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Basic Well Logging –

WLOG210B

The Borehole Environment – The Physics of mud-filtrate invasion

Basic Well-Logging Interpretation Sequence
Basic Well-Logging Interpretation
Sequence
Basic Well-Logging Interpretation Sequence
Learning Outcomes
Learning Outcomes

• To introduce the concept of mud-filtrate invasion in overbalanced boreholes.

• To introduce basic terminology, symbols and definitions associated with the borehole environment.

• To describe the physical principles necessary for understanding the impact of mud-filtrate invasion on well logs.

Recommended Readings

• Chapter 1, Fundamentals of Petroleum Reservoirs, pp. 3-41 “Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis”, Baker Hughes Inc.

(2002).

• Chapter 4, “Measurement Environment – pp 60 – 91in “Theory, Measurement, and Interpretation of Well Logs” by Zaki Bassiouni, SPE Textbook Series Vol. 4

(1994).

What Determines the Radial Length of Invasion?

What Determines the Radial Length of Invasion?

What Determines the Radial Length of Invasion?

What Determines the Radial Length of Invasion?

Important Issues on Mud-filtrate Invasion

• Mass balance is an important governing factor in the process of mud-filtrate invasion.

• In general, the radial length of mud-filtrate invasion increases with a decrease of porosity.

• Permeability determines the relative speed of invasion

• The thickness and permeability of mudcake vary as a function of time toward a limiting value. These two mudcake parameters are governed by mud properties as well as by the petrophysical properties of the invaded formation.

• Capillary pressure, gravity segregation, and relative permeability control the SHAPE of the invasion front.

• Differences in salt concentration between mud and connate water are important in determining the influence of the process of mud- filtrate invasion on borehole resistivity measurements.

Work Rules
Work Rules
Rule 1 The Boss is always right. Rule 2 If the Boss is wrong, see
Rule 1
The Boss is always right.
Rule 2
If the Boss is wrong, see Rule 1.
Well Logging Rules
Well Logging Rules
Rule 1 Every Well Log is associated with a rock outcrop. Rule 2 Every Well
Rule 1
Every Well Log is associated with a rock
outcrop.
Rule 2
Every Well log is associated with a
process of mud-filtrate invasion.
Facts on Mud-filtrate Invasion
Facts on Mud-filtrate Invasion
• LWD logs less affected by invasion than open hole (wireline) logs. • Time of
• LWD logs less affected by invasion than
open hole (wireline) logs.
• Time of logging after the onset of invasion
is important.
• Fluids tend to original equilibrium after the
setting of casing.
Review Questions
Review Questions
1. Why is mud used in drilling operations? 2. What type of muds are commonly
1. Why is mud used in drilling operations?
2. What type of muds are commonly used in drilling operations?
3. What is mud-filtrate?
4. Explain how mud cake forms on the borehole wall?
5. Why does the process of mud-filtrate invasion eventually come to a halt?
6. Is the process of mud cake buildup independent of the petrophysical
properties of the invaded rock formation?
7. What formation and fluid properties are responsible for the length and
shape of the radial profiles of water saturation and salt concentration due
to invasion?

More Review Questions

1. Explain why the process of mud-filtrate invasion IS and IS NOT a nuisance to well-log analysts.

2. Explain what happens to the spatial distribution of invasion fluids after the setting of casing.

3. Sketch the radial distribution of water saturation for the case of an oil-base mud invading a water-bearing formation.

4. Sketch the radial distribution of temperature and fluid pressure away from the borehole wall in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion.

5. How could one make use of the process of mud-filtrate invasion to estimate permeabilities?

6. How does the process of mud-filtrate invasion affect the extraction of samples of formation fluid?

Acknowledgements:

Dr. Carlos Torres-Verdin, UT at Austin Schlumberger Baker Atlas
Dr. Carlos Torres-Verdin, UT at Austin
Schlumberger
Baker Atlas