by sighting acrossthem while the engine idles. Thisis a to 411 engine.. Round can at right is throttle dashpot. phuft sound coming from the leak. This is becausethe rods float on their joumals as they pass through the transition of being loaded. phuft. A few well-placed wooden block and hammer blows can straighten out a bent pulley.Rhythmic scraping soundsare likely to be a bent crankshaft pu11ey the cooling fan rubor bing the fan shroud.simplyreinsert the lead into the distributor cap. By the time a rod is knocking.twistthe lead slightly. Disabling the cylinder will reduce piston slap because combustion loads no longer exist. The rod. examine the rubber hose sections of the intake manifold. for an instant. Intake-Air Hissing-A loud hissing accompanied by poor idling usually indicates an intake-air leak. Metal-to-metal contact startsas the rod bearing is slammed against the crankshaft. To test for main-bearingknock. Usr speed a don't k throttle bearing frequen this betl for rnor the clutr while gr periods with axle. Piston slap is a dull. The sooneryou stop and overhaul the engine. Ifyou are on a long trip and overheat the engine. Now. This sound is often heard during a cold start before oil pressurebuilds.groundthe leadto the head or engineblock. and camshaft are sure to be broken. lt dows throttle closingvia rod restingagainst throttle linkage. the better. Cold-start enrichment devices normally make some sucking or hissing sound while they are operating. Don't leave your hands or shoesover the exhaust pipes very long. The sheet-metalshrouding can be bent out of the way with a wooden dowel. Usually metal particles from the rod have been pumped through the engine with the oil. Main-Bearing Knock-Sounding similar to. worn rod bearings are bad main bearings. so it's a good idea to check the exhaust system before jumping to any conclusions. plus the intake manifold-to-cylinder head hardware. insteadof continuing build voltage to andtryingto arcto groundinside coil. Reconnecting the plug lead will restorethe noise. tired bearings. Ihere shouldbe no morethanal/4-in. Continued driving may spin the bearing. sealing the ends of the pipes wilt stop the engine. the bearing is no longer clamped by the connecting rod.there are severalways to short-circuit electrical the supplyto the plugs. With the transaxlein neutral. In fact. Pushing or pulling on the top of the fan shroud will probably eliminate the fan noise. It's difficult to hear over the normally loud VW engine mechanicals and not easy to isolate. With conventional ignitionsystems. Check the tightness of the carburetor{ointake manifold connections. you may hear the rod knock start out as a light tap.If the exhaust system is tight. When rod-bearing clearanceis large. rod knock is it.It is causedby loose or cheap replacementtailpipe baffles on Beetles and early Buses. andabruptly lift offthe accelerator. Even when a clip is broken and the pin is free to score the cylinder. you'lI hear one steady knocking beat. tt Placetl ly with tor slov load thr main br right al and trar the tral test is ( WV Piston-Pin Noise-All air-cooled VWs use full-floating piston pins. but mating flanges at the cylinders. some are betterthan others. Rod Knock-If there is one internal engine noise associated with air-cooled VWs. with the engine idling. plus the air intake and metering areain general. which is being disconnected. depending on how you hear it. put the thoroughly warmed engine under load. so you'll hear a castanet-like rattling with old. muffler and tailpipe extensions are the usual spots. remove and replacethe sparkplugwire to each cylinder one at a time. Make surethe distributor cam and points rubbing block are well-lubricated and then recheck. Exhaust Leaks-These are often confused with other. Distributor Chirping-Dry distributor-cam surfaces can cause the points to give a highpitched chirping. then quickly unloaded. the noise will greatly diminish. Exhaust is very hot. cover the exhaust outlets with palms that are swathedin wet rags or block the pipes with your shoes. and pull out the lead. When thesepins wear. They are very rarely a problem.You'll have to apply considerablepressure to exhaust openings as a well-sealed system has a lot of pressure. When the bearing spins. move into a medium rap and finally develop into a knock.

the Place transaxlein gear.Check for heat out of the heater. a quick. just loadthe engineso the car tries to creep. It creates vacuum signal usedfor operating var. '-%iffi' "Y::. crankingvacuumvalueswill be 5 in. To pinpoint the cylPortedvacuum exists in the carburetor priinder at fault.Becauseatmosphericpressure drops as altitude increases. If the main bearings going to knock.pull all sparkplugleadsoff the sparkplugs."''* You can detect maior of vacuumis excellentindicator overallenginecondition. nect your vacuum gage to a fulL manfoldIf the needleregularlydropsto near0 in. shut it off. but lower reading.Hgwarmit up.Hg) for each 1000-ft increasein altitude.Hg. If you hear are knocking orpounding from the engine. accelerating during other while or periods high engine load. for example in Denver.Hg thepumping below areading taken at sealevel. If all internal parts are level. You can perform a power-balancetest at home '79 and later on any air-cooled VW except for with electronicigniBuses. A note about altitude and how it affects vacuum readings. chances area rod is about to fail. (This 5 sameenginein Denver is registering in. Keep engine speed about 1000 rpm during the test and at don'tlet the car creep forward. they'11 so are do rightaway. You cando the sameby inserting a metal spring between the sparkplug and lead. the Once engineis warm. Then load the furtherby putting half of your right foot engine onthebrakeand the other half on the accelerator. The rod especially bearings much more suspect. By comparingthe resulting rpm drop for each disabled cylinder.Therefore.By measur.This is they rarely true of Type 4 engines. few seconds test over.Hg.ringsare probably vacuum readings under the same conditions. canalsohearbadmain bearings You goinguphill. But. This checks So. or cylinders.There is no needto keep the engine andtransaxle straining-this is very tough on (5-10) and the A thetransaxle. touch a grounded wire to the spring. you'll have to perfbrm more maryventuri. a bad one showsright away. If you are looking for a more subtle problem.the engine will produce a lot of vacuum-if not. or have a friend crank portionately the engine. so a professional To perform a power-balance test on other engines.through the rear window.They are equipped tion that can't be open-fired. the lead has to be grounded without open-firing it first.tests. An engine in good condition will lower. just above the throttle plates.burnedvalves. the knocking main and will sound off with a heavy. The engine will then be running on three cylinders.This engineisn't drawing shot.) temperature-tenminutes idling or a five minA wom engine with no major problems will utedrive. Any vacuum nipple on the intakemanifold will do. at 5000 ft. Prop the vacuum gage so you can see it in goodshape.The car's tachis not 't3 . too. disable it's normal on a four-cylinder engine. Don't overdoit. estheignition so the engine can't start. to however. of With an Auto-Stick or full automatic transis axle. lowbearings pounding. Be careful! Don't do this for morethan three secondsor you'll burn out theclutch. wearout. Judgingfrom grit and lackof air filter. hold the brake firmthe ly with your left foot and depressthe acceleratorslowlywith your right. it alsoisolates applications-opposite of the high manifold- cylinders contribute little to manifold vacuum. iunningidle test.This is easiersaidthan done in the confines of a Bus engine compartment. warped cylinder heads and worn buretors fuel-injectionsystems.pecially slow-cranking ones with 6-volt startlng systems. or makenoise. of fail. byselecting first gear and letting out the clutch untiltheenginebeginsto labor. Vacuum-The next diagnostic Cranking vacuum test. use a dwell/tachometer measure rpm drop for eachcylinder. Manifold much vacuumduring problemsin secondswith a vacuumgage. Beginby warming the engine to operating pull a steadyvacuum ofabout l0 in. worn cam lobes. test To do a power-balance on them. Don't be no alarmedif the needleswings about 2 in. racuumsource.Thus. a If you suspect burnedvalve or other major problem. it's a Power-Balance Test-This test shows how vacuumsignal that reads low on part-throttle much each cylinder contributes to the power which outputofan engine.valves. Colisanengine-cranking ability of the engine. There's need to overheatthe engine. Just make sure the then there is a problem. cranking vacuum will drop about I inch of mercury DIAGNOSTIC TESTS step (in. tester A professionaloscilloscope/diagnostic easilydoesthis.orado. You're going to lift a lead off its plug without a lot of tugging. is VW mainbearingsare quite large and strong for thehorsepower the engines. The vacuum ing the vacuum an engine produces while at valuesgiven below are for measurements sea cranking. ear-calibrated powerbalancetest will tell what you want to knowwhich cylinder is it? BecauseVWs have only four cylinders. vacuum will be pro. Such a vacuum drop vacuum sourceisn't ported vacuum-from one can have numerous causes: poorly adjusted of the small diameter nipples on later car. You can practically feel fiequency this better thanhearit.Hg. and con.On a manuai-transaxle load the engine car. The idea is to pull the lead away from the plug and ground it against the head and stop that plug from firing-this is called open-firing.pistonsor rings. you can determinewhich cylinder is at fault. With a little throttle clutchjuggling. a ious emission-control switches. too.pulled head studs.Use the parking brake. just have a are really testing how wellthe sealed cylinders are. tesl for bad main bearings easier. then set the leads lightly back on the tops. test is the best method. Then to ground the lead.

The black depositsshould wipe off easily. crankpulleysahdfans rotateclockwise.Oil in the combustionchamber will leavethe plug wet and shiny black.---\iI vi l\ i\ FLYWHEEL + . if all cylinders are bad. a really bad cylinder may not drop in rpm at all. Now. Of course. when . *. Therefore. plug c is carbon-fouled. Remember. ) helper any ca compr The disabk out for engine fully c openin using i linkag helps. write down the reading and reconnect the plug lead. With thc tachometerconnected.All distributorroiors. If the fuel mixture is too rich. Note vacuumadvancecan positibnand rotor tip points at #1 when installed. lt's worn out. Becausethe compressiontest follows. indicaiing ii well coloring and more likely to show symptoms of all in the combustionchamber. The insulator can also turn a pastel green or yellow in normal operation. Distributor driveshaftslot positionat TDC. pay more attention to consumption. f engine oily plr with tt Compr pressio conditi There r taperec and he the scr difficu mount coolinl hold a bent ir screwtype.the cylinders with the leastdrop are the bad ones. But when thesereadings start varying by more than 40 or 50 rpm. the plug will be powdered with a white coating. = |LINE PARTINGE ---. none will drop very much. don't confuse it with oil-fouling. - i p ao"= rir cAsE a E l T r N r . Don't expect the readingsto be any closer than 20 rpm.stop-and-go drivingor-a too-coldplug heit range. t/ i(il i .) to if the much are 1o Re grve( 14 . with an even tan coating and slight rounding of the electrodes.A carbon-fouledplug's dry.cylinder#1. Il busyp plug h wit c and cr about cranki come fast cr highe \ same of cor Lik are de surec in. B Reading Sparkplugs-Think of a sparkplug as a removable portion of the combustion chamber. PlugA suffers from heavily rounded electrodes and pitted insulator. depending on the individual fuel blend beihg used. Replacesuch plugs and engin6 that into your palm and you get an oily mess performancewill improve. Normally. which requires sparkplug removal. a plug should be dry. flat-black carbon. flat-blackcoating comes from can-yieldimportanttroubleshooting clues.andyou'll seeit hasusefuldiagnostic potential. Also be aware that soark- plugs I show tl cause0 driven You who re turn ad race. unusual combustion. Noteoffset of slot: thicker arc faces different positiondeiending on engine. accurate enough for this test.Shiny-black-coating inciicaiesexcesd oil that won't rub off easily. plug D is trodethan the metal shell. Plug B is oiFfouled. Rub the carbon onto the palm of your hand.the porcelain insulator around the center eleccessively_rich airlfuelmixtures. the plug will be coatedwith dry. When reading plugs..)KY. let's discusssparkplugreadingnow. Rub Reading. Late Type 2 & Type 4 Type 1 & EarlyType2 @ Type 3 rype l&Earry f-b-l' rype2 ( ((a\ 6-Ll . take notice.K" Type3 Type2 i1 \ | i Cylinderlayout.Photoscourtesy ChampionSpark Hu! C'ompany.Jl self. ingam will ct engine Scr use. and the porcelain insulator will appear burned. Go to the next plug and do the same until you've done all four. ground the first plug lead and wait for engine rpm to stabilize.. It's most sensitive to normal. Good VW cylinders usually register a drop of about 200 rpm.Electroderoundingisrnoderateand insulatbris even tan dr gray. distributorpositionat TDC (Top Dead Center)and firingorder.possiblyfrom worn rings and valve guides. sparkplu. If the mixture is too lean. It doesn't matter so much how far rpm drops as how close the readings are to each other.FLYWHEEL + "":? 'tEtrcET - | --\^Y/-7-l-.

higher speedgives higher pre. can ioi e*impre. even reaolngs psi. They will registerlower valuesthe higher difficult useon VWs because cone and its rubber'conetype likeone shownis atttrouglr are mount usuallytoo shortto reachthrough the thE altitude.9151 Crank the engine two revolutions or so to 30O0 crankingspeed slow as the tested cylinder . trouble reaching 40 psi and. Compressionreadingsare influencedby psi. Just make sure the oil can has . mulriply 125by plug oit"y ona street obtained from compression testing' One is withtheringsor valveguldes' cranking speed. if a cylinderyietded the because airlfuel charge ingandopenflames sion-testresults. Retestthe low cylinder' If com4000 its compressionstroke' Note how . do iwet testby value for compression1in Justscrewit in and crank the engine youruse.7psratmospnerday cnnditions: u"r.if possible. Wet tLst such a cylinder.9711 1000 andcrankthe engine so the testedcylinder is full so you don't squirt air into the cylinder' . don't be too concerned in.on that.r. and ancl Altitude will affect compressron reaorngs version is Foputar diagnostic check is compression type. If you crank them some leeway' givedifferentreadings. to tumadjustmenl the carburetor and won the if you crank this type of cylinder enough.valves. you use a rubber-conetester. so comwhin crankingthe engine. Screw-in tester is easiest to use' ings. also give lower compress^ton tester. of squirtinga teaspoon oil sion..jump the battery to anotherone to type that is inserted into rubber-cone tapered maintain cranking sPeed.8881 soreadthe oil. relaThat'son a race engine.t up on .r. a cylinder suffering from engineis subjectedto' driven excessiveoiling-from bad rings even-can Youmayhaveheardabout the ace mechanic readingsbecause vield hieh compression-test whoreadihe plugs' then made a one-eighth the seals rings'Again' oil in thecylinder L*. Usually' a cylinder will pr-oTrouble is idS if the figures seem generally low' wltn seaduce40 psi on the first piston stroke' another35 could be reading low comp-ared muchmorelikely if only one or two cylinders Lu"Lm"'ll need a remote starter switch or a low-rpm breathing for improved high-rpm tt. A helper is bestjn breathing. if the highestreading is^l25 The throttle and choke plate must be engine. consider them faulty' Below 14. . 40 psi or more. Problem cylinders arelow.. butiustfinefor the actupsi on tire next and so about 5000 ft' the sure rangefrom 75 psi (pounds per square warped be You may notice a cylinder that takes a long equivalenicompressionreading allow 15 . and tempressure "Screw-in (accounting decreased for To help determinethe causeof low compresto compressiontesters are easier Just multlply for oerature) difterentaltitudes.or.havehim fully depressthe accelerator is sood and all below are bad' In the example tude increasesabove sea level. if you're compressionvalues are usually based. urinn standard Notice I said acceptable. So.8617 5000 pression comes up markedly. Worn camshaft lobes can also just as accurate' also awkward to shrouding.They are cooling cause lower-than-normal readings' Highcylinder pressure while you are hold against oerformance camshafts. SAE 30W is fine' To depsi) by the factorfor the engine'soperating If se1f. i"r. with their longbentinto a VW engine compartment. then compression An acceptable be pulled head studs or a lessinDenver' Dependingon the engine' pres. So.. al operatingaltitude.7860 8000 increase much' about 5 compression doesn't strokes. psi at sea levelwouldregister cylinder head.enough.8359 6000 ihe trouble is poor ring{o-bore sealing' A rereading' Test all four cylinders the highest . hold the thottle open oil into the cylinder. prop the throttle acceptatle.75 to get94 Therefore' test-part-throttle for ful'ivopenfor an accurate Specifications altitudeand temperature. oI compression the problem is probably with the of reading 125 Like the power-balancetest.9428 strokes' You can hear 2000 6-8 compression about . becausethis conditionsbethe sholw mostbasiccombustion condition is usually causedby poor nngs' ofthemanyoperatingconditions a streetcause On the other hand.ninitresult low readingsSo.ur"tents. jot down the increasesand fast compression ."idingt and vice versa. l2Oor 125psi.8106 7000 number builtl is neededto restorethe lost clearances'If ruL. There.different compresslon testers hay have inciease by l0 psi at a time. the pushing conetightly againstthe sparkbusy teaspoonget a teaspoonand fill it while countolushole. With a small. tively high readings can result' can't be read that way' Check for the ensine There are variables that affect the readings a reveals problem engine. The rubber-cone thescrew-in even as it influences manifold-vacuum readthe to test.)to psi X . heldagainstthe open sparkplug hole. not desirable' It is and 59F at sea level. you'll be termine how many squirts it takes to make a conditions. *. Use a duration profiles. Compression testing takes place at it because leavesyou free to watch the case anv cranking speed-well below idle speed' gageduring the test' compression The engine must be warmed up. Then squirt the sameamount oI Altitude (ft) frith . ihe specification into that cylinder. instead.ith. ignition Double-check your findings with the 7570rule: ind all sparkplugs removed' Watch disabled HIGHERALTITUDE& cylinders must read within 757oof the highA11 outfor hot partswheneverworking on a warm LOWER COMPRESS]ON est cylinder. Note: Avoid smokcompresonly 97 psi and-the pensatefor this when interpreting ei.t method. cylinders and valves' tery will run down during a compresslontests' are There two types of compression testers: a But if it does.8617 : 108 psi' The cylinders time to pump up. over150psi.they'll come close to the other cylinolussfrom a street-drivenengine can onty ders.sfamiliar comCompressionTesting-The rut" .Atmospnenc ic pressure linkageopen with a screwdriver. It could also aredesirable.ip. tuy. I would be wary of the the *ilt ro*i out of the sparkplug holes when The chart supplies correction factors low cylinder. ' Factor ing the squirts. they in oo. is ensine uanked.ito crankthe engine. plugs in a street race. If using the conescrew-in readings. are if all cylindersread above 94 psi.en. pression is a good way to measure tne test four-cylinder engine. it isn't likely that the batof condition the rings.This is becausesuch cams sacntrce type. Give eachcylinder the same . starlerswitch. If a friend hard to set a wear limit and say anything above decreaseas alllpressureand temperature helps.

holed piston or other catastrophic cylinder damage. Compressed aii is pumped to the cylinder while the tester monitors how much air it takes to make uo for cylinder leakage.Bad-sealing rings and cylinders can be detectedat the oil-breather or dipstick holes. even just a little. you can the feel when the piston is at the top of its stroke. A leak-down tester uses an external airpressuresource.If so. You can usuallytell what's leakingby listening to the engine with the tester attached. A compression test gives an accurate enoughpicture ofan engine's condition 90Zoof the time. If it's slightly off. valve lift decreases and the ensine doesn't breath as well. a leak-down tester will definitely help you make a decision. On the other hand. they should have an HC/CO meter available. Therefore. holed piston or the like. As the cam lobes wear. Many tuneup shopscan do the test for you. If the diagnostic tests thus far indicate worn engine internals. That will provoke some mystery! What happensis the lifter rotatesright aftera valveadjustment.Accuracy is improved beiause variables affecting compression-test readings-those that have no bearingon the sealing capability of an engine-are eliminated. but doesn't normally warrant a rebuild. then connectthe testerto the adapter and the air compressor. The shorter the lobe. The top of the lobe is cut at a slight angle. To understandthe wear cycte.or the cam lobe'wears flat. You'll need an air compressor(a l/2-Hp model will do) and the leak-down tester if performing the test yourself. Need as for air compressor. Then the lifter tendsnot to rotate. It is possible to disable one cylinder by adjusting its valves. Sometimes leakage is evenly divided and hard to attribute to one source. The higher the leakage rate. Farmthis test out to get accurate evaluationof engine condition. #2. And. Frequent valve adjustments become necessary keep noise down to and the valves adjusted. They aren't. Start by reading the instructionsthat came with the tester. During the test. This makes the lifter rotate with each valve opening and spreadswear over the surface of the lifter. a leak-down test is more accuratethan comJiession testing.this is one test to farm out. you can hear the hiss of escaping air in the tailpipe. One way to spot a suspected leaky exhaust . But becausethe valve was adjuste clearan valve < started runs oI If y< find it adjuste loosen engine starts c its lovr now. but lacks power and has noisy valves that won't stay in adjustment. the test is not influenced by cranking speed. so that when the lifter restsagainstit. If the compressionreadings are baffling. Problems start when the lifter wearsa sroove into its concavesurface. alternator.If the exhaustvalve is lenking. intake-air sensor or breather.The readoutis in percent leakage.just an adapter for the sparkplug hole and a compressed-airsource. the worsetheproblem. lOVoor less. Instead.leakagewill approachl007o as all the compressed blows by an open valve. Bring the # I cylinder to top deadcenter (TDC) of the its compressionstroke. Remember. Leakage for an engine in good condition is 16 valve is to hook an HC/CO meterto the tailpipe and squirt some carburetorcleanerinto the cylinder. Check the engine timing marksto make sureit's exactly on TDC. thin screwdriver into the combustion chamberthrough the sparkplug hole. the HC portion of the meter will peg instantaneously If you usea ! tuneup shop for the leak-down test. a leak-down test is an excellentidea. Otherwise. or againrotaringthe crank 180oeach time. Once finished with the first cylinder. Power is reducedand valve train noise increasesbecausethe valve clearanceincreaseswith cam and lifter wear. With the screwdriver contacting pistontop. If you are diagnosing a car before buying it. valve lift is likely your problem. You might as well get on with rebuilding the engine. This wears the lifter and especially the lobe very rapidly. At first glance. and wear concentratesln one spot. generator. altitude or excessiveoiling. if you have accessto a leak-down tester. Leakage past intake valves can be heard at the carburetor or intake-airsensor. a9OVo leakageindicatesseriousdamage. They only reduce the valve clearancefor the short time it takes the lobe to wear down some more. It takes a minute for the leakage to reach the meter. unlessyou do a lot of enginediagnosis. Then testcylinders#3 and. Reconnect the leak-down tester and watch the meter. such as a badly burned valve.Insteacl. both the rings and valvesmay be leaking. the working surface of a lifter and the top edge of a camshaft lobe look flat. This unit is part of professional diagnostictester. Leak-downtestequipmentis expensive. ir's a sure iign of multiple problems. there is little need to consider valve lift.o so longerover cam Iobe. Pulled head studsmay causehissing leaks between the cylinder heads and cylinders. Testing is done with the engine stationary. However. This test actually doesn't require a leak-down tester. but ifthe exhaustvalve is lts center protrudes more than the edges. until the lobe is considerably shorter than when new.cost and more involved test procedure usually prohibit homemechanicuse. if the engine seemswellsealed at the valves and cylinders. So.the lifter's bottomis convex. valve duration. It is also a test that can be skipped most of the time. the less valve lift and horsepower. The cost should be minimal.A20Voleakage indicate can a high-mileageengine. or air the engine will tum over. and inspectthe camshaft and lifters directly.the piston must be at TDC of its compression stroke so both valves are closed. This will keep the engine for turning over. first consider how camshafts and lifters are made. VALVE LIFT Valve lift is the distancethe valve is moved off its seat by the camshaft.Leak-Down Testing-Although it's also a measure of combustion-chamber sealins. others are available separatetools. skip thecompression andtestthecylinders resl witir the more accurate leak-down tester. Of course. partof the the a lifter which is closeto originalthickn-essnow is against the lobe. A good way to check for TDC is to insert a long. have a helper hold the crank with a socket on the crank-pulley nut. This is especially true if there is a burnedvalve. Next. the engine witl kick over without warning the instant the cylinder is pressurized. the worn spolis. install the hose adapter in the sparkplug hole. rotate the engineI 80' to cylinder #4 and testit. tl and ne If th needsi cam al replace quired timely Chanc Leak-downtesting can indicatemore about engine conditionthan any other test. A 30Va leakage is serious enough for an engine overhaul or valve job. the contact point is off-center. however. Increased noise is part of the wear process becausevalve clearance increasesas the lobe and lifter grind down.A length ofhose can aid listeningin somechassis holding by oneendat yourearind the other where you suspect leakage: carburetor. even frequent valve adjustments don't stop the wear once it is started. disconnect the tester.

consequentty. some way to mount it near the valve springs and enough room to fit the instrument. Rotate the engine until that valve is completely closed. which was iust adjusted conectly. you'Il need a dial indicator. use a dial indicator to measurevalve lift at the valve-spring retainer.000 or more miles and needs valve adjustmentevery 500 miles. Then five minutes later it starts clackingaway as the dished lifter rotates its low spot over the lobe again. valve clearance will subtract. look for a valve that is liftine considerably rhanits neighbors. If you recheck the valve clearance. When the ensine is started. though. you loosen adjustmentto specificationsand the the engine runs fine. Complete engine disassembly is requiredto service the cam and lifters. So. to Chances the valves and cylinders are worn are anyway. No puzzle now. the a camand lifters are worn out and need to be replaced. allow for the rocker-arm ratio and valve clearance. Read valve lift directly on the dial. like drag racers. Racer'scan't hearnoisy valves over open exhaust. a bit puzzled.theengine'scam and lifters are worn out andneedreplacing. Rocker-arm ratio w111 add to lift measuredat the cam lobe. then rotate the crank pulley until the valve is completely open. they don't have to split the casesto determine the cam's condition. Indicator magneticbaseswon't attachto aluminum cylinder heads. In other words. compression can't buildandtheingine runson three 914s. the cam is worn and will need to be replaced or reground.adjusted the worn section. but valve lift relative to the other valves. you'll findit tight on rharcylinder. Measuring Valve Lift-Some VW specialists. Note the space available for a dial indicator before considering measuring valve lift. On somechassis. so it's timely rebuild the rest of the engine. If measuringvalve lift. don't be concerned about the absolute valve lift. as well. because you are measuring valve lift. Bring the indicator's plunger to bear on the valve-spring retainer. For a test of this kind. They can then determine if the cam lobe is wearingdown. If the enginehas 50. so endless valve adjustments are usually another clue that the engine needs an overhaul.but might mount on the cooling shroud or exhaust. actual valve for clearance zero and the lobe is holdins the is valve openal! rhe time. Zero the dial indicator. . a valvi less If is lifting less than the others. Remember. this measurement is out ofthe question unlessthe engineis out of the car. and don't have time to split the caseto look at the camshaftbetween races. Measuring valve lift lets them determine there is no camshaftwear.

then hoseoff the crud. A thorfloorjack andjack standscan be rented. you must support it with tantsteps any overhaul.The floor jack resists ment. ly available:steam cleaning. spray and leave the messthere. the stinky mess ends up on your betweenthe engine and floor jack.ifyou're planningto buy a floorjack. It works well gOVo when it does.the mechanic and is trapped atop the engine by A for raising and lowering.but imaginepullingequivalent package(enginewith VWs a l-ton version is adequate. have a gardenhose.for supportinga tion and caution before and during engine re.rolling. to work on. beforeremovingit.Don't forget off. Wrenches slip. For the samereason. Never use any jack (bumper. many different types of chassis. Most service stations have the equip. Use two jack of the time. Steam cleaning is for truly filthy enginesWith patience.(Yes. and if you are underthe car rebuilt engine. It under Con when movin The cl pendir about angry cities. moval will reward you when installing your Solvent blasting uses compressedair and Ajack can fail. check with a tractor or heavy. a 1-1/2but all accessories. Problem is. use afloor jack andjack stands.hopingto and spray degreasing. Theseparts must be kept dry or It's frustratingto pull on the engine.very hard packeddirt. Cost is comparable steamclean.Look Air-cooledVolkswagenengines found in are ough solvent blasting takes about as long as in the phone book under Rentals. Typically. and. Jacksare stallation. a piece of plywood.differentialand coolingsystem)out of a Camarowith ton jack is sturdierand usually will lift higher.coil and engine less likely to slip off the jack's pad. you'll have a hard time restartingthe engine.gine steamcleaned.try not to removea VW hour. jack stands. Solve that by doing the job at a car Besidesprotectingthe enginefrom gouges. you warm the jacking point for loweringthe engineis right Additionally. solvent blasting shapedto fit.this method works as well as only to have the jack stop and the engineslip suchas an oil leakerdriven on dirt roads. Threemethods general. fasteners hide under wash.Haphazardly in remov.ldflywheelto make widerfloorjacksaddle. Evenon equipmentshop. clean the enginebefore working engine. surfaces somethingto dig into.sprayit with degreaser. not. Engine removal and installationare imporConsiderhaving only the bottom of the enOnce the car is up. roll the engine/jackcombinationtoward you. you'll needa l-112-tonversionfor lifting most other cars. or thicker plywood to place hardwaremust also be readied. Wdd short length of pipe over gland-nut bore to secure flywheel in jack.You'll need a sizeable let on it anddecidewhereto pull it. If not. scising an engine guarantees headaches during intoo messyasthe hot solution is reflectedback at sors. A VW air-cooled engine is lowered fromils special tools are needed for all cars: a floor Spray degreasercan be usedat home if you raised chassiswith a floor iack. port the car during engineremovaland installa. transmission.Lifting & Lowering Tools-To raiseand sup. it could be fatal. little prepara. This makesthe Avoid theseproblemsby cleaningthe engine Rememberto cover the distributor. it set so the under the oil will sink into the dirt instead.the sheetmetal. Containers for degreaser can penetrate. costis reasonable thejob takesabouta half and to remove this waterproofingbefore driving. able. Suppr ward qoncrr betwe tion. piece of ll2-in. r Get O engint where an enf big bc do ge find y the ch wil disco and di memc and fi and br housi and s dropp Ge . solvent to blow off the dirt.carburetorwith plastic bags or aluminum foil are making engineremoval safer and a lot easier. If Y try rer the ph hobby base.but the same steamcleaning. it happens!) engineon a dirt surface. little pebblescan chock 18 the jar jerkinl ing gn full sh on. car while you are underneath.It's alsodangerous. only a floorjack! Besides.Steamcleaningthe top is jack stands. Engine Cleaning-A dirty engineis miserable driveway.Engine Removal ffi Use g. Both the to PREPARATION ing and practically any shop can do it.For Powertrain on 914 is somewhatheavy.The steam cleaningor solventblasting.standsto hold up the rear of the car.The floor jack is a hydraulicjack in a wheeledframe. screw or otherwise) as a stand. Use the high-pressure water/detergent the soft plywood givesthe hardengineandjack the goo and grime gets underyour fingernails. A balanced jack.

tified by its rectangular shape. vacuum. The paperelementis easilyidenBattery-On all chassis.If you are stationed at a military base. Have the containersready before dropping engine.waterproofmarking pen. hosesand cables. Or use a plastic label maker. It will also keep you cleaner as you work underthe car. don't rely on memoryalone! for so between standand ground to prevent settling and tipping. Label andremovethe crankcase oil drain while you make the variouselectrical breatherhose. Once it's out.Let the the filter inlet. ENGINE REMOVAL Remember. Labeling disconnections is a critical step.You'll thank yourself at installation.just mark the first the right side of the engine compaftment.disconnectthe bat.ments are different. there aren't many disconnectionsremember. When you to do getaroundto installing the engine. and wardol rear wheels on sturdy chassis component. Draw your own schematics ofthe various connections help at reassembly.another for heater tubing andso on. Yet.or you won't use them. or oil will conchassisbecauseof the different chassisair. During completelyremovethe batteryfor cleaningand engineinstallationall you'll have to do is concharging. The It's not essential.but later engines to and different chassis definitely tax the best can memory. the the warm-air control flap cablefrom its arm on drain plug is separate from the strainer. Squareback and Fastback. If youdon't havea dedicatedworking room.Next.On the 41 I marker.If a dirt floor is all you have.then unscrewthe clamp at the air-filter housing base. 2s to 2s and so on. The batteryis undertherearseatin the them with masking tape and your permanent Beetle. On the Type 4.even the authorities in some cities. GetOrganized-It's a trying taskto install an engine someone else removed. thejack wheels. Karmann Ghia and 914.Disconnect it at the air filter. then unlatchthe filter assembly and mechanical disconnections. 19 .the lessmessyou'll have later when the engine compartment. On the Beetle. but no problem. Use these for labeling the vacuum and electrical disconnectionsyou'll make. label and disconnectany hoses. pulling anengine throwing all the hardware in one and bigbox amounts the sameeffort. Label tive one. Fuel-Injection Air Filter-Undo the four permanent. you open the engine. lift it off the carburetor and set it aside.the drain plug is the large bolt in the filterto-engine and hot-air hoses. Look in thephone book for a do-it-yourself auto shopor hobbyshop. Earlier cars had oilbath air filters with a minimum of hoses attachedto them. the first few of the unit. Unclamp and remove the engines. you'll find your memory can't make any order from thechaos.Labelallwire hoseconnections tapeandpermanent car with marker. The cable is connectedto the engine thermostatand controls engineinlet air temperature response enin to gine temperature.set them on These labelsare your insurancefor correctlyinstallingconnections @ncrete best foundation.Its hoseattachtery negativecablefirst. Thechassis will be immobile for awhile.taminatethe upperhalf of the filter and spill out cooled VWs are mountedin. disconnections ofcomponentsaboutthe engine ln'73 a paper-element filter replaced air the aresimilar in all models. angrylandlords. theyoften have auto hobby shopsavailable. The Iongerthe from its mounting bracketand remove it from oil drains. moving chassis the meanspushingor towing. but now is a good time to next disconnection getsa 2 andso forth. so don't skip it! There isn't enoughroom in this book to list all the hose and wire diagrams for the various chassis. On the You don't have to know exactly what the Bus.Support with jackstandsany time it is raised.On soft asphaltor dirt. to fiesh engine only to find the battery dead. keep it upright. too. then removethe posi. lay a full sheet ofplywood down to roll the floorjack on. Three weeks is on about average. With the earlier Beetle. Save yourself considerabletrouble andfrustrationby getting several coffee cans and boxes labelingthem. a cable is fitted to the warm air flap on the filter inlet. mechanicaland fuel lines. backbreaking grunts. depending how fast you work. placeplywood during engine installation. Consider what you'll do with the chassis whenyou removethe engine. Use one for belland housing hardware. hose 1 and where it attaches with a 1. and 412 look under the driver's seat. From August '67. Placestands for. oil-bath unit. the Geta roll of masking otherstouttapeanda or BEETLES & KARMANN GHIAS fiYPE 1) Air Filter & Housing-Open theenginecover and remove the air filter. Karmann Ghia air filters are mountedto the Drain Oil-Now drain the oil. Stationary cars attract vandals. Without tipping the filter. undo center of the oil stainer. Who knows where those all nutsandboltsso? Well. try rentingspaceat a service station. complete with some of the larger tools.It's aggravating try and start your nect the ls to ls. the battery is on hosedoesyou are removing. On Type I -3 right of the engine. making engine movement a jerkingseriesof barely controlled. up to It's to you to label and keep track ofthe electrical.when handling and storing an oilWe'll examine engine removal chassisby bath air filter.

wires l other. chassis.This releases Also remove the fuel line and throttle cable. when the engine is paftially out of the nector. on pliers hold throttle cable and linkagewhile cable is Needle-nose or disconnected. Be careful when pulling back the rubber boot and tugging on the conLater. pull cable guide from fan housing. but it's not the right one. If the car has an altemator. voltageregulators slip-onconnectors used on generator-mounted are clips aroundthe air filter housing. just leave guide in place. Now disconnectthe multiple unbolting the clamping bolt and pushing the wire plug onthe intake air sensor. After that. nearthe choke heating element and fuel-cutofT wires. lf so. Ol The Follow labelinl and ten be pusl Mak. them. you can pull the cable out the fan housing the rest of the way. and pull it completelyout when lowering the can push the off as a unit. Generatordisconnections normallythree wires right on top of the generator. Next unscrew the rubber boot's clamp at the A lot of throttle cable guides have been other end of the air sensor. Don'tloosencinchboltagainst cabletension.In that case. You have extramarking andremovingof necessary wires engine Bec diseng rear el earlY t screw Latt from I Comp ber ga screw over t fuel-it small aloun manif Thr endsc attach UnSCfl screw Raise until 20 . unclamp and remove the rubber air duct.removethe three slip-on connectlons. are and alternators. throttle cable into the guide now. With the sensorout of the way. VW's Bosch fuel injection addsa lot of little stepsto engine R&R (Removal and Replacement).The voltageregulator '73 '74 is mounted separately on and early alternators. brownis have nc out of 1 tically t connec Sometir end.However. There Electrical Connections-Look underthe disare severalbreatherlines intersecting with this sendingunit. Clean filter canister and changeoil beforefilter is installed rebuiltengine. In this case.Always hold linkagestationaryinstead. which is the cable toward the fan housing. Look on the coil. it will also drain from under lid.Neverpull by the wires. Pull the cable guide out of the fan housing and set it aside.Remove the trvo air cleanermounting nuts on either side ofthe hood clampedbehindthe fan housingto hold a homehinge and lift the air sensorand filter housing madegrommet. The throttlecableis removedby unscrewingor the air filter housing cover and the paper air filter element. Disduct. The negative to the distributor. tributor for the oil-pressure Carburetor-Mark and remove the automatic connect and mark its single wire. ( and att Also one retl Get the Thrott tle pc diaphrt under positio but it i lowerir housin will cl Rear I of the partmc piece t After throttle cable is removed from linkage. and remove Generator/Alternator-Mark the three wires on the generator. remove the multiple-wireconnector.Tipping filterany morethanthis willsloshoil insideagainst air upper section. Disconnect the positivecoil wire.The voltage '66 regulatoris mounted on the generatoron Beetles. terminalsfor a * signif you don'tknow which wire alsoruns is the positivewire. cast-aluminum box. Fuel Injection-Unfortunately. the regulator is integrally mounted on top of the alternator. Mark and remove them. Sometimes a hose clamp is placed on guide in front of fan housing as a retainer. and hos connec tra fuel installat The r push-on other d. you'll kink cable.

injectors. have two large hoses leading Laterengines fromthe fan housing to the heat exchangers. wires and hosesduring engine trafuelsystem in$allation. bepushed Makesure you follow the harness.never tnder You can crack the case the engineor transaxle. by jacking under the engine. the plate must be removed. and theseexYou'll be reconnecting connections. Practicallyevery time you succeedand the spade inside the connector separates. two wrenchesand inventive language. rearbodywork mustbe high enoughto clearthe top of the fan can each the unscrew rear engine cover-plate attaching screws pull the plate out of the car. disconnectingand labeling wiresat the coil. and least stabLe. sureto correctly mark their flow. to and attaches the chassis. Immediately place the jack standsto suppofi and the chassis.Four screws ends oftherearengine attach one. (Unless you have a overthe crankshaft engine. and them reversed the enginewill not start. slowly lower the caronto them.Followtray's leading Removerear sheet-metal screws.position. Check the stability of the car on the standsby gentlyshakingit from sideto side.With thosepartsgone. but push-on plugs. Alternately. On rear engine-cover early40-HPengines. Most manuals say the positioner must come off for engine removal. Get ThrottlePositioner-If the enginehas a throttle positioner. Put the jack under the framejust forward of the transaxle. snip cable and buy new ones. When cable and lock bolt are hopelessly frozen. Later. the RearEngine Cover Plate-Between the rear of theengineand the rear of the engine compartment the rear engine cover plate. the cylinder shouldfall free. course. rectangular brownish. They don't have this fuel-injected smallplate.Takeyour time when labelingthese hoses. are pull-off. Be sure your standsare stout and stablebefore getting under the car.Removethe heater-control their leverson the controlvalves. remove the two covers tubesleading to the intake around heat-riser the manifold.crankcase sensors. Use two wrenchesto remove the bolt and nut. The These are clean aft hoses connecting fan housing and heat exchangers. the Alsoremove two fuel lines: one supply. Justleaveit alone. you'll have to tilt the fan the the forward. butit isn't so. have choicebut to grasp the wires leading no outof this type of connector and pull. so be readyfor it.which works by sealing the top of the from air passingunder it. Replace or tape-repair damaged hoses. connection the Sometimes wire pulls out of its terminal repair the wire in that case. tray so the enginecan easilyslide rearward. engine the Because enginemust be slid to the rear to it disengagefrom the transaxleinput shaft. This raises positionerso it housing will clear rearbodywork. When you remove the cable. end. you have extra stepsif the heater controlshaverustedshutand then beenpeened over by rocks. the usual rust penetrant. This is especiallytrue of those You usually connectors. Freeing the cable end requires pliers to grip the lever. Thehealrisertubecoversare at the outboard coverplate. Of wiring is in a harness.)Finally. Some leadfrom one side of the engine to the wires other. Thereis alsoa small cylinder in the lever which the cable passesthrough.A bolt passes throughthe leverand cableend and is nuttedon the other side.Most plugs separate other don't. you'll see an aluminum unit diaphragm-and-cylinder sticking out from underthe carburetor. Then unscrewand remove the small separateshroud pully. Heater Cables-At the front and sides of the engine you'll find the two heater-control cablesfrom valves. then the cablewill pull free. edge to find its attachment 21 . Loosen small bolt on heater-control valve arm to free heater cables.and there's no reason to disconnect Onlyremovea wire if it leavesthe engine them. which are meansmostjack stands raisedto their highest. Be one return. The fuel-injection it Follow aroundthe engine. when lowering engine.Then the hamesscan and temperature aside. removethesehoses and their rubCompletely at ber gaskets the cover plate end. This is piece sheet metalis part of the cooling sysof tem.VWs haveto be raised a lot to get the engine out.merely remove the fbur and screws lift out the plate. and Raise Car-Use the floor jack to raise the car until the ensineis about a vard in the air. Theelectricaldisconnections easily. Just slip them ofi at both ends and set aside.

need to be labeled and disconnected. Have a helper rotate the engine with the crankshaftpully while you watch hole.' Vise-C wrencl Lower out. At its outer edgeit is bolted to the torque converler. Aluminum foil wrapped several times around the fitting and securedwith a hose clamp works. There are two more bolts still attached on top of the engine' WARNING: If the lower bellhousing fastenersare nuts and bolts. Thesebolts are accessible through a hole in the bottom backside of the engineshave a rubbellhousing. one nut fastening. Lower bellhousingnuts are higher up be' tween transaxleand engine than you might think.Fuel-injected ber plug in the accesshole. brazed or welded shut. You the can separate stud and nut later and reinstall the stud. The lines are steelbraided and use high pressurehydraulic fittings. but take extra care to not round off the hex. But the transaxle oil seal will be ruined if it's necessaryto pull the torqueconverter with the engine. Don't lift it too much or you'll bind the engineon thebellhousing studs and have trouble sliding it off them Upper Bellhousing Bolts-Slide out from under the car and turn your attentlon to removlng the upper engine-to-transaxle fasteners. Remove the bolt. nutsmay be very tight The lowerbellhousing on their studs becauseof rust or impact damage. pull the large flexible hoses off the heater-control valves' Push the hoses away from the engine so they won't get torn as the engine is lowered.The best plug is a pipe fitting that has been soldered. The driveplate is bolted at its center to the crankshaft. It threads a special round nut pressedinto the enginecase. Be ready for ATF to pour out of the line from the tank.a regular open end will do. compat to remo membe and the access both nu the bol though Havr bolts. but you probably don't have one laying around' Those small plastic caps new brake master cylinders are shipped with work well.but often they clip on the exchang' ible hose will stop fuel tank from siphoning ers and easilYslide off. remove them onLy after checking that the upper bolts are still in the placeandthe floorjack is setup lo support engine. they are easy to get at' This drivetrainis a candidatefor steamcleaning' Once you have the cablesfree. BecauseAuto-Stick transaxleshave a torque converter between the engine and clutch. like a flywheel. to find the control valve. then have your helper rotate the engine 90" where another bolt will appear in the hole. Whatever the attachmentmethod. If you don't remove the driveplate bolts' the toroue converter will slide out of the transaxle is with the engine. Plug the disconnectedfittings so they won't leak. 6. line runs to the ATF tank. clamped. In bolt. there are four driveplate bolts to remove.Heaterducts are largeflexiblehosesleading Be preparedfor spillage when disconnecting Thisone was tuei tin'e. Auto-Stick '70 use nuts on studs. Still. Slip off the flexible line and use a pencil or bolt to plug it. Make sure your socketis clean. to the left of the ignition coil. so don't worry aboutit. Two ATF (Automatic TransOne mission Fluid) lines need disconnecting.The enginecan fall on you ifthe upper bolts aren't in place. Startingin '71. Look on the firewall. two at '71 the Auto-Stickswent with the two top. on the fittings. Thesebolts are small and will break or round off if not treated with care. if you have the right size. all carsuse two bolts but only one nut' At the right side is the usual nut and bolt assembly' into but the left side usesonly a bolt. i ward stantl wire r catch snag Wi the fa on th This 22 . Some mechanics pinch the line shut with locking pliers. All '70 have bolts manual transaxle cars through and nuts at the upper bellhousing. and so dirt can't enter the transmission system. engine bind th work.lnvestigate vacuum electrical to see which ones must come off. the stud may unthread from the transaxle. becausethe offset oil coolThis is necessary '7 roorn er usedfrom I on doesn'tleaveenough to get at a nut from the engine side. not the nut from the stud. That's fine if the engine t0 seized and you can't rotate it to gain access the bolts. There's no problemwith this.but I don't like squeezing hard. If so. Support Engine-Get the piece of plywood and set it on the jack saddle. not roundedoff and lined up straight with the bolts. Thesenuts arethreadedonto a pair of studs that fit into the transaxle.A bolt stuffed and clampedin flexforwardfrom heatexchangers. If you usea bolt. the left heater-control Fuel Line-Above valve is the fuel line connection from the fuel tank. also called flare-nut wrenches. make sureit has an unthreaded shoulder.1 compu Sta the in workir clear t left to On jack. A fully threaded bolt can let gasoline leak past through the threads. Continueuntil you haveremovedall four bolts. Mark and disconnectthe hoses the leads.Then roll thejack under the engine and raise the saddleuntil it is just carryingthe engineweight. so their bellcars in housingshave four studs:two at bottom. the other to the oil pump. tt have tt floor. few Automatic Stick Shift (Auto-Stick)-A on are extradisconnections necessau carswith the Auto-Stick. you need At first. If you don't have tubing wrenches. Replace the oil sealif that's the case. carburetedengines have an open hole. Don't worry about the engine falling. More Auto-Stick disconnectlonsare necessary inside the engine compartment. like on brake lines. Bellhousing Nuts-Remove the two 17mm hex nuts and washersat the lower cornersof the bellhousing. Use two tubing wrenches. Someof thesebolts are8mm. Stop rotation when the bolt is the access squarelycenteredin the hole. then pull it off. It's fast and fuel hosethat clean. Have a pan underneathand work fast.or l2-point. this far. too. dry. Thosethat Therest don't go to the enginecanbe left alone.

member. The fuel line is on the left. Read the Type 1 section if you need more help with these. Just barely take up left to do is clear the bellhousing studs. With luck. on the clutch is clear of the transaxle input shaft snag continuedown. If you are BUS & TRANSPORTER (TYPE 2 & 4) doubles as a bolt for the starter mountins.K'eep eye on hoises. Six are in the left. fan Steady enginew itir onehand housingat the carburel. The top of the fan housing needs to be wait until the engine is ready to come out. You'll be looking at the nutted end of the bolts from inside the enginecompartment. but the '71 watch for wire and hose snass on the wav This is another good reason to have a helper version has no cable.the chassishas to go up so the fan housing will though. If no helper is handy. Use one of the second floor jack or prop it up with wood out. Con.quicklyalternating steps. you might have peoplefor this job: one to managethe Without this brace. Alterslide under the rear bodywork. be damagedand its oil jack. blocks. the tioner can get past the rear body panel. stop the jack. The out. ward while slowly lowering the jack. An optional method is to continue rearward and remove the rear bumper and body panel. If the engine later engine is more difficult.once the engine ible fuel hose. Early connect the rear crossmember. It's best to transaxle studs and nuts to secure the brace. try pulling the throttle positioner. Label the disconneuiors. the torque converter.Re. If that doesn't this with the engine in the car. It's just a slip joint. so get under the engine and toremovethe upper bellhousing fasteners.enginemust come back and down in small.powerplantsto drop: a couple ofdisconnections Remove them and the engine is ready to come stantly monitor the engine so it won't snag a and it practically falls out of the chassis. disconnectthe vacuum hosesat the throttlepositioner. two lower bellhousing nuts.the engineis ready to lower. the generator and exhaust. Cables. There is one jack. s ) f filters when removing them.move the jack. you must tip the engine to clear the might not want to raise the chassisnow. Startby pulling back on the floor jack until remove the left upper bellhousing bolt.|It s t. Engine-Plate Screws-Unscrew the l0 rear engine-plate screws and lift out the plate.the arein theengine nuts compartment the engine. With thoseout of the way the enginecan be slid straight back out of the chassis. as Buses stand pretty tall. On '70-71 Buses. Disconnect Wires. Bellhousing Bolts-Now reach way to the front of the engine compartment and remove the two upper bellhousing bolts. from underneath. mounted vertically on the plate's rear face. Removal requires a very cable all the way free of the fan Bus engines are one of the eisiest VW vertical bolt at each end of the crossmember. Have your helper the On onthefan shroud and the other on the muffler. specially bent box-end wrench if you do loop it out of the way.and right-forward comers of the plate. but both nutswill come off without anyoneholding body. you accessible only from under the car. A simple piecJ of flat Transaxle-Support the transaxle with a Lower Engine-Once the upper fastenersare metal with a hole in it will'll have to attacha box end wrench or With Auto-Stick transaxles. Haveyour helper get under the car to hold the nately. Slip off the starter solebind boltsso they won't turn. hot-air hoses and unclamp the filter gine. but not overly so. On and later engineswith a throttle posi. aslow. The other upper bolt must be removed compartment seal. Don't tip the oil-bath air down. That might thin. which the input shaft clears the clutch. then disOncethe engine has disengaged.'wires engine only the right upper bolt is accessiblefrom the an and top. The Bus chassisis so tall. smoothloweringis allthat'sneeded. oilpressuresenderand carburetor wires. You shouldn't have to raise the chassisvery '70 andthebolt headsare on the transmissionside. 23 . you'll have your handsfull with disconnectthe heater-controlcablesand hoses. '68-70 models. generator. The other four are in the rear corners. Then lower the enginewhile guiding it by the shroud. With the transaxlesupported. All that's removing Bus enginesbecause the and earlier wood under the engine. the noid connectionsand remove and plug the flexwork. wrench turn against the body. run a braceacrossthe bellhousine to hold is not clamped. you could remove the carburetor and More Cables & Fuel Hose-Pull the throttle bolts. then engineaway from the transaxle. and it Vise-Grip pliers to the bolt heads.lower the and later Buses use the Type 4 engine. In fact. then let the is out. clear the Early Bus (Pre-'72)-Start with the air fitter. workingon an Auto-Stick. a '71 Bus. Pull the engine and floor jack rearward until catches something. More typically tipped toward the firewall so the throttle posi. coil. simply remove the crankcase and the bellhousing studs are clear of the enWatchfor the throttle cable as it oulls from breather. Undo the throttle cable at the carburetor and push it forward through the fan housing asfar as it will go. disconnectthe hot-air flap cable. the driveplate will Two sections are necessary to examine Lower Engine-Place the floor jack and ply'71 clear torqueconverterright away. Hoses-Disconnect the distributor. On Atfirst. wireor cable on the way down. the torque converter can have to add a wood block to the two supporting floor jack and another to eyeball the engine slip out of the transaxle. to seal ruined.high. bohs will turn. Then the bolts from under the car.or. Heater-Control Cables-It's time to go underneath anyway.Continueto pull the engine and jack rear. remove the compaftment watch for hangups.On '71 Buses. once you get thisfar. Busesusethe uprighffan Beetle engineand '72 some engine weight with the jack. and Up to '68.

Fuel-injectedmodels have the under the engine. this wire (it's for cablesand hosesat the heater-control valves. left carburelor. Get the cablestarledthroughits guide in b o l l s .Watch fbr hangups rials in hand. You definitely needa helperwith a heavy pressuresender. A paper-element filter is used on 'j3_74 mounted in the upper right engine compartDisconnect plug thefuel linesfromthefuej and carbureted engines.lorverbellhousingnuts. then lower it outof ElectricalConnections. Then go to the rearand the aluminum box with the cast-in grid work. Followthe wirins wrapsaroundtheengineside and runsforward Fit a brace acrossthe torque converteron harnesses over the engineto find all the tlisl alittle. Now raise the iack and olvhoses.sifver stickingup from Bus exhaustpipeis oxygen sensor. i pump on carbureted engines. alternatorregulator. mushy mountsarecited body. thecase as may be.At the distributor. intake air distributor is the black. U air contn filter. thenunclipping cover. More Cables & Fuel Hoses-Now slideuoto oil will drain into the upper half of the filter and Coil & More Hoses-Look near thecoil lor an the front of the engineand disconnecttheheater contaminate Unclamp and removethe fresh inline fuseholder. Air Filter-Remove the air filter. burelors. It is bestremovedas a unif with filter is the can suspended from the upper right Transaxle-Support the transaxlewith a jack its intake air sensor. On of the case. rotate the pipe counterclockwise pull transaxle mounts on Buses without rear and throttlecablefrom the crossbar at the throttle it out. the engine is ready to come out. Type tube 3 air filter removalstarts with hoses. threaddirectlyinto the frame. removeit. I. On dual_ carbureted models. Keep it upright.l f s o . Take out the ignition coil and remove the ulator of the fuel-injectedmodel. rhen rhe lefr rear. the vacuumhosefrom the intake manifold. or pressure reg_ oil-bath type. y place wor Smaff. .When thosebolts nector. d i s c o n n e c t s w i r e . Thc lelt olare Type 4 engine. e s e o l t ra r ea c c e s s i b l e as a prime reasonthe casescracked O th b on these 24 FASTBI NOTCH AirFilte oil draini air filters during re unscrew canister. n t h i sc h a s s i s . Automatic Transmission-This causes some previousType I sectionfbr the reasons this. oil_ pleces on the late Bus. Remove the three Locatethe elecrric connecror plug. Avoro Knocktngthis somewhat delicateand expensive part when connect hoses so they lift otf with filter. residual sectionin the center of the intake system. lt is '74s All'12-13 engines. Unclamp the large S-shapedrubber On all chassis.Startby disconnecting all ceiling of the engine bay. Look on the Fuel-injected engineshave a different paper hoseleadingto the charcoal filter. Then set about the engine compaftment. Lal ing them correctly Check with dua ders with of the ca foul the t so unscr Oil Dips clamp ar This is th tube and cooling e nectorbr 'Ihrottle . remove the ATF filler pipe Once the engine is out.ilip off its valve mounted near the blower motor. The under the rear bumper. the backup lighrs) at the fuse holder. remove the gravel guardfronr carburetors and at the [ilter's centersection. Look undertheplay engine.early Bus ground. Later. and hot air hoses from the filter bottom half. sheet-metal this thin bent strip will come off.remove the two large diameter are out. Removethe ginesthere is a hosemounted the to the top of the wood assembly againstthe engine. and remove the two Locate the intake air sensorat the left. hot-air c elbow be carburetc breather Filters nuts ovel center. hose from the air sensorand removethe air blower hoses. and fuel injectors or car_ plate lirsr.W ithiabeli ne mate_ filler bellows and dipstick. elementfilter.remove tic plug in the upperleli mounring flange area make on the Type 4 engrne.flip open the clips at the balance tube. If the the enginecompanmenl. Then or remove driveplare-to-convertercrossmembers. Sr buretors fore rem< the lockn only get t Justpop 1 screwdri Air fil only the removed remainin label the moved. disconnect the electricalleatls removingthe rearengineplate. snug againstthe ensine. Disconnect it.Seepage22 in thi lead to the fuel-injection triggering contacts. The enPull the accelerator cable all the wav throush Then unclip it at its bottom edgeand lift it out. but there are more disconnections to car ls an automatic transmission model.ate Bus (Post-'72)-Removing this engineis the front engine plate. and carefully pull out the con_ connect electrical the andvacuumleadsfrom it. after removingthe engine. the Weak. Lower Engine-Pull the jack back until the filter body and int:Lke sensortosether. tic transmissions havea vacuumadvance cutofT remove the crossmember. the hose is attached the to Gravel Guard-Before getting all the way carburetedengines. Oil Filler-As on Type 3s. lt's usuallybest to dis. remove the oil engrneclearsthe transaxle. First.and it is removed like the m e n t . gine may also have a temperature sensor the front engineplateand put it out oi the wav. which and guide the engine so it won't fall off the is in two from the distributor. you can comthrough a hole in the bellhousingfrom inside basically the same as dropping the early Bus pletely pull it through from undemeath.Setthejaik cover and paper element. check the rubber Throttle Cable & Vacuum Hoses-Undo the nuts. Disbolts at the eachend of the crossmember which protectiveboot. Take off the risht rear jack. r move thc Electric: the elec pressure injected t the vario The fr left-rear comes fr( connecti< case sen perature Also ren pressure wall. If not storedupright. The charcoal front right of the engine for the fuel lines. hosesattachedto the intake air distributor. plus with automa. remove the plate. so it isn't a mirror image oftherightrear automatictransmission transaxles immediately connections. Take out four boltsand Lift off the top half of the filter and setit aside. On ceLrbureted enor wood blocks. extra work. for It's attached nearthe bottom of the distributor.

use a stout screwdriver on against the ring gear teeth to rotate the engine. Storein a level position. Follow the harnessto the connections the distributor. That's the sheet-metal center section of the intake manifold.the left bolt threads into a special nut permanently attached to the case.unbolt the driveplate from the torque converter. Undo the heater control-box cable connections and stow the large diameter air hosesout of the way. FASTBACK. Another line leadsoff the back of the left manifold and runs to the other side of the engine. Air filters on fuel-injected engines require only the intake elbow and several hoses be removed.right fuel manifulds.They usually catch on and foulthebodywork when the engine is lowered.Also unclampand removethe cooling bellows.generator and coil. Pull the throttle cable through the front engine cover plate and gently loop it out of the way. It returnsexcessfuel to the fuel tank. Two boltsand it's in'll haveto recenterthe engine during installation. Then slide rearwardand unbolt the enginecrossmember. pop Just therod endsoff the ball socketswith a screwdriver. which is part of the intake air distibutor. plus the air intake bellows from the hot-air control box. Also removethe vacuum hose from the fuel pressure sensor the lelt enginecompartment on wall. then unclampand remove the oil filler rubber boot.On '71 and later engines. cable. supportthe transaxle with anotherjack or wood blocks. Bellhousing Bolts-Finish the topsidechores by removing the two upper bellhousingbolts. Don't kink the cable or the throttle will be sticky. On cars with an automatic transmission. Filters dual-carbureted on engineshave wing nutsover each carburetor. crankat case sensors and grounds. doesn'tprovidemuch support. the Electrical Connections-Label and remove the electrical leads at the carburetors. If nothing else. This last line isthefuel return line. The entire circuit or U offuel lines is called thefuel ring. The fuel injecrionECU mounti inside rhe leffrear inner fender. s0unscrew them from the carburetors. These are small c-ylinders with a wire mounted on the outboard side of the carburetor. slip off the vacuum hose at the balance pipe anddisconnect kickdown-switchwire. With all hosesremoved. injectors.the full automatic transmission has only three driveplate-to-converter bolts. Reach the ring gear teeth through the bolt accesshole. Undo the two horizontalbolts at eachendof the crossmember which connectthe crossmember to its rubbermounts. Check fuel shut-off solenoidson ensines the withdual carburetors. pick up rear mat and store wires underneath. Be carefulnot to lower the enginetoo far or you'll damagethe transaxlemounts.Also on the automatictransmission. They are accessible through a hole in the fronfbottom ofthe bellhousing.unscrew the center wing nut and remove unit. On Type 3s. disconnection the should be made on the left and. All Type 3 airfilters are oil-bath units.This is the big rubberconair nector betweenthe engine and rear bodywork.On double-jointed-axle cars. single-carbureted On engines. disconnect the cable at the throttle linkase crossbar. On dual-carburetor engines. It so a lot of ownersleavethemoff. and finally runs forward. On fuel-injected engines. bui rememberto are labelthemduring removal. Completely remove intake bellows at left to avoid cutting it when engine is slid back during removal. and intake air distributor. The rubber fuel line coming from the left front of the engine compartmentand running to the left fuel manifold is thefuel inlet line. Lower Engine-Now you arereadyto pull the enginebackand lower it. disconnect exhaust the gas recirculation (EGR) wire from its transmission switch.Reyou place wom transaxle mounts. Unclampthe hot-air hose from the hotair controlbox and remove the box with the filter. Watch for hangups on 25 . know the mounts are useless. Wiring alwaysseems to be in your way. With a single carburetor this is done at the carburetor. Don't fiddle with thelocknuts and rod endsof the linkage. you'11 onlygetthecarburetorsout of synchronization.Don't forget the plywood cushion. Disconnect and plug the fuel return line on the right side of the engine if you didn't get it from the top. Fuel Line-Remove and plug the fuel line. cylinder-head temperature sensors. Don't unbolt the vertical rubbercushion-tobody bolts or the crossmemberto-engine bolts. it must be off to remove the engine. plus one at frontcenter.thenplacethe floorjack underthe engine. Disconnect the intake elbowbetweenthe filter and carburetor at the carburetor. It joins the right fuel manifold. Unlike the Auto-Stick transmission. Mark and disconnectthe crankcase breather hose. Another way of doing this is to wait until the engineis on its way down. Then you can get at both sidesof the upper bellhousingbolts from the top. SQUAREBACK & NOTCHBACK (TYPE 3) Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. so don't tio them during removal. There is supposed be an engine mount to attached to the fan housing on cars without a crossmember. You may needa helper under the car to hold the bolt heads. unscrew wing nut in the center of the filter the canister. On'72 Type 3s. remove the air cleaner. Thisis theaccordionpiece betweenthe dipstick tube andbody. Snap the throttle linkage off the carburetors the center-mountedbellcrank beand foreremovingthe air filters. and the wiring harness comes from that side. The fuel manilblds are the metal sections of fuel line right abovethe injectors. oilpressure sender. The fuel lines then connect to the injectors via the manifold. Throttle Cable-Disconnect the throttle Intake and dipstick bellows are two Type 3 & 4 disconnections. Label each hose and wire before removing them so you'll be able to reconnect them conectly. the Because the crankshaft pulley nut is inaccessible Type 3s. On fuelinjected engines.early Buses.The elbow is clamped and the remaining hoses slip ons.Ifyou undothese bolts.If the transaxlesagsalmost to the ground. Support Engine-Disconnect the lower bellhousingnuts. out of the enginecompartment through the rear sheetmetal. Fuel injectionthrortlelinkageis undone at the throttle body.remove the wiring harnessat thevariousconnectionson the ensine. Oil Dipstick-Remove the dipstick. The rubbermountsarecentered their mountby ing bolts. Raise Car-Raise the rear of the car 3 ft and support it with jack stands. Remove this bolt from undemeath.

then the oil-pressure sender lead and throttle cable. (l00mm). Take off any ducting for the heater blower motor. Air Filter-With the battery disconnectedand oil draining. Rotate the engine to expose the driveplate bolts one at a time.Unscrewthe plug. and steady the engine so it doesn't fall off the jack. Under the cushion is an accesspanel. Disconnect and remove the ignition coil. Find the round. Automatic Transmission-Remove the three driveplate bolts from inside the engine compartment. Start with the air filter. Fuel-injection air filters needthe flage these connections. plus the temperaturesensors the case at ably just as easy to pull off this hose at and heads. its crr engin Wa body transa as the housi engae then r auton verter bellht 26 PORI Alr Type on thr 914 ' engin seats S o .but there are several notable differences.They are at the intake air Automatic transmissions havea vacuumdis. Ducts. Becausethe differential is betweenthe engineand transmission. Unclampand remove the cooling air intake bellows. in diameter. Fuel-Injection Connections-Label and disconnect the fuel-injection leads at the engine. Theseparls protrude from the forward left sheet metal in the Bellhousing and driveplate hardware are engine compartment. case connectionunder left axle flange. remove it to exposethe front of the transaxle. a driveshaft runs forward from the clutch to the transmission. begin the engine bay disconnections. connected at chassis. A metal tab nutted to one of the bellhousing studs works fine. they will have to be alignedat engineinstallation keep engine to straightin compartment. lt's prob. Pop clip ofl with screwdriver (don't lose it). they are heldby at the carburetors and center section.The front of the driveshaft looks and functions the same as an input shaft on other transmissions. Before '72 all 4l1l4l2 filters were oil-bath type.lf mountsaredis. as nections. 4ru4r2 (TYPE4) Engine removal in the Type 4 is roughly similar to droppingthe '72 andlaterBus engine because they sharelhe sameengine. Remove the transmission dipstick and bellows sectionof the filler tube. Unthread the nu behin< some! move move Lower move both tl by crt move ber in chass tilt do engin Thr requir and ar port tl ward. Disconnect the vacuum accessible through windows in automatic hose from the upper half. too. Rotatethe engine with a wrench on the cooling fan mounting bolts or by simply grasping the fan in your hand. center wing nut undone and the filter removed. W MM Disco widng deant Throttle linkage on Type 4 uses a clip. and the engine will operate correctly. about2-ll2-1n. Next. Follow the wiring harness over the engine to find the connections. To remove the engine the driveshaft must be unlocked and moved forward in the car 4 in. and pull pieces apart. then Iift clamps. screw-in plug. post-'72shave paper elements. Manual Transmission-An unusual desisn featureof the Type 4 manualtransaxle requiris an extra step in engine removal.distributor. Voltage Regulator-Pull the plug connector from under the voltage regulator. per engine mounting bolts from bellhousing.Oil and dirt can combineto camou. unclip the upper filter half lf heaterductswon't pulloff. Wire up the transaxle double-jointed-axle so you on cars can move the chassis. This task is much easier with the soarkplugs removed. Wires & Cables-Remove the dipstick and oil filler bellows. It is mounted on the right front side of the engine compartment and the connectorcomesup to the regulator from the bottom. Push the throttle cable through the front engine panel.ground. engin .the way down. injectors. remove the rear seat cushion. Brace the torqueconverter so it can't fall out of the transaxleand be damaged.u 914. Now unclip the bottom half and remove it. Moving Driveshaft-To reach the driveshaft. spring and unusually shaped cable end.except it is longer than a normal input shaft. Disconnect Type 3 crossmembers where crossmembermeets engine mount. remove two uptransmission bellhousing. Reassemblywill be so much easier. Remove the fresh air and crankcasebreather hoses. Pry out the plug with a screwdriver to expose the driveplate underneath. Insidethe transaxle will be the end ofthe driveshaft with a nut threadedonto it. ignition distributor. On carburetedengines. Look on the left engine-casevertical flange for a round plastic plug. Use a mirror to see this connectlon. not wheremountmeetsbody. Be sure you label all discontransmission at engine.

removethe circlip..Disconnect fueFinjectionwiring on Bus and Type 4 engines.While it is possible to removethe engine with the transaxlecrossmemberin place. PORSCHE/VW 914 Although there is little difference among the Type later Bus and 914 engines 4. Tip it up so the inboard end with the connector is visible. Monitor the jack too. it's best to remove the transaxlefirst. then slide offthe plastic cover from the ECU. as it will have to be lowered transaxle astheengineis lowered. Supportthe transaxle with a jack. ECU connector is at one end. Voltage Regulator-Remove the voltage regulator by extracting the two screws on its mounting tang and then lifting off the unit. Reinstall the plastic cover and setthe ECU in a safeplace.supportthe engine with ajack. Ileater Blower Ducting-Remove the heater blower motor ducting and the rubber intake air elbow. If using a larger floor jack with a wide first seethe transaxle. so the engine is right behind the seats. and undo its crossmemberat each end. On automatic transmissions. disconnect the connector from the fuel injection ECU located in front of the battery. The 914 is a midenginedcar. then remove the circlip from the shaft. oncethey're on the bench. Lower Engine-Under the rear bumper. remove the battery for clearance. thenut. First. The engine/transmission unit can then tilt down at the rear.Hand driveplatehardwareon Type 4 engines. or working on dirt. Watch the fuel injectors' clearance to the bodybecausethey are a tight fit. it is easier to unbolt it from the chassis. remove the air filter and disconnect the fuel lines near the battery. then the engine. 27 . 914shave had the Bosch Carburetors-Many fuel injection removed and dual carburetors installed. use a hooked instrument to carefully remove it. take it otf at ECU. the steps are the same. the engine can only be removed with the transaxle or after the transaxle has been removed separately. I explain removing the engine/transaxleas a unit here. Now lower the englne. plastic handle on multFpin connector eases disconnecting. remove the engine and transaxle as a unit. rusho the w-1n v the fthe read Instead of removing injection wiring from engine on 914s. Lift off the cover and find several electrical connections. then replace the cover and regulator. Because of the mid-engine mounting. Two bolts can be felt under the hinges.followed by the engine.and the transaxle is behind the engine. though. on the plug. There may be a plastic handle rnng p off pull :sign uires r the mlsutch rhaft rhaft than ethe forhaft. then remove the other bolt and lift off the cover. Engine Cover-First stepin removing a 914's engineis to take offthe enginecover. removethe slotted lower splash pan. behind nut. If using a small floor jack. Now unscrew the round nut on top of the large black plastic cover next to the regulator. So. The transaxle crossmembermounting bolts require personinside the car to tum the nuts one andanotherundemeathto hold the bolts. completely remove the carburetors. The connectorplug takesup almostthe entire side of the ECU. there sure is a difference in the 914 engine mounting. Remove one and have a friend hold that side up. the car is equipped with Fuel Injection-If fuel injection. giving a clearer path for engine removal. Then move forward. So. You can pull the shaft forward the somewhat with the circlip still attached. cleaner is great hose and wire cleanerto detail wiring. If you remove the transaxlefirst. Inside the car is a good spot. Note that boththe engine and transmissionare supported by crossmembers. Label and remove all the connections.securethe torque converter in place with a metal tab nutted to a bellhousingstud. Set Hole in bellhousing(arrow) is for reachingautomatictransmission (labeltherir!)are made. You'Il have plenty of extra room to work and no lid banging your head to get your attention. if not. Instead.but to movethe shaft forward the required 4 in. relays and other connections. except you must also remove the four bellhousing fastenersto free the transaxle. There is one supply and one return line. intake manifolds and throttle linkage in your installation. engage thenreinstall the transaxle crossmember.when you crawl forward under the back of a 914. Unscrew the metal clamp around the wiring bundle. Extract the engine. Remove the four bellhousingnuts and the engine is ready to disfrom the transaxle. then unscrew the ECU's bracket. You don't have to remove the fuel injection wiring and fuel line ring. Rotatecrankshaftto bring wiring loomasidednce disconnections gel hardwareinto view.

Look under the rubber boot where the shifter enters the bodywork at the front of the engine compartment. removeshift rod. back rubber boot to expose screw.And the less time you spend pushing the disconnectedaxles out of th"-*au.Use a small Allen wrenchto remove the set screw.Use a long screwdriverto reach down to the case where the two front support legs attach. You can remove the throttle cable without detaching the support. Somecommon hosesgo to the charcoalcanister and pressuresensor. il n fi Heate metal mum gine.leave the air filter supportalone.Removeeach exhaust pipe/heat exchanger. Unplug the reverse-light leadsfrom the lefi side of the transaxle.Pass 914 throttle cables through sheet metal so they completely clear engine. Loop the cable and bracketaside.e heatexchansers. On these. you'll actuallybe ableto see t h ee n g i n e . Axles & CV Joints-I've left the axles until now because they are sucha gooey mess.Unwind the sardinecan clamp over the rear shifterboot and disconnect the shifter. Unbolt the groundstrapabovethe reartransaxle.but if the chassis lifted fairly high. Remove the rear wheels and tires.Pull rear mounts. Vacuum & Vapor Hoses-Label and disconnect the remaining vacuum and vapor hoses. Remove them. they will kink when lowering engine. valve securesthe front end of the shift rod. outboard and forward of the engine compartment. With the support removed. disconnecr cabli rhe from the throttle arm and push the cable throughthe hole in the right sideengineplate. The other rear attachment is boltedto the caseusingoneofthe caseflange bolts. Return to the exhaustsystem. Use small Allen le. Shift linkageis underneathplastic box with Speed sardine-canband clamp. Once the exhaustpipes areout ofthe way. Lift Car-Raise the car and support it on tall jack stands. ih" b"tt"r. Air Filter & Throttle Catrle-Remove the formed sheet-metalair filter support from the centerofthe engine. Another set-screwarrangement 28 t Anothershift-rodset screw is locatedin front Transaxlegroundstrapbolts to chassisnear of engine where rod enters chassis.Don't put them under the suspension or front engine crossmember. Usea firm tug to pullreverse-light wiringfrom transaxle-mounted switch. Unthread the lockins nulson thecablehousing. Removethe muffler from the exhaustpipes and the muffler bracefrom the rear ofthe transaxle. the throttle cable can be removed. Someengines mountthe air filter to one side. the shift rod can be extracted from the caf.Instead. Otherwise. unscrew the speedometer cable and remove the clutch cable. Removing Cables & Exhaust-It helps to remove the bodywork panel below the rear bumper. and extract it. Now's the time. Undo the flat sheet-metal shielcls under tf. and disconnectthe heater control valveJand associated plumbing. With the forward connection removed. Under the wheel are two nuts. and the metal pivot bracket and cable come free. is the engine can be removed with it in place. placethem at the two small round protrusionsin the body. so rotatethe axleto getstraieht acces Hold 1 two h brake They requir les a ( T tt : Jotnts bolts.Drape all the disconnected hoses over the center of the engine so they won't be in the way when removingit. This will give a lot more room and light under the car. Once screw is out. nave other flangt . The clutch cable is undone by removing the self-locking nut in the center of the cable pivot: Ihe round plastic wheel. Un wrench to unlockshift rod from transmission linkage.

Heater ductingon Type 4 engines is often After ductingfrom engineis removed. These are the front engine mount nuts. Unscrew and remove the CV bolts. They 12-point. 914s. That's why I try to put the screwdriverright throughthe gasket.Extra lengthwill help balancethe awkward engine/transaxle on the unit jack.need to disconnectheater-control of cablesor gine. This frees bracket from nut retention. Besides the bolts. about1/16in.Speedometer is at rightrearof transaxcable le. Removenut and pulleyto loosen transaxle. Gently set it asidewithout kinking 29 . These bolts are heavily torqued to prevent loosening. or have a helper step on the brakes. of blade inserted.then twist the blade. there are dowels at the joint.connection bearingarm. access theconstant-velocity to (CV) joint bolts. place a plastic sandwich bags over the joint and its flange. Keep alternating actionfrom onesideof thejoint this to the otheruntil it separates. yourchassis a mini. Besides keepingthe closetolerance.Unscrew large nut and pull cable out. push metaltubing.6mm Allen head bolts that are tequire specialremoving tool. leaving clutch cable-to-bracket undisturbed. Short Allen head tool and wrench duo shown here is cheapest method. Support Engine-Place the floor jack and plywood under the bellhousing.this clampjust beforeheater flexibleducting. On valves best separationpoint. Go forward and remove the two nuts from the center of the solid metal crossmember. As soon as you separate CV joint. Use a rubber band to securethe bags. but special 3/8-drive socket. this maneuver will keepyou a lot cleaner. is Clean dirt from tiny splines in CV-joint bolts. cable and easilyremoveit at clutch release. It takesquite a prying effort to free the CV jorntsfrom lhe tansaxle flanges. Rotatethe axa lesa coupleof times to reach all the bolts. then the to other. After clutch pulleyis removed.unthreadthe Clutchcablepivot uses a self-locking for two bracket nuts. Don't insertmore screwdriver bladethan necessary you'll scar or the mating surfaces.heater valves out of the way.The crossmember will drop free (it's heavy) complete with the cables that pass through it. Sacrificethe gasket betweenjoint and flange stickinga flat-bladed by screwdriver be- tweenthem. the better. expensive CV joints dirt free. so you'll have work to free one side of it will protect the metal surfaces. splines will strip if not completely clean.Justget a toe hold.The largerthe plywood. 12-point 6mm Allen head tool is easier to use. There's no Examine so mum heaterducting is removedwith en. Hold axle by inserting a breakerbar through the twolug bolts. Then removethe two largebolts from the crossmember ends.

This iron piece is heavy. Lower Engine-Gently start lowering the engine and transaxle while a helper checks the engine compartment. It will take a minute or two to jockey the engine free of the chassis. Stai. Two strong people are needed when moving it. Use the floorjack to get the chassis backon the ground and pushed to its storagelocation.Store all hardware and partsin clearlymarkedboxesand cans.Th L 30 . If lifting a Type 4 enginebe preparedfor a heavy load. Disconnect the starter motor leads.not the fan housing. Remove the unit and support it on the floor with wood blocks. I o"s tcv I . This wll save a lot of aggravation when you drag your hairover them. Crossmember will drop after both sets ol bolts are out. That's about300 lb for a Type 4. it weighs abouttwice as much as a Type 1.It's easy to bang the injectors against the bodywork or have their fuel lines hangup. wrap them an-d transaxleflangeswith plasticbajs. Front crossmember attaches to engine mountsusingsmallnuts found in recesled wells. hardware and parts before they get scattered. Grasp it by the endsofthe cylinder heads. so take your time. M one are kl Bear engine mounts must come completely off transaxleto clear bodywork.Do this now while they're still fresh in your memory. Once the engine is out. Set the engine on the floor.twith small mount-to-chassis hardware. Remove these. CLEAN-UP (ALL MODBLS) Once the engineis clearof the As soon as CVjoints come free. pushrod tubes. rubber cushion and washers will come out with the unit. prop one 9nd up with a block of wood.Use the trunk or Bus interior for storageifgarage space is tisht. so be careful. a get helper and lift it off the jack. Don't let it lay unsupported over clutch and speedometer cables. You'll thank yourself at reassembly. then remove larger bolts at center. so pay extra attention to them. flywheel or the like. Go to the rear and remove the transaxle mounts at the body. Then the entire bolt. it can be stored by its mounts on chassis. rags. Pick up all tools. or smashingthe cables. r I I | [ . remove the four bellhousing fastenersand separatelhe transaxle from the eneine. then large bolts at each end of crossmember. not the sheet-metalpushrod tubes or another vulnerable part. Be careful to get the blocks bearing against the cylinder heads.