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By

The Claude Hopkins Rare Ad Collection

The Actual Print Ads and Marketing Study Guide

Learn How to Write

Winning Ads and Persuasive Copy

from the Master of Scientific Advertising

Bill Bodri

Michael Senoff

Foreword by

www.ClaudeHopkinsAdvertising.com

The Claude Hopkins Rare Ad Collection and Marketing Study Guide

Copyright

Copyright © 2004, William Bodri & Michael Senoff All Rights reserved in all media

First edition 2004

ISBN 0-9721907-5-9

Top Shape Publishing, LLC 1135 Terminal Way Suite 209 Reno, Nevada 89502

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted by any means, including but not limited to electronic, mechanical, digital copying, printing, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without written permission from the authors.

Table of Contents

Foreword by Michael Senoff

Dr. Shoop’s Restorative ………………………………

2 ads

Schlitz Beer …………………………………………….… 7 ads

Liquozone ………………………………………………. 10 ads

Van Camp’s Pork and Beans …………………………. 5 ads

Automobile Advertising ………………………………

19 ads

Goodyear Tires …………………………………………

4 ads

Palmolive Soap …………………………………………

3 ads

Puffed Grains and Quaker Oats ………………………

6 ads

Pepsodent Toothpaste …………………………………

6 ads

Lord & Thomas Advertising ……………………………

6 ads

Summary …………… www.ClaudeHopkinsAdvertising.com

FOREWORD

You can read about Claude Hopkins in two of his books for under $20. You can hear others teach and talk about Claude Hopkins at high priced marketing seminars, but you can't experience and gain the intimate understanding of Claude Hopkins until you study his ads.

My name is Michael Senoff. I buy and resell high end marketing and business building seminars at a web site called http://www.hardtofindseminars.com.

I have been a student of advertising and marketing for many years and have

heard the legendary and wonderful stories about Claude Hopkins. I have read

both his books, Scientific Advertising and My Life in Advertising.

But that was not enough for me.

No, I had to have more. I wanted to see his work. I wanted to study and use his headlines for my benefit. I wanted to copy his ads out in my own handwriting. I wanted to use his famous guarantee in my marketing promotions.

But I needed his original ads to do this, so I did something about it.

I tracked down the dates of when and where Claude Hopkins worked. With the

help of an archival historian, I researched and located, preserved and purchased

the world's largest collection of original Claude Hopkins ads. That’s how I was able to bring you this priceless collection.

I then found Bill Bodri, a marketing specialist out of New York, to craft specific lessons and match them to the ads. We believe this is the most efficient way you’ll learn Claude Hopkins’ principles and how to use them in your own marketing and advertising promotions.

You now have before you over sixty of the Claude Hopkins original ads that I have compiled based on Claude Hopkins’ classic books, My Life in Advertising and Scientific Advertising. Each ad is a masterpiece and lesson in advertising on its own. You can zoom in and read just about every word. You'll be able to see and read each print ad as if you had lived in the early 1900s.

Claude Hopkins wrote, "The uninformed would be staggered to know the amount of work involved in a single ad. Weeks of work sometimes. The ad seems so simple, and it must be simple to appeal to simple people. But behind that ad lie reams of data, volumes of information and months of research. This is no lazy man's field.”

All the modern giants of advertising still swear by Claude Hopkins' work. David Ogilvy even claimed it changed his life. Claude Hopkins work is amazing in both its simplicity and it's direct approach. There’s no doubt that you can learn from his style of writing. Look at the simplicity of it. Look at the short sentences he used. Look at the appeals he structured. None of it is hype.

This collection of ads is packed with information useful to anyone interested who wants to write better yellow page ads, web sites, e-mail correspondence or direct mail sales copy.

Whether you are an individual considering a career in advertising, a student of psychology, a copywriting cub or a business person trying to figure out how best to market your product, start with Claude Hopkins’ teachings and then move on to the rest.

All advertising before Claude Hopkins flows into it, and all advertising after Claude Hopkins flows out of it.

If you're in the profession of advertising and Claude Hopkins material isn't on

your bookshelf dog-eared, stained and well-worn, you've been missing out on the best teacher of advertising of all time. Now you have the ads that go with both his books, My Life in Advertising and Scientific Advertising.

These Claude Hopkins ads are rare. These Claude Hopkins ads are valuable. Any one of them can be the catalyst to change the effectiveness of your marketing and advertising forever.

Don't bother looking for these ads on your own. You won’t be able to find

a collection like this anywhere and Bill’s marketing lessons complement them perfectly.

Finally, you have a simple but comprehensive course that will help you incorporate Claude Hopkins’ principles into your sales efforts.

Enjoy,

Michael Senoff

If you’ve ever wanted to buy Jay Abraham, Gary Halbert and other marketing materials but thought they were too expensive, then here’s a way you can buy them at huge discounts off their original retail cost. Got to http://www.hardtofindseminars.com/ JS&M Sales and Marketing,

800-237-0634.

DR. SHOOP’s RESTORATIVE

Offer your customers a risk-free, money-back guarantee.

The case of Dr. Shoop of Rancine, Michigan is a tale of using a “risk reversal” to take away purchase reluctance for a product. Whenever you can remove the mental obstacles prospects feel that prevent them from buying your product, just that one change alone can often double or triple your sales.

That’s the purpose behind offering a “money-back guarantee.” It’s to remove any of the hesitancy a customer might encounter in purchasing your product because it gives them confidence in your claims.

When the Dr. Shoop’s company first approached Hopkins, Dr. Shoop’s was originally selling all its medicine through agents. Dr. Shoop’s did not have any drug store accounts, so the business had been dying. Claude Hopkins immediately saw his marketing task as that of creating a demand for the product in local drug stores.

After pondering the situation, Claude Hopkins realized that people do not actually want to buy medicine, but want to buy results. People will readily spend money to buy the benefits of a cure. However, they will be hesitant to risk their money on unknown medicinal products that simply promise cures unless they are positive those promises are true … or unless they have nothing to lose in the process.

From considering the situation in this light, Hopkins realized that the only way to eliminate this purchase reluctance for the Dr. Shoop’s medicines was to create the marketing innovation of a money-back guarantee.

Money-back guarantees are commonplace today, but at that time they were a revolutionary idea. Hopkins thought about the matter and then argued that there was still a problem with offering a money-back guarantee for customers.

Customers only know their local druggist – with whom they have developed a trusting relationship – but they have no such relationship with a company thousands of miles away. He reasoned that they would not feel safe about any sort of guarantee being issued by an unknown firm. Therefore, he worked out a plan whereby the friendly neighborhood druggist would actually sign the guarantee on behalf of the Dr. Shoop’s company, which was an incredible stroke of brilliance!

With this plan of a money-back guarantee in place, the first medicine Hopkins advertised was a cough cure with great results. Customers could now try the medicine without any risk because of the guarantee.

Customers reasoned that if the medicine cured their cough then it was worth every penny spent, but if it didn’t, they’d get their money-back from their local druggist. How could you beat that proposition?

This approach of assuming the customer’s risk of purchase (his risk of dissatisfaction), called the “risk reversal” by famous marketer Jay Abraham, worked like gangbusters and because of its success, Hopkins then went on to test his idea on Dr. Shoop’s Restorative and his Rheumatic Cure.

The money-back guarantee naturally increased product sales for both these products, too. Dr. Shoop’s was the only company to make any such offers, and Hopkins noted it quickly secured most of the trade for its medicines because of his novel proposition.

Let’s examine this risk-free, money-back guarantee in detail.

Whereas other patent medicines at the time said, “Buy me -- I work,” Hopkins instead offered certainty to customers because of his risk-free guarantee. He took away all the risks of trying the product and having an unsuccessful experience, a technique called “reversing the risk” or “risk reversal” in marketing terms.

Whenever you can take away the purchasing risk that your customer faces, and put that risk on yourself instead, you eliminate sales reluctance. It’s a small change that can indeed result in some product returns due to dissatisfied customers, but the corresponding increase in sales volume that results from a risk reversal almost always makes up for and overwhelms the slight increase in costs.

A doubling or tripling in sales volume, after the institution of some sort of

guarantee, is not an uncommon occurrence!

Today smart marketers go so far as to make “better than risk-free” guarantees by promising you more than your money-back when a product fails to meet your expectations. They will offer all sorts of extra bonuses you can keep even if you ask for a refund.

This type of offer is often so overwhelmingly attractive, and looks like such a great deal to the prospect, that it can skyrocket sales. It’s common on the internet and in the newsletter business where prospects sometimes take advantage of an offer simply to get the bonuses!

Can you do anything like that for your business?

As an aside, we must note that with this early invention of a guarantee there was

a kicker to the proposition. Hopkins’ original guarantee was based on the

purchase of six bottles of the product, and few users purchased that amount. Nonetheless, the guarantee gave them enough certainty and confidence in the product to try at least one bottle.

Hopkins always tried to create offers with overwhelming appeal, like the risk reversal, which was one of the keys to his continued advertising success. Examining the proposition he offered for cough syrup, he essentially said, “Try this medicine. If it works you’ll be better. It cannot harm you because it doesn’t contain any addictive ingredients. And if it fails, it is free.”

As Hopkins explained,

What I wish to emphasize is that my proposals were always altruistic. I was always offering service. Anyone could try what I offered without risk. It either brought results beyond what I promised or the cost was nil.

That idea of service – the idea of taking all the risk on yourself because you truly have an exceptional product which you believe in – has built many small companies into empires. But you can only use this approach if you truly have a good product, otherwise the product returns will destroy both your reputation and your business.

A

shoddy product will absolutely kill you.

In

the two Dr. Shoop’s ads we’ve attached, pay careful attention to this risk-free

guarantee. The “It is Free if it Fails” sales pamphlet is particularly interesting as a

gold mine of various marketing techniques -- testimonials, educational advertising, and even asking customers to produce referrals. The big thing to note, however, is the guarantee -- the risk reversal.

If you want to see a big leap in your sales, ask yourself whether you can incorporate a risk-free guarantee for your product or service.

There’s an old adage in marketing that he with the best guarantee wins, so see how your guarantee stacks up against the competition and if you can offer an even better guarantee or bonuses to go with a customer purchase. Sometimes people will buy your product simply because of your guarantee, so always try to create a risk-free buying proposition.

The ads:

Six Books for the Sick

What I Learned After 30 Years

Which should I send? No money is wanted

It is Free if it Fails

Copyright, 1899 by Dr. Shoop Family Medicine Co.

Copyright, 1899 by Dr. Shoop Family Medicine Co.

Tell Him—The Test is Free.

If someone whom you know is sick, with any trouble that this book tells of, please deliver this message to him—or to her. Tell him that he can test for a month, without risking a penny, the one remedy that will cure if any medicine can. Say that your home dealer will himself sign the warrant. No need for more argument. Simply say—“If it cures, you are well again. If it fails, it is free.”

——————————————

Some sick one may say:—“But I’ve tried about all medicines, consulted many physicians, spent a great deal of money. Nothing can help me.” Tell him that the physician who compounded this remedy knows better than he. This physician, who by thousands of bedsides has watched his remedy cure the most difficult cases, knows best what it will do. The fact that all other remedies do fail in severe cases is the very reason why Dr. Shoop spent a lifetime on this. No other treatment is in any way similar to it.

——————————————

And that physician takes the entire risk. Neglect the offer, and there is nothing ahead but sickness. Accept it, and health will return if health is ever possible. And if it fails, it is free. The remedy is Dr. Shoop’s Restorative.

Your Dealer Signs the Warrant.

The word “Guaranteed” is added to everything now a days, but such vague guarantees offer you no protection. Our guarantee is in writing, and is legal and binding. Your own dealer signs it and stands back of it; and if the medicine fails, he redeems it. Go to the dealer named on the back of this book; and if you buy six bottles of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative at a cost of $5.50, he will give you a certificate, signed by himself, and reading exactly as follows:

Date of sale:

on this day taken from our store and

paid for six bottles of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative, and it is agreed that the purchaser may return to us, within thirty days from date, three of the bottles unopened and in good condition, with this certificate properly signed on back, and if the patient thus states in good faith that the other three bottles have been taken according to directions without giving benefits, we will return the $5.50 paid for this medicine as cheerfully as we took it.

-has

Dealer

Dr. Shoop requires a fair test, for medicine cannot work miracles; but you make that test at our risk. That month’s treatment will prove what the Restorative can do in your case. If your trouble is old and deep-seated, three bottles may not cure it. But you will feel health returning. You will know that it is going to cure. If not, then return to your dealer the other three bottles, and he will return all your money—the entire $5.50. Dr. Shoop trusts you to be honest, for you have more at stake than he has. Yours is a difficult, desperate case, if a month’s test of the Restorative fails to start you toward a cure.

The Only Remedy that Strengthens the Inside Nerves.

A chronic disease, affecting any vital organ, is a result of

some inside nerve weakness, ninety-nine times in a hundred. We can relieve, but we cannot cure such a trouble, without strengthening that nerve force.

A few years ago, nobody knew that. Even the best physicians

then either gave blood medicines, or they tried to doctor the organ itself. But modern physicians do neither. All good physicians now treat the nerves, for every function of every vital organ is controlled by the nerves alone. The study of the whole medical world has been centered on trying to reach the right nerves.

——————————————

You have two nervous systems. One system controls the muscles that you move by will. You use that system when you move your hand, or feel a pain, or see, or hear.

It is easy to doctor those nerves, but doctoring does not

benefit. Nervines, Nerve Tonics, etc., can only deaden them by sedatives. The pain is thus lessened and the symptoms of your disease are allayed. You think for a time that you are better, simply because the nerves are drugged. But stopping the treatment is like waking from sleep, to find the old trouble there yet. Those nerves have nothing to do with sickness, yet all other nerve remedies doctor them alone. —————————————— Your vital nerves are called the Sympathetic System—the inside nerves. They are entirely separate from your outside nerves. There is no connection whatever. You cannot feel with these inside nerves. You cannot control their action. You cannot drug them without stopping life. These inside nerves make your heat beat, your stomach digest, your liver and kidneys act. Every function of life is controlled by them. Almost every chronic disease is a direct result of their weakness. The organ itself is not weak, but the power which

makes that organ act—the nerve power only. Whatever damage the organ itself may have suffered, will be repaired by Nature when we restore the nerve power needed. We cannot repair it otherwise. Every good physician knows this. And the problem of all, the world over, for 30 years has been how to strengthen weak inside nerves.

—————————————— Dr. Shoop knows that he has discovered the way. He has solved the problem after the arduous labor of a lifetime. He knows it because he has made thousands of successful tests—made them in large hospitals, where the results were public; made them through many other physicians who confirm his opinion. And in his private practice he has successfully treated more than one hundred thousand patients suffering from chronic troubles. Dr. Shoop has seen his treatment cure in many thousand cases where all other treatments failed. And he has never known his remedy to fail in any disease told of in this book, where any other treatment afterward succeeded. —————————————— Dr. Shoop’s Restorative is today the only remedy that treats the inside nerves—the nerves on which your life and health almost exclusively depend. There is no need to tell you that it is a remarkable remedy. Other physicians have devised treatments, and argued and believed them to be the best. But no other physician ever said to all who suffer—“Go test my remedy for a month at my risk. Find out for yourself what it does in your case. If it brings you benefits, that benefit is priceless. If it fails, it is free.” No other remedy could stand a test like that. ——————————————————————————

No Physician Could Help.

“I had stomach and kidney trouble which no physician could help. I was on the point of going away to a hos- pital when I began taking Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. I took three bottles, and I

can now do my work with ease. I have just walked three miles without fa- tigue. My nerves are quiet and I can sleep.

MRS. LAVINNA MOON, Hensonville, N.Y.

You Owe to Yourself this Test.

When a physician, who has spent a lifetime on a remedy, is so sure of its power as to say—“It is free if it fails,” a sick person cannot afford to neglect the offer. —————————————— When a remedy has proved successful in more than one hundred thousand cases, you cannot well say without trying it—“I think it would fail with me.” —————————————— When all educated physicians acknowledge that the principle of this remedy is the right one—and all do—they cannot all be wrong.

—————————————— When you are offered a remedy that costs only when it cures, don’t choose instead a remedy that costs though it fails. —————————————— When your health is at stake, it is wiser to accept the results of a physician’s lifetime experiments than to conduct experiments yourself.

—————————————— When there is but one remedy so sure that it is sold under warrant, try that one first. Let other remedies wait until you see if you need them.

—————————————— When a physician, who knows well the virtues of all medicines, has grown old in perfecting a better one, don’t con- clude, without a test, that his life was wasted. —————————————— When a physician says: “You may have all the benefits of the best I have learned, and I will take all the risk,” let him do it. ——————————————

When you have learned from experience that most remedies only relieve, it is time to stop experimenting and try the one that cures.

—————————————— When there comes a time in your life when you have health to regain and nothing to lose, take the chance.

Stomach Troubles.

Symptoms. Distress after eating, Sense of fullness after eating, Returning of food into mouth, Gnawing at pit of stomach, Sluggish mental action, Rumbling of gas, Belching of gas, Loss of appetite, Lack of energy, Loss of memory, Heartburn, headache, Depression, moodiness Dizziness.

Dyspepsia shows lack of di- gestive fluid called gastric juice. This fluid is furnished by glands and cells in the coating of the stom- ach. It is created by nerve power operating these glands; and the lack of it shows want of nerve force. Dyspepsia—whether called “Ner- vous Dyspepsia” or not—is almost never caused in any other way. There are two ways of doc- toring it. One way is represented by the many tablet and liquid remedies

made up of pepsin, bismuth, etc. The sole purpose of such remedies is to attempt artificial digestion. They are not intended as cures. And if they succeed in bringing even relief, that relief is but temporary. Omit the remedy after any meal and you find the dyspepsia just as bad as ever. The other way is to make the stomach do its own digesting, naturally and always. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative does that. There is no way to make your stomach well, save by strengthening the stomach nerves. Nature will then supply its own digestive fluid—a fluid which man cannot imitate. And there is no other way to save the results of Dyspepsia. Weak stomach nerves weaken the whole inside nervous system through sympathy. This deprives all vital organs of their proper power; and the weakness may show in disease of the heart of the kidneys. It has been ascertained that an average of 90 percent of all chronic diseases begin with neglected dyspepsia. Too many lives are wasted in dyspeptic suffering. Far too many cases of broken down health result from it. For those reasons we put the matter strongly. If you have dyspepsia, cure it—don’t dally with it. Take the only remedy that will permanently strengthen the weak stomach nerves. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative will cure any case that is curable, and its benefits are lasting. No other dyspepsia remedy of any kind is sold under a dealer’s warrant.

Dr. Shoop has written a complete book on Dyspepsia, the most sensible book ever written on this disease. It will be mailed free on request.

Cured in a Week.

247 New Holland Ave. Lancaster, Pa., Feb. 4, 1899

I have had three doctors in the last nine months and they told me that I had chronic dyspepsia, but they all failed to benefit me. A few weeks ago I saw Dr. Shoop’s Restorative advertised here and I bought a bottle, and after taking it I felt nothing of my dyspepsia and have not felt it yet. Just think that it did more in one week than three doctors had done in nine months. I am going around among my friends telling everybody about it. WM. H. BOWERS

Doctors Were Mistaken.

Painesville, Ohio, June 22, 1898

I have been out of health for 18 months, and for the last two months my stomach was so bad that I thought I would die. My doctors told me that my case was chronic and that a cure would take a long time. I doctored all the time, but got no better until I read about Dr. Shoop’s Restorative and took it. One bottle made me feel better. I have now taken three and can eat and sleep perfectly and am almost well. SAM’L. HATHAWAY 123 Nebraska St.

A Few Illustrations.

These illustrations will show you better than words how the nerves alone control the stomach glands, and operate every vital organ. Think of food when you are hungry and your “mouth waters.” The thought makes the nerves act on the salivary glands. Sadness brings tears—entirely through the action of the nerves on the glands of the eye. Just in that way the inside nerve system, when it is strong, causes the glands of the stomach to exude gastric juice as soon as the food enters. You note, too, that anxiety, temper or bad news takes your appetite away. That is Nature’s way of warning you that the strain has weakened your stomach nerves temporarily. They cannot furnish gastric juice until they recover and Nature says, “Don’t eat.”

Nearly every letter that comes to us telling how Dr. Shoop’s Restorative cured, tells also how precious years were wasted in experiments that filed. Every day you delay ads a day to useless suffering and wastes a day of life.

After Twenty Years.

Stewartsville, Mo, May 29, 1899

I was troubled with Indigestion for about twenty years. I have

been so bad at times that I could not eat any supper without having

a sour stomach. I tried many Dys-

pepsia remedies, but the only one that benefited me at all was Dr. Shoop’s Restorative, and that has completely cured me. I have not had a symptom of Dyspepsia since taking the last six bottles. H. B. DOHERTY

Lived on Bread and Water.

Annandale, Minn., Jan. 24, 1899

I have been a sufferer from chronic dyspepsia for twenty years. I have doctored with the best physician in this country, and have taken every medicine that he pre-scribed for me, but with no success. Finally the Doctor ad-

vised change of climate, but held out no hope for my recovery. I followed his advice, but did not recover. I kept on getting worse and at last got so weak that I could not walk across the room. For four months I had to live on dried bread, dried in an oven, and could only drink a few drops of water at

a time. My case was a hopeless

one, when I saw an advertisement of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative and I grasped it as my last resort. The first bottle gave me very great relief, and led me to hope for recovery. I then kept on until I had

taken twelve bottles, and it has been the means of restoring my per- manent health. I can once more find pleasure in living, and it is with gratitude that I write you this letter. MARY L. SCHEYER I can vouch for the truth of the above. REV. GEO. R. FRITZE,

Montrose, Minn.

Common Remedies Always Fail.

“It was some time after a friend recommended Dr. Shoop’s Restor- ative before I could be induced to try it. I had been troubled for years with indigestion, and had tried so many remedies without receiving relief that I was discouraged. I did buy one bottle of the Restorative, however, and after using that bottle, I found myself so much better that I kept on until I used three bottles, and today I am well. I can enjoy my food without that distressed feeling after meals, and I heartily recom- mend this remedy to others.” CHAS. W. BARRY

Room 42, Halter Block, Lincoln, Neb.

A stomach weakness that you think unimportant, may next month result in a heart weakness. When any branch of your inside nerve system weakens, all vital organs will suffer, sooner or later.

Liver Troubles.

Liver troubles are always the result of indigestion. These liver symptoms may appear before you feel the stomach trouble, but they indicate always that your stomach is weak, and dyspepsia will follow unless corrected. The liver be- comes overworked, congested and disordered only when the stomach fails to digest the food, and throws part of its work on the liver.

The treatment is the same as for dyspepsia. Dr. Shoop’s Re- storative must be taken to make the stomach well, as told under “Stomach Troubles” on the previous pages. This applies to con- stipation and biliousness and to all the results of them. They are but symptoms of indigestion, and will end when the cause is ended. In this treatment it is better omit pills, or cathartics in any form. They irritate the stomach and interfere with its cure. Their action on the liver is but temporary. They whip it into action for the moment, but leave it weaker than before. Gradually a larger dose becomes necessary; then a daily dose. The end is the dreaded pill habit and a chronic liver trouble. Those who would be well must resist the temptation to depend on makeshifts. In severe constipation, injections of water will give the necessary relief without harming. But the cure of all such troubles must come through the stomach. Dr. Shoop’s Re- storative will end the trouble permanently, and there is no other way. A few doses frequently end temporary symptoms, but a chronic trouble requires longer treatment, according to its severity.

Symptoms. Biliousness, Constipation, piles, Bad breathe, sick headache, Shallow complexion, Fickle appetite, Coated tongue, Slimy teeth, melancholy, Dullness and drowsiness, Dizziness or Vertigo, Tired feelings.

Treated with Many Physicians.

“I suffered for many years with a severe disease of my liver, dur- ing which time I treated with many physicians, but without re- ceiving help. A short time ago I began to use Dr. Shoop’s Restor-

ative and his Nerve Pills, and I am entirely cured. The fact that I am now well is due to Dr. Shoop. A. WALKER

Kewanee, Ill.

Octo. 7, 1896.

Kidney Diseases.

Symptoms. Varying According to the Stage.

Urine laden with sediment, Red or white brick dust in urine, Highly colored urine, Greasy froth or blood in it, Stringy mucus in urine, Unusual desire to urinate, Pain in passing water, Pain in the back and over the kidneys, Hot, dry and itching skin, Hair dry and brittle, Joints pain, legs feel heavy, Sleeplessness, dullness, Loss of weight, Chilly sensations, Loss of memory, General debility, Irregular heart, Disorders of the eyesight, Trouble with hearing, Waxy skin, fever, Shifting from one foot to the other in standing,

When Dropsy follows, swell- ings begin under the eyes and extend to the ankles, hands and abdomen.

The kidneys are the blood filters, intended to remove the waste, and most of their diseases results from overtaxing them with excessive waste. The cause may be a continued fever, or a cold, or some blood poisoning disease, or alcohol; but the most frequent cause is indigestion. Through some of these causes the blood becomes overloaded with impurities and the kidneys clog up. The first result is that part of the poison is left in the blood to cause other diseases—particular- ly Rheumatism. The overstrain gradually weakens the kidneys, and in time the kidney tissues break down and pass away, cell by cell, in the urine. Then the richness of the blood—the albu- men—leaks out. That is Bright’s Disease, or consumption of the kidneys and all kidney troubles lead to it if neglected. Kidney diseases are exceed- ingly dangerous and common.

They cause more deaths than any other human affliction. And yet they are curable—quickly and easily curable at some stages. Their fearful fatality is the result of neglect and wrong treatment. Kidney diseases are silent and usually painless. Their only warnings at first are shown in the urine— shown by a cloudiness, or high color, by deposits or by the fact that the urine stains. It is by overlooking and neglecting these symptoms that these most dreaded of all diseases are allowed to progress, for kidney diseases, without proper treatment, never recover themselves.

And improper treatment is often worse than none. Most kid- ney medicines get their effect from remedies called diuretics. These are practically kidney physics, acting as cathartics act on the bowels. They excite the kidneys to unnatural action for a time, and cause a seeming benefit; but the only real result is increased weak- ness, caused by the overstrain. The cure of the kidneys must come through rest and strength, and Dr. Shoop’s Restorative gives both. Rest comes when it makes the stomach strong and brings perfect digestion. Strength comes through vitalizing the nerves that operate the kidneys. There is no other remedy that will do that, and no other way to cure. In the earlier stages the cure is quick. Even in the later stages the Restorative is almost certain. It has cured thousands of the most difficult cases that physicians ever meet. It is in all stages the best remedy possible, and the only one so sure that it is sold under your dealer’s warrant.

Diabetes.

Symptoms. Constant thirst, Enormous flow of urine, Urine pale and watery, Excessive appetite, Sweet smelling breath, Sores in mouth, Dryness in mouth and throat, Weak muscles, Rapid loss of flesh, Loss of ambition, Sensitiveness to cold.

Diabetes is a disease of the inside nerves—not of the kidney tissues. It affects the liver by multi- plying its sugar-forming functions many times over, and loading the urine with sugar. The effect on the kidneys is shown when the nerves lose control of them, and the result is an enormous flow of urine. No treatment can cure Dia- betes without strengthening these

inside nerves. There is no diseased organ, no inflammation—nothing but weakness of the kidney nerves. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative is the only remedy made to strengthen them; and in no other disease is this treatment more important.

Dr. Shoop’s Book on Kidney Diseases goes into detail. It is one of the most accurate books ever written, and in this age of kidney troubles it should be read by everybody. Sent free on request.

Don’t feel that Dr. Shoop’s Restorative will fail. Have faith in it. Say that it must not fail; for when you abandon the Restorative you abandon hope.

There are many remedies that will make you feel better tem- porarily. Only opiates are needed for that. But sick people want a remedy to cure, not deceive them. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative cures.

Doctors Could Not Benefit.

Drain, Oregon, May 30, 1899

When I began taking Dr. Shoop’s Restorative I was suffering from Kidney trouble and weighed but 96 pounds. I tried several doctors but they could not benefit me. Six bottles of your Restorative have made me strong and well, and I now weigh 117 pounds. I recom- mend the remedy to all who have kidney trouble, knowing that I shall receive the thanks of all who try it because of this letter. MISS CAD GARDINER.

Doctors and Health Resorts Failed.

“I have been using Dr. Shoop’s Restorative for what doctors called Bright’s Disease and sciatica. I have tried many doctors and also spent two years at one of the best health resorts in the country, with- out obtaining relief, but since tak- ing the Restorative my health has been better than for the last seven years.”

E. K. PREUITT, Dorsey Ill.

Did No Work for Years.

“I have been a great sufferer with kidney trouble for the last five years, and not able to a day’s work. Last spring I got a bottle of

Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. It gave me so much relief that I got six bottles, and they entirely cured me. Can do a day’s work with any of them now, and am enjoying general good health.” W. M. MORFOOT, Perry, Iowa

Thought There Was No Help.

“I have suffered for many years with kidney trouble, and have used all the medicines I could get, but still I suffered night and day, and thought there was no help for me. One bottle of Dr. Shoop’s Restor- ative has made me feel much better, and life is sweeter. I am seventy- two years old.” MRS. FRANK NELSON

Stockholm, Wis.

Seven Remedies Failed.

“I have been troubled with kidney and liver complaints for three years, and I have tried seven kinds of kidney and liver cures faithfully, but they did not even bring me relief. After all that, one bottle of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative has cured me entirely, and to my astonish- ment I find that I never felt better than now.” AUGUST KOPPLIN, Holstein, Ia.

Men have learned more about curing serious sickness in the last 25 years than in all the previous history of the world; and Dr. Shoop’s Restorative represents the best of that knowledge.

Test Dr. Shoop’s Restorative first, and if it fails, get your money back. There will be plenty of time to try minor remedies afterward, if you need them.

Cured My Boy.

“Dr. Shoop’s Restorative cured my boy of kidney disease with which he has suffered from in- fancy. He is now 13 years old. I know that your Restorative is the best remedy made for kidney dis- eases, because I had given him

nearly all others that I heard of, and I took him to several physi- cians, but he got no better. I feel it my duty to inform others of these

facts. MRS. MICHAEL MURNS

October 10, 1896

Costello, Pa.

Analysis of Urine.

When one has any symptoms of kidney disease, one of the first steps should be to have the urine analyzed. There is no other way to learn the exact nature of the disease, the progress it has made, and what dieting may be necessary. Or if no real disease exists, the knowledge will relieve your anxiety. Safety really demands an analysis at least once a year, whether symptoms exist or not; for by discovering such a disease in its earlier stages, you are enabled to easily head it off. An analysis, to be valuable, needs to be thorough, but this requires costly appliances, such as few physicians have. The best and least expensive way is to send to Dr. Shoop. His laboratory is elaborately fitted for these analyses, and Dr. Shoop’s personal experience in kidney diseases has been the widest possible. Upon receipt of a $2.00 and a two-ounce bottle of urine, first voided in the morning, Dr. Shoop will make a complete analysis and rite you. If he finds the kidneys diseased, he will tell you the nature of the trouble and the progress it has made. If dieting is necessary, he will tell you what to eat and what to avoid during treatment. If anything in your condition required something besides the Restorative, he will prescribe it. Cork and bottle tightly, pack it in a small cigar box filled with sawdust or cotton batting, and send by express, charges prepaid. Write your name and address plainly and paste upon the bottle.

Don’t think that each disease calls for a different remedy. There is nut one cause for most chronic diseases—a weakness of the vital nerves. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative strengthens all of them.

Spent a Great Deal of Money.

Luther, Okla., June 23, 1899

I had been sick for 14 months,

with what seemed to be a general breaking down of the nerve sys- tem, affecting my stomach, liver and kidneys. I doctored with sev- eral good physicians and spent a great deal of money on med- icines, but I never found anything that helped me in the slightest until I took Dr. Shoop’s Restor- ative. I have taken that medicine now for two months, and the effect has been wonderful. No stomach trouble, no constipation, my kidneys are nearly well and my general health is much im- proved.

J. H. JOHNSON

Helps Her to Keep Well.

Oconomowoc, Wis., Nov. 10, 1897

I am a great believer in this Re-

storative. I take it whenever I feel exhausted physically, and am now feeling benefit from it after a very busy summer. It is now also great- ly helping mother who is suffering from fatty degeneration of the heart. MARGIE S. HURLBUT

Of Wisconsin Free Press

Waited 6 Years Too Long.

Winona, Wash., June 4, 1899

“I have suffered for six years with

a complication of troubles resulting

in sallow complexion, pimples, backache, headache, fickle appetite, coated tongue, slimy teeth, bad

breath, indigestion and consti- pation. Five bottles of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative have remedied all these

troubles, and I tell my friends that it

is all due to this remedy.” MRS. VIOLA JORDAN

——————

Benedict, Neb., Nov. 23, 1898

I have had more good testimonials about Dr. Shoop’s Restorative in the last week than I have ever re- ceived from any other remedy I have sold. C. F. BAUGHAN, Druggist

Spent $148 Without Being Cured.

“I have spent $148 since last Sep- tember in doctoring a stomach and liver trouble, but $2 worth of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative cured me after all the rest of the treatments failed. MRS. BESSIE MOFSKER

283 Cedar Ave.

Cleveland, Ohio

You cannot know whether your sickness is curable or not until you try Dr. Shoop’s Restorative for it. If this treatment could not cure where others fail, why was a lie time spent on it?

Single Bottles Not Guaranteed.

Those who buy Dr. Shoop’s Restorative in single bottle lots should not expect too much. Medicine cannot work miracles. You have probably spent years in breakdown down your health. Do not expect to repair the damage in a week. Beware of medicines that seem to act quickly, for the effect comes from sedatives or stimulants. It is easy to make one feel better by merely deadening the nerves. There are no opiates of any kind in Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. It is made to cure, not to deceive you; and it will cure. Sometimes a few doses are enough for slight temporary troubles. Two and three bottles often perform remarkable cures, as are shown by some testimonials published in this book. But most people who need the Restorative need more than one or two bottles. Guarantees are issued only with 6-bottle lots to insure a fair test. It is better to buy in that way, unless your trouble is slight; and you risk nothing by it. The Restorative never disappoints those who give it a chance to cure.

Pain in the Back for Three Years.

“I have been troubled with pain in the back for three years and the doctor whom I consulted pro- nounced it congestion of the kid- neys. Last spring the pain was so severe that I could not get about. One bottle of Dr. Shoop’s Restor-

ative entirely cured me, and, al- though a year has passed, I have had no pain whatever since then in

my back. ALBERT CAMPBELL

Morro, Ill.

The Restorative is the product of a lifetime’s study—the result of countless tests. A remedy that is made by guesswork stands no chance with it in the battle for life and health. You can save many a day of unhappiness by keeping Dr. Shoop’s Restorative in the house and taking a few doses whenever you feel badly. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative is an absolutely honest remedy. No opiates, no bromides, no laxative, even. Its benefits are lasting and final.

Heart Disease.

Heart disease does not mean an organic disease of the heart, except in very rare instances. It means a weak- ness of the heart branch of the inside nerves—the power that keeps it beating. The results are irregular beats,

palpitation and weakness, just as a trembling hand results from outside nerve weakness. The only possible way to doctor heart trouble is to strengthen the heart nerves. Even though the trouble is organic, that is all we can do. When it is claimed that a remedy can doctor the heart itself— alter its structure or reduce its size—reject it. That is, and always must be, absolutely impossible. These rare organic troubles often correct themselves when the heart nerves are made to perform their functions; but that result is wrought by Nature, not by medicine. Any heart trouble requires Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. If the trouble is functional the Restorative will cure it—and nearly every trouble is functional. There is no other medicine made for strengthening weak heart nerves. The Restorative will also cure the cause of the heart trouble, which is frequently Dyspepsia. It makes the entire inner nervous system strong. The sufferer from heart trouble realizes that his weakened heart nerves are easily over-taxed. He feels the ill effects of each exertion and he knows that an over-strain may in a second stop the heart. A too hearty meal, acting on the weakened stomach nerves,

may break down the heart nerves through sympathy. Most sudden deaths from heart trouble occur in this way, shortly after eating. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative will remove the cause for this anx- iety, and its cures are lasting. It is wrong for man or woman to live under the cloud of heart trouble, when this remedy is offered on condition that it is free if it doesn’t cure.

Symptoms. Fluttering and palpitation of the heart, Pain or tenderness about the heart, Uneasy or oppressed feeling in the chest, Inability to lie on one side, Shortness of breath after slight exercise, Irregular pulse, Weak spells, fainting spells, Painful or difficult breathing.

Dr. Shoop’s Book on the Heart tells much more about heart trouble. If you would like to read it, please send for it. It is free.

The only way to cure a chronic disease is to restore the inside nerve force. Whatever you do to merely relieve the trouble, be sure that Dr. Shoop’s Restorative must be taken to cure it.

Heart Trouble and Abscess.

Compton, Neb., May 12, 1899

C. I. Shoop, M.D. -- I beg leave to add my testimony to the many you have already received. I am an old soldier, have suffered a number of years with heart trouble, also kidney diseases and later with a large abscess in my side; in fact, was nearer death than alive when I commenced using Dr. Shoop’s Restorative, and now after using six bottles of the Re- storative feel like a young man again. The abscess broke and has ceased to trouble me any more. I am sure I owe my life to Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. JOHN P. HARTGRAVE

The Family Physician Endorses It.

“It is due you to say that after suffering from nervousness and heart trouble for ten years, I found relief in Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. I treated with a number of our best physicians, none treating me for less than a year, and our own family physician has treated me for seven years, but your Restor- ative has done more than all other remedies. Our family physician now advises that I continue with the Restorative.”

IDA V. Ross, Ontario, Cal.

Heart Trouble Caused Spasms.

Stamford, Conn.

Dr. C. I. Shoop -- I had a heart trouble for five years. At times it was so severe that it resulted in spasms. I believe that the cause was dyspepsia because I suffered from it severely, and also from stagnation of the blood. I tried many medicines, but nothing even relieved me until I took Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. I cordially say that my experience convinces me that nothing else is equal to that

remedy. MRS. RUSEN

Franklin Street

Owes Her Lift to It.

“This is to certify that I owe my health and even my life, I think, to Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. I suffered from catarrh of the stomach and with heart trouble, and my case was too difficult that I was obliged to take twelve bottles. But the result is a complete cure. I can now attend to all my household duties, and I never felt better in my life.” MRS. E. GLOVE

Dodge Center. Minn.

The cures made by Dr. Shoop’s Restorative are permanent. Nothing is used to deceive you—nothing for temporary effect. The nerve power that operates every vital organ is lastingly renewed.

Figure No. 1 The above illustration shows the outside nerves, or the Cerebro- spinal system.

Figure No. 1

The above illustration shows the outside nerves, or the Cerebro- spinal system. These nerves have nothing to do with the nerves that operate your vital organs. The many nerviness, etc., made to doctor these nerves, serve only to deaden the nerves so that you do not feel the pain, which tells you that you are sick.

Figure No. 2

This figure shows the inside nerves or sympathetic system. These nerves alone operate all the organs that keep you living. When any branch of these nerves is weak, some organ fails. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative reaches just these nerves, and it is the only remedy yet known that will affect or strengthen them.

Many Expect Too Much.

Many people write us that they would try Dr. Shoop’s Restorative if their dealer would warrant one bottle. We reply: “If your case is difficult, we cannot even recommend one bottle. A month’s test of the Restorative is free if it fails. A week’s test may only discourage you. Those sick ones do not appreciate how sick they are. Nothing less than magic could restore broken down health in a week, and there is no magic. Cures are always gradual. There are many sick people who have given up Dr. Shoop’s Restorative only because one bottle failed to pretty near cure them. They go on suffering, believing that the Restorative has failed. That is the pity. Don’t try to prove that the Restorative can’t cure, for it is probably the only remedy that ever can make you well. Give it the chance that it needs.

When Dr. Shoop’s Restorative cures you, tell others about it. Your words will have more influence than our words on a friend who is sick. Tell that you have learned the remedy, which cures.

Free Letter Consultation.

Dr. Shoop offers free medical advice to anyone who asks it; not only in diseases described in this book but in any disease. Mothers are invited to consult him regarding children’s diseases. Anyone who is sick from any cause may write him. Any patient taking the Restorative, who finds that any symptom of his trouble does not yield readily, is particularly requested to write the Doctor about it. You may enclose stamp for reply, if you wish, but the advice is free. The best counsel of this eminent and successful physician is absolutely at your free service in any case, at any time; and in most diseases no better advice is possible. Address Dr. Shoop, Racine, Wis.

Woman’s Diseases.

Woman’s peculiar organism is con- trolled entirely by the inside nerves, and in those nerves always lies the cause of her weakness. The results are far reach- ing, for the weakness of one branch of this nerve system weakens all branches through sympathy. The weakness eventu- ally affects all vital organs, and breaks the whole constitution down. It is wrong to consider that because some of these symptoms are common they are unimportant. In every female weak-

ness exists the possibility of wrecking all that a woman prizes—health, beauty, happiness and home. Every day of neglect adds to her wretchedness, and wastes in useless suf- fering another day of life. Common remedies for woman’s diseases aim at relief not cure. Laxatives are used for this purpose—sedatives to deaden pain— stimulants to temporarily strengthen. But all such results are both transient and harmful. A cure requires the strengthening of the inside nerve system, and Dr. Shoop’s Restorative must be taken for that. There is no other way to give permanent strength to the womanly

organism and to all vital organs as well. This remedy removes the cause of all local symptoms, and makes a woman well all over. Without it, local treatments are useless, for the trouble promptly returns. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative is always woman’s best friend. She needs it when girlhood changes into womanhood, to ensure womanly health. She needs it during pregnancy to save the risks and pains of childbirth. She needs it for strength when she is weak, for per- manent relief when she suffers. She needs it during change of life, to save the wreck of health and nerves so likely and so common when this help is not given. There is no other remedy to take its place— no other that can be guaranteed to accomplish the results intended.

Symptoms. Backache, headache, Weakness, pallor, Poor circulation, Cold feet, Leucorrhea, Nervousness, irritability, Fainting spells, Slight spasms, Irregular menses, Disposition to sleep, Desire for solitude, Bearing-down feeling, Pain at side of mouth.

No matter what branch of your inside nerve system is weak. All branches belong to one system, and Dr. Shoop’s Restorative strengthens all.

Dr. Shoop’s Book for Women.

Dr. Shoop has written a book needed by all women. It tells how to doctor any womanly trouble at home with all the benefits that medicine can give. Explicit directions are given for treating all local discharges and inflammation with the utmost possible skill—what to use and how to use it. Sent free on request. Address Dr. Shoop, Racine. Wis.

Her Choice Was Wise.

Onaga, Kas., June17, 1899

“I do not know just what the trouble was. I doctored for three months with the best doctor in Onaga, but kept getting worse. He said that I had heart trouble. I then tried another physician and he said that I had gallstone and liver trouble. At that time I suffered so that I thought I could not stand it from one minute to another, but the doctor could give me no relief. That very evening we happened to receive an advertisement of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. Father look- ed over it and then asked me to read it and see if I would rather try that than see the doctor again. I decided that I would, so we bought one bottle of Restorative, and the first spoonful seemed to help me. I continued its use and I now feel better than I have for nine years. My stomach trouble is cured, my heart beats regularly, I have no more smothering spells and my complexion is clear.” MATTIE McGUIRE

Years of Useless Suffering.

Sacramento, Pa.

I have suffered from nervous- ness and stomach troubles for many years, and have taken a great many

different remedies and have treated with good physicians without much relief. As soon as I began taking Dr. Shoop’s Restorative I felt great benefit. I am now using my second bottle and am doing my own house cleaning. I can also eat all the food, which before gave me great dis- tress. I have not felt so well for years as I do today. MRS. D. F. HEMER

Help Suffering Women.

“It is with pleasure that I an- nounce to you the cure of my ter- rible suffering. I had tried many doctors and medicines without re- lief until I was advised to try Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. That medicine cured my stomach and also greatly relieved me of pain during my change of life. I recommend this remedy to all suffering women, cer- tain that I will receive the thanks of all who try it because of this letter.” MRS. BARBARA KITZER

1119 Arch St., Louisville, Ky.

Would be No Nervousness

“If all nervous women would try Dr. Shoop’s Restorative there would be no nervousness. I have tried it and consider it a remarkable remedy.” MRS. E. J. BARNES

605 Sixth St., West Boone, Ia.

Trying wrong remedies is what makes sickness costly. Enough of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative to cure even a difficult case costs little. And the test costs nothing if it fails.

NERVOUSNESS

When you are nervous, something is wrong

inside.

The cause may be indigestion or

with women it may be a female weakness. Some symptoms given on previous pages will show you where the trouble lies. Nervousness is a sensitiveness of the outside nerves, but it is always a result of some inside nerve weakness. Dr. Shoop’s Restorative will cure the cause of the trouble, wherever it lies. Other nerve remedies may have a quieting effect because of the sedatives in them, but it is temporary. The Restorative ends the trouble permanently, and in the only way possible.

SLEEPLESSNESS

Insomnia results when the inside nerves control the blood vessels are weakened, so

that the vessels expand and allow too much blood to circulate in the brain. This weakness always results from some other inside nerve weakness—usually a stomach or a female weakness. If the trouble is but temporary, Dr. Shoop’s Restorative removes it quickly. A few doses are frequently enough. If the trouble is chronic, the Restorative is just as certain. The sleep that it brings is natural and restful—not the deadening brain destroying sleep that comes from sedatives.

IMPURE BLOOD

Eruptions of the skin, bad complexion, las- situde and languor indicate impure blood.

The usual treatment is with blood medicine; but it is wrong. Good physicians years ago abandoned such attempts to force the im- purities out. There is only one way to purify the blood and that is Nature’s way—through the liver and kidneys. We must strengthen these organs as told in this book, and make them active. No com- mon blood purifier is even a tenth so effective as Dr. Shoop’s Restorative, for the Restorative acts in the right way—in the only way.

LOSS OF FLESH

book.

Calls only for better nutrition. The stom- ach must be strengthened as told in this

When you are sick, your whole future may depend on your choice of a treatment. There are many to choose from, but Dr. Shoop’s Restorative is the only one so sure that your dealer guarantees it.

Nothing Else Brought Sleep.

“I take pleasure in recom- mending Dr. Shoop’s Restorative as a cure for nervousness and sleeplessness. For a number of years my nerves have troubled me so at night that I could not get one hour’s sleep. I tried all remedies for the trouble, and could not get any relief. It seemed as if no med- icine could reach my case. Your Restorative has cured me so that I now rest well every night.” MRS. C. H. PHINNEY

South Farmington, Nova Scotia

Nervous Prostration for Years.

“I write you to tell you how grateful I am for calling my attention to Dr. Shoop’s Restor- ative. For several years I had nervous prostration, severe attacks of indigestion, and general de- bility of my whole system. Both physically and mentally I was utterly wretched. For three whole months I lived on bread and beef tea because my stomach would retain nothing else. The sick head- aches which I had for three years were dreadful.” “I took many remedies but no relief was permanent until I took Dr. Shoop’s Restorative. I began then to gain almost immediately in strength, flesh, appetite and di- gestion. I am now entirely cured and can eat as other people do. I

send you my sincere gratitude, for I am a well and happy woman.” MISS L. W. GOODELL

Norwich, Conn.

Wasted Twenty Years.

Whitewater, Colo., July 4, 1899

“I have just finished the third bottle of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative and it winds up a complete cure of my old chronic trouble of almost a lifetime’s duration. I suffered from nervousness of an epileptic nature and constipation, and though I am 62 years of age I feel better than I have for 20 years. I believe now that I shall live to make up for the years that I lost fooling with worth- less medicines and quack doctors, spending enough to start a drug store, and to no purpose. I can now attend to business, and I feel en-

tirely cured. CHAS. M. HAMILL

Cured Erysipelas After 20 Years.

Johnston St., Gouverneur, N.Y.

“I have been afflicted with Erysipelas for fully twenty years and have not been able to do my work. I was confined to my bed when I first took Dr. Shoop’s Re- storative, but inside of a week’s time I was able to do my work, and have been gaining ever since. The remedy was worth its weight in gold to me, for I had spent much money with physicians, and had taken all kinds of medicine without the least relief.” MRS. TOMPSON

Do not be discouraged because other treatments have failed. Dr. Shoop has not studied a lifetime without making his Restor- ative more effective than other remedies are.

The Risk is Ours—The Benefit is Yours.

We have told you all the facts you need. We have made you the fairest offer that is possible. The decision and action now must rest with you. If you need help, go to your dealer and get the Restorative; and if you buy six bottles, get your dealer’s agreement to pay your money back if you want it. Remember that your health is the stake to be gained, and there is nothing to lose.

——————————

Each bottle of Dr. Shoop’s Restorative represents the labor of a lifetime. There is no ingredient that has not been the subject of a thousand tests. There has been no problem that one man ever solved which required more arduous labor. Yet all that those years accomplished is now offered at a price which even poverty can pay; and under your dealer’s agreement to return the price if it fails.

——————————

We could publish twelve hundred times as many testimonials, for we have 50,000 in our files; but do you need more? You wish to know what the Restorative will do for you—not what it did for others. Make the best in your own case at our risk, and you will learn more than all the letter in our files could tell you.

——————————

These three things are certain:

First, if your sickness is serious, you must take Dr. Shoop’s Restorative to cure it. Other remedies may benefit for a time, but a cure requires that the weak vital nerves be strengthened, and only the Restorative can do that. Second, the sooner you take it, the easier the cure will be. Third, no other honest remedy for chronic diseases is, or ever will be, offered on condition that it is free if it fails.

Local Treatment for Women.

There is another remedy that needs to go with the Restorative in cases of womanly troubles. The Restorative builds up and strengthens a woman, and removes the cause of her weakness. But when that weakness has led to local inflammation, leucorrhoea or ulceration, local treatment is also needed. These local troubles drain woman’s vitality. They wreck her nerves, her beauty, disposition, happiness and health. They are curable; yet most women leave them undoctored, because of the dread of exposure. And millions pay fearful penalties. Dr. Shoop spent twelve years in selecting a local treatment. He did this because his Restorative could not bring permanent health while these local troubles continued. For twelve years he experimented with every possible remedy, only to find that even the best treatments in use were but temporary. Some could sup- press, but none could cure. But he finally found the right remedy in the extract of a certain white lily. After personally testing this remedy in something over one thousand cases, he adopted it. By that time he had proved to a certainty that this was the best remedy that Nature had provided for this purpose, so far as any man knows. It is practically infallible. With this remedy he combines other remedies that are absorbents—remedies that draw out the poisonous discharges so that the healing is permanent. And he incorporates all these ingredients into pure Cocoa Butter. Then he compresses the product into the form of pastilles. A wash is to quickly absorbed or discharged to be of any particular service. The pastilles melt slowly, and remain in contact with the diseased parts for hours. This remedy is called “Dr. Shoop’s Night Cure” because it cures while you sleep. In this simple remedy, that you can apply yourself, is the most perfect and powerful treatment that any physician knows. It will save all the suffering and the damage that results from these troubles, if you take the Restorative with it. It has contributed more to the happiness of women than any other remedy in existence.

will be supplied by the

dealer named on the back of this book. Or, if not, it will be mailed from Dr. Shoop’s Laboratory upon receipt of price: One box, $1.00; three boxes, $2.75. Book about local treatments sent free on request. Address

Dr. Shoop’s Night Cure

Dr. Shoop, Racine, Wis.

We Sell Dr. Shoop’s Restorative under our own guarantee, and with a six bottle lot
We Sell Dr. Shoop’s Restorative under our own
guarantee, and with a six bottle lot we will sign and give
you the certificate told of in this book. Please call at once
L. H. Ott & Son, Druggists
Main Street
Harrisonburg, Va.
There is no substitute For Dr. Shoop’s Restor-
ative; no other remedy yet made can strengthen the inside
nerves.
Price – One bottle: $1.00; six bottles: $5.50

SCHLITZ BEER

Tell your entire story to achieve a preemptive advantage.

Claude Hopkins’ involvement in advertising Schlitz beer is probably the most often told story at marketing seminars. It is the story of “preemptive marketing.”

Preemptive marketing is when you take some behind-the-scenes feature or benefit of your product or business – that your industry universally uses or does or offers as a standard practice – and make it a central feature of your advertising campaign.

A preemptive marketing campaign might contain information that’s common

knowledge to everyone in the industry, but if you educate your customers on the fact that you do such-and-such before anyone else spills the beans, the public

will focus their awe, wonder and applause on you rather than on your competitors.

The Schlitz beer story is famous for illustrating this.

When Claude Hopkins was called in to help Schlitz beer increase its market- share, each beer manufacturer was claiming that customers should drink their beer because it was “pure beer.” However, nobody knew what exactly “pure beer” was. They knew what “pure” meant, but what exactly was “pure beer”?

Hopkins visited the Schlitz manufacturing plant where he was shown the beer making process. The Schlitz process was nothing unique -- all the other beer manufacturers made beer in the same way. However, Claude Hopkins was amazed at seeing these details for the first time.

The water for the Schlitz plant came from 4,000-foot deep artesian wells, which guaranteed its purity. Special wood pulp filters took out all the impurities of the brewed liquid. Special rooms were filled with filtered air so that the beer could be cooled without impurities. Pumps and pipes were cleaned twice daily to avoid contamination. The beer glass beer bottles were even steam cleaned four times before being used!

Hopkins was fascinated with the complexity and quality standards of the whole process. He asked the Schlitz executives why they didn’t tell people about all these things they did to make pure beer. The Schlitz executives replied that they didn’t think it was important because every beer manufacturer made beer the same way.

Hopkins countered, “Yes, but the others have never told this story,” and went on

to create an advertising campaign that explained every step Schlitz took to make

their beer pure. We’ve included several Schlitz ads so that you can see how he started to include these facts in its advertising, and you might want to pay particular attention to the ad, “Perfection of 50 years.”

Every beer manufacturer essentially made beer the same way, but Schlitz was the first to say how its purity was created and maintained, and thereby claimed a “preemptive marketing advantage” over its competitors.

After Schlitz said it, not a single competitor dared tout the same processes because no one wanted to look like a Schlitz copycat. Schlitz did pretty much what every other beer manufacturer did but it was the first to tell the full story, and that preemptive advertising won it new customers.

Because he educated his market in this way, Schlitz beer gradually rose from fifth place to a tie for first place in market-share, and it was all because Hopkins took the role of educating the consumer. In My Life in Advertising, he wrote:

This is a situation which occurs in most advertising problems. The product is not unique. It embodies no great advantages. Perhaps countless people can make similar products. But tell the pains you take to excel. Tell factors and features which others deem too commonplace to claim. Your product will come to typify those excellencies. If others claim them afterward, it will only serve to advertise you. There are few advertised products which cannot be imitated. Few who dominate a field have any exclusive advantage. They were simply the first to tell certain convincing facts.

The question you must ask yourself is whether there are any features of your business, products or services that you can advertise in a preemptive fashion. If you’re the first to claim something before everyone else, you’ll most likely gain the preemptive advantage because your competitors might be hesitant to claim, “We do that, too!”

The lesson to learn from Hopkins’ approach is to educate your customer. Tell them all the pains you take to make your product supreme. Tell them how many vendors you source from, what you do to maintain quality control, how you searched for years to find the right processes and materials and how you constantly train and retrain your staff to service their needs.

Tell them everything you do … all the pains you take on their behalf … in order to offer them a superior product or service.

This is what wins converts!

Customers want to know what you’re doing for them. They want to know you are looking out for them and that you are on their side. The more you tell them about

the efforts you undertake on their behalf, the more they’ll trust you and believe in the quality of your product.

That’s what increases sales, so consider preemptive and educational advertising.

The ads:

Perfection of 50 Years

Back of each glass of Schlitz beer there is an experience of 50 years.

The Home Beer

Let your home beer be Schlitz because of its purity. Get the good without the harm.

Schlitz Indian Girl Calendar for 1909 Ask Your Doctor

about Schlitz beer. He knows the Importance of Purity

The Beverage of Health

Purity is Supreme

Doctors of Two Nations Agree as to the Benefits of Beer

LIQUOZONE

Never give up. Always think of your customer’s best interests and offer service rather than ask for sales. Test headlines. Offer a free trial or sample and make money off your backend of repeat sales.

The story of Liquozone -- a gas made germicide – just goes to show that an unsuccessful product can be turned into a winner when you find the right advertising and marketing approach.

The man who purchased the Liquozone product rights failed at selling Liquozone for four consecutive years until he got Hopkins to join his company and take charge of its advertising. The new advertising turned it around from a failure into an international sensation.

Hopkins’ friends advised him not to leave his job to take on such a risky venture, but after meeting and listening to the hundreds of people who had used the product and benefited, Claude Hopkins almost felt that it was his mission to help this product succeed in the world. He even worried that he was too small for the task.

Up and down, he paced, trying to figure out some way to market the product. Because he had talked with many users and visited the hospitals to see all the good it had done, Hopkins had incredible confidence in the efficacy of Liquozone but knew he would have tremendous trouble getting its full story across. The previous four years of fruitless efforts had already proved the difficulty of this task despite a product that worked wonders, and yet here was a product so powerful that it could change people’s lives almost instantaneously.

How could he get people to believe him?

As he wrote in his autobiography, “Night after night I paced Lincoln Park, trying to evolve a plan. I held to my old conceptions. Serve better than others, offer more than others, and you are pretty sure to win.”

I can only urge you to cultivate this idea of servicing your customer, from which you will get similar mental breakthroughs just as Claude Hopkins did. Many copywriters and ad men will tell you that if you’re just in a business for profit rather than service, these breakthrough ideas will escape you.

Service to others – the soul of service to help others -- is what gives meaning to life. If you cultivate the mindset of trying to help individuals and truly make their lives better, that change in mentality alone can be enough to produce an entirely different future for your firm.

Marketing and advertising are not just a bag of tricks. True marketing and advertising breakthroughs come from tapping into the soul of service. Because

he always cultivated this type of mindset – and not because he was skilled at inventing new advertising tricks – Claude Hopkins created an incredible advertising proposition for the time.

He offered a coupon that gave anyone who wanted it a free 50¢ trial bottle of Liquozone. If the customer wanted more, they could buy six $1 bottles for only $5, with a 100% money-back guarantee pledged by the local druggist.

Because of its earlier selling failures -- despite a highly effective product -- Hopkins actually decided to give samples of the product away for free in order to get people to try it. Believing in its effectiveness, he risked that customers would prove to themselves it worked and then return to become repeat buyers.

His business model was to make his profits through repeat sales, which in today’s marketing circles also includes what we call “the backend.”

Anyone with a health problem would therefore get a free bottle of the product just by asking, and you can see this offer boldly proclaimed across all the ads we’ve collected.

If a customer tried a bottle of Liquozone and felt it was working, they might be inclined to take up the offer of buying six more bottles at a discount – since they still required an incentive to take the next step of yet another purchase -- and if they felt that those six bottles didn’t do the job, they could still get all their money- back.

To a sick person reading any of the following ads, that’s a risk-free proposition if they ever saw one. It gave tremendous credibility to the ads.

Because they kept careful track of the records, Liquozone was able to determine the effectiveness of this advertising campaign to the penny. The numbers showed that sending out a free bottle of Liquozone cost an average of 18¢ but that individual free sample brought in an average sale of 91¢ more of product.

In short, the net profit on the sales paid far more than the advertising and product costs, and the claims for the money-back guarantee represented less than 2% of sales.

Net result? Product sales blossomed, profits blossomed, and many people were helped.

The product and proposition were so successful at producing sales that Hopkins took the company, of which he owned 25% in shares, from near bankruptcy to millions of dollars in sales, offices in Europe and product presentation in almost every part of the world.

While many said that Hopkins’ approach was reckless or that he was foolish to join the company in the first place, his faith in the product and in serving people is what saved the Liquozone company from bankruptcy. The key to the success of this product was the ideal of servicing the customer and not making product claims, but letting the customer try the product for free without any risks.

Hopkins said, “Ask a person to take a chance on you, and you have a fight. Offer to take a chance on him, and the way is easy.” I have always taken chances on the other fellow. I have analyzed my proposition until I made sure that he had the best end of the bargain. Then I had something people could not well neglect.”

When you look at the following Liquozone ads, note that the contents are very much the same. What changes is the ad headline. Hopkins tested quite a variety of headlines for Liquozone just to determine which had the most active response. I think these are some of the most powerful headlines Claude Hopkins ever wrote.

The headline itself is the ad for the ad. It draws the attention of your target audience and compels them to keep reading further. It’s purpose is to get you to read the body copy. Advertising legend David Ogilvy once said that “On the average, 5 times as many people read the headlines as the body copy. It follows that unless your headline sells, you’ve wasted 90% of your money.”

Ogilvy also stated that he’s seen headline changes for the same ad produce as much as a 21 times higher response! Other marketers have noted the same, and copywriters spend hours – even weeks – writing out hundreds of headlines to find a killer introduction for a product.

One of the most important things you can ever do for your advertising is test different headlines.

Another lesson to bring away from the Liquozone case is that a company might lose money in selling some initial product up front, but if through that “loss leader” it can secure sales far in the future, the business will eventually make a profit. In fact, many businesses are structured in this way so that they don’t make money on their initial sale, but make a net profit because of “backend” or repeat purchases.

Do you have a backend for your business … or do you have some way to encourage repeat purchases from old customers?

If not, quick get a backend even if you have to go to related firms and license their products or make joint ventures with them to sell their products for a commission.

Once you’ve gained a new customer, that customer wants to buy more services and products from you. They’ve established a satisfactory relationship with you that they now trust, and you should try to make use of this bond to further service them if at all possible.

It’s always smart to have a backend source of income ready to be offered. And it’s always smart to go back and try to reactivate old customers who’ve stopped buying from you. Another thing you can try to do is program them to buy from you on a schedule.

Studies consistently show that the toughest sale and most expensive sale is always the first sale, which usually costs seven to nine times more than going back and selling to a customer again. For many firms, the whole purpose of that initial sale is simply to create a customer to whom you can go back to with other products and services.

Do you have a backend for your company? Can you structure some sort of repeat sale or service contract?

If you don’t have a backend product or service, go out and create one. One of the easiest ways to increase your income is by offering other products and services to your customers.

Your job is to service customers, so see if there isn’t any sort of extra product or service you can offer that helps them with their needs.

The ads:

$2,000,000 Have Been Spent to Let the Sick of America Try Liquozone Free.

336 HOURS

Are Required to Make Liquozone – Yet the First Bottle Is Free.

“I’m Well

Because of Liquozone,” is Now Said the World Over.

It is Wrong

To Suffer From a Germ Disease, When Liquozone is Free

Let Us Pay

For a Bottle of New Liquozone, and Give it to You to Try.

Millions Know

That Liquozone Does What Medicine Cannot Do. A 50c Bottle Free.

Nine Nations

Now Use Liquozone. Won’t You Try it—Free?

We Offer $5,000

As a Guarantee on Liquozone. The First Bottle is Free.

WE WILL BUY

A 50c. bottle of Liquozone and Give it to You to Try.

You Can’t Kill

Inside Germs With Medicine. Won’t You Try Liquozone—Free?

VAN CAMP’S PORK AND BEANS

Educate your customers. Dare them to try competitors.

The story of Van Camp’s canned pork and beans is the story of how to change people’s ingrained consumer habits. It was the very first advertising campaign that Claude Hopkins worked on for the Lord & Thomas advertising agency run by Albert Lasker.

Hopkins did not initially want to work for someone else, but the persuasive Lasker promised that after he wrote three good ads, Hopkins’ wife could then have any car of her choosing for free. It seemed that Lasker was not only persuasive in writing advertising copy, but in dealing with people as well. Sometimes your job is not to create better advertising as much as it is to train yourself to be able to sell better. If that’s the case, the idea of sales training or sales scripting may help.

When Hopkins took on this task of advertising Van Camp’s baked pork and beans, 94% of women baked pork and beans at home and only 6% were open to any arguments for buying the canned product at stores. “Why buy it if I already prepare them at home?”, they reasoned.

To go after this home baked market, first Hopkins created a campaign to show the deficiencies of home baking. He created an educational campaign to show that home baked beans weren’t as good as Van Camp baked beans because Van Camp baked them longer (for 16 hours), which people simply could not do at home. Van Camp beans were also evenly cooked and crisp rather than mushy on the bottom. In poetic flourish Hopkins therefore wrote, “They were everywhere equally digestible.”

Highlighting these facts created incredible product appeal and sales, but after awhile the Van Camp customers started switching to other brands of baked beans. Hopkins then came up with a brilliant idea which you’ve no doubt seen in various TV commercials. Yet once again, he was the first to use this advertising technique to counter the growing trend of product substitutions. Hopkins simply had Van Camp’s tell people to try its rivals, too.

This “altruism” – of daring prospects to try competing brands -- won many new customers for Van Camp’s beans. Customers figured that if Van Camp was confident enough to urge people to try other brands, then theirs must be good. It was a stroke of psychological genius!

Sales went up again from this approach, and Hopkins said he learned from this experience that when you argue for the customer’s advantage, “they will flock to you.” Time and again he urged advertisers to think of the customer’s best

interests and make appeals along those lines. That’s how he came up with his marketing breakthroughs.

Hopkins also used the old trick of preemptive marketing in many Van Camp ads, telling of the heritage of the beans and tomatoes used in the cooking, where they were grown, of the steam ovens that baked beans for hours at 245 degrees, and every detail of the preparation process.

While he readily admitted that Van Camp’s beans were actually no different than any others, Hopkins was the first to tell this story and was thereby able to differentiate them from competitors just through this technique alone. Even though the story was commonplace, the fact of telling it was enough to make the Van Camp pork and beans a star.

Think hard … maybe you can use this preemptive marketing technique yourself. Maybe you should tell the story of your product or service.

The ads:

To Open-Minded Woman and The Men They Like To Please

Here are some facts and photographs about Nature’s choicest food, Our racial food, exceeding meat in nutrition—hearty, delicious, and cheap. Yet a dish which millions never tasted in its fittest form.

Scientists - Not Chefs

Why No Other Kitchen Anywhere Can Match a Van Camp Creation

Your Way … Our Way

They Work to Help You Keep Young

“My dear, these surely are Van Camp's”

AUTOMOBILE ADVERTISING

Personalize your company or products. For credibility, appeal to social proof. Make use of free publicity.

Over the years, Hopkins became involved in all sorts of automobile advertising campaigns for many companies.

In those early years of automobile advertising, new car features were changing so rapidly – with new breakthroughs occurring all the time as happened in the personal computer industry a few years ago -- that his team had a hard job keeping on top of everything.

It was a constant task to figure out what new advertising chords most resonated with the buying public. First it was this, then it was that … over time the market changed so dramatically that it was hard keeping up. Because of this, Hopkins always had to test a variety of new approaches.

One idea that you’ll see repeated in his various automobile ads is the association of a personality with the cars. Hopkins correctly noted that people always preferred to do business with personalities they could identify with, or with men whose names were connected with certain accomplishments. Therefore he often tried to associate or invent a personality who could speak for a car in its advertising.

This idea was actually the forerunner of Leo Burnett’s many successful advertising campaigns featuring fictitious creations like Charlie the Tuna or Tony the Tiger. People would rather associate with a character or personality or story than just a plain product.

For the Chalmers car company, you’ll note that many of the ads are signed by Howard E. Coffin. Hopkins took an unknown Howard E. Coffin of the company and prominently featured him in its ads, wording his ads as if Coffin was speaking directly to the reader. You can see one of the Coffin ads in our collection: “The Class Car Now at Top.”

It’s a common rule of good direct response advertising to write directly to the reader in a conversational tone. Whenever you are writing advertising copy, don’t use big words or phrases. Always write as if you are speaking one-on-one to the reader. As Hopkins wrote,

Brilliant writing has no place in advertising. A unique style takes attention from the subject. Any apparent effort to sell creates corresponding resistance. Persuasive ability arouses the fear of over-influence. Anything which suggests an effort to sell on other lines than merit and service is fatal.

One should be natural and simple. His language should not be conspicuous. In fishing for buyers, as in fishing for bass, one should not reveal the hook. Never try to show off. You are selling your product, not yourself. Do nothing to cloud your objective. Use the shortest words possible. Let every phrase ring with sincerity.

Howard Coffin was an unknown figure when Hopkins first featured him, but the prominence of continually featuring him in ads later led to his being made head of the Aircraft Board during the war. That’s how successful the promotions were!

Cadillac automobiles were the neck-in-neck competitors of Chalmers at the time, but by featuring the Coffin personality in the ads Hopkins was able to give the Chalmers cars a distinction by which they could successfully compete.

Next Hopkins had to advertise the Hudson car company, which was an offshoot of the Chalmers company. To do so, he used the same approach of featuring a personality in the ads. But because the Chalmers company already used a single individual – Howard E. Coffin – Hopkins featured the entire board of forty-eight engineers for the Hudson by name and by picture. In effect, he positioned the car as an outstanding engineering accomplishment due to this combined brain trust.

It was the same idea, but it was given a “different spin.”

During this time automobiles were very unreliable things, and by featuring the Hudson as an engineering marvel created by a broad team of expert engineers, Claude Hopkins countered a certain degree of sales resistance caused by the fear of breakdowns and other car troubles. Psychologically speaking, he offered the perfect cure for incredulity – a brain trust or team who were devoted to making sure the car ran.

Next came the task of advertising the Overland automobile, which proved to be an initial challenge as Hopkins searched for special car features.

Hopkins analyzed the Overland to try to find the most appealing features he could use in the center of his advertising campaign. However, he actually found the most enticing appeal for the car in its romantic history for the car had been kept in production due to customer demand despite the company’s near bankruptcy.

This customer demand for the Overland, in spite of a near bankruptcy, became the centerpiece of his advertising campaign.

Hopkins recognized that most people are followers rather than leaders, and sometimes the social proof of other people buying is enough to drive sales for a product. As influence expert Robert Cialdini noted, social proof is one of the

major reasons people buy products … they don’t want to be left out or feel different, and they are naturally inclined to “join the bandwagon.”

Social proof is why we try crowded restaurants, figuring the food must be good if the restaurant is always crowded. When we see long lines running out the door, “Those other people must know something we don’t,” is one of the things that we register in our mind.

Cialdini cited sales trainer Cavett Robert in noting, “Since 95 percent of the people are imitators and only 5 percent initiators, people are persuaded more by the actions of others than by any proof we can offer.” Therefore, Hopkins took the approach of advertising how crowds were flocking to Overland automobiles in order to generate interest in the car. Due to his ads emphasizing social proof, the Overland became a tremendous seller.

This was an incredible accomplishment for a company that had never used advertising before, and it was all due to the use of social proof. You can see quite a few of the Overland ads in our collection to see how Hopkins portrayed it.

On this idea of social proof, Hopkins wrote in his autobiography,

People are like sheep. They cannot judge values, nor can you and I. We judge things largely by others’ impressions, by popular favor. We go with the crowd. So the most effective thing I have ever found in advertising is the trend of the crowd. That is a factor not to be overlooked. People follow styles and preferences. We rarely decide for ourselves, because we don’t know the facts. But when we see the crowds taking any certain direction, we are much inclined to go with them. I showed in my advertising how the crowds were going to Overland automobiles. I told how the demand had forced a bankrupt concern into solvency. Then how it created a tent city. That presentation set people thinking. And they followed the trend. The Overland became, as it is today, one of the largest-selling cars in the world.

The idea of appealing to social proof is the idea of stressing the popularity of your product to bring in more sales. However, what about the problem of trying to get “early adopters” for a brand new type of product or service in the first place?

Hopkins hated that type of difficult task, but you can find some answers for this sort of task by reading modern books like The Tipping Point (Malcolm Gladwell) or The Influentials (Berry and Keller).

The books, How Customers Think (Gerald Zaltman) and Why We Buy (Paco Underhill) are classics on consumer psychology that also might help you, while

marketing books on “buzz” or “word of mouth marketing” and works by Seth Godin tell how ideas spread throughout society.

The Overland wasn’t the final automobile Claude Hopkins had to handle. He also advertised the Reo, which became another Hopkins triumph.

When the company came to him, sales for the Reo had practically stopped. Claude Hopkins told Mr. R. E. Olds, who manufactured the car, that he would take on the task of advertising the Reo under three conditions:

(1) The car must be renamed “Reo the Fifth” to give it an air of distinction (2) Mr. Olds himself should sign the ads, which would give them credibility since he was well-known as one of the first original car manufacturers (3) Mr. Olds was to call the Reo “My Farewell Car” to signify some degree of finality in excellence and his own satisfaction with it.

The idea of a “farewell tour” is something often seen in music and sports. We hear it but don’t necessarily believe it, yet just in case we go to the concert or game anyway. That’s what stimulates demand.

Sarah Bernhardt, Hopkins pointed out, had made seven farewell tours and Olds could have several, too, he argued, since “every farewell is subject to consideration.”

While one could also argue that this was being deceptive -- like the Persian rug store forever touting a “closing sale” without ever going out of business -- Hopkins believed this idea caused no harm and that the interest he generated in the car was for the genuine benefit of the buyer.

Most of Hopkins’ automobile advertisings were triumphs, but unfortunately the most successful automobile advertising he ever created led to disaster.

That’s right … his most successful car campaign led to ruin!

Here’s why.

For the Mitchell car company, Hopkins created ads that featured efficiency expert John W. Bate, and in the marketing campaigns he told about this man and his efforts. Buyers flocked to this car in droves because efficiency was the benefit they were seeking – economies due to efficiency.

However, as Hopkins explained, “the car was a fizzle. Its engineers had skimped in every detail. Hundreds of cars came back, and every car sold blighted the name Mitchell. The larger the sales the worse became the ruin. The very success of the advertising, with the car that was offered, led to destruction. We played too

high a note for the product we had to sell. The bad reputation was so widespread that recovery proved impossible.”

The hard lesson Mitchell learned was that a product had to live up to the implied expectations and Hopkins was forever more careful in advising clients not to make claims for products that could not be met.

As any marketer will tell you, before you do a lot of advertising make sure your product is the best it can be and can hold up to the claims. Improve it before you market it nationwide. Selling a shoddy product will only earn you the wrath of the consumer and destroy your reputation forever. It’s like creating a negative shadow that will follow you everywhere.

Before you put your money into massive advertising campaigns, make sure you have done whatever you can to improve your product, and make sure you’ll be ready to handle the increased sales that your advertising will generate!

Claude Hopkins also advertised the Studebaker, which was an extremely successful car before it even came to him. When he analyzed what had made the car so successful, he determined that part of the success was due to the fact that the company was a stock market sensation. That great publicity, in itself, had helped the popularity of the car.

The fact that the Studebaker had seen dramatic sales increases had been a major factor in Studebaker’s success, so Hopkins built upon that story in its advertising campaigns. He cited multiplying sales figures and explained how those very increases reduced the production costs that enabled the Studebaker to incorporate extra features that other cars could not afford.

The Studebaker case also brings up an important point, which is the use of PR or public relations rather than advertising. Whenever you can get free publicity for your product or service then grab it. That free publicity – whether it be on the air or in print – is usually seen as unbiased information that can promote sales of your product or service. Many products have become best sellers because their owners knew how to generate free favorable publicity.

All in all Hopkins advertised many different cars and the following collection of ads shows a wide variety of marketing approaches. He created personalities behind the cars, he cited exact numbers and statistics in his ads to promote the believability of claims, he retold the history behind the cars to create an air of romance, he used question headlines and pictures to hook the reader’s interest.

In this collection of car ads you’ll find marketing tests, limited editions, two-step marketing plans, and even examples of the USP (unique selling proposition) marketing technique crystallized by Rosser Reeves.

Many of the marketing techniques widely touted today can be found in these automobile ads, which you should study carefully.

The ads:

A Wonderful Business Story

We have told you in a book--which we ask you to send for—one of the greatest business stories ever told.

A story of how John N. Willys stepped in two years to the top most place in motordom. On how Overland

automobiles rose in 24 months to this year’s sales of $24,000,000. How a factory has grown like magic to a

payroll of 4,000 men – to a daily output of 30 carloads of automobiles. And how a large part of the demand

of

the country has been centered around one remarkable car.

It

is Easy to make advertising

claims for cars; but to make cars that will make good the claims is hard. We ask automobile buyers to do this: After the advertisements have attracted your attention, then in fairness to yourselves and all the manufacturers, compare the cars point by point. That is all we ask.

What an Engine Did

By R. E. Olds, Designer

My fame as a car builder, after 26 years, is based in large part on my engine. To me it's an old, old story. Perhaps it is new to you.

More people are talking about this Fine Car than any other car in

America

The Fine New Overland With Six Cylinders

A Real 1913 Car

By R. E. Olds, Designer

Here are some of the things you should look for in a 1913 car. A car without them lacks things you should have.

Each a Lucky Car

By R. E. Olds, Designer

In every make an occasional car proves almost trouble-proof. No breakdowns, no repairs. The man who

gets it tell his friends that he got a lucky car. But every buyer of Reo the Fifth gets a lucky car. This is how

I insure it.

If I Bought a Car

By R. E. Olds, Designer

Here are some things I’d require if I bought a car. I’ve learned their need by building 60,000 cars.

I could save, I judge, $200 a car by building Reo the Fifth without them. But you might lose three times that by the lack.

Your Last Chance to Get A HUDSON This Year

In Some Sections All Are Gone - In All Others Only a Few Are Left

Overland The Americans by reputation are pretty shrewd buyers. By instinct they look at

everything from a commercial standpoint. In their minds run facts and figures. Not fads and fancies. When they make an important purchase, their judgment makes the choice; not some whim or pretty picture.

Reo the Fifth - $1,055 It Took 25 Years to Build it

By R. E. Olds, Designer

The 1912 REO for $1,000

(Designed by R. E. Olds) A Temporary Price - Made to Learn if This Price Can Be Profitable

Do you judge a play by the price of the ticket – or by the performance you see?

Chalmers Motor Company

The Class Car Now At Top

Last Month, $3,875,000 … Howard E. Coffin’s Four-year Car

Let's Reason Together - about Price

To You who are considering buying a motor car, we want to offer a few suggestions on the subject of price.

Studebaker How Will Your Car Be Built?

Overland How To Make An Automobile Valuation

Advantages of Low Tension Magneto and Make-and-Break Spark as Employed on

the Model H Studebaker

“The Automobile with a Reputation Behind It”

My Farewell Car

By R. E. Olds, Designer

The Car That Marks My Limit

By R. E. Olds, Designer

I have no quarrel with men who ask for more from their cars—none with men who ask less. I have only to say that, after 25 years, after creating 24 models and building tens and thousands of cars – here’s the best I know. I call it My Farewell Car.

GOODYEAR TIRES

Name your product appropriately. Promote benefits rather than features. Avoid institutional advertising.

Claude Hopkins grew the Goodyear tires advertising account to an annual expenditure of $2,000,000 – starting from only $40,000 -- because of his successful promotions of a product that no one thought could even be popularized!

When Goodyear first came to Claude Hopkins, they were making the classic advertising mistake of promoting their product’s features rather than benefits. Goodyear engineers had produced a new tire design called the “straight-side,” and the company had focused on explaining the construction of straight-side tires without explaining their actual benefits to the consumer.

This is such a common problem that nearly every marketing text will warn you away from it: don’t focus on features, advertise product benefits. However, most companies cannot see that they are making this mistake. Most companies are so close to their products and excited about their features that they focus on those features without explaining what they can do for the client.

You customer has only one question in their mind, “What’s in it for me?” and you better answer it by explaining the benefits you offer rather than just product or service features.

For instance, a little old woman doesn’t care how many pounds of metal a wood stove is made from. She doesn’t care that it will last 100 years versus 101. She just wants to know if it will keep her warm during the cold winter nights.

A cardinal rule in advertising to take note of is this: always focus on product

benefits rather than features. Tell what the product will do for your customer. Tell

how it will improve their life. Tell them what’s in it for them. Create a picture of how it will help them and make their life just that much more enjoyable or easier

in

every and all ways.

If

you have a tendency to recite product facts or features to a prospect, always

start ending your sentences using the words “which means” and then fill out the sentence with how it will help them. That’s one way to break the “features habit.”

When it comes to stressing benefits over features, this is one of the most important advertising rules you will ever learn.

In conversing with the Goodyear engineers, Hopkins uncovered the fact that

straight cut tires would not rim cut and would hold 10% more air, so he

immediately retitled the tires, “No-Rim-Cut Tires” and in every ad he wrote, “No- Rim-Cut Tires, 10% oversize.”

Sales for Goodyear immediately grew by leaps and bounds just from renaming the product to boldly feature the customer benefits.

Ask yourself, is that something you can do for your own business?

When Goodyear made an anti-skid tire, Hopkins used the same strategy again and named them “All-Weather.” He chose this name by first determining which claim most mattered to drivers, and afterwards he coined a name that implied those very benefits most sought after.

The name itself formed the basis of his ads.

Goodyear was one of Hopkins' greatest successes and yet he eventually lost the account because the Goodyear owners, after they had become more established, started to prefer institutional or image advertising over the direct response advertising that had brought it success.

What a shame.

Direct response advertising is accountable advertising. It is advertising designed to provoke an immediate response – to make the customer do something immediately such as buy a product, request more information, make a telephone call or perform some other action. It is advertising that telegraphs a call to action.

Direct response ads typically have a headline that attracts attention, text copy that builds rapport with the reader and loudly features the benefits of the product, and it always features a compelling call to action. Direct marketing ads ask you to make a response now. Buy this product now, place an order now, do something but do it now.

Institutional advertising, on the other hand, is typically slick, entertaining and smooth, but usually doesn’t do anything for sales since it doesn’t contain any call for immediate action. Typically it doesn’t present any tangible benefits for a product or service either and so it doesn’t produce any immediate buying results.

Why should it? … nobody has any interest.

At its best, institutional or image advertising may increase sales at some time in the future, but it is extremely expensive because it forces you to continue advertising over a long period of time before you get those results, if at all. Even then, those results cannot be safely attributed to image ads. Sales results might have nothing to do with your image advertising at all, or they might happen in spite of the advertising.

When there are better ways, it’s sort of silly to pay money for image advertising hoping that your customer will think of you in the future when they might be prone to buy.

Plain and simple, institutional or image advertising is costly and largely ineffective advertising whose effectiveness can rarely be tested. In my opinion, it should be avoided like the plague.

Large, bureaucratic firms (and small firms trying to imitate them) are usually the ones who use image advertising. In fact, executives are often snookered by advertising agencies into the idea of “building the image of the company” in the mind of the consumer, but in reality this often has little relationship to actual sales volume.

These types of ads may win awards and make executives proud of one another, but they rarely make the cash register ring. As Rosser Reeves once wrote in Reality in Advertising,

I’m not saying that charming, witty, and warm copy won’t sell. I’m just saying that I’ve seen thousands of charming, witty campaigns that didn’t. Let’s say you are a business. Your advertising isn’t working and your sales are going down. And everything depends

on it. Your future depends on it, your family’s future depends on it, other people’s families depend on it. And you walk into this office and talk to me, and you sit in that chair. Now, what do you want out

you want masterpieces? Or do you want

to see the goddamned sales curve stop moving down and start

of me? Fine writing?

Do

moving up?”

The number one customer concern is an answer to the following question:

WIIFM, what’s in it for me? For what you are offering, how is it going to help me? Why should I buy from you rather than turn to all the other alternatives available?

As long as your ads answer these questions and then ask customers to buy from you, you will have a chance. On the other hand, if you try to be witty or entertain them or delve into deep philosophy without offering a solution to their desires, you’re on the road to marketing ruin.

This topic is extremely important, so don’t take my word for it. Instead, do yourself a big favor. Go to the internet and read a few articles that argue about the virtues of “direct response advertising verses institutional advertising.” Your time will be well spent.

Marketing greats of today who are known for their million and billion dollar results – Jay Abraham, Dan Kennedy, Gary Halbert, Ted Nicholas and others -- turn the

deflectors up to full power when it comes to institutional advertising. They constantly refer people away from this money-trap.

Don’t waste your money on advertising to improve your company’s image and produce “top of the mind awareness.” This is usually a colossal waste of money. It may satisfy the ego, but rarely will it increase your sales. If you want to spend money, spend it on improving your product or service. Offer more substance rather than more image.

If you’re not General Motors, leave the expensive mass marketing and corporate brand building campaigns to others.

The ads:

Goodyear No-Rim-Cut Tires Cost Nothing Extra Now

Last year these patented tires cost 20% than other standard tires. Yet our tire sales jumped to $8,500,000— multiplied three times over in that single year. All because these Goodyear features cut tire bills in two. Now these same tires—these Oversize, No-Rim Cut tires –cost no extra price. Our multiplied output has cut the cost of production. You can get all these advantages by simply specifying Goodyear No-Rim-Cut tires.

The Tale of Goodyear Tires

Better Tires - Better Sold

Note How Goodyears Dominate in Every Street

PALMOLIVE SOAP

Give your product a persona. Find the right psychological appeal. Use Reason Why advertising.

The story of Palmolive soap is the story of the right appeal.

When the B.J. Johnson Soap Company of Milwaukee came to talk with Hopkins about advertising, he dismissed their request to help them advertise their laundry soap and asked if they had any other products.

The Johnson Soap Company said they had a toilet soap made from palm and olive oils, called “Palmolive,” which they did not consider an advertising possibility at all. However, Claude Hopkins jumped on the product.

Most everyone knows that Palmolive soap has become world known, so the story of Palmolive soap first of all proves that a product, for which people think there is no potential -- can become a world leader with the right type of advertising and marketing. The executives thought this product had no potential, but because Claude Hopkins could see the story in it, he knew it could be turned into a superstar.

The same dreary, “no hope” situation initially existed for Liquozone, for Goodyear tires and for many other products Hopkins handled, so don’t ever think your own product or service is an advertising impossibility. The challenge is simply coming up with the right angle and approach to promote your business.

Marlboro cigarettes, as another example, started as an unknown and unpopular brand primarily sold to women until advertising great Leo Burnett created the masculine cowboy image for the cigarette in 1955. Once it was renamed and given its new masculine persona, Marlboro quickly rose to capture the world.

Did Marlboro become better tasting after the advertising campaign? Is it actually any better tasting than all the other cigarette competitors, or is it actually the advertising that took it from obscurity to fame?

Consider that question when you hear the story of Palmolive soap, and then consider what might be done for your own business if you develop the right angle.

Hopkins’ advertising team decided to advertise Palmolive by promoting the beauty angle of what the soap does for the skin. Since Hopkins was always cautious in testing … especially for products whose own companies did not believe in … he didn’t want to risk a large amount of money betting on his hunches so he first started testing it with limited funds in a very small town.

Hopkins told the story of Palmolive soap in his ads using Reason Why advertising techniques which educate consumers on the story and reasons behind the product (see the “Five New Joys” advertisement as a perfect example), and he built up an interest for the soap saying that he would buy it for the women as a sample.

This is a very powerful marketing angle to consider. Instead of saying “FREE sample” for some product or service, you might instead say, “We will buy” or “Let us pay.” One of the most famous headlines in advertising goes something like this: “As a marketing test, I’m buying you …” which might be something you can use for your business.

The difference between these propositions is psychological, but in marketing and advertising it’s just this slight difference in psychology that makes all the difference. Sometimes it’s the choice of a word here or there that can catapult sales upwards simply because it shifts the change of the psychological appeal.

Claude Hopkins correctly noted that saying something is FREE sometimes cheapens the product whereas acknowledging that someone bought it for you has more positive and sales motivating connotations. It’s a note to consider, especially for commodity items. Nevertheless, maybe you can use the free sample or “I’m buying for you a complimentary …” approach in your advertising campaigns.

Palmolive advertising, because of Hopkins’ careful step-by-step testing and reason-why information laden ads, paid for itself as it went along and Hopkins slowly helped Palmolive climb to the top of its field. Quick sales increases, he noted, are usually more profitable than slow volume increases, but small entrepreneurial firms need to worry about testing the right approach to sell their products. They must also worry about cash flow and organizational problems that arise when there is rapid growth.

If you’ve never advertised before and are just getting started, be prepared to handle the exposure if you are successful. If you strike the right chord with the public through the right advertising message and marketing mechanism, it can flood your company with so many orders that you’ll unleash chaos unbound.

Just in case you unleash a wild frenzy, batten down the hatches before you begin an advertising campaign.

The Palmolive experience taught Hopkins several lessons that he recounted in My Life in Advertising, but the most important lesson he took away was that human nature was about the same all over the country. Hopkins noted that what usually appeals to one area of the country – in terms of the product pitch -- will usually readily appeal to another.

This is not always the case today, especially in terms of targeted marketing and micro-market segments, but Hopkins was referring to the general chorus of mass appeal which he said involved “simple things readily understood.”

If your campaign can focus around a simple idea readily understood by the masses, it will probably work all over the country.

Moral of the story? Simplify your message so that it’s not only believable and memorable, but communicable. That’s the best way to make its appeal universal. Use “reason why” advertising to explain why consumers should use your product or service, and through those explanations you can often generate customer demand. The Palmolive shaving cream copy illustrates this approach.

The ads:

Use Palmolive Soap

Avoid Effects of Sun and Wind - Escape Injury from Dust and Smoke

“My Sweetheart”

Ten Million Sweethearts Between the Ages of Two and Eighty Have Clear, Healthy Complexions as a Result of Using Palmolive Soap

Five New Joys

Await You in Palmolive Shaving Cream

By V.K. Cassady, Chief Chemist

PUFFED GRAINS AND QUAKER OATS

Test lots of things and measure the results of all your efforts. Develop the products customers want.

Quaker Oats came to Claude Hopkins with an interesting proposition. They said that many of their products were not being advertised, but they would spend $50,000 with Hopkins' firm in order to test his ideas.

Two products interested Hopkins, one called “Puffed Rice” and another called “Wheat Berries” selling at 10¢ and 7¢ respectively.

The first thing Hopkins did was change the name of “Wheat Berries” to “Puffed Wheat,” and he raised the prices of both products by about 50% so that he had a fair appropriation for his advertising efforts. He was sure that the higher price would not decrease sales because of what he planned to do.

Hopkins performed his usual initial product research by visiting the manufacturing plant where the products were made. He found that when puffed, every cell of the grains was exploded. This multiplied the grains eight times their normal size and “made every atom available as food.”

In watching the process where the grains were shot at high velocity to explode them, Claude Hopkins found an incredibly interesting angle for his advertising that appealed to people’s sense of curiosity: “Food shot from guns.” We have found one of those famous ads, so you can see it as he ran it.

Other advertising men actually criticized this “Food shot from guns” approach, but it was so effective in generating interest for the puffed products that it did indeed increase product sales. As long as it did not hurt the long term sales potential of the brand, that was precisely what Hopkins was after.

Here’s what Hopkins did to popularize the brand after he developed this angle of interest. He once again developed a character – Professor A. P. Anderson – who he featured in his ads to speak for the product. Personalities appeal to us whereas companies do not, so one of the tenets of internet advertising today is to show your picture on your website and tell everything about yourself in order to gain credibility for your products and recommendations.

Hopkins did everything he could to inflame potential interest in the Quaker products. In many of the puffed grain ads, he worked the curiosity angle by picturing the grains at eight times their normal size and explaining the fact that every grain was created by 125,000,000 explosions. These explosions were what made the food highly digestible.

Who could resist buying a box just to see this marvel at least once? I’m even amazed at this figure of “125,000,000 explosions”!

Most importantly, Hopkins performed many promotional tests for these cereal products. He even found out through his testing that the newspaper cereal advertising never paid, but magazine advertising did. It was an unexpected result he was able to discover only because of his careful testing, which enabled him to weed out a highly unprofitable advertising channel.

The reason for this difference, he figured, was because most of his newspaper readers could not afford the puffed grains.

While correct, the reason was probably a little more complicated than that. Roy Williams, of The Wizard of Ads fame, once noted that non-intrusive advertising media, such as newspapers or the yellow pages, are poor at reaching prospects before your product/service need arises, so they have little chance of creating a predisposition for your product or service.

Intrusive TV or radio campaigns, however, have the chance of establishing a relationship with your prospects well before they are in the market for your product.

Hopkins also tested coupons offering free samples of the products. However, he found that he had to first ignite interest in these products before he could ever get people to request the samples. He had to create a story, a heritage, an “atmosphere” for the products otherwise there was little public interest in trying them. This was part of the reason he came up with his famous campaign, “Food Shot from Guns! Noted Scientist Explodes a Hundred Million Food Cells in Every Grain of Wheat and Rice.”

Eventually, Hopkins started advertising Quaker oats itself and discovered something very profound that we touched on previously: the cost of creating brand new users for an entirely new type of product is often a very expensive proposition because it entails the job of changing habits, which often cannot be done cost effectively. Hopkins usually tried to avoid this type of task.

Early adopters for new products or technology are often hard to cultivate because the general public tends to be shy about trying new things. People tend to be copy-cat follower-buyers.

Mr. John Q. Public is slowly influenced into new consumer behavior through general education, but most advertisers can rarely afford to finance this general education for an entirely new creation. Hopkins therefore avoided as much as possible the task of creating bigger markets by wining new users to a new idea.

At the time he was working for Quaker Oats, a competitor developed a quick cooking oats that started to eat into Quaker’s market-share. Quaker, in turn, developed “Two-minute Oats” in response. While the Quaker execs wanted to

push the product immediately, Hopkins cautiously urged careful product testing and found that consumers didn’t like the product because the taste was radically different from what they were used to. Two-minute Oats was a failure.

The lesson he learned, once again, was that testing always pays because it can eliminate very costly mistakes. His testing saved the Quaker executives a bundle.

Hopkins’ testing, however, also found that housewives wanted oats cooked in about three to five minutes time, but most of the Quaker executives voted against developing this type of product because the “Two-minute Oats” product had already failed. But Hopkins insisted on testing this idea since that’s what housewives had said they really wanted.

Two-minute Oats failed because the taste did not appeal to people but the new “Quick Quaker Oats,” which were prepared in three to five minutes, were readily welcomed by housewives and gave Quaker Oats its market-share back again. Quaker was thereby able to create a new winning product.

Claude Hopkins’ conclusion from his involvement was that you can never be sure what will sell unless you first test. Listen to your testing, he argued. You never know for sure unless you test. Testing avoids arguments.

As he wrote, “That is about the only way to advertising success. Perhaps one time in fifty a guess may be right. But fifty times in fifty an actual test tells you what to do and avoid.”

Never think you are a marketing genius who can predict the future, such as how customers will react to your product or advertising. Don’t believe that you know better than your customers otherwise you’ll stop listening to your customers and will lose market-share big time. It’s a rule to follow time and again – test, Test, TEST.

Claude Hopkins wrote, “I do not consult managers and boards of directors. Their viewpoint is nearly always distorted. I submit campaigns to the simple folks around me who typify America. They are our customers. Their reactions are the only ones that count.”

Test, test, test, test, test to see what people want, to see what provokes a response. If you don’t test, then shame, shame, shame on you! Testing is perhaps the key you have for creating a marketing success. It’s as plain and simple as that. Always test.

As they say in marketing, “Measurement avoids argument, so test the results of all your marketing efforts.” Become a student of markets that lets the markets

themselves tell you what they want rather than act as a “know-it-all” who risks your company fortunes to develop products that no one wants.

Are you testing all your marketing variables such as your advertising headlines, your prices, your offers, your channels, your appeals?

If not, get to it, because this is the best way to create a brand that sells.

The ads:

Food Shot from Guns!

Noted scientist explodes a hundred million food cells in every grain of wheat and rice

That’s what makes puffed grains more easily digested – gives them the nourishment of hot cooked cereals

How Much of This Difference is Due to Oatmeal?

We have canvassed hundreds of homes which breed children like these - the wan and anemic, the red- cheeked and strong - the capable and the deficient.

All America This Week Helps Itself to Puffed Grains

Full Size Package Free At Your Grocer’s

A Twilight Story

About Puffed Wheat

Where Children are Fed with Oatmeal

Among the homes of the educated - on the boulevards, in the higher-class sections and university districts - an actual canvass shows that seven in eight regularly serve oatmeal

Does your food cost too much?

No matter how much food you can buy for a dollar, it costs too much if it doesn't contain a hundred cents' worth of food value. Quaker-Oats is greater in food value than any food you can buy.

PEPSODENT TOOTHPASTE

Promote the positive benefits people desire most. Establish your credibility by providing a real reason to believe you. Keep running your advertising campaign as long as it keeps working.

One of Claude Hopkins' greatest career successes was Pepsodent toothpaste, and his Pepsodent advertising was so successful that he continued working on the account for well over twenty years.

Colleagues initially discouraged Hopkins from taking on the task – just as they did with so many other projects that eventually became highly successful -- because Pepsodent was double the price of the average toothpaste. It was being sold for 50¢ cents as compared to the usual price of 25¢.

Before we go further, we should stop and consider Hopkins’ attitude on this and the so many other projects for which he was successful. Many people often tried to dissuade Claude Hopkins from one course of action or another, but Hopkins had so many experiences where friends were proved wrong that he wrote the following:

I have reasoned in this way: The average man is not successful. We meet few who attain their goal, few who are really happy or content. Then why should we let the majority rule in matters affecting our lives? Success has come to me in sufficient measure, happiness in abundance, and absolute content. Not one of those blessings would have come to me had I followed the advice of my friends. As a result, I never give advice. We have our own lives to live, our own careers to make. We have no way of measuring others’ desires and capacities. Some are weak. A discouraging word at a critical moment may change their entire course. Then the one who gives that word incurs the responsibility. I court no obligations of that kind. Advertising teaches us how fallible are our judgments, even in things we know best.

To come up with a successful idea for his advertising, Hopkins first did what every copywriter, marketing manager or adman should do … he set out researching the product extensively. He looked for interesting features and benefits by which the product would service the customer and made those the focus of his advertising campaigns.

For Pepsodent, Claude Hopkins spent hours reading dry texts written by dental authorities until in the middle of a book he found what he was looking for – an angle by which to advertise the benefits of the toothpaste.

Inside the book was a reference to the “mucin plaques” on teeth, which Hopkins afterwards termed “film,” and it was this simple fact that became the focus of his campaign. Thereafter, Hopkins started promoting Pepsodent toothpaste as a “creator of beauty” because it removes the film on teeth. As this beauty angle also tapped into the idea of sex appeal, it was a very powerful selling persuader.

Some of the other things people desire in life -- in addition to an improved appearance -- include health, time, money, popularity, praise, security, comfort, leisure, advancement, enjoyment, and self-confidence. Psychologists have studied these desires, and others still, and determined that they can all be used as motivators in advertising campaigns.

Hopkins wisely noted that rather than promote toothpaste as a preventative measure, it would be better to promote it as a source of beauty. Advertising and marketing execs will readily tell you that people rarely buy preventatives but always buy solutions. That’s something to remember for your campaigns.

As he wrote in Scientific Advertising, “People will do much to cure a trouble, but people in general will do little to prevent it. This has been proved by many disappointments.”

In your own advertising campaigns, first see if you can promise positive benefits and rewards -- especially those along the lines of health and appearance, wealth, and sex appeal -- rather than pitch your products or services as a preventative. It is usually more powerful to make your product or service a solution to a current problem NOW, rather than a preventative of a future problem. It’s all a matter of how you sell it.

That’s not a full proof rule, but just a general guideline. Hopkins once wrote,

Never advertise negatively. Always present the attractive side, not the offensive side of a subject. Do not picture or feature ills. The people you appeal to have enough. Show and feature the happier results which come from your products or methods. People are seeking happiness, safety, beauty, and content. Then show them the way. Picture happy people, not the unfortunate. Tell of what comes from right methods, not what results from the wrong. For instance, no tooth-paste manufacturer ever made an impression by picturing dingy teeth. Or by talking decay and pyorrhea. The successes have been made by featuring the attractive sides.

From his Pepsodent experience, Hopkins also learned a very unusual lesson. Whereas offering a FREE sample with most advertised items would tend to increase interest and sales, offering a free sample of a hygienic product – in

those days at least – actually discredited “all the factors that could bring converts.”

This went against the expected experience, but it once again proved to Hopkins the benefits of testing all his marketing approaches, which is a cardinal tenet of marketing. “Measurement ends argument” is a proverb often quoted in marketing, and Hopkins pioneered this concept of testing by issuing coupons by whose returns he could judge the effectiveness of his marketing efforts.

In testing approach after approach, improving one factor here and one factor there (just as a website owner does when they try to optimize certain aspects of their website for higher conversions), Hopkins was able to slowly build Pepsodent into the most prominent toothpaste brand in the world. As he said,

I caught my mistakes by the coupon—caught them quickly. I reversed my strategy at once. Before we went very far, I had found the way to quick and sure success, simply by watching returns. … I made for myself a million dollars on Pepsodent—on a proposition which at first I refused to undertake. Just because by countless tests I learned the right human psychology. What is the lesson? It is that none of us can afford to rely on judgment or experience. We must feel our way. New problems require new experience. We must test our undertakings in the most exact way possible. Learn our mistakes and correct them. Watch every appealing lead.

The big lesson? Test everything in your marketing approach. Your headlines, your offers, your prices, your bonuses … test everything that’s important. Don’t waste your money testing small things that are inconsequential but focus on the big things that can double or triple sales. Be willing to try new things but try to make it so that if you fail, you fail fast and can recover.

Let’s repeat that rule again.

Be willing to risk and fail, but design your marketing forays such that if you fail you fail fast … and can quickly correct your mistakes. That’s the key to discovering new cost effective marketing angles and avenues that will increase your sales. Be willing to fail, but fail fast and then move on.

Once you find something that works, Claude Hopkins was loathe to change it. He strongly believed you should test whatever already works against alternatives, but shouldn’t change what’s already working unless you find a big improvement.

Hopkins once wrote, “When a certain method has proved itself profitable I hesitate to drop it, until I have found and proved a better method by some local tests. The best way found to sell a product to thousands is probably the best way

to sell other thousands.” As David Ogilvy also said, “If you are lucky enough to write a good advertisement, repeat it until it stops pulling.”

There’s a famous story about adman Rosser Reeves that seconds Hopkins’ approach of not changing what’s already working. Once a client asked Reeves how many people worked in his agency and Reeves replied with 250. “What are they all doing then?” asked the client, “because you haven’t changed my advertising in five years.” Reeves replied, “Most of them are trying to make sure you don’t change a very effective campaign.”

When it comes to advertising you have to test many ideas, find one that works, and then have the fortitude and staying power to stick with it and run an entire campaign. One ad rarely does it because a potential customer usually has to see your product, name or USP (unique selling proposition) multiple times before they’ll take a chance and buy. Salesmen will readily tell you that they often have to get past eight or nine No’s before they can sell a client, and that customers must see their ads multiple times before they pick up the phone.

Roy Williams always says one of the 12 biggest mistakes in advertising is creating ads instead of campaigns; it’s the running of campaigns that gets those ads into the minds of your prospects, so make sure you keep running a winning ad after you craft one. It’s the repetition that does the work.

Studies show that most people need to see an advertisement seven to nine times before their purchase reluctance wears down. Once you’ve created an advertisement that works, the general rule is to therefore keep running it until it stops working. You’ve got to get your message in front of your customers multiple times before they’ll buy.

You’ll actually get tired of seeing the same message being promoted over and over again well before your customers do, so don’t worry about being repetitive if your approach is working. You might personally get bored but your customers won’t, so do not switch ads just because you personally feel bored. Just keep running a successful campaign until it works no more. That’s why we kept seeing the Mr. Whipple Charmin ads on TV for years … it’s because they kept right on working.

The ads for Pepsodent are some of the most creative around. Many of the headlines challenge you with questions or ask you to perform a self-test. The whole idea is for you to prove to yourself that you need the product, as all advertising needs to establish credibility.

James Webb Young (author of Diary of an Ad Man) once noted, “Every type of advertiser has the same problem; namely to be believed.” Hopkins therefore attempted to gain credibility, or believability for his ads by all sorts of means including the line, “All statements approved by high dental authorities.”

Go check now

doing for your ads that credentializes them with credibility?

do you have a credibility problem with your ads? What are you

You might use testimonials, endorsements, sworn statements, warranties or guarantees, articles about you, photos, or exact measurements and statistics in your ads to gain credibility. They are all methods that work.

Try to impregnate your ads with what innovation expert Doug Hall calls a real reason to believe, and avoid meaningless words like “best,” “we care,” “honest,” “higher quality,” or “dependable service.” Everybody claims those same things. Give your customers a reason to believe you will deliver on the promise of your ads, and then you can get over the confidence gap for trying your product or service.

The ads:

Now! A New Way to lighten cloudy teeth

-- and without bleaching or harsh grit. The way foremost dentists are now urging for dazzling teeth and firm and healthy gums

Why That Tarter

If You Keep Teeth Clean?

All Statements Approved By High Dental Authorities

Make This Test

See how teeth glisten then

Five New Ways

To whiter, cleaner, safer teeth

This 10-Day Test

Has shown millions the way to white teeth –

All Statements Approved By High Dental Authorities

The Mistakes

That Ruined Millions of Teeth

LORD & THOMAS ADVERTISING

How does a premier advertising firm advertise itself?

It was the Lord and Thomas Advertising agency, headed by Albert Lasker, which hired Claude Hopkins to write many of its ads. Hopkins started at the firm in 1908 and stayed for nearly 18 years. He was initially paid $1,000 a week – an incredible sum in those days -- and made as much as $185,000 yearly due to being compensated in proportion to the revenues he generated for clients.

Lord & Thomas was brilliant at developing advertising talent. Previous to Hopkins, Lasker had hired John Kennedy, a Canadian mounted policeman who had immortalized the definition of advertising as “salesmanship in print.” Today we would more rightly say that advertising is “salesmanship in print, on the air, in the mail and on the web.”

Kennedy wrote a series of lessons that Lord & Thomas used to train its copywriters. These were contained in Kennedy’s books, Reason Why Advertising, The Book of Advertising Tests and Intensive Advertising. You can find copies of these books through www.HardtoFindSeminars.com, which specializes in finding rare marketing classics.

By following Kennedy’s initial principles – and later the principles that Claude Hopkins immortalized in Scientific Advertising and My Life in Advertising Lasker turned Lord & Thomas into a key training center for the advertising world. And now you can eavesdrop in on what these men taught through the following Lord and Thomas advertisements.

Lord and Thomas ads were so effective that an incredible amount of business came its way, and modern advertising giant David Ogilvy once said, “Albert Lasker made more money than anyone in the history of advertising.”

What were the methods that Lord & Thomas used to advertise itself? Here are just a few of the rare house ads and training materials that Lord & Thomas employed.

The ads:

Strategy In Advertising

The Climax of Salesmanship-In-Print

Safe Advertising

Mr. Advertiser, What Does This Mean To You?

How Fortunes Are Made In Advertising

A New Lord & Thomas Book

Clever Maneuvers -- Strategy In Advertising

Telling Men How To Make Money

The Advertising Agent of Today

See the world’s largest collection of Claude C. Hopkins Ads at www.hardtofindads.com

Strategy In Advertising

The Climax of Salesmanship-in-Print

The battles of advertising are not won today by men with the largest forces. Three times in five they are won by men who start, with but limited resources. Five times in five, when rightly directed, they are won without any large risk. In a good many cases there is no stake at all. There is no long waiting—no serious uncertainty—no drawn-out period when expense overtops result. One gets his answer immediately. Most successful advertising pays divi- dends from the start. Impossible things are not started at all. And a pretty large part of modern-day advertising finances itself. ———————— Nation-wide distribution and a profit- able sale are attained in two months, sometimes. Weeks do the work of years. Midgets grow to monsters with amazing rapidity. Trade conditions are changed overnight. Formidable competition, long in- trenched, has been almost wiped out by a single maneuver. All because of a new-born science, called Strategy in Advertising. ———————— An advertising campaign of the mod- ern kind is based on exact information. The attitude of consumers is learned by house—to—house canvass. Trade conditions and competition are learned by a dealer canvass. Selling points are developed by actual selling. Ten thousand sources are sometimes searched for light on a single problem.

The well-advised advertiser of 1911 ventures nothing on guesswork and theory. ———————— Selling methods today are based on others’ experiences, garnered by a wonderful system. Problems are solved by learning how others have solved them. Pitfalls are avoided by knowing others’ mistakes. Each new undertaking is piloted now by a myriad recorded experience. As a result, men are sure of their ground. Errors rarely occur. One takes the short way to his object.

———————— How all this is accomplished is told in a book—a remarkable book which gives a new aspect to advertising. This book, for the first time, puts into print the secrets of our success. To show how things can be done it cites countless examples of how things have been done. Any man with a selling problem is welcome to this book. And every such man should have it. Cut out this reminder; put it in your pocket. Then, when convenient, write us for the book.

A REMINDER

to write Lord & Thomas, Trade Building, Chicago, for their latest book, “Real Salesmanship-in-Print.”

290 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK

LORD & THOMAS

Advertising

132 North Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO

If you’ve ever wanted to buy Jay Abraham and other marketing materials but thought they were to expensive, then here’s a way you can buy them at huge discounts off their original cost. Go to www.hardtofindseminars.com

See the world’s largest collection of Claude C. Hopkins Ads at www.hardtofindads.com

We stand for safe advertising. Any other kind is unnecessary. The day when advertising was specu-

lation is over for the man who knows.

A newspaper campaign can be proved

out in six towns just as well as in six hun-

dred.

A magazine campaign can be proved

in six mediums just as well as in sixty.

Before one spreads out he can know to

a certainty what the results will be

———————— Our question is never, What are you going to spend? Though our revenue, as with all agents, is a commission, paid largely to us by magazine and newspapers, on the ex- penditure. We ask ourselves, rather, What are the possibilities? And we accept or refuse an account on our judgment of them. We can do this because we command the ability to make a success of anything possible. We are willing to abide by results. ———————— The largest accounts we have were started with small expenditures. On many, we spent ten times our com- mission in working out the first campaign. Each dollar spent came back with a profit. We proved it beyond any question. Then the advertiser, naturally, spent all the dollars he could. We are ready to do the same with you,

if your line has possibilities.

———————— We have spent 35 years in advertising. Yet every week we learn something new of what it can do. Note how advertising has multiplied in the past few years. Note the vast variety of little and big things now being made to pay. Ten years ago most of these things seemed impossible. Hundreds of these new accounts, in unexplored fields, are due to our develop- ment. We have done so many things, never done before that we have come to believe that almost anything can now be done by advertising. But it cannot be done, in these days, without experience and ability.

Safe Advertising

There is too much good advertising to leave any chance for the amateur.

We Pay One Ad-Writer $1,000 per Week

Mr. Claude C. Hopkins, now perma- nently at the head of our copy depart- ment, receives a salary of $1,000 per week. The highest salary every paid in ad- vertising. But Mr. Hopkins, as a salesman in print, is unrivaled. He has made more money for adver- tisers, in more different lines, than any other man who ever wrote copy. Many of the greatest successes of the past twenty years have been due to his copy and schemes. And he is safe. Experienced enough to avoid the impossible. Able enough to make the possible pay.

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We have in our copy department under Mr. Hopkins, the ablest men we know. Men whom we pick out without regard to expense, by the brilliant results that we see them accomplish. We are seeking everywhere, all the time, for the men who make the excep- tional records. In this vortex of advertising—in this school of experience—such men multiply their powers. All of these writers advise with Mr. Hopkins. All copy must meet his approval.

Our Advisory Board

Our Advisory Board consists of six- teen men, all masters of advertising. Each is a man of proved ability, and of vast experience. Mr. Hopkins is at the head of it. Before this whole Board comes every large problem of present or possible clients. Here we discuss the advice to be given to any concern that consults us. And this advice is free. These sixteen men decide what is possible and what is impossible. They decide on means and schemes and copy. Thus all the ability, all the exper- ience, at our command is brought to bear on each problem.

That is why we succeed. Yet this high-priced talent is not an expense to us; not an expense to our clients. We handle advertising on the usual agent’s commission These brilliant men all earn their way by developing the small account into the large one. By making advertising so profitable that it expands, while minor men would kill it. It is far cheaper for us to keep ad- vertisers, and to develop them, that to con- stantly solicit new.

To New Advertisers

If your article has possibilities, tell us about it. We will gladly give you our judgment. If the thing is impossible, we won’t undertake it. We cannot afford the time. If the thing has a future, we will tell you how to safely prove it out. We have made hundreds of fortunes in this way.