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A P P E N D I X C

ATM Cell Structures

This appendix describes the various ATM cell types and their configurations and includes the following
sections:
• Formats of the ATM Cell Header, page C-1
• OAM Cell Structure, page C-3
• Generic Identifier Transport IE Used by Signalling, page C-4
• LANE Data Frame, page C-5

Formats of the ATM Cell Header


The ATM standards groups have defined two header formats. The User-Network Interface (UNI) header
format is defined by the UNI specification, and the Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) header format
is defined by the NNI specification.
The UNI specification defines communications between ATM endpoints (such as workstations and
routers) and switch routers in private ATM networks. The format of the UNI cell header is shown in
Figure C-1.

Figure C-1 UNI Header Format

40 bits

C
GFC VPI VCI PT L HEC
P

Field length 4 8 16 3 1 8
in bits

Bits
8 4 0

GFC VPI 1

VPI VCI 2

VCI 3 Octets

VCI PT CLP 4
10409

HEC 5

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Appendix
Formats of the ATM Cell Header

The UNI header consists of the following fields:


• GFC—4 bits of generic flow control that are used to provide local functions, such as identifying
multiple stations that share a single ATM interface. The GFC field is typically not used and is set
to a default value.
• VPI—8 bits of virtual path identifier that is used, in conjunction with the VCI, to identify the next
destination of a cell as it passes through a series of switch routers on its way to its destination.
• VCI—16 bits of virtual channel identifier that is used, in conjunction with the VPI, to identify
the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of switch routers on its way to
its destination.
• PT—3 bits of payload type. The first bit indicates whether the cell contains user data or control
data. If the cell contains user data, the second bit indicates congestion, and the third bit indicates
whether the cell is the last in a series of cells that represent a single AAL5 frame.
• CLP—1 bit of congestion loss priority that indicates whether the cell should be discarded if it
encounters extreme congestion as it moves through the network.
• HEC—8 bits of header error control that are a checksum calculated only on the header itself.
The NNI specification defines communications between switch routers. The format of the NNI header
is shown in Figure C-2.

Figure C-2 NNI Header Format

40 bits

C
VPI VCI PT L HEC
P

Field length 12 16 3 1 8
in bits
Bits
8 4 0
VPI 1

VPI VCI 2

VCI 3 Octets

VCI PT CLP 4
10410

HEC 5

The GFC field is not present in the format of the NNI header. Instead, the VPI field occupies the first
12 bits, which allows switch routers to assign larger VPI values. With that exception, the format of the
NNI header is identical to the format of the UNI header.

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Appendix
OAM Cell Structure

OAM Cell Structure


Operation, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) performs standard loopback (end-to-end or
segment) and fault detection and notification (alarm indication signal [AIS] and remote defect
identification [RDI]) for each connection. It also maintains a group of timers for the OAM functions.
When there is an OAM state change such as loopback failure, OAM software notifies the connection
management software. You can enable or disable OAM operation for the following switch router
components:
• The entire switch router
• A specific ATM interface
• Each ATM connection
Figure C-3 shows the format of the OAM loopback cell.

Figure C-3 OAM Cell Structure

GFC VPI
VPI VCI
VCI
VCI PTI C
HEC
OAM cell type = 0001
OAM function type = 0010 Loopback indication
Loopback information Correlation tag
fields Loopback location ID
10295

Reserved Source ID
CRC(10)

The OAM cell structure has the following features:~


• OAM cell type is coded as 0001.
• OAM function type is coded as 0010.
• 350 bits that are specific to the OAM type are divided into the following elements:
– Loopback indicator—A bit that is set to 1 before the cell is looped back. The loopback node
then sets the bit to 0, indicating it has been looped back.
– Correlation tag—Identifies (correlates) related OAM cells within the same connection.
– Loopback location ID—An optional field that identifies the site that is to loopback the cell.
– Source ID—An optional field that identifies the site generating the cell.

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Appendix
Generic Identifier Transport IE Used by Signalling

Generic Identifier Transport IE Used by Signalling


The generic identifier transport information element (IE) is used by signalling to carry an identifier
between two users.
Figure C-4 shows the format of the generic signalling IE.

Figure C-4 Generic Identifier Transport IE Used by Signalling

Bits
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Coding IE instruction
Ext Flag Res action indication 2
standard

Length of generic identifier transport ID contents 3

Length of generic identifier transport ID contents (continued) 4

Identifier related standard/applications 5

Identifier type/length/value 6

Identifier type/length/value

10411
N

The generic identifier transport IE used by signalling has the following fields:
• Generic identifier transport information IE.
• Ext.
• Coding standard.
• Flag.
• Reserved.
• IE instruction action Indication.
• Length of generic indentifier transport IE.
• Identifier related standard/application—Each application requiring a different set or structure of
identifiers (coded in octet 6 and possibly in subsequent octet groups) should use a different value
of octet 5.
• Identifier type—This value is independent of the identifier related standard/application field,
octet 5. The maximum length is 20 octets.
• Identifier length—A binary number indicating the length in octets of the identifier code in the
subsequent octets of the octet group.
• Identifier value—Value of an identifier according to the recommendation or the standard identifier
in octet 5.

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Appendix
LANE Data Frame

LANE Data Frame


The LAN emulation data frame for Ethernet is based on ISO 8802.3/CSMA-CD (IEEE 802.3) and is
used to provide connectivity between ATM attached end systems and LAN attached stations.
Figure C-5 shows the format of the LANE data frame.

Figure C-5 LANE Data Frame Format for IEEE 802.3/Ethernet

LE header Destination
address
Destination address

Source address

Source address Type info

Info
(16 to 64 octets) 10412

The LANE data frame has the following fields:


• LE header—Contains either the LAN emulation client identifier value, the sending client,
or X'0000'.
• Destination address.
• Source address.
• Type information—Logical link control (LLC) data frames whose total length, including the LLC
field and data, but not including padding required to meet minimum data frame length, is less than
1536 (X”0600”). It must be encoded by placing the length value in the type/length field. LLC data
frames longer than the maximum must be encoded by placing the value 0 in the type/length field.
• Information—Encapsulated Ethernet data.

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Appendix
LANE Data Frame

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