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1.INTRODUCTION What is wireless communication??

What is wireless communication? In layman's language it can be described as using technology to transfer information over a distance without using any wires. Wireless communication is not new and has been in use for well over 125 years now. Through this article we trace the origin of this technology and its evolution to its present form

Wireless services
* Telemetry control and traffic control systems * Infrared and ultrasonic remote control devices * Modulated laser light systems for point to point communications * Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business, industrial and Public Safety entities. * Consumer Two way radio including FRS Family Radio Service, GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios. * The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio). * Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios. * Airband and radio navigation equipment used by aviators and air traffic control

* Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business. * Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth. * Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless using technology such as Wireless USB or Bluetooth * Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones. * Satellite television: Is broadcast from satellites in geostationary orbit. Typical services use direct broadcast satellite to provide multiple television channels to viewers

Wireless networks
Wireless networking i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices is used to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:

* To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling, * To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, * To link portable or temporary workstations, * To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or * To remotely connect mobile users or networks

Modes
* radio frequency communication, * microwave communication, for example longrange line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication, * infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from consumer IR devices such as remote controls or via Infrared Data Association (IrDA). Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint communication, broadcasting, cellular networks and other wireless networks

Cordless
The term "wireless" should not be confused with the term "cordless", which is generally used to refer to

powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a portable power source (e.g. a battery pack) without any cable or cord to limit the mobility of the cordless device through a connection to the mains power supply. Some cordless devices, such as cordless telephones, are also wireless in the sense that information is transferred from the cordless telephone to the telephone's base unit via some type of wireless communications link. This has caused some disparity in the usage of the term "cordless", for example in Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.

History
* Photophone
The world's first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the photophone, a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulatedlight beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves). In that distant era when utilities did not yet exist to provide electricity, and lasers had not even been conceived of in science fiction, there were no practical applications for their invention, which was highly limited by the availability of both sunlight and good weather. Similar to free space optical communication, the photophone also required a clear line of sight between its transmitter and its receiver. It would be several decades before the photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military communications and later in fiber-optic communications

* Early wireless work


David E. Hughes, eight years before Hertz's experiments, transmitted radio signals over a few hundred yards by means of a clockwork keyed transmitter. As this was before Maxwell's work was understood, Hughes' contemporaries dismissed his achievement as mere "Induction". In 1885, T. A. Edison used a vibrator magnet for induction transmission. In 1888, Edison deployed a system of signaling on the Lehigh Valley Railroad. In 1891, Edison obtained the wireless patent for this method using inductance (U.S. Patent 465,971). In the history of wireless technology, the demonstration of the theory of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1888 was important. The theory of electromagnetic waves was predicted from the research of James Clerk Maxwell andMichael Faraday. Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be transmitted and caused to travel through space at straight lines and that they were able to be received by an experimental apparatus.The experiments were not followed up by Hertz. Jagadish Chandra Bose around this time developed an early wireless detection device and helped increase the knowledge of millimeter length electromagnetic waves.Practical applications of wireless radio communication and radio remote control technology were implemented by later inventors, such as Nikola Tesla

2.APPLICATION OF WIRELESS TECH


Security systems
Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings

Mobile telephones

One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is the mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone, with more than 4.6 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide as of the end of 2010.[6] These wireless phones use radio waves to enable their users to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments

Wireless data communications

Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables


portable computing devices to connect easily to the Internet. Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a,b,g,n, WiFi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots. Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods.

Cellular data service offers effective


coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site.Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, to 3G networks such as WCDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.

Mobile Satellite Communications may be used where other


wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas or remote locations. Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation,maritime and military use

Wireless energy transfer


Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires

Computer interface devices


Answering the call of customers frustrated with cord clutter, many manufactures of computer peripherals turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base. Originally these units used bulky, highly limited transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse, however more recent generations have used small, high quality devices, some even incorporating Bluetooth. These systems have become so ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about a lack of wired peripherals.Wireless devices tend to have a slightly slower response time than their wired counterparts, however the gap is decreasing. Initial concerns about the security of wireless keyboards have also been addressed with the maturation of the technology.

3.CATEGORIES OF WIRELESS IMPLEMENTATION , DEVICES & STANDARDS


* Radio communication system * Broadcasting * Amateur radio * Land Mobile Radio or Professional Mobile Radio: TETRA, P25, OpenSky, EDACS, DMR, dPMR * Communication radio

* Cordless telephony:DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) * Cellular networks: 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, Beyond 3G (4G), Future wireless * List of emerging technologies * Short-range point-to-point communication : Wireless microphones, Remote controls, IrDA, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), TransferJet, Wireless USB, DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications), EnOcean, Near Field Communication * Wireless sensor networks: ZigBee, EnOcean; Personal area networks, Bluetooth, TransferJet, Ultra-wideband (UW B from WiMedia Alliance). * Wireless networks: Wireless LAN (WLAN), (IEEE 802.11 branded as Wi-Fi and HiperLAN), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN) and Broadband Fixed Access (BWA) (LMDS, WiMAX, AIDAAS and HiperMAN)

4.TIMELINE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION


1887
The principle of wireless communication was presented by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in the year 1887. Hertz demonstrated how electromagnetic waves could be transmitted across free space. This was an expansion of the theory of electromagnetic theory of light put forth earlier by James Maxwell and

Michael Faraday. Though Hertz managed to demonstrate it, he never tried to take it any further, even remarking that it would be of no significance.

1893
Nikola Tesla transmits radio waves in St. Louis, Missouri.

1897
Guglielmo Marconi is awarded the British Patent for 'Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus there-for'. What this effectively means is that he was granted the rights to the Radio.

1898
Nikola Tesla demonstrates a remote control boat. It would be amusing to know that people watching this demonstration thought Tesla was controlling the boat using his mind, as nobody seemed to have any information about radio waves at that time.

1906
Amplitide Modulation (AM) is used by Reginald Fessenden to broadcast his voice over the North Atlantic. This mode of radio transmission is the same as Shortwave and Medium wave in use today.

1915
First transatlantic transmission takes place. AT&T achieves this radio transmission from Arlington, Virginia to Paris using the Eiffel Tower to hold the receiving antenna.

1919
Radio Corporation of America (RCA) is incorporated by General Electric (GE) on Oct. 17 specifically to acquire the assets of the wireless radio company American Marconi from British Marconi.
1921

Shortwave (SW) radio is developed. It is called Shortwave because the wavelength of light is shorter than visible light due to the higher frequency. Shortwave Radio (also known as High Frequency or HF radio) has a frequency of 2.310 Megahertz to 25.820 Megahertz. The benefit of Shortwave radio is that the waves can bounce off the ionosphere (the layer of atmosphere consisting of ions or charged particles), enabling transmission to the other side of the world without actually having a direct line of sight.

1931
Frequency Modulation or FM is developed by Edwin H. Armstrong. FM transmission is less prone to noise associated with AM transmission and therefore results in a clearer broadcast. Also, it is possible to transmit stereo signals, making it suitable for musical radio broadcasts.

1982
The GSM (Groupe Special Mobile) group is formed and decides on a digital system for its cellular systems.

1983
After decades of stagnation in wireless communication technology, 802.3 standard is created

by IEEE and additions to its specifications are made regularly.

1987
GSM Technical details are worked out in this year. A narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) system is also planned.

1990
L-band radio is demonstrated (digital radio). The Global Positioning System (GPS) operates in the LBand. Also, first GSM specifications are released.

1991
The first GSM call is made in Finland (March) on the Radiolinja network, which got its GSM license in 1990. This is the precursor to Wi-Fi developed by NCR Corporation in the Netherlands with speeds up to 1-2 Mb/s.

1992
First GSM network outside Europe network is launched in Australia on April 27 providing service to 53% of the Australian population.

1997
IEEE 802.11 (also known as Wi-Fi) standard is created. This original 802.11 specification has a maximum bandwidth of 2 Mb/s.

1998
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) was formed in September of 1998 by Ericsson, Intel, IBM,

Toshiba and Nokia. The formal announcement of the SIG takes place next year on May 20, 1999.

1999
IEEE 802.11b is added to the 802.11 standard. Transmission speeds up to 11 Mb/s are possible. Bluetooth 1.0 (IEEE 802.15.1) specification is released. In this, all hardware identifies itself in the handshake process and renders anonymous data reception and transmission impossible. EV-DO (Evolution Data Optimized) is developed by Qualcomm.

2000
The first consumer Bluetooth product - a wireless headset and phone adapter for mobile phones is released by Ericsson.

2001
The first 3G network is commercially launched in September by NTT DoCoMo, Japan. In December, IEEE 802.16 standard, also known as WiMAX, is created.

2002
The first UMTS network is launched allowing highspeed applications such as mobile TV and video calling.

2003
EDGE is deployed by AT&T on Singular network in the USA. IEEE 802.11g is added to the 802.11 standard, allowing transmission speeds up to 54 Mb/s. Bluetooth specification 1.2 is released. This new specification includes Adaptive Frequency-hopping (AFH), which reduces RF interference.

2004
Newest version of IEEE 802.16 is added and it completely changes the WiMAX standard. This has a new scheduling algorithm, which makes WiMAX much more scalable than Wi-Fi. Instead of the random way in which subscribers compete in Wi-Fi, they compete once for a time to call when they connect to the network, thereby reducing collisions when transmission occurs at specified times. Bluetooth specification 2.0 is released. This new specification is not only backward compatible but also introduces Enhanced Data Rate (EDR), which allows transmission of data up to 3 MB/s.

2009
802.11n - the latest in Wi-Fi standards will be formally approved in November 2009 (although devices sporting this standard are already available, they are not necessarily conformant with the final specifications)

5.REFERENCES

www.wikipedia.org.in www.techtree.com