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INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

(CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE) ANNEXURE - I CLAUSES WHICH ARE LIKELY TO BE MODIFIED IN NEAR FUTURE The following clauses were discussed in various meetings of the Railway Bridge Technology Development Group. The recommendations of the Group as given below will be incorporated in the IRS Concrete Bridge Code in near future after its endorsement by the BSC and approval of the Railway Board. The likely modifications in various clauses are given below for the benefit of the users. 5.1.1 The following note may be introduced below Table 2 under this clause: Note: Higher grade of concrete can be used with the approval of CBE and clearance from RDSO after establishing various properties of concrete like tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, creep, thermal expansion etc. on the basis of appropriate test results carried out for the particular work. 5.2.1 The following note may be added below this clause: Note: The above expression of fcr, is for flexural tensile strength only and is valid for fck45. For direct tensile strength, the value of flexural tensile strength so obtained may be multiplied by a factor of 0.7. For fck greater than 45, the value of fcr, has to be evaluated from test results. 5.2.3.1 Clause 5.2.3.1 may be modified as under: 5.2.3.1 In absence of test data, the approximate value of shrinkage strain for design of plain and reinforced concrete may be taken as 0.0003. Remaining portion of this clause along with Table 3 may be deleted.

5.2.4.1 Clause 5.2.4.1 may be deleted.


5.2.4.2 Clause 5.2.4.3 may be deleted. 5.2.6 Clause 5.2.6 may be modified as under:Modular ratio In elastic analysis, modular ratio shall be taken as under:For tensile reinforcement, m1 = 280/fck For compression m2 = 420/fck reinforcement, Note: The above expression for m1 and m2 partially takes into account long-term effects such as creep. Therefore, this is not the same as the modular ratio derived based on the value of Ec given in 4.6.2. 7.1.4.2 The following sentence may be added at the end of this clause: In case of hot rolled bars this reduction may be limited to 80% of its capacity. 7.2.6.4.3 The following new clause may be incorporated :

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE) 7.2.6.4.3.7 Where embedded anchorage are provided, its spacing, reinforcement details, concrete strength, cover and other dimensions shall conform to the manufacturers specification/ specialized literature. 7.2.6.5.6.1 A special note for prestressing operation may be incorporated at the end of this clause as under: Note: If the calculated elongation is reached before the calculated gauge pressure is obtained, continue tensioning till attaining the calculated gauge pressure, provided the elongation does not exceed 1.05 times the calculated elongation. If this elongation is achieved before the calculated gauge pressure is attained, stop stressing and inform the engineer for ascertaining the cause. If the calculated elongation has not been reached continue tensioning by intervals of 5 kg/cm2 until the calculated elongation is reached provided the gauge pressure does not exceed 1.05 times the calculated gauge pressure. If the elongation of 1.05 times the calculated gauge pressure is less than 0.95 times the calculated elongation, the following measures must be taken, in succession, to define the cause of this lack of elongation. Recalibrate the pressure gauge Check the correct functioning of the jack, pump and leads De-tension the cable. Slide it in its duct to check that it is not blocked by mortar, which has entered through holes in the sheath. Re-tension the cable, if free.

If the required elongation is not obtained, further operations such as cutting or sealing, should not be undertaken without the approval of the engineer. The above special note should appear in the drawing. Table 12 Table 12 may be modified as given in this Annexure.

12.3.2 Clause 12.3.2 (b) may be reworded as under:


for prestressing steel, from Fig. 2 using value of m given in 12.4. All clauses wherever reference has been made for Fig. 2A and 2B to be corrected accordingly.

13.4.1 Clause 13.4.1 may be modified as under:


For unwelded reinforcing bars, the stress range under various load combinations for serviceability limit state shall be limited to 155 N/mm2 for bars upto 16 mm diameter and to 120 N/mm2 for bars exceeding 16 mm diameter.

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE)

f pu ym 0.8f
pu

ym
STRESS
200kN/mm2 FOR WIRE AND STRAND TO BS 5896 SECTION 2 2 AND 3. 165kN/mm FOR ALLOY BARS TO BS 4486.

0.005

STRAIN

Fig. 2. Short term design stress strain curve for normal and for low relaxation products.

15.6.6 Clause 15.6.6 may be modified as under: 15.6.6 Shear resistance of columns For columns subjected to uniaxial shear, the ultimate shear strength, svc, obtained from Table 15 and 16 may be multiplied by: 1 + 3P/(Acfck), but not exceeding 1.5 where, P is the ultimate axial load in Newton. Ac is the area of entire concrete section in mm2 and Fck is the characteristic compressive strength of Concrete A column subjected to biaxial shear due to ultimate loads shall be designed such that: Vx/Vux+ V y/Vuy<1.0 Where, Vx and Vy are the applied shear due to ultimate loads for the x-x axis and y-y axis respectively; Vuy and Vux are the corresponding ultimate shear capacities of the concrete and stirrup reinforcement for the x-x axis and y-y axis respectively derived in accordance with this clause. The shear reinforcement detailing of columns shall be done in accordance with clause 15.4.3.2, when the factored axial stress does not exceed 0.1fck. In other cases minimum area of links in columns shall be provided as per clause 15.9.4.3.

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE)

16.4.4

The following new clause may be incorporated:

16.4.4.1.4 Critical section for shear: The critical section for computation of maximum shear shall be under: a) For non-prestressed beams, sections located less than a distance d from the face of support may be permitted to be designed for the same shear that computed at a distance d. b) For prestressed beams, sections located less than a distance h/2 from the face of support may be permitted to be designed for the same shear that computed at a distance h/2. c) For slabs, sections located less than a distance d/2 from the face of support may be permitted to be designed for the same shear that computed at a distance d/2. Where, d and h are effective and overall depth respectively. Note: The above is applicable when support reaction in direction of applied shear introduces compression in the end region of the member and when the loading is predominantly distributed load. 16.4.4.4.1 The last paragraph of this clause viz. Minimum shear reinforcement, shall HSD bars may be deleted. 16.4.4.4.5 Modify the last but one sentence of this clause as under: In no case shall the spacing exceed 300mm.
16.4.4.5 The clause may be modified as under:

16.4.4.5 Maximum shear force In no circumstances shall the shear force Va due to ultimate loads, exceed the appropriate value given in Table 26 multiplied by bd, where b is a defined in 16.4.2, less either the diameter of the draft for temporarily ungrouted ducts or twothirds the diameter of the duct for grouted ducts and d is the distance from the compression face to the centroid of the actual area of steel in the tensile zone, but not less than 0.8 times the overall depth of the member, irrespective of its characteristic strength. The shear force Va should include an allowance for prestressing only for sections uncracked in flexure (see clause 16.4.4.2).
16.8.2.4 Clause 16.8.2.4 may be modified as under:

16.8.2.4 Loss of Prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete - The loss of prestress in tendons due to shrinkage of concrete may be calculated from the modulus of elasticity of tendons given in 4.6.2, assuming the values for shrinkage for unit length as given below:System Shrinkage per unit length under normal exposure

Pre tensioning: 0.0003 Transfer at between 3 days and 5 days after concreting Post tensioning: 0.0002 Transfer at between 7 days and 14 days after concreting Note: For other ages of concrete at transfer, for other conditions of exposure or for massive

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE) structures, some adjustment to these figures will be necessary, in which case reference should be made to Appendix J or specialist literature. 16.8.2.5 clause 16.8.2.5 may be modified as under: 16.8.2.5 Loss of Prestress due to creep of the Concrete - The loss of prestress in the tendons due to creep of the concrete should be calculated on the assumption that creep is proportional to stress in the concrete for stress of up to one-third of the cube strength at transfer. The loss of prestress is obtained from the product of the modulus of elasticity of the tendon (see 4.6.2) and the creep of the concrete adjacent to the tendons. Usually it is sufficient to assume, in calculating this loss, that the tendons are located at their centroid. For pre-tensioning at between 3 days and 5 days after concreting where the required cube strength at transfer is greater than 40.0 N/mm2, the creep of the concrete per unit length should be taken as 48x10-6 per N/mm2. For lower values of cube strength at transfer the creep per unit length, should be taken as 48x10-6x40.0/fci per N/mm2. For post-tensioning at between 7 days and 14 days after concreting where the required cube strength at transfer is greater than 40.0 N/mm2, the creep of the concrete per unit length should be taken as 36x10-6 per N/mm2. For lower values of cube strength at transfer the creep per unit length should be taken as 36x106x40.0/fci per N/mm2. Where the maximum stress anywhere in the section at transfer exceeds one-third of the cube strength of the concrete the value for the creep per unit length used in calculations should be increased. When the maximum stress at transfer is half the cube strength, the values for creep are 1.25 times the values given in the preceding paragraphs; at intermediate stresses, the values should be interpolated linearly. 16.8.2.5.1 The following paragraph may be added after this clause: For special cases reference to expert literature may be made.

16.8.3.3 The last paragraph of 16.8.3.3 i.e. The values of K per meter lengthto the
satifaction of the engineer. may be deleted.

16.8.3.4 The portion of the clause starting from Values of may be taken as:.if
sufficient evidence is established to his satisfaction may be deleted and in its place following may be inserted: The value of and K given in Table 26A may be adopted for calculating friction losses as per equations 31 and 32. Table 26A Type of Type of Values high duct or recommended to tensile sheath be used in steel design K per metre
Wire cables Bright metal 0.0091 Galvanised 0.0046 Lead coated 0.0046 Unlined duct 0.0046 in concrete Bright metal Galvanized Lead coated Unlined duct in concrete Corrugated HDPE 0.0046 0.0030 0.0030 0.0046 0.0020 0.25 0.20 0.18 0.45 0.25 0.20 0.18 0.50 0.17

Uncoated stress relieved strands

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE) Notes: (i) Values to be used in design may be altered to the values observed, on satisfactory evidence in support of such values. (ii) For multi-layer wire cables with spacer plates providing lateral separation, the value of may be adopted on the basis of actual test results. (iii) When the direction of friction is reversed, the index of e in the formulae shall be negative. (iv) The above formula is of general application and can be used for estimation of friction between any two points along the tendon distant x from each other. The values of and K used in design shall be indicated on the drawings for guidance in selection of the material and the methods that will produce results approaching the assumed values.

16.9.4 The following additional clause regarding minimum reinforcement may be inserted.
16.9.4.2 Minimum Reinforcement 16.9.4.2.1 General - The quantity of untensioned steel required for design or constructional purposes shall not be less than the minimum stipulated in clause 16.9.4.2.2 to 16.9. 4.2.4. Various types of minimum steel requirements need not be added together. Bars in such reinforcement shall, however, not be placed more than 200mm apart. The minimum diameter shall not be less than 10mm for severe condition of exposure and 8mm for moderate condition of its exposure. In case of in-situ segmental construction for bridges located in marine environmental continuity of untensioned reinforcement from one segment to the next shall be ensured. 16.9.4.2.2 In vertical direction, a minimum reinforcement shall be provided in the bulb/web of the beams/rib of box girders, such reinforcement being not less than 0.3% of the cross sectional area of the bulb/web in plan for mild steel and 0.18% for HSD bars respectively. Such reinforcement shall be as far as possible uniformly spaced along the length of the web. In the bulb portion the cross sectional area of the bulb in plan shall be taken. In all the corners of the sections, these reinforcements should pass round a longitudinal bar having a diameter of not less than that of the vertical bar or round a group of tendons. For T beams, the arrangement in the bulb portion shall be as shown in Fig. 13A. 16.9.4.2.3 Longitudinal reinforcements provided shall not be less than 0.25% and 0.15% of the gross cross sectional area of the section for mild steel and HSD bars respectively, where the specified grade of concrete is less than M45. In case the grade of concrete is M45 or more, the provision shall be increased to 0.3% and 0.18% respectively. Such reinforcement shall as far as possible be evenly distributed on the periphery. Non-prestressed high tensile reinforcement can also be reckoned for the purpose of fulfilling the requirement of this clause. 16.9.4.2.4 For solid slabs and top and bottom slabs of box girders, the top and underside of the slabs shall be provided with reinforcement consisting of a grid formed by layers of bars. The minimum steel provided shall be as follows: (i) For solid slabs and top slab of box girders: 0.3% and 0.18% of the gross cross sectional area of the slab for mild steel and HSD bars respectively, which shall be equally distributed at top and bottom. For soffit slab of box girders: The longitudinal steel shall be at least 0.3% and 0.18% of cross sectional area for mild steel and HSD bars respectively. The minimum transverse reinforcement shall be 0.5% and 0.3% of the cross sectional area for mild steel and HSD bars respectively. The minimum reinforcement shall be equally distributed at top and bottom.

(ii)

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE) 16.9.4.2.5 For cantilever slab minimum reinforcement of 4 numbers of 16mm dia HSD bars or 6 nos. of 16mm dia MS bars should be provided with minimum spacing at the tip divided equally between the top and bottom surface parallel to support. N.B. Notwithstanding the nomenclature untensioned steel, this provisional reinforcement may be utilised for withstanding all action effects, if necessary.

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLAIN, REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FOR GENERAL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION (CONCRETE BRIDGE CODE) TABLE 12 LOADS TO BE TAKEN IN EACH COMBINATION WITH APPROPRIATE YfL (Clauses 11.2 and 11.3)
LOAD LIMIT STATE ULS SLS ULS SLS* ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS ULS ULS SLS ULS SLS SLS YfL TO BE CONSIDERED IN COMBINATION 1 2 3 4 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.25 1.00 1.60 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.60 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.50 1.00 5 1.25 1.00 2.00 1.20 -

Dead weight of concrete Superimposed dead load Wind During erection With dead and superimposed dead loads only and for members primarily resisting wind loads. With dead plus superimposed dead plus other appropriate combination 2 loads. Relieving effect of wind Earth qua ke During erection With dead and superimposed dead loads only With dead plus superimposed dead plus other appropriate combination 2 loads. Restraint against movement except frictional Frictional restraint Differential temperature effect Differential settlement Fill retained and or live load Earth surcharge Press relieving effect ure Erection temporary loads (when being considered) Live load on foot path Live load Derailment loads

Temper atur e

1.50 1.00 1.15 0.80 As specified by engineer 1.70 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.00 1.70 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.25 1.00 1.70 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.25 1.00

1.70 1.00 1.00 -

1.75 1.40 1.40 1.10 1.00 1.00 (As specified by bridge rules for combination 5 only)

NOTE 1- ULS : Ultimate limit state SLS : serviceability limit state NOTE 2- Superimposed dead load shall include dead load of ballast, track, ballast retainer, precast footpath, wearing course, hand rails, utility services, kerbs etc. NOTE 3- Wind and earth quake loads shall not be assumed to be acting simultaneously.

NOTE 4- Live load shall also include dynamic effect, forces due to curvature exerted on longitudinal forces, braking forces and forces on parapets.

track,