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Uptical Networks a Practical Perspective,

rd
Edition, ELSEVIER Inc.
8a[lv 8amaswaml kumar n Slvara[an and Calen P Sasakl
Book Review

This book by authors Ramaswami, Sivarajan and Sasaki explain the concepts behind optical
networks going Irom basic Iundamentals and building up to postgraduate level understanding oI
Optical Networking. The book is divided into two sections part I contain details oI
technological developments in optical components and transmission systems while the part II oI
the book deals with the optical network architecture and networking aspects oI optical networks.
Introducing optical networks, authors explain optical technology in Chapter1 while the Chapter 2
describes propagation oI light in optical Iibre and describes how copper cannot match the
superiority oI Iibre. Networks built on Iiber optics, have lots oI advantages over both traditional
wire and wireless networks. The next chapter gives overview oI optical components, the
hardware that makes networks possible, needed Ior building optical network moving on to
modulation and demodulation schemes. The Iinal chapter in part I describes design oI the
physical layer.

In Part II the emphasis shiIts to more technical aspects, up to graduate level courses in computer
sciences and electrical engineering, and hence authors go into more depth into the requisite
theories and their applications. Here the authors describe Iirst generation oI optical networks and
then go on to describe the broadcast and WDM networks that are used in LANs and WANs.
Architecture oI the networks and key design issues are explained and then authors describe
virtual networks a concept that is helpIul in integrating IP and ATM networks over optical
layer. Moving on the control, connection and Iault management concepts are deliberated on. On
going research activities are explained and authors also explain optical networks solution Ior
FTTH applications. In the Iinal chapters issues pertaining to network operators are explained
concluding with Packet Switched Optical Networks.
High speed networks are essential Ior businesses Ior eIIective communication, Iurther
decreasing costs oI bandwidth spurs development oI newer applications to ensure higher
utilization oI bandwidth. Optical networks are relatively immune to interIerences that plague
traditional copper networks. Fiber deployment is measured in sheath miles which identiIy total
length oI Iibre cables. Optical networks generally reIer to two generations the 1
st
generation
Iocused on transmission and capacity provision while the 2
nd
generation networks have routing,
switching and intelligence in the optical layer. Optical layer is a server layer that provides
services to other client layers provides lightpaths to a variety oI client layers. Lightpath service
advantage is that this type oI service can be transparent to that oI the actual data being sent over
the lightpath. Similarly an all-optical network allows transmission oI data Irom source to
destination without undergoing any optical-to-electrical conversions along the way.
In optical transmission most commonly used modulation scheme is on-oII scheme in which 1 bit
is encoded by turning light source (LED or laser) 'on while 0 bit is encoded as absence oI the
light source. Bit interval is termed as time available Ior transmission oI that bit and the
concerned interval may be smaller Ior higher data rates. The most common signal Iormats are
non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ). NRZ is signiIied by 1 bit occupying the entire
bit interval and no pulse Ior signaling 0 bit while in RZ Iormat pulse the diIIerence is that 1 bit
is signaled by occupying Iraction oI bit interval. The spectral eIIiciency is dependent on type oI
modulation used and realistically the Iigure comes to around 0.4 b/s/Hz, though theoretical limits
may be higher, giving a maximum capacity oI optical Iibre at around 20 Tb/s - again improved
and more sophisticated modulation can lead to higher channel capacities. Multilevel modulation
can be used to increase higher spectral eIIiciencies and transmit at a higher data rate thus
multilevel modulation schemes are more spectrally eIIicient than on-oII keying. Authors then go
on to explain the concepts oI Optical Transport Network (OTN), reIerred to as G.709 standard
and IP protocol and MPLS starting Irom very basic deIinitions and then building on to explain
how these concepts have pragmatic applications in optical networking. Authors describe the
critical importance oI network survivability the protection against disruption and availability oI
networks. Protection techniques that enable restoration against downtime are discussed then
options or dedicated or shared protection are explained. In the last chapters` authors describe the
latest developments in 2
nd
generation optical networks, their issues, and access networks that
allow connection to 'network that runs Irom the service provider`s Iacility to the home or
business. Deployment considerations highlight 'issues Iacing network operators as they build
new networks or upgrade their networks to higher and higher capacities and the real liIe case
studies help in understanding analysis oI systems highlighting the positives and negatives oI
choices made.

The book is very simple to read, easy to absorb, and builds on the Iundamental knowledge Irom
ground up, going Irom basic to proIound, giving a reader sense oI accomplishment at having
absorbed complex material in an engaging way. Further reading section helps reader continue
quest Ior Iurther research and in depth handling oI speciIic topics and the problems section
invite reader at end oI each chapter invites whetting concepts. This makes this academic book
accessible to others who are not core engineers.