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Basic Electrical Engineering

Operational Amplifier

Operational Amplifiers
An operational amplifier (op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential inputs and a single-ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals.
They had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear, non-linear and frequencydependent electrical and electronics circuits.

Originally invented in early 1940s using vacuum tube technology Initial purpose was to execute math operations in analog electronic calculating machines Small in size with invention of transistor Now made on integrated circuit (IC) Only most demanding applications use discrete components Huge variety of applications, in electrical and electronics ckts, low cost, and ease of mass production make them extremely popular

Op-amp Circuit notation

The circuit symbol for an op-amp :

V+: non-inverting input V-: inverting input Vout: output Vs+ or Vcc+: positive power supply Vs- or Vcc-: : negative power supply

Op-amp: Operation
The amplifier's differential inputs consist of a V+ input and a V- input, and ideally the op-amp amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two, which is called the differential input voltage. The output voltage of the op-amp is given by the equation Vout = (V+ - V-) AOL AOL is the open loop gain of the amplifier. The magnitude of AOL is typically very large for Integrated Circuit (IC) op-amps and therefore even a quite small difference between and drives the amplifier output nearly to the supply voltage. This is called saturation of the amplifier.

Input offset voltage

Voltage required across the op-amp's input terminals to drive the output voltage to zero, is related to the mismatches in input bias current. In the perfect amplifier, there would be no input offset voltage. However, it exists in actual op-amps because of imperfections in the differential amplifier: Input offset voltage creates two problems: 1. due to the amplifier's high voltage gain, it virtually assures that the amplifier output will go into saturation if it is operated without negative feedback. 2. In a closed loop, negative feedback configuration, the input offset voltage is amplified along with the signal.

Common-mode gain
A perfect operational amplifier amplifies only the voltage difference between its two inputs, completely rejecting all voltages that are common to both. However, the differential input stage of an operational amplifier is never perfect, leading to the amplification of these identical voltages to some degree. The standard measure of this defect is called the commonmode rejection ratio (denoted CMRR). Minimization of common mode gain is usually important in noninverting amplifiers that operate at high amplification.

Positive feedback applications

which takes a fraction of the output signal back to the non-inverting input. Application: Comparator with hysteresis, the Schmitt trigger. Some circuits may use Positive feedback and Negative feedback around the same amplifier, for example Triangle wave oscillators and active filters.

Single-ended Amplifier

Differential Amplifier
Amplifies difference between inputs

Operational Amplifier: has a very high gain and widespread applications not limited to linear amplification system but digital logic system as well.

Operational Amplifiers are represented schematically and realistically below: Active component! both

The operational amplifier or op-amp is a circuit of components integrated into one chip. A typical op-amp is powered by two dc voltages and has an inverting(-) and a non-inverting input (+) and an output.

An op amp is an electronic device which provides a voltage output based on the voltage input


Op-amp Pins
Five important pins 2 The inverting input 3 The non-inverting input 6 The output 4 The negative power supply V- (-Vcc) 7 The positive power supply V+ (+Vcc)


Why are they useful?

Sensor signals are often too weak or too noisy Op-amps ideally increase the signal amplitude without affecting its other properties

Ideal Op Amp
Zin is infinite Zout is zero Amplification (Gain) Vout / Vin = Unlimited bandwidth Vout = 0 when Voltage inputs = 0

Practical Operational Amplifiers

An ideal op-amp has infinite gain and bandwidth, we know this is impossible. However, op-amps do have:

very high gain

very high input impedance(Zin = ) very low output impedance (Zout = 0)

wide bandwidth.


Ideal Op Amp
Ideal Op-Amp Typical Op-Amp

Input Resistance Input Current

infinity 0

106 (bipolar) 109 - 1012 (FET) 10-12 10-8 A

Output Resistance Operational Gain

Common Mode Gain Bandwidth

0 infinity
0 infinity

100 1000 105 - 109

10-5 Attenuates and phases at high frequencies Bandwidth and gain



Operational Amplifiers


Operational Amplifiers
Positive Saturation where the output voltage exceeds the positive power input
Negative Saturation where the output voltage would be less than the negative power input


Operational Amplifiers

Linear Region where the output voltage is linear based on A (gain)


Type of op-amp
There are 2 types of application in op-amp Linear application Non-linear application Linear application is where the op-amp operate in linear region: Assumptions in linear application: Input current, Ii = 0 Input voltage: V+=V Feedback at the inverting input


Types of op-amp
Non-linear application is where the op-amp operate in non-linear region By comparing these two input voltages: positive input voltages, V+ and negative input voltage, V- where: VO = VCC if V+ > VVO = -VCC if V+ < V-


Applications of op-amp
Comparator Inverter Audio amplifier Signal Modulation Filters Voltage-Current signal conversion Mathematical Operations


Op-amp Circuit Application

Inverting Amplifier Non-Inverting Amplifier Summing Amplifier Unity Follower Difference Amplifier Integrators Differentiators


Design and Analysis of Op-amp Circuit


Transfer Function: Ideal Op-amps

Transfer Function = Output / Input Voltage Amp TF (Gain):
Av vo vi

Usually Av 1 Op-amp is preferred because: Easy to use in circuit designed compared to discrete Transistor circuits

Chap 0


Ideal Op-amps
Assumptions Open loop Gain = Infinity Input Impedance Rd = Infinity Output Impedance Ro = 0 Bandwidth = Infinity Infinite Frequency Response vo=0 when v1 = v2 No Offset Voltage

Chap 0


Ideal Op-amps (Cont.)

v0 = A(v2 v1)
If v0 = , A = (Typically 100,000)
v2 = v1 Then v2 v1 = 0

Since v2 = v1 and Rd =
We can neglect the current in Rd

Rule 1
When the Op-amp is in linear range the two inputs are at the same voltage

Rule 2
No Current flows into either terminal of the Op-amp

Chap 0


Application: Inverting amplifier

Provide a constant gain multiplier Input signal is connected to the inverting input of the op-amp. Therefore, the output signal is 180 degree out of phase from the input signal Rf is the feed-back resistor to control the voltage gain of the op-amp
application:inverting amplifier

Inverting Amplifier
Inverting Amp with Gain From Rule 1 = - Rf / Ri v- = v+ = 0 From Rule 2 & KCL ii + if = 0 ii = -if From Ohms law ii = vi / Ri , , if = vo / Rf vi / Ri = - vo / Rf vo / vi = -Rf / Ri Inverting Amp Gain -Rf / Ri Virtual Ground


Non-inverting configuration
Vi I1 V Ii V I2 0; 0 V R1 V V R2 Vi ; Vo 0 Vi R1 R2 Vi 1 R1 Vi Vo R2 Vo
Vi I1 I2

use KCL :

while I i so : insert

Summary of op-amp behavior

Vo = A(V+ - V )

Vo/A = V+ - V
Let A then, V+ - V 0 infinity

application:inverting amplifier

Application: Summing amplifier

Virtual-ground equivalent circuit.

application:summing amplifier

Summing Amplifier
V V 0 I i I Rf V2 V R2 V 0; Vo V1 Rf R1
V1 V2 R1


use KCL : I R1 I R 2 I R 3 while I i so : insert 0; V1 V R1



V3 V R3

V Rf V1 R1 V2 R2

Vo V2 R2 V3 R3

This circuit is called

a weighted summer

V3 R3

Vo Rf

Application: Difference amplifier

R1 R3

R2 R4


R4 (V1 R2

V2 )

application:difference amplifier

Application: Integrator
Capaci tan ce impedance : 1 1 XC j C sC



Feedback component = capacitor : Integrator

vi (t ) dv0 (t ) 0 C R dt 1 vo (t ) vi (t )dt RC


Application: Differentiation


IR vo (t ) R dvi (t ) RC dt

dvi (t ) V C dt vo (t )

Unity-Gain Amplifier
Gain of Unity-Gain Op-amp is 1

Vo = Vi Applications
Buffer amplifier
Isolate one circuit from the loading effects of a following stage

Impedance converter
Data conversion System (ADC or DAC) where constant impedance or high impedance is required
Chap 0 37

Recall: Non-linear application in op-amp

Non-linear application is where the op-amp operate in non-linear region By comparing these two input voltages: positive input voltages, V+ and negative input voltage, V- where: VO = VCC if V+ > VVO = -VCC if V+ < V Input current, Ii = 0

non-linear application

Non-linear application: Comparator

non-linear application:comparator

Non-linear application: Comparator

(a) Input Voltage of Comparator


Compare V+ and VV+=0 V-=VS When: VS>0,V+>VVS<0,V+<V-

Vo(V) 10

so Vo=10V so Vo=-5V

t -5
(b) Output Voltage of Comparator

non-linear application:comparator

Non-linear application Schmitt Trigger

Positive Feedback

R1 VO R1 R f

non-linear application:schmitt trigger

Non-linear application Schmitt Trigger

V R1 VO R1 R f R f and VCC 10 sin t V VEE 15V
t VS(V) (b) Input Voltage of Schmitt Trigger


assume R1 VS V V

with initial state Vo 15V and

-7.5 Vo(V) 15 VS(V)
(c) Output Voltage of Schmitt Trigger
non-linear application:schmitt trigger

1 (15) 7.5V 2

(a) Transfer Characteristic of Schmitt Trigger

-10 -7.5