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: alphabetical displa

,'sraphic classi{ica.

its examples t-
-,C. Much of mod..
:-,d itional classifica
. :heory and DDC ..
,ne hand which b -
Bibl iograph ic classification
---:t rvas entirely der. schemes
-.:irly unjust to I)i
, , ntodern ideas. i

i-: . classification systc
-'-. three major general classification schemes are DDC, its offspring UDC, and
-,. These will be described in some detaii in this section. Two other schemes:
:r nefw'orks. Catalr,;
: - {and its successor BC2) and CC, will be discussed briefly because of their
t live llinglelr; Hanic -.,rence on current theory and practice. At the end of this chapter you will:
-. "
ir esaurus/Classifito :
o ,.rnderstand the structure and principal features of the three major general
- Institute of l,lduca:: classification schemes
r appreciate the salient contributions to classification theory and practice made
. a distance. Catalug: bv BC and CC
I be aware of the arguments for and against modifying published classiflcation
. London: Brtu,k.
. cooperation befir,r: r understand the place of special classification schemes.
-.e three major schemes were all introduced before the ideas of facet analysis
lrOWer. -
'.t rnotic.trt Science. t :re developed. They are thus basically enumerative schemes, though ali have
graphic classificati,
- me analytico-synthetic features. In the case of UDC these are very extensive,
''r ic Classification,'J,
:SS So with DDC - though DDC has embraced the principles of facet analysis
ri)11: Butterworths. .:d is incorporating more synthetic features. With LCC they are a minor feature.
:brarlr Association.


-r 1876 Melvil Dewey, a 2S-year-old college librarian, published anonymously A

llossi/ication and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and
Pomphlets of a Library, with 12 pages of introduction, 12 pages of tables and 18
-,rases of index. It had three novel features:


o Books were to be shelved by relative instead of flxed location. With flr..

location (which can still be seen in a few places), books were giveir
fixed place on a numbered shelf, and any new books on the subject rep:-
sented by that shelf had to be flled at the end. When the shelJ became f'-.
a llew sequence had to be started elsewhere. With relative iocation, i: -
books are numbered in relation to each other and not to the shelves. T'-
whole collection could grow as required, and a more detailed subject spec.
cation became possibie - I)ewey's 999 classes were a great advance :
anything that had gone before.
r A simple decimal notation instead of the cumbersome notations (olt,:.
involving roman numbers) previously used. Indeed, Dewey is said to ha'.
thought of the notation first. Certainly the notation was an important facr
in the early and continued success of the scheme.
o A detailed subject index, made necessary by the detail of the classificatio:'
The second edition of 1885 established three further principles:

o Decimal subdivision: the first edition used the decimal point only to introcluc-
a book number. This greatly increased the ability of the scheme to suppc,:"
specific detail.
o Integrif of numbers: Dewey had made some quite sweeping relocations ::
the second edition, and to sugar the pill announced that future editions woul-
expand but not relocate: a policy that was followed until 1951. This polic
however reassuring to users and potential users, inevitably meant that th
structure of the scheme became more and more outmoded over time.
o Synthesis, in the shape of (a) a table of 'form divisions' representing son:-
of the common facets, which could be appended to any number; and (b
'divide like' instructions, the forerunner of the present 'add' instruction.
where all or part of one number may be added to another in order to specii,
an extra facet.

By 1951 it was clear that the policy of integrity of numbers could not b.
maintained, but that each new edition would have to radically restructure on,,
or more classes. Complete revision has to date been applied to: 546 and 5.1 ,

Inorganic and Organic chemistry (sixteenth edition, 1958); 150 Psychologl

(seventeenlh edition, 1965); l'|40 law and 510 Mathematics (eighteenth edition.
1971); 301-307 Sociolog-v and 324 Political process (nineteenth eclition, 1979):
780 Music (twentieth edition, 1989); and 350-354 I']ublic administration, 57('
Biology, 583 Dicotyledons (twenff-first eclition, 1996). These complete revisions
were formerly known as phoenix schedules. Also, classes may be extensivell'
revisecl, keeping the main outline but reworking subdivisions. 370 Education
and all the rest of 570-590 l,ife sciences were thus revisecl in the twentv-first


location. With fir... ' : , :r. and 001-006 Knowledge, systems and data processing in the twentieth;
,lOoks were giver: , .tb has had to be further revised and expanded in the twentv-flrst edition.
, ,n the subject rep:-
:rt shelf became i'.
ill,t ED U LES
:clative location, . -
,i to the shelves. T--- l''r sion of classes
:c:ailed subject spec_-
I DDC the notation is everything. This may seem an odd way to start a
r a great advance .

in DDC, but the evidence is that Dewey

" --:ssion of the division of classes
-. - his classification to the notation rather than the other way round. The
, ,rte notations (ofr=
:'...-ificent simplicity of a pure numeric notation is achieved at the cost of the
lrn-ef is said to ha'. - - .. tightly constricted notational base of any classiflcation. Each stage in
as an important fac.
:' . .'-rbdivision of the universe of knowledge permits only nine divisions. A
.-.:cligit notation allows for only 999 classes, and Dewey used them all. As
ii ,,f the classificatir
"" : :riverse is not organized on regular decimal lines, it is inevitable that each

.iiples: -' .:rbdivision will more often than not include topics from more than one facet
- .:bl-acet. With very few exceptions, classes are divided top-down on the
r,-,int only to introclu - - ,:-erative principle. This again has resulted in many classes being divided
:e scheme to supp .' ,, :ding to more than one principle of division at a time. This is further
- -:ssed below.
F,'eeping relocations - a ,ther way of saving notational space is the use of pseudo-hierarchies. One
I iuture editions wou, _
--. is used as an umbrella heading for a miscellaneous collection of loosely
i:til This poli:
1951. .-. --iated topics. Some examples are:
r-itably meant that r:-
- ded over time. ':r) Commerce.communications.transoortation
: s representing soi:_-
:7 Water, air, space transportation
:-ti Sewing, clothing, management of personal and family living
":1' numberi and r: :+{r.7 Management of personal and family living. Grooming
:::'add' instructior..
:..: in order to spec_- 19.28 [Vehicle] tests, driving, maintenance and repair.
- . -erv places the original division of classes omitted steps in hierarchies and
--:u space in the notation for a necessary broader term to be added later.
-:,bers could not :. -. :nstance is the sequence 385-388, which denoted rail, canal, sea and land
restructure c,:,-
- --:-111-

1_.d to: 546 and i=-

,- :port without providing a place for transportation generally. For some years
:" : 150 Psycholc,; . -,-'he was found at 380.5, which preserved the general-to-special order but
' '-
luced a yawning gap between transportation and its subdivisions. Recently
. =ighteenth editi, _ - ,.:\-er, transportation generally has been classed at 388, sacrificing general-
.:::tth edition, 197:.
-.:tcial in order to keep the subject together. Prose literature is another
- ,. tnrinistration, .i- - - ::rce where no provision was originaily made: it is found in a number of
>r .-, )ntplete revisir,:..
" .-:s (808.888,818.08 etc.) but always at the end of the sequence of prose
= .ar- be extensir',-,-
. :.s. 370 Educati, - -.-s (essavs. letters etc.).
r .r the twenty-fir:

000 Generalities (88 pages)

100 Philosophy, paraftormal phenomena, psychology (62 pages)
200 Religion (160 pages)
300 Social sciences (549 pages)
400 Linguistics (38 pages; 45 including Table 4, which is specific to thls class)
500 Natural sciences and mathematics (302 pages)
600 Technology (Applied sciences) (508 pages)
700 The arts. Fine and decorative arts (226 pagesi
eoo Literature iarrr*rirltr* ;;1;;; (6t"p;&s; 9G inctudins Table 3, which is specific ro this
900 Geography, history and auxiliary disciplines (204 pages)

Figure 8.1 DDC Main Classes

Main classes

Advances in knowledge over the past century and a quarter have made a.'
unequal development of the main classes inevitable. Figure 8.1 names the classe: --
and gives an idea of their relative sizes. The classes are based on disciplines
with occasional exceptions, notably 770 Photography that includes both technica.
ancl artistic aspects.


Dewey himself had only an inchoate awareness of facets. Consistency in facet

structure tended to be subordinated to the notation. Sometimes the notation
lent itself to a coherent facet structure, as in classes 400, 800 and 900. More
often it did not, causing the facets to be jumbled together. In 370 Education we

. 371 Schools and their activities (itself a hotchpotch of assorted facets with -,:Ll
Special eclucation tagged on at the end)
. 372, 373, 37 4 Stages of education: elementary, secondary, adult - with Higher - ti

education separated from these at 378

. 375 Curricula -1.: :,

. :179 Public policy issues in education.

.- -: -i

\\here there is notation left at the end of an array, it may be used for another
rtf I'
array with a different principle of division. 720 Architecture has already been .1-: -1.
mentioned: the arrays are: ;-, rl, rg

. 721 Architectural structure - .l:n

. 722-724 Architectural schools and styles --_ir''_

. 725-728 Speciflc types of structures _,: a

Illl I LI( )( ;RAI']HIC ( I.ASSII'l( A1'l( )N SC tl Irl I I'-:

ictural enginee';ng and underground constructior

: ::undation engineering and engineering geology lKey systeml
:' :ngineering ge0l0gy lNT. Pr0perties, processes, operaiionsl
:.- 158 Foundation engineering [Centred heading] [NI]
- ixcavation [0perations]
: loundation nratertals lMaterialsl
:- 1 58 Speci{ic types of f0undations [Centred heading] lKindsl

Supporting structures 0ther than f0undations [Key system]

3tructural analysis and design loperationsl
' Structural analysis [0perations]
176 Loads, siresses, strains Itenlred headingl [Processes]
Structural design and speci{ic structural elemenls
Slructural design [0perations]
)--.177 g Specif ic structu ral ele m ents I Parts]
: .,laterials iin structural engineeringl[Key system, Materials]
, -nderground c0nstruclion [Key system]

,e {ollows siandard crtation order quite closely * remember that in an lnverted schedule you
uarter have ntar.. lacels upwards.
.i. 1 nar.nes the c1.,-
irasecl on cliscil-r
Figure 8.2 Facel slruclure and centred headings in DDC class 624.1
:rcludes both tecl,:

- '' I)esien ancl decoration of structurcs alld acctssories.

,:r\- places solne l(ind of orcler is imposecl by the use ttf centrecl headings,
s('rve as facet indicators, slttlwing wliere a facet occtlpies a sprea(l of
Lonsistency in . ,n,7'22-724 anrlT'25-728 are exanrples. Irigttre 8.2 is a lxore thoroughgoitlg
-ctilnes the nor. rlr', mapping the intplied lircet structure onto the schedule.
,:00 ancl 900. l'.
-'c the eighteenth edition cletertlitred efforts have been n-rade to regularizt'
In ll70 Erlucatir,: ,.tl structure. 5onte classes have lleen crlnlllletcllz revisect. Iilsewhc're,
-lities in the tacet structtlre are dealt with in one of the followilg ways:
-.ssortecl laccts -ld' instructions, rvhiclt alwa-vs ntake clear the citati<in order. In I)DC20
. iorrnd :170.1i Ildlcation tor specific objectives. ztnd 372 Elcmentar-v edu-
aclult - with Hi- . ..tion. rvith no inclication of where tcl class a work on elementary eclucatiol'l
:-specific objectives. I)DC21 has providerl a new class 372.011, with an
,lrl'instruction to aclcl to this nttmber the subdivisions of l'i70.11.'fhus.
-r).111) denotes Ilducation lbr social responsibility, ancl Elcmentary cdtt-
.,tion l'or social responsibiliry- will be classecl at 372.0115.
r,rscd fbr anr,.
. :-tle.rence instructions, which indicate rvhich lacct is to be pref'erred and
has alreadv 1:.
'eich is to be iqnorecl. Class 155 is Differe'ntial ancl developnlental ps-v-

:.,rlogy; 1llll.9 is Intellige,nce and aptitudes with the instructiott: Class factors
:. differential ancl clevclopmental ps1'cholog,v that alfect intelligence and
,::,rifr-icles in 155. In (i24.1 (see Irigure 8.2),6'24.17723 is Ilcans a1d girders.
.:rrl (i24.1821 Iron and steel.'fhere is an instruclion at 624.182: Class sptcific


structural elements in metal irt 624.1772-624.1779, so that Structural ste.

girders would be classed at 624.17723.

Subfacets or arrays

Arrays were given cavalier treatment by Dewey, and later atternpts to tidy u:
the structure have been variably successful. The example in Figure 8.3 shori.
part of Sociology, which was completely revised in the eighteenth edition. 3(t.'
Social groups has 13 subfacets (Fieure 8.3)
Most structural problems in DDC are hangovers from Dewey's original assign-
ment of topics to classes. Some classes, notably 400 language, are quitt
consistently constructed. The schedules that have been completely revised als,
have a far more regular structure, though the degree of synthesis varies greatli-:
780 Music is almost fully faceted (to the extent that users are said to be put oti
by it); 340 law and 350-354 Public aclministration allow a high degree of syn-
thesis. 150 Psychology, 301-307 Sociology and 510 Mathematics on the other
hand are thoroughly enumerative. Editors of DDC have to tread a very fine line
between what revisions are theoretically desirable and what users are preparecl
to accept. 370 Education has been extensively revised in the twenfy-first edition.
but has retained many of its structural anomalies. \Vhile there is no shortage of
rnodels of good classiflcation structure in education, to incoqrorate thenr would
have forcecl users to urakc' hard decisions on whether or not the extensive

.2 Age groups (2)

.3-.4 Groups by sex (3)
.5 Social classes {4) ---.
.6 Beligious groups (5) i-:!:
.7 Language groups (t)^, _!
.8 ,^,
^"^.,^^ (6)
Racial, ethnic, nati0nal groups
.904 Persons by kinship (B)
.9063 Persons by cultural level (9)
.9065 Persons by marital status (10)
.9066 Persons by sexual orientation (11)
.9069 Persons by special social staius (e.g. aliens, offenders) (12)
.908 Persons by physical and mental characteristics (1)
.909 Persons by occupation (131
:62 22
A preference table instructs the classifier which subfacet to choose. Numbers in parentheses rndicate
the preterence order, e.g. black Roman Catholic middle-class male youths within 305.2 (specifically, ilt
305.235). rather than in 305.3, .5, .6 or .8.

This being an enumerative classification. arl the other subfacets are ign0red. A faceted classificati0n -!
like BC2 is able t0 specily all subfacets: compare Figure 8.12 )
Figure 8.3 Subfacets in DDC class 305 Social groups


i that Structural ...llication involvecl is rvorth the candle. Better a halt-hearted revision than
,.1t nollody has the resourc€rs to adopt.

:: ln Order

,rf the vagarics of DDC's citation or(ler have alreacl-v been cxaurined.
. -r- atttmpts to tidr
it tnust be statecl that the
:'..r'r'. to correcrt atty impression that all is chaos,
-- in i"i.qure 8.3 slr
...11t:s have about tltem a sturdy pragmatism reinforcetl by an awarclless in
-:{hteenth edition,
- . t'rlitions of classification theory. Time and again it is possible' to flnci
:sis ancl stanclarcl citation orcler. Nlore ancl more use is being nlaclc' of syn-
-,.ri'ey's original as.: , - bv rneans of 'add'instructions (see F-igure 8.4), and in nearly every case
Language. are (i.
-- mpletely revised ',
---!iic instructi0n in the schedule reads: 'Add to base number XXX the numbers following YYY in
:'.':.thesis varies grr:,
:. are said to be pLr: : . -- i I ct's net nrrhlicitv nrrblic reiations in voluntary 0rganizalions. Class: 659.288
r high degree oi r a::2 Public relations
. -:rttatics on the r,t. .8 ln specific kinds ol 0rganizations
Add t0 base number 659.2B the numbers following 658.04 in 658.041-658.049. e.g. cor-
,r't'ii(l ii verl' finr.
porations 65S.285
-,rl LtSCfS ?f€ pl ellirl ':: ,-:8 Non-profit organizations
.. trvt'nty-first edir. -. oeople 'find it helplul t0 draw a verlical line after the base number. The added parl is aligned
,..:r'e is no shortag. .-.::n it, then pulled up t0 tack onto the end ol the base, i.e.:

--. - rl)()rale thenr u, :59.281

- 659.2818- 659.288
: r- rrot the exten-
::: common variant ol the Add instruction is to add the vrhole of the second number t0 the lirst.
. -:an only be done where the'Add'instructi0n specifically allows this: anyone attempting t0 string
..:1er two DDC numbers where this is not specilically permitted will soon make nonsense o{ the
'icatlo n

: .-cle: Public relations management in universities. Class: 659.29378

a:J.2 Public relations
29 ln organizations producing specilic kinds 0t products and setvices
Add t0 base number 659.29 notation 001-999
378 Higher education
':::er variant is synthesis by 'add as instructed' footnotes. An asterisk 0r other mark in the schedules
it: t0 a l00tn0te saying 'Add as instructed undsf followed by the place in the schedules (almosl
.:s an earlier place) where there will be lound a lable rn small print beginning 'Add to notation fot
-.,- term identified by - [or whatever] as follows':
: .-cle: lVarine reinsurance. Class: 368220122
r parentheses Indicat:
:a3.22 *0cean marine insurance
as instructed under 368.1*368.8
.rin 305.2 (specificat l
01 General principles
Add t0 01 the numbers following 368.01 in 368.01 1-368 019
-'? Underwriting
2 Reinsurance

Figure 8,4 Synthesis by means 0f'add inslrilcti0ns


the number to be added comes eailier in the schedules - a sure sign ,. _

intuitively or c:onsciously, schedule inversion is being applied.

'Add' instructions are applied ad hoc (though the principle involved in drop1 .

initial digits is very close to BC2's). More systematic synthesis is provi.-

through the auxiliary tables in Volume 1 of the schedules. These comprise
o Table 1: Standard subdivisions, which can be applied to any number ir
the schedules. The oldest of the auxiliary tables, covering the common fac.
ofform and subject. l-he sequence is chaotic, reflecting the practical diffie_
ties of undertaking a thorough revision.
o Table 2: Geographical areas etc. The longest by far of the tables. 'fypic;-
(but not invariably) applied after -09 from Table 1. : :,
o Tables 3 and 4 are special auxiliary tables for use with class 800 I-iteratL::, I
and 400 languages respectively.
o Tables 5 (Racial, ethnic and national groups),6 (Languages) and 7 (GroL::-
of persons) can only be applied where instructed.


Dewey Decimal Clasification's notation is at once its greatest strength ancl i.-
greatest weakness. The concept of numbers used decimally is simple and ur-_.
versally understood; but at the same time DDC's constricted base and lopsidc,
allocation have led to many excessively long numbers. Another recurring rest-
of the short base is the use of -9 as an overspill class for 'other' topics. This .-
very common indeed. Examples include:
290 Comparative religion and other religions
299 Other religions
629 Other branches of engineering
679 Other [manufacturing] products of specific materials
759.9 [Painting and paintings of] other geographic areas.
Even worse is DDC's practice of allowing the notation to dictate the order o;
subjects. Instances have already been given. In some places the notation even
dictates the citation order. In particular, DDC's notation cannot satisfactorill
accommodate an open-ended list of named persons, so individuals as subjects
can only come at the very end of the citation order. In 800 Literature it is
impossible to subdivide works by or about individual authors (other than by a
local adaptation of the optional table for Shakespeare at 822.33). The revised
780 Music had as its main model Coates's (1960) Brifish Catalogue of Music I : I I fr
Classification Here, composer was the primary facet for treatises on music; but
780 has been unable to follow this. exceot as an ootion at789.

E I IJ t,IO(, R,\I,HIt t L{:SIFIt.TI-T(I\ >t H I' \IE :

i - a sure sign .
:.ddles 398.6 I1l
. , .:11. 'clk literature s98.6 [2]
, r\'olved iu clr,,1 :;keS
- :lthesis is prr ,'. I iterature 80B.BB2 [3]
'.'lrese cnpnifin Iitpreirrrpc T3B_802 [4]
^ courpri:, individual authors T3A-_.--B
- any nunrbel' .:
see Manual atISA-8 + 02 fetc] l5l
- * .- the conlnon i...
;Vhere there is no subheading, the number is to be used for interdisciplinary works.
,' - :re practical di,, i,.lbheadings identilying discipline are shown by indentation.
',;Ote the level 0f indentation showing a further subarrangement.

re tables. T1'p:- =re tables in volume 1 are indexed thus.

::lerence rs made to the manual which {ollows the index.

-1ass 800 Litrr:

Figure 8.5 DDC Relalive index

*cs) ancl 7 ((lr'


:r- Decirral Classification's index is called a relative inclex: originally, it

.s. becarlse it indexecl the new relative as opposc'd to fixed-place classes;
,,tterl1l because it reiates subjects to tlisciplines. Figure 8.5 shows a samplc
st strength ar.
r, elltry.
1_ is simple anrl -..:re are also see-alst) references to synclnyms and broader terms, but only
base and lop.
:e three or rnore new numb('rs are to be found.
rr recurring l-.:
:rer' topics. 'l':- -
'.r CD-llON{ versiol'l Dewey frtr Windrtws has a fulier index than the printecl
'., Nevertheless. the inclex does no1 - could not - claim to be exhaustive.
'd, DDC's summary tables rnake it unnecessary to use the inciex except
.. urost intractable cases. There are three summary tabies of the whole
--:hcation. showing the ten main classes, the hundred clivisions, antl tht:
.ancl sections. 'lhese appear at the beginning of Vrlume 'I'wo.
,terials .tnrentecl by summaries at the beginning of each of the ten main ctlasses
rl'8&S. .heir divisions, ancl additionally as requirecl - complex sections like 616
- .rses or 621 Applied physics may have u1t to six summary tables each. It is
I .:ctate the ord.
.1 practice lor classifiers to classify from the schedules as far as possible.
- thc notation .

l .1nnot satisfac:
. the excellent guicling and sumlnary tables, and to keep the index as a last
..'iclrrals - :-t. Bibliographic databases in USN{ARC format. which have bolh DDC
3S Sui)r:
- -:rarks and LCSH hcadings, offer another approach, using LCSH as an cntry
- t(l l,iteraturt
,rularv to l)DC classmarks.
:.. (other thatt '
'l'he rer -
,,lSeS On mUSiC.
:'o1 of the schenre was assignecl by l)ervey hinrsell to the lake Piacici Club
- ational Founclation. a Irot-forllrofit bodl' rvhich he set up 'to restore to


helth [sic]and educational efficiency teachers, librarians and other educators ,

moderate means, who have becum [szc] incapacitated by overwork' (Del i

Decimal Classification, 14th edn, p. 48). (Simplffied spelling was one of Dewer'.
many interests.) The club owned Forest Press, DDC's publisher, which gave tl-.
scheme a sound flnancial footing. After some vicissitudes an editorial office u'a:
established within the Library of Congress, ensuring both literary warrant f( :
the scheme and the inclusion of DDC class numbers in USMARC records. I:
1988 the Forest Press was sold to OCLC, and editorial work is now done by tl-.
Library of Congress under contract with OCLC Forest Press. There is a broad:'
based Editorial Policy Committee, which includes members from Canada, Au..
tralia and the UK, and advises the editorial team. Other experts are als
consulted as required. Dewey Decimal Classification's literary warrant has bee:
improved through becoming part of OCLC, as OCLC's Online Union Catalog ..
now accessed electronically as part of the revision process. This, being base
on a very wide range of working collections, gives a better idea of the range , ,
titles that libraries actually acquire than could be obtained from a single lega
deposit collection.
The schedules are published in four well-designed volumes. A Manual, cor.
taining detailed class-by-class advice for the classifier, information on majc:
revisions, and explanation of classification policy and practice, is included in th.
fourth volume, following the index. New editions are published every seve:
years. One or two major divisions are recast completely, with piecemeal alte: | - .-

ations elsewhere. The major revisions in the current (twenty-flrst, 1996) editic: |--
were described above. Advance notice of changes is published annually i.
Decimal Classification Additions, Notes and Decisions, abbreviated to DC&, whic:.
is distributed to subscribers. The DDC database does include additional infc,:
mation including a wider range of index entries. These appear in the CD-RO\I
version, Dewey for Windows - a fine tool for the practising classifier, but tc
complex for those learning the scheme.
A single-volume abridged edition is published alongside every full editior ::ARY
currently the thirteenth Abridged. There is also a further abridgement: Dert
Decimal Classification for School Libraries. Translations into eight foreign lar.
guages are available (most recently Russian), and into at least 30 languages:
translations no longer current are included. Although libraries may classi{y ne',',
stock by the latest edition of DDC, earlier editions remain important becaus.
many libraries are reluctant to reclassify, and thus leave stock classifled b
earlier editions long after they have been superseded.
The use of DDC in the British National Bibliography has been important i:
establishing DDC in British libraries. The British National Bibliography bega,
publication in 1950, and from 1971 has been produced from the UKMART
database. Normal practice is to apply the latest edition of DDC from the Januar',


rs and other educators , . -:r its publication. There has also been some retrospective conversion of
ed by overwork' (Deu;' -.:,ier records. There is now a USMARC format for classification data, which
:iling was one of Dewer' . ,rporates fuller information about DDC classmarks than was previously avail-
,-. --

puhlisher, which gave t:' .-.t. This includes:

les an editorial office u'..
b,,th literary warrani :
I a history of changes behveen editions, making it easier for users to track
in USMARC records. .-
-*-'-,rk is now done b1' t:- o :he components of synthesized numbers, making it possible to carry out
nachine searches on classes formed by 'add' notes. Thus in the examples
Press. There is a broac
rn Figure 8.3 above, a search on 658.048 Non-profit organizations could be
nbers from Canado, Au:
t tther experts are a.-
:lade to lead to 659.288, which is synthesized from 659.28 and the final digit
,,f 658.048.
lierary warrant has be.
. i-)nline Union Catalog ,. I a field for centred headings, making it possible to systematize the hierarchical
- .'(ss. This, being ba.. - rroadening or narrowing of machine searches on DDC classmarks.
:': -cr idea o[ the rang. --.:se developments are a practical result of the link-up between DDC, the
:::ed from a single leg- -::ary of Congress and OCLC, and help to ensure the continued success of
- C. In other respects, editorial policy is concentrating on:
-. umes. A Manual. c -
t:. rnlbrmation on ma' . ,iser convenience: making the schedules easier to apply
r.. -it'e, is included in :.-' r :egularization: the gradual elimination of irregular developments of standard
: :ublished €V€f! S€\':. .ubdivisions which occur at a number of places throughout the schedules
r.,. nith piecemeal al:.: o ;aceting': the increased use of notational synthesis
-.:rf_v-first. 1996) edit: - . :nsuring that terminology is kept up to date, for example by replacing
> -ublished annualh -- :hysically handicapped persons' with 'persons with physical disabilities'
t::- r iated to DC&, u'h:- ' r ,'atering for international needs, e.g., by reducing the American and Christian
s - -.ude additional in- - -.ias in the classification, and by expanding the area tables and the historical
rt ::oear in the CD-R( l 'nd literary periods for a number of countries.
r--. :g classifier. but :

lrr.-- :c every full editi - - tsRARY OF CONGRESS GLASSIFICATION

r': abridgement: De:',"
tr- .:', eight foreign ..- -". detailed classification scheme of the Library of Congress was occasioned
m . =ast 30 languagr. : re library's removal to new premises in 1897. The scheme consists of 21
5r - :-rcS may classi$' r.'. : , :- classes set out in over 50 volumes. Publication began in 1899 and was
F rr. inrportant beca--- '- -ally complete by 1910 - apart from class K law, publication of which did
h, .tock classified - r -- rmlrl€nce until 1969 and was not completed until 1993. There are revised
-- .. ns of most classes (Q Science is in its seventh edition). Recent editions
h ,- been importart. - .:- -:ubiished in the USMARC format for classification data, and the full sched-
td BibliograPhy br;. :: .irg€th€r with LCSH are available as Classifi,cation Plus on CD-ROM.
l.- :'rm the UKNI.I: - l.-,t scheme's name describes it precisely: it is the classification of the Library
lrkrr . t lrom the Janu-- - lgress. It exists to serve the needs of that body. It was developed, under

the general editorial direction of the Librarian, Herbert Putnam, and his CL .
Classifier, Charles Martel, on a class-by-class basis by the staff of the librar, .
subject departments, who also implemented the classiflcation. It was, and is. -
in-house classiflcation. Howeveq as the classification of the world's larg..
library, its suitabili[z to other large academic and research collections was s{
recognized, and was greatly advanced by the library's decision in 1901 to ma..-
its printed catalogue cards available for sale to other libraries.


The scheme was based on the long defunct Expansiue classification of Chari=.
Ammi Cutter. Its main classes (Figure 8.6) are clearly tailored to the needs
the LC, as they were perceived a century ago. Like everlthing else abc, -.
LCC, the order of the main classes is thoroughly pragmatic, avoiding the idiosr :"
crasies of DDC. Each class was compiled separately, and could be usc:
independently. It follows that the classification is almost entirely enumerativr
with much repetition of detail, making the schedules very bull'ry in hard copl
Classes are divided in a broadly hierarchical manner; but as the scheme u'a..
compiled piecemeal at a time when classification theory barely existed, or.
must not expect the consistent application of either hierarchies or a facet strui"
ture, even within a single class. As the most enumerative of all the scheme.
LCC can only be learnt by practice. It cannot be learnt by the application , -

n General works

Fhilosophy, Psychology, Religion
Auxiliary sciences of History
Geography and Anthropology
Social sciences
Political science
t Ld ucati0n
Af usi9
Ftne Ans
Language and Literature

Agflculture ,il:-[- [
I I ecnn0r00y
liililanr cnionno
Naval science
Bibliography and Library science

Figure 8.6 LCC main classes


F-ltnam, and his ,'". r,-.' ,.:s. because there are none. I-ibrary of Congress Classification's great
:r staff of the lib:.- rr- - : h is that every class exists because subject specialists have perceived the
rt: ,n. It w?S, ?tc .: r::: i *'- : it. and the order and detail ofthe classes have been developed, again by
"- the world's 1:--.---'i i,; - ,' :-iits. to meet the requirements of an exceptionally large working collection

i-- iollections was - r .,--:,-:rg under exacting conditions. There are a number of recurring themes,
t::ion in 1901 tc, . -' I - -.:tg:
: -r)..-

r -- .:ndency to file common form and subject facets before general works on
. pic. A common sequence (derived from guidelines laid down by Martel)
-: rr.r.r€ kind of variant on:
i::sification of C:. - - Periodicals,Societies
a.. 'red to the ne.-- - t,ollections, Dictionaries
r-.'rr1'thing else ' - - Theory, Philosophy, Congresses
r, avoidingthe icr: . - - History
and could be -'- - General works
: :rtirely enumer: .

r ----habetical subdivision - which purists would object is the negation of

: :ulky in hard c -
. ..ssification - is frequently used, the precise method being by Cutter
:'-: as the SChent: ' -,, - :nbers. These allow individual classiflers great flexibility, provided that
-" :arely existec .
-:icient authority control is exercised to avoid cross-classification. F-or
r::ies or a facet s,-" - ..-rr.nple, class HJ4653 Income tax - United States - Special, NZ has subdiv-
r= ,rf all the sch.: -"
.. ,ns that include .C3 Capital gains and .E75 Evasion. Strich subdivision is
: :'.' the applicati : ' 're used for evasion of capital gains? If a title is published on tax avoidance,
- ',i' do we know not to create a new Cutter number for it under .A? In
,.:se r€Sp€cts, the success of LCC depends on its being based on a single
.-:horitative institution that applies authority control on behalf of all other
_ -:t 5.
r -- variable amount of ad hoc synthesis, which never has any application
:tside its main class (so there is no one table for the common facets).
..lrthods vary from elaborate tables - class P has a truly wondrous table of
.-odivisions under individual authors, separately notated according to the
.':rount of notation allocated to an author - to brief one-line instructions to
-.i'ide one spread of numbers in the same way as another.

ift{t -AIt0N

-' : jeneral pattern of LCC's notation can be observed in the examples above:
:: 'r two (very occasionally three) capital letters followed by up to four digits
- -: - numerically rather than decimally. Hospitality is achieved by leaving gaps

.-.: notation. S4rere these have been filled, the notation is then expanded
--,:nall.v. It is all very clear and workmanlike, like the numberplate of a car.


H Social sciences
HM-HX Sociology
HV Social path0l0gy. Social and public welJare. Criminology
HV 6001-9920 Criminology
HV 62544773 Special crimes
HV 6435-64S2 O{lenses against the public order
HV 6435-6453 lllegal organizations
HV 6441-6453 0utlaws. Brigands. Feuds

Vendsttas ars nol specilically named, but their close relation feuds is lumped together in a c.:,-
containing both concrete and abstract topics, after the manner of LCSH's coniunctive phrase headin;:
Contra$t LCC's hierarchy with BC2's (Figure 8.10). where Vendettas are correctly classed as a so:.
phenomenon (not necessarily criminal) and mrnutely categorized by hierarchy. LCC will have none :'
this soli $ociological nonsense: feuding's a crime, and that's the end 0f it!
(Some would se€ the heading and collocation at HV as m0re insidiously tendenti0us, with t!.. -
implication that anyone receivlng public welfare benefit is not far removed from being a criminal. Thas=
are characteristic instances ol critical classification.l

Figure 8.7 LCC sample topic: Vendettas

The use of Cutter numbers adds to the complexity of the notation, horvr","
There is also an official manual giving guidance on shelf-listing.
Classmarks assigned by the Library of Congress and appearing in USNI-L-
records always include the fulI shelfmark, so that every LCC classmark c:-
with a Cutter number - or, in the many places where A-Z topical subdivisio:,
prescribed, with two in succession. Many libraries perceive this as an advanti,-
as they can use Library of Congress shelfmarks as they stand, thus eliminarr:.-
one stage of book preparation. Some American libraries have migrated ir
DDC to LCC because of this.


For many years there was no official comprehensive alphabetical index, but or.
the indexes to each volume. I-ibrary of Congress Subheading served as a rori!'-
and ready index, however, as many headings have relevant I-CC classmarl-
The CD-ROM has a comDrehensive index.


As the in-house classification of a huge legal deposit library, LCC assigns ne',,
classmarks as the need arises. A list is published weekly in the Library's InJ6,-
mation Bulletin, and the CD-ROM is updated annually. Revision is thu-
continuous, unlike DDC's. Radical revision of individual classes is very muci'
the exception. The following official manuals are published: Subject Catalogitr:


: tal: Classification; Subject Cataloging Manual: Shelflisting; LC Cutter Table.

'::zre available electronically on the Cataloger's Desktop CD-ROM, along
,' ,-.rther publications on cataloguing topics. The CD-ROM is designed to be
- ':, ir.r conjunction with Classification Plus.
, ..= scheme is primarily used by LC itself and by other extensive research
:,'tions such as large academic libraries, mainly North American but also in
.-.: English-speaking countries, including a signiflcant minority of British
ti::d togethsr in a cie;: ---
',:rsity libraries. The resources behind the scheme, and the size of the
phrase headifi;:
k-:ctive :.-tions that currently use LCC, are sufficient to ensure its stability
t:::ry classed as a soc 1
&, :-CC will have none :' ; .- :ghout the foreseeable future. United Kingdom MARC records currently
- rle LCC classmarks, though with some gaps in the case of retrospective
t ::ndsntious, with tj.:' 'l.i\RC records. They do not however include shelfmarks (i.e. Cutter
F r?ing a criminal. Th:s: : -:.rers) for individual items.


l-: notation, horr'.'. - -

',:rs?l Decimal Classification emerged from an attempt in 1894 by two
r!:taring in USIL:j
r -uC classmark r -
: .-ans, Paul Otlet and Henri laFontaine, to commence the compilation of a
- '.:rsa1 index to recorded knowledge'. A classified rather than an alphabetical
f . pical subdivisi - -

-- ,:
,: ,:ris as an advan:.: ,ach was necessary in the index because of the many languages involved,

:-.:d. thus elimina,- . -" recause an internationally acceptable notation was important. The Dewey
s ..ave migrated i: *: : ..:rai Classification was already in its fifth edition, and Melvil Dewey's per-
:' -.:,rn was obtained to extend the scheme. A conference in 1895 established
,-- -rstitut International de la Bibliographie (IIB) to be responsible for the
:' :r'.,. 'fhe first edition of UDC was published in French between 1904 and 1907.
- : First World War and the unfavourable climate after it led to the demise
r-'-::ical index, but index. but UDC continued with a second edition in French and a third in
:- I .--:r an. The IIB eventually became the F-ederation International d'Information
served as a r( -.
','.:-.t LCC classma:. - . I)ocumentation (FID). The British Standards Institution, the official English
. ' :ial body, published an abridged English edition in 1961. Publication of a
,nglish edition had begun in 1943 but was not completed until 1980. Since
- all rights and responsibilities for UDC have been vested in the UDC
r rtium, representing various international and national organizations. There
. LCC assigns r.,, ' :rists a machine-readable Master Reference File containing some 60 000
:he Library's 1;:- " ..::s (compared with 220 000 classes in the full editions), from which the
Revision is i: - ' :.:rational Medium Edition, English Text, second edition was published in
.ses is very nr'.. . -
There are also editions in various combinations of Full. Medium ancl
Subject Catalr,. - '- rgecl in around 20 other languages - French, German and English are



Psychology 16n 159.9

u0cr0r0gy 301*307 oto

Comrnerce, cgmmunieati€ns, 380-388 Vacated. UDC classes Commerce at 339
transport Cornmunicati0ns 338.47, Transport and post?
services 656

Languages 400 Within class B. Class 4 is vacant.

Literatures of individual languages 820*890 Does not use: classes are formed by synthes,:
wtlnln ctass u.

Figure 8.8 Principal dillerences belween DDC and UDC schedules

UDC's official languages. A revised edition of the official Guide to the Us,
UDC was oublished in 1995.


The overall outline of the schedules follows DDC. with the main differenc.-
shown in Figure 8.8. ii-.
It will be apparent from this that UDC's attitude towards disciplines is mr,,:-
relaxed than DDC's. The schedules and notation are largely hierarchical, thoug I
hierarchies are less clearly indicated than in DDC. There is no indentation. Bc,
type is used, but is applied mechanically to notations of six digits or fewer, tf.-
shorter the number the larger the ffpeface. In the Medium edition many class.'
have headings describing aggregates of topics, e.g.,675.25 Mechanically treatr
leathers. Including: Embossed leather. Buff. Perforated, punched leather. Th-
Full edition provides subclasses for each of these. The schedules include son:.
pre-coordinated classes, for example:

341,.345 Internment of military personnel in neutral countries

551.588.5 Influence of ice on climate
664.77 Milling of wheat and rye
664.782 Processing of rice. Rice milling
664.784 Processing of maize. Maize milling (corn milling)
664.785 Processing of oats. Oat milling
Mlhile many enumerated compounds do occur, the principal means of pre-coord-
ination is by synthesis. Within the schedules, 'special auxiliary subdivisions'are
frequently to be found. These often indicate a Processes or Operations facet.
and are introduced by.0 (less frequently by a hyphen or an apostrophe). Ther
apply only to their class. For example, under 636 Animal husbandry, 636.082 is


, -,rrdinalion 622+669 Mining and metallurgy

, : rsecutive 643/645 The h0me aqd household e0uipment
:xlensio n (the same as 643+644+6457
: rple relatron 17:7 Ethtcs rn relatron to art
) i cgroup 31:1622+6691(485) Statistics of mining and metallurgy in Sweden
, :sses Commerce at
(t0 remove ambiguities frzn certain conbinatizns\
: 13.47, Transport anc
, :3er-ltxrng 77.044..355 War photography (for use in machine retrieval systetns'
.:-;ices 656
where retrieval of the subordinate cancept is nlt required)
a:, 3. Class 4 is vacant
purety linking devices. The oiher auxiliaries have thejr own classes, and c0uld in certain
.:s are formed be used as the PrimarY lacet:
::,n class B.
_anguages 61=161.1 Medical documents in Bussian
iarm 61{031) A medical encyclopaedia: also common subjects
7(091 ) HistorY ot art
: ,DC schedules rr ace 7(450.341) Venetian art
:tnnic grouplng and 7(=72) Austraiian atlorigine aft

to th, nationality
',aI Guide :rme
61'16' Seventeenth-century medicine

rg are dependent c0mm0n subdivisions and can 0n y be used as su{fires:

troint of view 7.000,28 The Christian outlook 0n art
1,4 aterials 645.13-037.87 Linoleum floor covertngs
Derso ns 7-053.2 Children's art
the main cliltt
sk - is used in a few places t0 introduce notation imported irom a non-UDC source. For
:30 F0restrv uses notations from the Foresl Decimal Classification' giving e,g. 630-114 Forest
,r 1s disciplines i.
- '' hierarchical. r:
. ito indentatiol.
..r digits or ft,rl'r- Figure 8.9 UDC Common auxiliary lables

'.. eclition manl-e

- ..ia1 auxiliary lirr thg bree.clilg 9f animals. 63(j.1 denotes Horses, aud
- \Iechanically t:.-
-Lrnchecl leathr:. Prrnies, which would give (i3(i.1.082 and 63(j.16.082 for thc breeding of
- tclules incluck - - anii l)onies respcctively. In a few lllaces an equivalent of I)DC's 'Add'
.irins is to be founcl, indicatecl bv =, for exanlple:'178'18 Sltrdent life'

-< ('tc
= 71.,3 - classiliers havt't0 wrlrk otlt for lhernselr'cs u'hich (l'-igLrre
l)art 01-
::tlter to bring across. thcrt' are also tetl Ctltlulotr auxiliary tablcs

- of the auxiliaries rerluirecl bt' repeaterl or conbined with one

can if
. :.. so a hig| cfttgree of synthesis is possible.
'l'he cglort is the getrcritl
-- relationai indicator: when LIDC was uscd to corllpile sulliect ittdexes,
ntirchine retrieval ltecatne the noru, it n'as colnt'tlon to llncl hugel-V lengthl'
lreans of pre-c ils containiug four or l]lorc thcets strung together witlt colons.
iv subdivision- rr-rt,ly amoug general classifications. LIDC a116r'vs the individlal user a
r Operations . , iegret, oI autolonty itt st'lectitlg the citation ordcr. Stalldarcl citation order
..'ially rcconrmen(led, howevcr, ancl in many places it is built irlto the'
sbanrlry, 6:-i6.( '
'fhere is an obvittus need lirr lhc' indi-
r1t,s through the special auxiliarics.


vidual user to follow a consistent citation order, and the maintenance

authoriqr file is particularly important.
UDC contains a number of devices to enable a user to modifu standard cit:,
order. Notation may be reversed round the colon, e.g., 17:7 (Ethics of Ar1 :
be expressed as 7:17 making Art rather than Ethics the primary facet, ,---
auxiliary that has both an opening and a closing notation can be moved to , '
positions, e.g., instead of 343(410.5) Criminal law - Scotland, a user may pr-
34(410.1-t3 law - Scotland - Criminal, to keep all Scottish law together.
UDC's filing order is complicated by the range of non-alphanumeric charac:.'
in the notation, and by the possibility of many auxiliaries being used inde:-,-
dently, so that a class number could conceivably begin with a bracket, eq'-..
sign or double-quote. That aside, the coordination and extension symbo,. -
and / widen the scope of a class, so they file before the simple class num:-'
Thereafter, the filing order is (broadly): (colon), then = (equals), then (.
(bracketed auxiliaries), then '...' (double quotes). This is not an exhaus::
listing: the Guide has a mind-boggling table with over 20 entries, including .'
sequence .00 -0 -1l-9 .0 which is equally incomprehensible to machine a.
human filing.


Though based on DDC, UDC's notation is far more complex, thanks to its n'
alphanumeric auxiliaries. Thanks also to these, the finer aspects of showing r;
order of classes are not always apparent. There are other differences from DI)t
Main classes and their divisions are not filled out with zeros to a three-dig
minimum: TechnoloEry and Agriculture are 6 and 63 respectively. Srhere fin:.
zero is used, it is significant: 630 denotes Forestry; (41) is the auxiliary for tl,.
British Isles, (410) fc.r Great Britain as a poiitical entity. A point is inserted afrr.
every third digit of the notation, as 629.454.22 Railway sleeping cars.
The notation is completely hospitable through the use of decimal expansicrr:
As UDC has been largely developed for use in scientific ancl technical contexr-
the allocation of the notation is even more skewed than DDC's, and classe,s '
and 6 comprise almost two thirds of the schedules. F'or more specific subjecrs
the notation can be extremely long.

Alphabetical index

the single-volume Abridged and two-volume Mediurn editions have their ow1
complete indexes. As with DDC, classifiers are recommended to work prirlarill'
from the scheduies, and to use the index as a check on the validitv of a selectecl


n:l the maintenancr ,uiLLt. llrr ,:r irr the locations of related classes. In particular,
many UDC numbers
rirrrl"'' :rned by synthesis, and the index does not show synthesized numbers.
: rrrodify standard ,' -: .
; Ar.
. i7:7 (Ethics of -, Dma. zation and revision
cs the primary face. --:,
: can be moved
r.r t, ,-.:i
', . :evision structure
has in the past been notoriously slow The setting up
r :land, a user ma\- ::- :r" ri , : --DC Consortium, together with the machine-readable Master Reference
-:;sh law together. ;- .:n be seen as measures to streamline the revision process. Much work
-:-alphanumeric char:_ -- "'-"-
-:s to be done in ironing out UDC's anomalies to make it entirely suitable
r:-rs being used inc-.-: . .,chine searching. There are currently some interesting projects for
:;: ri'ith a bracket...__" :^' - ':ing UDC for computer retrieval, and prospects for the successful rejuven-
r l extension synr; liu - i the scheme do appear brighter than in the fairly recent past.
i :-r simple class nur.,*": :- : to the 1970s UDC was frequently to be found in large card indexes in
-'-. = (equals), then 'r,:". .' libraries and sometimes in abstracting and indexing tools. Computer-
--:. is not an exha-..-- - ,,"'. - indexing systems have largely rendered obsolete UDC's detailed indexing
r - t entries, includin: .:- ' - . - ,r] (which essentially is why development is now concentrating on the
: :tsible to machinr .: - ,:m rather than the Full editions). UDC remains very popular for shelJ
.--..-rcation, particularly in the libraries of continental Europe. It is also used
:3nge various bibliographies and indexing services (for here the length of
:r - ,tation is less of a problem than on the spines of books), including Walford's
; , :. t0 Reference Material, the British National Film and Video Catalogue, and
: -.rlex, thanks to its _ .;- .-.ational bibliographies of over 20 countries. The omission of UDC class
tr - :ipects of showini -
-'.rcrs from MARC records of North American and UK orisin is a serious
: - 'lin'erences fronr I ,- .i- ,-:ilOl-1.
* zcros to a threc-..-
i -..rectively. \4rhere -- .
n .-- point is inserted a._'.- *--:r'Evelyn Bliss (1870-1955) made classification his life's study, and wrote
r :.:cping cars. -o :rajor theoretical works before his classification was published in stages
,l'decimal expans :--,,'ien 1940 and 1953. Though published by the H. W. Wilson Company, his
-- .:rri technical contc ,...
' . had little impact in the USA, but had a small but enthusiastic following in
:- ItDC's, and clas:.. : and elsewhere, particularly in the specialist fields of education, social
J ::., ,re specific sul;i -
' -.;.re and health. A Bliss Classification Association was formed in Britain to
-.-,in and develop the classification, and the decision was made to undertake
- -,jor revision on analy'tico-synthetic principles, using and developing the work
.c Classification Research Group towards the elusive goal of a completely new
: .:ral classification scheme. Bliss's original classilication had many synthetic
:: .::ions have their r,',',* -:.-rf€S, but was essentially enumerative in structure, and chiefly notable for
. .-cl to work prinra: .
-: i?re taken over the order of classes. The revision (BC2) was to retain much
- . validity of a selec:. ltis macrostructure, but otherwise is effectively a new classification. It is this


Social processes
KCY Social action
(Types 0f action by consequences for society)
KIB Divisive processes
KIC Conflict
{Types o,f conflict)
(By instruments used)
KI] X Force
KIJ Violence
KIJ V Feuds and vendettas
KIJ X Vendettas

Figure 8.lO BC2's hierarchy f0r Vendetlas

version that is discussed here. The schedules are being published class by cla.- -

Publication began in 1977, and is still not quite complete.


As BC2 is entirely faceted, only simple concepts appear in the schedules. T: -

schedules are rigorously hierarchical (Figure 8.10).
While the notation is not hierarchical, hierarchies are clearly indicated :
indentation ancl by summaries at the head of every column. Subfacets are shov.
within parentheses.
BC2's basic citation order is Disciplines - Phenomena. Phenomena that ar.
treatecl in a non-disciplinary manner are given a numbered notation, to mak-
them flie before the disciplines. The main classes are little changed from Bt
and continue to embody Bliss's principles of following the 'educational ar.
scientific consensus', placing general before special, 'gradation in spc'cialin
and the collocation of related subjects. Figure 8.11 shows the main classes, w-it:
approximate DDC equivalents.
The schedules are relentiessly faceted, and all facets and subfacets are cari
fully indicated. 'l'he complexify of the facet structures of many classes can gir',,
the schedules a daunting appearance, and a clear head is needed whe;
approaching them from colcl. For example, the facet tormula for class I..
Society is:
(1) Collectivities (KLK/KD
(2) Parts and properties (KLK K\\D
(3) Institutions (KK/KLC)
(4) Social processes (KC/KI)
(5) Ilnvironmental bases (KA/KII)


)rrvalents are approximate.)

physical forms and forms of arrangement o'documenls {DDC 030.050 etc)
Phenomena: obiects of knowledgg (no DDC equivalent)
Knowledge. rn{ormation, communication 1001)
Drsciplines: forms of krowledge
Philosophy t1 00)
Mathematics (510)
Science t500)
Physical sciences i530)
Chemrstry (540)
Astronomy r52dr. Earth sciences {550-560,
Biological sciences i570-590r
Human scjences and human studies, Physical anthropotogy, health. medicine,
psychology (5S9.9, 360,610, 150)
Social sciences and numanities
Education (370)
Social sciences (300. 390)
recl class br
History {900)
Religion i200), the Occult (130), Morals and ethics {170}
Social welfare 1360)
Politlcal science (320, 350)
Law (340i
Economics (330. 380r
.-t schedules. Technology (600: als0 355-359. 790)
Arts, {ine arts i700t
Philology: language and literature (400.800)
:arly indicatei. (Alternative to P)
.. rfacets are sh

.I]o1lena thal Figure 8.1 1 0rder of main classes in BC2

:'Lotation, tc-r r:
langed fronr 'r Operations on phenomena (KA/KB)
'cducational -i Common facets (K2lK9)
r,rn in specia.
in a 'soft' science like sociology, many of the elements of standarcl citation
:rain classes. ',
r' are discernible. As alwa1.s, the order of the schedules is Lhe reuerse of the
-..btacets are c.
. order.

. classes can --ure 8.12 below gives an example of BC2's subfacets. F-or an example of
,.ets within a single classmark, see the breakdown of class KIX J Venclettas
.s needed v,
.-ula for cla:.
:rire 8.10.


- s notation uses both numbers ancl letters (capitals only; BC used both
rls and smalls). As has been seen, numbers and letters are used together
: listing of main classes. Otherwise, numbers are used only as facet indi-
:.. for the common subclivisions:


Su bg rou ps
By time factors
By space factors
By number in group
Re{lecting particular s0cial pr0cesses
Territorial groups
Stratification (class etc.) gr0ups
Age groups
Sex-g ro ups
By personality attributes
Advantaged / disadvantaged gr0ups
0ccupational groups
By polttical status
Religious groups
Linguistic grcups
Ethnic and racial groups

The above are given in schedule order (leasf impodant first). Unlike DDC'S treatment 0f the
subject^(see Figure B 3). BC2 is able lo c0mbine subfacets. The lollowing example uses the
same ::- :
(Black R0man Catholic miodle-class male youths) as in Figure 8.3:

KNB Middle classes

KNR Youths
KNX Males
KPB R Catholics
KPF BF Blacks (from Tabte 3A)

Class number synthesized retr0actively, omitting noiati0n that duplicates the previous subfacet:
This gives: KPF BF BR NX R B, expressed as KpF BFB RNX RB.

Figure 8,1 2 Principal subfacels lor social groups (KLM_KV) in BC2

2 Physical fornr
il Forms of presentation and arrangellent
'1/9 Common subject subclivisions
'l-hese are the
onl1, facet inclicators; the stanclarcl rnethocl of builcling classma:.
is by retroactive notation. 'lhe nntation is remarkably brief, ancl can pacf.
.qooclly number of faccts into a small compass. I3revity is assured by means ,

o a long notational bast'

o sensible allocation of notation 1o the classes (with the reservation that r

Of def-erence to RC too uruch space is allocaterl to Histgr-v ancl n<tt enol{

to Science and Technokrgy)
o ir rrorr-hit-rart'hit'lrl rrollrliorr
o absence of tacet inclicators.


- ::sier use, the notation is split into groups of three characters. An (extreme)
-,.rle of BC's synthesis in action is given in Figure 8.12.
:: : anyone used to DDC, BC2 has some oddly notated hierarchies. Being
'-..,crarchical, the notation is required only to show the order of topics. The
'- .*r of the notation reflects the estimated literature on a topic, and not the
'--:e of subordination. Thus, in the above examples, AY Science appears to
- - rut is clearly not - a subdivision of A Philosophy, and its first subdivision
- : ?hvsical sciences - has a shorter notation.

&:'abetical index
--- ,,'ith UDC, BC2's indexes show simple concepts only. Each volume of the
. - .lules has its own index: there is no general index. It is thus up to
f,'- . ireatment of the s:-. : - -'lassifier to decide on an item's main class before it is possible to have
lu,.-olt uses the same ::: : -- , -rrse to the index. Every volume contains two outline schedules of the whole
...lfication; the second outline has around 100 classes: much the same level
,-tail as in DDC's second outline.

ln':anization and revision

: : BC and BC2 have been dogged throughout their lives by a chronic lack
i:Sourc€S. BC2 was conceived at a time when there was an enthusiastic
'"r'ing, at least in Britain, for the idea of a highly specific general classification
-.. rvould form the basis for all forms of information retrieval. A generation
n-i't i\/) in Bc2
-':: the world has moved on, and BC2 is still only half-published. Its intrinsic
- -.-ities may make it the benchmark by which other classifications may be
- ,:ed, but quality is not in itsel{ enough to attract users and ensure its future.
-.:cles being ill resourced, the physical production of many of the schedules
- .ser-unfriendly, ancl considerable intellectual effort is required to become
.rt in using the schedules. Most importantly today, BC2 classmarks do not
:. r:?r on centrally produced MARC records.
r rLrilcling classn. - aradoxically for a classification calling itself Bibliographical, it may be that
r - - -i. and can pa-. . s future is to be usecl predominantly not as a library classffication but as a
- --Lrrecl by mear:. .:-r'rJ/ for others to mine. More than any other general classification, BC2
- .:r.nbles the systematic display of a thesaurus. Its specificity is such that the

'-' .r.Sel'vation tha. --_:3t lnajority of its headings can be used as they stand as thesaurus clescriptors,
- . reorganizing the semantic relationships for a thesaurus is largely a mechan-
: -' :-r'and not en. ,. exercise (but by no means altogether so - see Figure 8.13).
+s well as being a potent source for thesaurus compilers, BCz with its
:nense detail and regular and explicit structure would lend itseH to machine
.,:tiltulation bette'r than UDC, and thcre have been suggestions that the clevelop-


Class KIJ X Vendettas $hows how easily BC2 adapts as a thesaurus, and also how sorne pro{ess
input is needed. 0nly the immediate hierarchy is shown here.

KIJ Violence
-Applica'ii0n of injurious physical force
. For War, see Political science R
KIJ K Intimidation [further classes follow]
KIJ V Feuds & Vendettas
. Lasting mutual homicidal relationship between two groups
KIJ W Feuds
- Socially regulated, terminable peacefully
' Not socially regulated

SN Lasting mutual homicidal relatiOnship between two groups. sOcially regulatec
terminable peacefully
BT Violence
RT Ve ndettas
$N Lasting mutual homicidal relationship between two groups, not socially regu:
BT Violence
RT Feuds
SN Application of injurious physical force
BT Conf lict

I ntim idation
Ve ndettas

Figure 8.'13 Adapting BC2 as a thesaurus

ment of Lll)C could borrow some leaves fronr llC2's book. (There is alreiL
collaboration with UDC.) N{ure generally, the stucly of classif ication sch.
recognized lo be an excellent starting-point for atryone who ncecls to lt.
a subject is structurecl, and tl-ie detail and rigorous analysis of BC2's s.
make it especially useful in this respect.


The CC dcvisrcl by S. R. Ilanganathan is little used outsicle the Indian s

nent and in tire Western worl(l is chiefly of historical interest ior its der-t
of facet analysis. F-irst published in 1933, subsequent eclitions have int:


how som€ profess : - :'astic changes. The current edition is the seventh (1987, and still lacking
r facet formula is simple, sturdy and hauntingly rnemorable: PMEST, i.e.
..rliry Mafter, linergy, Space and 'fime. Personality is (broadly) Key
.. \'{atter is Materials; Energy is Processes and Operations; and Space and
::.c two of the common facets. Mapping the'se onto standard citation order

".r ', systen Personality

,- .1.-

...icriais Matter
. perties
- .CSSCS Energ_v
. .rations
- rnnron facets Space
. is clearly an incomplete formula, Ranganathan postulated two furthcr
... His fr"rndamental categories caa apply at different Leuels.'lJrese are
, :. broadly) rvhat we would call subfacets, but can be used to specily basic
. such as Kinds, I)arts and Properties. 'lhe other device is Ronttds wht:re
, I.lll fornula can begin a second round at some subordinate position in the
n order - typically to introduce Agents. Iivery class has its own facet
:ia. based on PN{ES I with di{ferent lrvels anci Rounds as recluired. 'lhis
-,cnlt enough, ancl is not made easier by Ranganathan's adherence to his
' Porsimony - trained as a mathematician, he believed in giving information]/, to the point of de-siccation. Neither is it made easier by CC's notation,
r is of a desprrate cornplexity. It uses a range of non-alphanutneric charac-
.,i iacet indicators in a manner cornparable to UI)C. l{owever, whereas UDC
.tre is alr-eacl1'
".i'ise confines itscH to nurnbers, CC also has upper and lower case letters,
' .cation scheclLi
. il as using a ft'w le.tters as iror.rorary nurnbers to extend the notaticinal
.tcecls to learl
- ,i IJC2's sche, -.
i1e Ranganathan is rrncloubtedly the lather oI moclern classification theory.
ne of the fathers of the theory of controlled laugrrages generally, iris C.C
- n' user* in \\restern contexts. Hon'ever, PNIFIs-I'renrains a very worthwhilc'

::,rnic in a rangc of lrrofessiclnal applicatirlns.

rc Inclian sube
rr its develop;.
s have introcli.



,.1 develol
.-.ected to
A published classification scheme is a complex package, and whatever scl '
is in use for a particular application, there is a good chance that its mani:- :rle quart(
will feel dissatisfied with some aspects, and contemplate modilying it. Rea.' ,i their P

may include: -,rre tamtr

o Providing extra specificity for applying a general classification to a sp.

collection. :9ECIAL I
o Giving a special collection a shorter base notation.
o Altering the citation order, to bring together distributed relatives (e.g .i $ellefi
DDC in an academic library, to bring together all aspects of Geographr '--OlTlpas:
to arrange literary works by Language - Period - Author instead of DI - . fo1lou'i
preferred Ianguage - Form - Period - Author).
o 1b simplifu the classification. r bibliog
Modifications are of two kinds: r slielf a

attcl re
o Making use of one or more of the scheme's own published alternatives. :
the vo
example, DDC has an option that permits literary works to be classillei: . 'ItrC?1
-B under each language irrespective of literary form.
o Buying in or developing an unauthorized modiflcation.
r .hclf
In either case, the implications must be carefully considered: '--\(tll I

r Many libraries use centrally produced bibliographic records that inclu
I :lcsa
DDC and/or I-CC class numbers. Resources must be allocated to ident.
Lr ricl!
records whose class numbers require modifying, as well as to apply the ltii
- I '1>:
modiiication. t, i1:
o In the past, many modifications, certainly in British libraries, were nra a r',..
with the objective of providing extra detail to support subject indexing. 'fh .
function is today done more effectively by other means.
r If there is pressure from users to modify parts of the scheme, for examp..
the better to reflect patterns of acaclemic study, can the objective be met b'
other means, for example by guiding or user education?
o Are the publishers of the scheme preparing an official revision? I.ocal altrr-
ations to individual classes can be overtaken by a future edition of th.
o Have idcntical or sirniiar problems been encounterecl elsewhere? If so, hor'.
have they been addressecl?

Some of these implications are rnanagerial, others technical. Morlifications tr

classification schemes were urore comuroniv unclertaken a generation or mortr


.i0, when published schemes and central bibliographic agencies were both less
'e11 developed than today, and when classification (at least in Britain) was
ri: .:td whatever sci. :\pected to do more than arrange books on shelves and was propagated in
_ ::rce that its mzn;-: : )me quarters almost as a panacea. Today, managers should satisfy themselves
u.' :todifuing it. Rt-a- .:rat their problem is real, unique, and incapable of resolution by other means
:elbre tampering with published schemes.
- .rilication to a sl _


i:- - cd relatives (r..
:- :itS of Geograph-. -he general classiflcation schemes that have been considered so far attempt to
- ',ur instead of D- all of knowledge. Speciai classiflcation schemes are to be found in
ie following environments:
r bibliographies, indexing and abstracting services and their associated data-
bases: for example INSPEC, Psyclnfo
o shelf arrangements of special collections. These may be business, industrial
ru - .:red alternatives.
and research libraries, specialist government libraries, organizations within
-ii to be classifi. .
the voluntary sector, or special collections within general libraries, especially
l* local studies collections in public libraries. Special classifications for these
mr- purposes were often devised with indexing as an additional objective

il- :.'l:
r shelf arrangement of a particular class within a general classification: for
example, Elizabeth Moys's (1982) C/assiJication Scheme for Law Books, ori-
i :-cords that int..- ginally to stand in for LCC's then unpublished class K law
r .,ilocated to idc- o thesaurofacets: a thesaurus having its systematic display developed with
- rs ro apply the r
notation and rules for pre-coordination, enabling it to be used as a shelJ
classification as well as for post-coordinate retrieval. The eponymous original
: :ttraries. were n. j was the English Electric Thesaurofacel of 1969
. - 1rier'I indexing. I o records management systems where files are stored in a topic-related order.
t:--' -
,,. general, schemes aim to cover just one subject area, or to meet the interests
; -.'heme, for exan_.
: one user group. More specifically, their types include:
,bjective be mt
I schemes restricted to a conventional subject area or discipline: for example,
' r'ision? Local a.. rnusic, insurance, chemistry
Lrrt. edifion ol' : . schemes devised for other associations of topics: for example, local collec-
tions, industrial libraries, archives
srrvhere? If scl. i.
o schemes for a certain Vpe of user: for example, children, general browsers
o schemes for documents in a particular physical form: for example, pictures,
' sound recordings; or restricted to a certain form of publication: for example,
,,1. Modilication: patents, trade catalclgues
, :eneratiOn or rn :.
o schemes for ciassifying the subject content of works of the imagination: for

a A1

example, fiction, paintings. Conventional classification schemes classif,'t;.

only by non-subject characteristics.

The rationale for applying a special classification scheme is essentially the sa.:
writ large, as that for modi{ying a published classification, and the same car'..
apply. The heyday of special classification schemes was in the 1960s and 1t-
when (as noted above) general classifications and central bibliographic agen-
were relatively undeveloped, and classification was often expected to suppor .
indexing function. Additionally, the great expansion of libraries at that r::
coincided with the flowering of post-war classification theory. For anyone ser:. .
up a special collection, a special classification tailored to its needs seemed .

natural choice. Special classiflcations were made and published in great numb:'.
and their compilation by library school students was an exercise that was 1.-
to be both professionally relevant and academically rigorous, like learning k -
Since the 1970s many such schemes have fallen by the wayside. Today libr. -
or database managers would be well advised to contemplate using un
special classification only when satisfied tirat none of the major general clas..
cations is viable, and to construct a special classification as an absolute..,-
resort. The focus of activity has moved: in many cases it will be found tha- .

thesaurus, iocally maintained as an authority file, and perhaps based

a published thesaurus, will be all that is required for speciflc subject retrie,, ,

and a published classiflcation scheme will suffice for shelf arrangement.


The three major general classification schemes have all been in existence r :
upwards of 90 years. A11 have enjoyed some measure of official backing ,

government agencies, and this is undoubtedly of prime importance to thc.

continuing success. 'I'he move over the past generation towards centrally pr
duced records with classrnarks centrally applied has led to a lower emphas -
today on modi{ying published schemes. This, together with the virtual demi.-
of the indexing function of classification, has reduced the need for speci:,
classilication schentes.


l'-oresl l)ress publish a range of materials for I)l)C, including a Dewey Aurliocassette, Postr:
Ilool<nrark, aud Cartoon Booklet. 'Tr-v the I)ervey liap. an 81./r-rninute aucliocassette that uses t1.
solicl bcat and easl' to rernernber rh1'nre oI rap nrusic to teach the DDC s-vstenr. Or choosc' the carto,
l)ewey poster for children ancl its companion booknrark. Also available is "l've (]ot Your Numbt'r

I', I lll.l O ( ; RA I'H I (' CI ASS IFI('A]'I O )'l SC I l tjN,{ I,lS

.--r cmes classi{y the.. Lrr-page conric-style I)ervey bool<let lirr graclt's K-5. All arc teaching tools that are both cducatirinal
: rntertaining. l3ookmarks lvailable in F.nglish and Spanish. For inlirrmation on these and olher
ilucts. see the l)eucy \\'eb site at <http://r.vr'">.
, .rsentially the san:.
.'hison. J. (1980 A classification as a sorlrce for a thesaunrs: the Biblirigraphic Classification ri{
.:.rl the same cavea:l ll. t'1. Illiss as:,1 soLlrc('o1 thesaurus ternrs and struclure. Journctl of Dotuntentation.42 (l'r).
,:-' 1960s and 197r .
tn-. C. I). (19!)2) ,41 Introduction trt tlte Tutentieth Edition ol the DeLt'ey Decinal Classihcation.
.'- . :rrgraphic agencit : London: Librarv Associirtiort.
'-t:cted to support a, :an, [-. M. (19!)0) 'l'he l-ibrary of Congress classification syslem in an onlinc envlronnlent.
Cataloging and ClassiJitation Quarterly. ll (1), 7-25.
--:-aries at that tin.: ,an. L. \L (191)ir) Classificalion. present and future. Catctloging and Classi.fication Quarterly 2l
-- : itr anyone settin-: (2\. 5-17.
..: :teeds seemed tli. -nan, L. M., Conrarorni, j. P, N{itchell,.l. S. and Satija, N{. A. (1990 I)ewey l)ccinal Classi/itation:
.-,. . in greatnumbers, 1 Practicnl Guide,'2nr1 edn, revised for I)I)C21. Alban-v. \Y: ['-ore,st l)ress.
..::---ise that was helc - 'ates. Il..T. (19&)) Rritish Catalogtte rtf NIusic Classilirution.lrrr.tdon: I3ritish National 13iblio.qraph--v
- )miu-omi. J. P (1990) Sumnration of classilication as an enhancement of irrtelk'ctual access tc)
. .ke learning Iatin irrfrrrnratiorr in an online envirorunertt. ('atalrgittg nrttl Classificntion ()uarterly. If (1). 99-102.
:. -.ile. Today librarr t, u'ej Decimul Classification and Relatire Index (7ll\16) 21st edition. ,1 r.'ols. Alban','. NY: Irorest Prrss.
;.: -tsing an existing (The Introduction in Vol. 1 explains DI)C's basic princilrles aucl structurt'l and the Nlanual in Vol.
-1 ofters detailerl advice on practical problenrs ol inrlrlenrent;(ion.)
:-: :' general classifi- -)rabenstott. Ii. \'I. (198!i) Searching and brorvsing the De*'e1'Decinral Classification in an online
r :r ?lt absolute las: calalog. Cataloging and ClassiJitation Quarterly, 7, :',7-68.
i:oskett, A. C. (1990 The Subjcct Appronclt to Information,5th edn. Lonclon: I-ibrar1, Association.
- be found that a
\larcella, R. ancl Newton. lt. (199"1) A Neu'LIanunl rf Classi/irution. Aldershot: Gower.
" - r:haps based on \liksir, Ii M. (1998) 'l'he I)DC, tht Uniterse of Knouledge nttd the Post-Modem llbrary. New York:
:: . subject retrieval. Forest Press.
- .,:119€lTl€nt. \lills, J. arrd I3roughton. \'. (1977) Rliss Bibliograpltic Clossificutiori, 2ncl ecln, vol. titled Introduttion
on d A ux i I i a r y S ch e d u I e s. Lonck.rn: Ilutteru'or ths.
\loys, E. (1982) ,/tfo1s ktw Boolts,2nd ecln. I-ondon: Butterworths.
ClassiJitation Scheme.fur
Satija, NI. P (1990) r\ critical introcluction to the 7th edition (l!)87) of the Cokrn Classification.
Cotaloging anrl Classihcotion Quarttrly. 12 (2). 125-311.
:weeney, R. (1983) Histurical studies in ilocumentation: the clevelopntent of thc Dewe1, Decirnal
Classification. Journal of Doutmetttatiori. 39 (l:i). 192-205.
i: ' ]l existence frtr 'l'lrorlas,
A. It. (cd.) (1!)!)5) C/a.s.slfcation: Optiotts and Oppttrtunilrps. New \irrk: Harvorth. (A1so
: ..'ial backing bv published as Cataloging and Clossi/icotion ()uarterly. l9 (3/1)).
- r'tance to their
, .i centrally pro-
: )\\-er emphaSis
- . r'irtual demise
:rd for special

'cassette, Poster-.
- lte that uses tht
:t, rosc the cartoon
, r \bur Numbcr".