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EN 14025: Tanks fr die Befrderung gefhrlicher Gter EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods

Contents in English and German


Deckel fr Einsteigeffnungen nach DIN EN 14025(6.3.6):2008-08.................................... 2 1 Kreisrunde oder elliptische flache Deckel .......................................................................... 2 2 Kreisrunde gewlbte Bden ................................................................................................ 3 Covers for manholes acc. DIN EN 14025(6.3.6):2008-08...................................................... 4 1 Circular or elliptical flat ends.............................................................................................. 4 2 Dished ends ......................................................................................................................... 5 Example EN 14025 Appendix B.............................................................................................. 6 1 EN07 B.5.1.......................................................................................................................... 7 2 EN07 B.5.2.......................................................................................................................... 9 3 EN08 B.5.3........................................................................................................................ 12 4 EN07 B.6.1........................................................................................................................ 14 5 EN07 B.6.2........................................................................................................................ 15 6 EN08 B.6.3........................................................................................................................ 18 7 EN08 B.6.4.2..................................................................................................................... 20 8 EN08 B.6.4.4..................................................................................................................... 23 9 EN08 B.6.5........................................................................................................................ 26 10 EN09 B6.6 Betr. .............................................................................................................. 28 11 EN09 B6.6 Prf. ................................................................................................................ 32 12 Zusammenfassung........................................................................................................... 36 13 Summary ......................................................................................................................... 37

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EN 14025: Tanks fr die Befrderung gefhrlicher Gter EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods

Deckel fr Einsteigeffnungen nach DIN EN 14025(6.3.6):2008-08


Literatur : www.beuth.de Mit Modul Deck knnen Einsteigeffnungen mit flachen oder gewlbten Deckeln fr Tankfahrzeuge nach EN 14025 berechnet werden. Das Programm berechnet die erforderliche Bodendicke und den erforderlichen Schraubenquerschnitt. Nach Programmstart kann eine flache oder gewlbte Bauform gewhlt werden. Anschlieend erscheint ein entsprechendes Eingabefenster mit den erforderlichen Angaben fr die Berechnung. Das Eingabefenster wird dynamisch an die jeweiligen Vorgaben angepasst und blendet nur die erforderlichen Angaben und Berechnungsgleichungen ein. Bei einer durchgehenden Dichtung ist die erforderliche Bodendicke beispielsweise unabhngig von der Schraubenkraft. Bei einer innenliegenden Dichtung werden weitere Eingabewerte und Gleichungen fr die statischen Krfte eingeblendet. Manche Parameter werden vom Programm automatisch eingetragen. Beispielsweise kann ein Dichtungstyp nach Tabelle 3 in EN 14025 ausgewhlt werden und das Programm ermittelt die zugehrigen Dichtungsparameter. Die Schraubenabmessungen fr metrische DIN-Schrauben werden ebenfalls automatisch eingetragen.

1 Kreisrunde oder elliptische flache Deckel


Bei Einsteigeffnungen mit flachen Deckeln knnen kreisrunde oder elliptische mit innenliegenden oder durchgehenden Dichtungen ausgewhlt werden. Die wichtigsten Eingabegren sind in Bild 8 und Bild 9 dargestellt.

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EN 14025: Tanks fr die Befrderung gefhrlicher Gter EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods

2 Kreisrunde gewlbte Bden


Bei gewlbten Boden knnen innenliegende oder durchgehende Dichtungen gewhlt werden. Bei einer innenliegenden Dichtung muss der Versatz hr zwischen der Schalenmitte und Flanschmitte an der Schweinaht 1 in Bild 11 eingegeben werden.

Bild 11: Gewlbte Bden

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EN 14025: Tanks fr die Befrderung gefhrlicher Gter EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods

Covers for manholes acc. DIN EN 14025(6.3.6):2008-08


Literature : www.beuth.com Flat or dished covers for manholes can be calculated with module DECK according to EN 14025. The program calculates the required cover thickness and the required bolt area. A flat or dished design type can be selected at program start and an appropriate input window follows with the required input values for the calculation. The input window is dynamically adapted according to the specifications and displays only the required input data and equations. For example, the required cover thickness for a full face gasket is independent from the bolt force. For a narrow face gasket additional input data and equations for the static forces are displayed. Some parameters are automatically inserted by the program. For example, a gasket type according table 3 in EN 14025 can be selected and the program determines the required gasket parameters. The bolt dimensions for metric DIN-bolts are also automatically evaluated.

1 Circular or elliptical flat ends


For man holes with flat covers circular or elliptical and narrow face or full face gaskets can be selected. The most important input values are illustrated in Fig. 8 and Fig.9.

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EN 14025: Tanks fr die Befrderung gefhrlicher Gter EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods

2 Dished ends
For dished heads narrow or full face gaskets can be selected. For narrow face gaskets the offset hr between shell center and flange center at the welding 1 in Fig. 11 must be specified.

Fig. 11: Dished heads

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Fig.: Calculation example with dimensions in mmm acc. En 14025

Appearance Input values: Calculated values: Critical values: Estimated values: 1.234 1.234 1.234 1.234 or or or or 1.234 1.234 1.234 1.234

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

1 EN07 B.5.1
Shells under internal pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7:2003-11 (State Nov.2005) and EN14025:2008-08

7.4.2 Cylindrical shells under internal pressure Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 Calculation temperature Calculation pressure Final wall thickness acc. drawing Outside diameter Weld factor (= acc. EN 14025) Material: Material designation Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Material strength (Re, Rp, Rm) Safety factor acc. EN 13445 Allowable stress Result Inside diameter Mean diameter Geometrical ratio Analysis thickness en - ( ) Required thickness Required thickness with allowances Maximum permissible pressure Load case The strength condition is The geometrical condition is Test valid valid Di Dm e/De ea e e Pmax 2300 2305 0.001278 5 2.953 2.953 0.6768 mm mm mm mm mm MPa lc t P en De Z 1 (0,1) 2 1,2 100 C 4 bar 5 mm 2310 mm 0.8

Number 1.4404(H) 0 e c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 260 K 1.05 S f 195

mm mm mm mm MPa MPa

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Allowable stress for testing acc. EN 14025 Tensile strength at 20C Yield stress Re at 20C (Rp02 or Rp1) Allowable stress = Min[0.5*Rm20, 0.75*Rpe] f = Min[0.5* Equations e = P * Di / ( 2 * f * Z - P ) = e = 0.4 * 2300 / ( 2 * The strength condition is valid ea = 5 2.953 = e The geometrical condition is valid 2.953/ 2310 e/De = 0.001278 = Pmax = P * f * Z * ea / Dm = Pmax = 0.4 * 195 * 2.953 mm 195 * : : 0.16 5 / 2305 530 MPa , 0.75* 260 Rm20 Re f MPa ] = 530 260 195 195

MPa MPa MPa MPa

(7.4-1), EN 14025(1) 0.8 0.4 )

0.6768 MPa 0.8 *

(7.4-3)

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

2 EN07 B.5.2
Shells under internal pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7:2003-11 (State Nov.2005) and EN14025:2008-08

7.5.3 Torispherical ends under internal pressure - Korbbogenboden type Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 Calculation temperature Calculation pressure (ext. pres. acc.8.8.2: P<0) Final wall thickness according to drawing Outside diameter Weld factor (= acc. EN 14025) Material: Material designation Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Material strength (Re, Rp, Rm) 0.2% proof stress, operation 0.2% proof stress, room temperature Safety factor Allowable stress (f=fd acc EN14025) Allowable buckling stress fb=fd=f acc. EN14025 Results: Maximum permissible pressure Min(Ps,Py,Pb) Calculation thickness without allowance Required wall thickness Max(es, ey, eb) Required thickness with allowances Required thickness of spherical part, membrane Required thickness of knuckle, yield 7.5.3.5 Required thickness of knuckle, plastic buckling Inside diameter Inside radius of spherical part Inside radius of knuckle Geometrical ratio Geometrical ratio Calculation coefficient Thickness reduction distance (R*e) acc. 7.5.3.4 Limit skirt length 0.2* (Di*e) acc. 7.5.3.4 Loading case: The strength condition is The geometrical conditions are Test valid valid Pmax ea e e es ey eb Di R r R/De r/De l h 0.6542 5 3.602 3.602 1.896 2.988 3.602 2300 1848 355.7 0.8 0.154 0.7891 81.59 18.2 MPa mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm t P en De Z 1 (0,1) 2 1,2 100 C 4 bar 5 mm 2310 mm 1

Number 1.4404(H) 0 e c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 260 K 166 Rp02T Rp02R 220 S 1.05 f 195 195 fb

mm mm mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

mm mm

Allowable stress for testing acc. EN 14025 Tensile strength at 20C Yield stress Re at 20C (Rp02 or Rp1) Allowable stress = Min[0.5*Rm20, 0.75*Rpe] f = Min[0.5* 530 MPa , 0.75* 260 Rm20 Re f MPa ] = 530 260 195 195 MPa MPa MPa MPa

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Equations es = P * R / ( 2 * f * Z - 0.5 * P ) = es = 0.4 * 1848 / ( 2 * 1.896 195 * 2.988 mm 2300)/ mm 1 - 0.5 *

0.4 )

ey = * P * (0.75 * R + 0.2 * Di) / f = ey = 0.7891 * 0.4 * (0.75 *

1848 + 0.2 *

195

The auxiliary values for (X, Y, Z, N at the end of mask) have been calculated iteratively with the required thickness e. eb = (0.75 * R + 0.2 * Di) * P * (Di/r)^0.825 111 * fb 0.4 * ( 111* 2.988, : ^(2/3) = 2300/ 195 1.896) = 3.602 3.602 355.7)^0.825 ^(2/3)

eb = (0.75*

1848+0.2*

2300)* 3.602,

e = Max(eb, ey, es) = Max(

The strength condition is valid ea = 5 3.602 = e

The strength condition is valid Max(0.06*Di, 2*ea) r 138, 10) Max( De/1000 R = ea 0.08*De , 355.7 2310= De

: Di/5 460 355.7 2.31 5 184.8

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Rating of the permissible pressure Ps = 2 * f * Z * ea / ( R + 0.5 * ea ) = Ps = 2 * 195 * 1 * 1.054 5 / ( 1848 + 0.5 * 0.6693 1848 + 0.2* 0.6542

5 )

Py = f * ea / [ * ( 0.75 * R + 0.2 * Di ) ] = Py = 195* 5 / [ 0.7891 * ( 0.75*

2300 )]

Pb = 111 * fb * [ea/(0.75*R+Di/5)]^1.5 * (r/Di)^0.825 = Pb=111* 195*[ 5/(3* 1848/4+ 0.6542, Z = 0.1 = 2300/5)]^1.5*( 0.6693, 2.71, X = 1.104,

355.7/Di)^0.825 0.6542 0.8447

Pmax = Min(Pb, Py, Ps) = Max( Parameter: Parameter: = Y = 0.001949,

1.054) = 0.1547, N = 0.2 =

0.06 =

1.668,

0.5281

0.7891

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

3 EN08 B.5.3
Shells under external pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7 edition 2003-11 (state Nov.2005)

Spherical shells acc. to 8.7.1 Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ 1 (0,1) EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods, section 6.4 Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 lc 2 Safety factor acc. to section 8.4.4 S 1.1 Calculation temperature t 20 C Calculation pressure P 4 bar Final wall thickness with allowances en 8 mm Mean radius of the shell R 1848 mm Material properties of the spherical shell: Material designation Poisson's ratio Austenitic steel (1=yes, 2=no) Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Strength acc. to specification (Re, Rp, Rm) Safety factor according to section 8.4.4 Modulus of elasticity 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature allowable elastic limit (Rpx, Rpx/1.25) Number 1.4404(H) nu 0.3 1 e 0 c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 260 K S 1.1 E 200000 Rp02 220 Rp02p 220 176 e 2 mm

mm mm mm mm MPa N/mm MPa N/mm

Curvature deviation greater than 30%? 1=yes, 2=no,Abw based on a max. arc length of measuring range Bog maximum radius of curvature RKmax Results: Calculation thickness without allowances ea Limit pressure for circumferential yield (8.7.1-1) py Theoretical instability pressure (8.7.1-2) pm Ratio pm/py pm/py Ratio pr/py (Fig. 8.5-5) pr/py allowable pressure (pr/S) pzul Condition: P = 0.4 < 0.5994 = pzul valid Test

8 1.524 4.535 2.976 0.4327 0.5994

mm MPa MPa MPa

The strength condition is for load case

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

py = pm = pzul =

1.524 = 2 * e * ea / R = 2 * 4.535 = 1.21 * E * ea/R = 1.21 * pr/S = 0.6593/ 1.1, = 0.6593/

176 * 200000 *

8 / 8/

1848

1848

shape deviation < 30% 1.1*(1.3* 1848/ )

pr/S*(1.3*R/RKmax)

Max. measuring length of curvature deviation acc. to 8.7.2: Bog = = 2.4* (ea*RKmax) = 2.4* ( 8* )

Vessel ends acc. to section 8.8: Semi-spherical ends shall be designed acc. to the rules for spheres. The mean sphere radius for torispherical shells is R=crown outside radius and for the stress calculation acc. 7.5.2 (inside pressure P<0 with module EN07) holds N=1. For semi-ellipsoidal ends the mean sphere radius is R=D/(4h).

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

4 EN07 B.6.1
Shells under internal pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7:2003-11 (State Nov.2005) and EN14025:2008-08

7.4.2 Cylindrical shells under internal pressure Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 Calculation temperature Calculation pressure Final wall thickness acc. drawing Outside diameter Weld factor (= acc. EN 14025) Material: Material designation Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Material strength (Re, Rp, Rm) Safety factor acc. EN 13445 Allowable stress Result Inside diameter Mean diameter Geometrical ratio Analysis thickness en - ( ) Required thickness Required thickness with allowances Maximum permissible pressure Load case The strength condition is The geometrical condition is Equations Allowable stress for the selected load case: 430 MPa 3 f = K/S = / e = P * Di / ( 2 * f * Z - P ) = e = 0.3 * 2300 / ( 2 * The strength condition is valid ea = 3.02 3.013 = e The geometrical condition is valid 3.013/ 2306 e/De = 0.001306 = Pmax = P * f * Z * ea / Dm = Pmax = 0.3 * 143.3 * 3.013 mm 143.3 * : : 0.16 3.02 / 2303 (7.4-3) = 143.3 MPa Operation valid valid Di Dm e/De ea e e Pmax 2300 2303 0.001306 3.02 3.013 3.013 0.3007 mm mm mm mm mm MPa lc t P en De Z 1 (0,1) 1 1,2 100 C 3 bar 3.02 mm 2306 mm 0.8

Number 1.4404(H) 0 e c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 430 K 3 S f 143.3

mm mm mm mm MPa MPa

(7.4-1), EN 14025(1) 0.8 0.3 )

0.3007 MPa 0.8 *

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B 5 EN07 B.6.2


Shells under internal pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7:2003-11 (State Nov.2005) and EN14025:2008-08

7.5.3 Torispherical ends under internal pressure - Korbbogenboden type Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 Calculation temperature Calculation pressure (ext. pres. acc.8.8.2: P<0) Final wall thickness according to drawing Outside diameter Weld factor (= acc. EN 14025) Material: Material designation Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Material strength (Re, Rp, Rm) 0.2% proof stress, operation 0.2% proof stress, room temperature Safety factor Allowable stress (f=fd acc EN14025) Allowable buckling stress fb=fd=f acc. EN14025 Results: Maximum permissible pressure Min(Ps,Py,Pb) Calculation thickness without allowance Required wall thickness Max(es, ey, eb) Required thickness with allowances Required thickness of spherical part, membrane Required thickness of knuckle, yield 7.5.3.5 Required thickness of knuckle, plastic buckling Inside diameter Inside radius of spherical part Inside radius of knuckle Geometrical ratio Geometrical ratio Calculation coefficient Thickness reduction distance (R*e) acc. 7.5.3.4 Limit skirt length 0.2* (Di*e) acc. 7.5.3.4 Loading case: The strength condition is The geometrical conditions are Operation valid valid Pmax ea e e es ey eb Di R r R/De r/De l h 0.3 3.654 3.654 3.654 1.935 3.051 3.654 2303 1848 355.7 0.8 0.154 0.7894 82.17 18.35 MPa mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm t P en De Z 1 (0,1) 1 1,2 100 C 3 bar 3.654 mm 2310 mm 1

Number 1.4404(H) 0 e c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 430 K 166 Rp02T Rp02R 220 S 3 f 143.3 143.3 fb

mm mm mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

mm mm

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Equations Allowable stress for the selected load case: f = K/S = 430 MPa / 3 es = P * R / ( 2 * f * Z - 0.5 * P ) = es = 0.3 * 1848 / ( 2 * 1.935 143.3 * 3.051 mm 2303)/ = mm 1 - 0.5 * 143.3 MPa

0.3 )

ey = * P * (0.75 * R + 0.2 * Di) / f = ey = 0.7894 * 0.3 * (0.75 *

1848 + 0.2 *

143.3

The auxiliary values for (X, Y, Z, N at the end of mask) have been calculated iteratively with the required thickness e. eb = (0.75 * R + 0.2 * Di) * P * (Di/r)^0.825 111 * fb 0.3 * ( 111* 3.654, 3.051, : ^(2/3) = 2303/ 143.3 1.935) = 3.654 3.654 355.7)^0.825 ^(2/3)

eb = (0.75*

1848+0.2*

2303)*

e = Max(eb, ey, es) = Max(

The strength condition is valid ea = 3.654 3.654 = e

The strength condition is valid Max(0.06*Di, 2*ea) r Max( 138.2, 7.308) De/1000 R = ea 0.08*De , 355.7 2310= De

: Di/5 355.7 460.5 2.31 3.654 184.8

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Rating of the permissible pressure Ps = 2 * f * Z * ea / ( R + 0.5 * ea ) = Ps = 2 * 143.3 * 1 * 0.5663 1848 + 0.5 * 0.3593 1848 + 0.2* 0.3

3.654 / (

3.654 )

Py = f * ea / [ * ( 0.75 * R + 0.2 * Di ) ] = Py = 143.3* 3.654 / [ 0.7894 * ( 0.75*

2303 )]

Pb = 111 * fb * [ea/(0.75*R+Di/5)]^1.5 * (r/Di)^0.825 = Pb=111* 143.3*[ 3.654/(3* 1848/4+ 0.3, Z = 0.1 = 2303/5)]^1.5*( 0.3593, 0.5663) =

355.7/Di)^0.825 0.3 0.8447

Pmax = Min(Pb, Py, Ps) = Max( Parameter: Parameter: = Y = 0.001977,

2.704, X = 1.102,

0.1545, N = 0.2 = 0.528

0.06 =

1.665,

0.7894

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

6 EN08 B.6.3
Shells under external pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7 edition 2003-11 (state Nov.2005)

Spherical shells acc. to 8.7.1 Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ 1 (0,1) EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods, section 6.4 Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 lc 1 Safety factor acc. to section 8.4.4 S 1.5 Calculation temperature t 100 C Calculation pressure P 3 bar Final wall thickness with allowances en 8 mm Mean radius of the shell R 1848 mm Material properties of the spherical shell: Material designation Poisson's ratio Austenitic steel (1=yes, 2=no) Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Strength acc. to specification (Re, Rp, Rm) Safety factor according to section 8.4.4 Modulus of elasticity 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature allowable elastic limit (Rpx, Rpx/1.25) Number 1.4404(H) nu 0.3 1 e 0 c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 430 K S 1.5 E 194000 Rp02 166 Rp02p 220 132.8 e 2 mm

mm mm mm mm MPa N/mm MPa N/mm

Curvature deviation greater than 30%? 1=yes, 2=no,Abw based on a max. arc length of measuring range Bog maximum radius of curvature RKmax Results: Calculation thickness without allowances ea Limit pressure for circumferential yield (8.7.1-1) py Theoretical instability pressure (8.7.1-2) pm Ratio pm/py pm/py Ratio pr/py (Fig. 8.5-5) pr/py allowable pressure (pr/S) pzul Condition: P = 0.3 < 0.3827 = pzul valid Design

8 1.15 4.399 3.826 0.4992 0.3827

mm MPa MPa MPa

The strength condition is for load case

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

py = pm = pzul =

1.15 = 2 * e * ea / R = 2 *

132.8 * 194000 *

8 / 8/

1848

4.399 = 1.21 * E * ea/R = 1.21 * pr/S = 0.574/ 1.5, = 0.574/

1848

shape deviation < 30% 1.5*(1.3* 1848/ )

pr/S*(1.3*R/RKmax)

Max. measuring length of curvature deviation acc. to 8.7.2: Bog = = 2.4* (ea*RKmax) = 2.4* ( 8* )

Vessel ends acc. to section 8.8: Semi-spherical ends shall be designed acc. to the rules for spheres. The mean sphere radius for torispherical shells is R=crown outside radius and for the stress calculation acc. 7.5.2 (inside pressure P<0 with module EN07) holds N=1. For semi-ellipsoidal ends the mean sphere radius is R=D/(4h).

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

7 EN08 B.6.4.2
Shells under external pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7 edition 2003-11 (state Nov.2005)

Cylindrical shells with light stiffeners according to section 8.5.3.6 Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ 1 (0,1) EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods, section 6.4 Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 1 Safety factor according to section 8.4.4 (1.5, 1.1)S 1.1 Calculation temperature t 100 C Calculation pressure P 0.4 bar Final wall thickness of cylinder with allowances en 3.65 mm Web thickness of a stiffener without allowances ew 8 mm Material properties of the cylinder: Material designation Austenitic steel? yes=1, no=2 Poisson's ratio (e.g. =0.3) Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Total allowance Strength acc. specification (Re, Rp1, Rm) Modulus of elasticity 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature Allowable elastic limit (Rp02, Rp02/1.25) Material properties of the stiffener: Material designation Austenitic steel? yes=1, no=2 Modulus of elasticity Poisson's ratio (e.g. =0.3) 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature Allowable elastic limit (Rp02, Rp02/1.25) Additional safety factor for cold or hot rolled steel (1,33 or 1,20) Rem.: Definition of cylinder length according to Table 8.5-1: a)Analysis of failure of a cylinder section according to 8.5.3.4: (1) between stiffener and cylinder end, (2) between two stiffeners. Please enter (1, 2) for the concerned section Number 1.4404(H) 1 nu 0.3 0 e c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 430 RK E 195000 Rp02 166 Rp02p 220 132.8 e Number 1.4404(H) 1 ES 195000 nuS 0.3 Rp02S 166 Rp02Sp 220 132.8 eL Sf 1.33

mm mm mm mm MPa N/mm MPa N/mm

MPa MPa MPa N/mm

For a stiffener at the cylinder end, please specify the distance Ls' from the end, height h' of dished end, and profile centroid w1 , F. 8.5-6, 8.5-8 h' (8.5.3-1) L =( Ls' w1 ) +0.4* L =( 1132 0) +0.4* 591 Result for the unsupported shell length: L = 1368 mm

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Please specify also the distance Ls of two stiffeners, and the appropriate profile centroids w2' and w2 acc. to Fig. 8.5-8 w2' w2 L = Ls L = 1368 0 0 Result for the unsupported shell length: L =

(8.5.3-2) 1368 mm

b)Verification of the elastic stability of single stiffeners (8.5.3.6.2): (1) for the first or last stiffener (2) for an intermediate stiffener Please specify the type (1 or 2) of stiffener For stiffeners at the cylinder end with values above Ls = ( Ls' + 0.4* h' + Ls )/2 Ls = ( 1132 + 0.4* 591 + 1368)/2 Result for the mean distance: Please specify the distance Ls,,, + Ls,,, )/2 Ls = ( Ls Ls = ( 1368 + 1368)/2 The mean distance results in: of adjacent stiffeners Ls = (8.5.3-6) Ls = 1368 mm

(8.5.3-7) 1368 mm

c)Additional specifications for the whole cylinder (8.5.3.6.2): Please specify the cylinder length Lcyl and end height h acc. Fig. 8.5-6 ) (8.5.3-10) LH = ( Lcyl + 0.4* h' + 0.4* h LH = ( 5000 + 0.4* 591 + 0.4* 591) 5473 mm Result for the total length of the cylinder: LH = Examination of failure between stiffeners acc. to 8.5.3.4 Specification: Calculation thickness of cylinder without allowances Mean radius of shell Radius of stiffener centroid Cross sectional area of stiffener Width of a stiffener in contact with shell Results: Wave number of buckling shape Factor acc. to Eq.(8.5.3-19) Calculation parameter of Eq. (8.5.3-22) Calculation parameter of Eq. (8.5.3-21) Factor Gamma according to Eq. (8.5.3-16) Modified area of stiffener, (8.5.3-17) Calculation parameter acc. to (8.5.3-18) Limit pressure for circumferential yield (8.5.3-15) Unsupported shell length between stiffeners Parameter *R/L Circumferential strain at collapse Theoretical elastic buckling pressure (8.5.2-5) Real buckling pressure (Fig. 8.5-5) Allowable pressure (pr/S) Condition (8.5.2-8) P < pr/S is: Load case: valid Design ea R Rs AS w ncyl G N Am B py L Z pm pr pzul 3.65 1152 1127 368 8 10 0.01982 0 1 0.4179 384.4 0.8903 0.4208 1368 2.644 0.000143 0.08804 0.04402 0.04002 mm mm mm mm mm

mm MPa mm

MPa MPa MPa

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Stability of a stiffened cylinder according to 8.5.3.6.2 a)Elastic instability, Specification of the stiffener +1=internal, -1=external stiffener, please enter +1,-1 Manufacturing safety factor of stiffener Sf Cross sectional area of stiffener AS Area moment at stiffener centroid IS Results: Mean distance between the stiffeners (Table 8.5-1) LS Total length of the cylinder (Table 8.5-1) LH Number of circumferential buckling waves n Factor according to Eq. (8.5.3-25) Combined cross sectional area of stiffened shell Ae Calculation parameter Xe Effective Length acc. to (8.5.3-34) (u= 21.1, Le 1.565, Y2= 1.2, Y3= 0.7211) x= 0.0507, Y1= Area moment of shell and stiffener Ie Theoretical elastic buckling pressure pg Condition (8.5.3-31): P < pg/(S*Sf) is: valid 8 1104 1 1.33 368 64891 1368 5473 4 0.000046 731.4 14.32 99.57 178029 0.2778

mm mm^4 mm mm mm mm mm^4 MPa

b)Maximum stress in the stiffener, additional specifications: Contact width of the stiffener wi Outside radius of the stiffener Rf Results Modified area of stiffener (8.5.3-17) Factor (8.5.3-19) Factor (8.5.3-49) Limit pressure for circumferential yield Maximum stress in the stiffener (8.5.3-46) Condition (8.5.3-50) 0 < s < eL = Sideways tripping of stiffeners a)Stiffener with rectangular profile? (1=yes, 2=no) Radial height of the profile Width of the profile d ew 132.8 is: Am dquer pys s valid

mm mm mm MPa MPa

384.4 0.01982 35.34 0.9335 128.1

1 46 8

mm mm

b)Specifications for non-rectangular profile, Figs. 8.5-14 to 8.5-17 Angle profile acc. to Fig. 8.5-16 (yes=1, no=2) Radial height of the web plate between flanges d 46 mm Web thickness of the stiffener ew 8 mm Thickness of the profile flange ef mm Leg length of the profile flange wf mm Shell outside radius to the web plate ri mm Coefficient for non-rectangular profile C Instability stress for sideways tripping Condition: i > eL is valid i 765.3 MPa

For stiffeners with flange at the remote edge of the web plate: Limit dimensions according to (8.5.3-63/64)
Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik 22 09.07.2009

Example EN 14025 Appendix B

8 EN08 B.6.4.4
Shells under external pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7 edition 2003-11 (state Nov.2005)

Cylindrical shells with light stiffeners according to section 8.5.3.6 Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ 1 (0,1) EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods, section 6.4 Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 1 Safety factor according to section 8.4.4 (1.5, 1.1)S 1.1 Calculation temperature t 100 C Calculation pressure P 0.4 bar Final wall thickness of cylinder with allowances en 3.65 mm Web thickness of a stiffener without allowances ew 8 mm Material properties of the cylinder: Material designation Austenitic steel? yes=1, no=2 Poisson's ratio (e.g. =0.3) Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Total allowance Strength acc. specification (Re, Rp1, Rm) Modulus of elasticity 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature Allowable elastic limit (Rp02, Rp02/1.25) Material properties of the stiffener: Material designation Austenitic steel? yes=1, no=2 Modulus of elasticity Poisson's ratio (e.g. =0.3) 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature Allowable elastic limit (Rp02, Rp02/1.25) Additional safety factor for cold or hot rolled steel (1,33 or 1,20) Rem.: Definition of cylinder length according to Table 8.5-1: a)Analysis of failure of a cylinder section according to 8.5.3.4: (1) between stiffener and cylinder end, (2) between two stiffeners. Please enter (1, 2) for the concerned section Number 1.4404(H) 1 nu 0.3 0 e c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 430 RK E 195000 Rp02 166 Rp02p 220 132.8 e Number 1.4404(H) 1 ES 195000 nuS 0.3 Rp02S 166 Rp02Sp 220 132.8 eL Sf 1.33

mm mm mm mm MPa N/mm MPa N/mm

MPa MPa MPa N/mm

For a stiffener at the cylinder end, please specify the distance Ls' from the end, height h' of dished end, and profile centroid w1 , F. 8.5-6, 8.5-8 h' (8.5.3-1) L =( Ls' w1 ) +0.4* L =( ) +0.4* 591 Result for the unsupported shell length: L = 1368 mm

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Please specify also the distance Ls of two stiffeners, and the appropriate profile centroids w2' and w2 acc. to Fig. 8.5-8 w2' w2 L = Ls L = Result for the unsupported shell length: L =

(8.5.3-2) 1368 mm

b)Verification of the elastic stability of single stiffeners (8.5.3.6.2): (1) for the first or last stiffener (2) for an intermediate stiffener Please specify the type (1 or 2) of stiffener For stiffeners at the cylinder end with values above Ls = ( Ls' + 0.4* h' + Ls )/2 Ls = ( + 0.4* 591 + )/2 Result for the mean distance: Please specify the distance Ls,,, + Ls,,, )/2 Ls = ( Ls Ls = ( + )/2 The mean distance results in: of adjacent stiffeners Ls = (8.5.3-6) Ls = mm (8.5.3-7) mm

c)Additional specifications for the whole cylinder (8.5.3.6.2): Please specify the cylinder length Lcyl and end height h acc. Fig. 8.5-6 ) (8.5.3-10) LH = ( Lcyl + 0.4* h' + 0.4* h LH = ( 5000 + 0.4* 591 + 0.4* 591) 5473 mm Result for the total length of the cylinder: LH = Examination of failure between stiffeners acc. to 8.5.3.4 Specification: Calculation thickness of cylinder without allowances Mean radius of shell Radius of stiffener centroid Cross sectional area of stiffener Width of a stiffener in contact with shell Results: Wave number of buckling shape Factor acc. to Eq.(8.5.3-19) Calculation parameter of Eq. (8.5.3-22) Calculation parameter of Eq. (8.5.3-21) Factor Gamma according to Eq. (8.5.3-16) Modified area of stiffener, (8.5.3-17) Calculation parameter acc. to (8.5.3-18) Limit pressure for circumferential yield (8.5.3-15) Unsupported shell length between stiffeners Parameter *R/L Circumferential strain at collapse Theoretical elastic buckling pressure (8.5.2-5) Real buckling pressure (Fig. 8.5-5) Allowable pressure (pr/S) Condition (8.5.2-8) P < pr/S is: Load case: valid Design ea R Rs AS w ncyl G N Am B py L Z pm pr pzul 3.65 1152 1127 368 8 10 0.01982 0 1 0.4179 384.4 0.8903 0.4208 1368 2.645 0.000143 0.08807 0.04403 0.04003 mm mm mm mm mm

mm MPa mm

MPa MPa MPa

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Stability of a stiffened cylinder according to 8.5.3.6.2 a)Elastic instability, Specification of the stiffener +1=internal, -1=external stiffener, please enter +1,-1 Manufacturing safety factor of stiffener Sf Cross sectional area of stiffener AS Area moment at stiffener centroid IS Results: Mean distance between the stiffeners (Table 8.5-1) LS Total length of the cylinder (Table 8.5-1) LH Number of circumferential buckling waves n Factor according to Eq. (8.5.3-25) Combined cross sectional area of stiffened shell Ae Calculation parameter Xe Effective Length acc. to (8.5.3-34) (u= 21.1, Le 1.565, Y2= 1.2, Y3= 0.7211) x= 0.0507, Y1= Area moment of shell and stiffener Ie Theoretical elastic buckling pressure pg Condition (8.5.3-31): P < pg/(S*Sf) is: valid 8 1104 1 1.33 368 64891 1368 5473 4 0.000046 731.4 14.32 99.57 178029 0.2778

mm mm^4 mm mm mm mm mm^4 MPa

b)Maximum stress in the stiffener, additional specifications: Contact width of the stiffener wi Outside radius of the stiffener Rf Results Modified area of stiffener (8.5.3-17) Factor (8.5.3-19) Factor (8.5.3-49) Limit pressure for circumferential yield Maximum stress in the stiffener (8.5.3-46) Condition (8.5.3-50) 0 < s < eL = Sideways tripping of stiffeners a)Stiffener with rectangular profile? (1=yes, 2=no) Radial height of the profile Width of the profile d ew 132.8 is: Am dquer pys s valid

mm mm mm MPa MPa

384.4 0.01982 35.34 0.9335 128.1

1 46 8

mm mm

b)Specifications for non-rectangular profile, Figs. 8.5-14 to 8.5-17 Angle profile acc. to Fig. 8.5-16 (yes=1, no=2) Radial height of the web plate between flanges d 46 mm Web thickness of the stiffener ew 8 mm Thickness of the profile flange ef mm Leg length of the profile flange wf mm Shell outside radius to the web plate ri mm Coefficient for non-rectangular profile C Instability stress for sideways tripping Condition: i > eL is valid i 765.3 MPa

For stiffeners with flange at the remote edge of the web plate: Limit dimensions according to (8.5.3-63/64)
Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik 25 09.07.2009

Example EN 14025 Appendix B

9 EN08 B.6.5
Shells under external pressure DIN EN 13445-3/7 edition 2003-11 (state Nov.2005)

Spherical shells acc. to 8.7.1 Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) TFZ 1 (0,1) EN 14025: Tanks for the transport of dangerous goods, section 6.4 Load case: Operation = 1 / Test = 2 lc 1 Safety factor acc. to section 8.4.4 S 1.1 Calculation temperature t 100 C Calculation pressure P 0.4 bar Final wall thickness with allowances en 3.65 mm Mean radius of the shell R 1848 mm Material properties of the spherical shell: Material designation Poisson's ratio Austenitic steel (1=yes, 2=no) Wall thinning allowance Corrosion allowance Thinning allowance during manufacturing Sum of allowances Strength acc. to specification (Re, Rp, Rm) Safety factor according to section 8.4.4 Modulus of elasticity 0.2% proof stress at operation temperature 0.2% proof stress at room temperature allowable elastic limit (Rpx, Rpx/1.25) Number 1.4404(H) nu 0.3 1 e 0 c 0 0 m 0 ( ) 430 K S 1.1 E 194000 Rp02 166 Rp02p 220 132.8 e 2 mm

mm mm mm mm MPa N/mm MPa N/mm

Curvature deviation greater than 30%? 1=yes, 2=no,Abw based on a max. arc length of measuring range Bog maximum radius of curvature RKmax Results: Calculation thickness without allowances ea Limit pressure for circumferential yield (8.7.1-1) py Theoretical instability pressure (8.7.1-2) pm Ratio pm/py pm/py Ratio pr/py (Fig. 8.5-5) pr/py allowable pressure (pr/S) pzul Condition: P = 0.04 < 0.1378 = pzul valid Design

3.65 0.5246 0.9157 1.746 0.2889 0.1378

mm MPa MPa MPa

The strength condition is for load case

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

py = pm = pzul =

0.5246 = 2 * e * ea / R = 2 *

132.8 * 194000 *

3.65 / 3.65/

1848

0.9157 = 1.21 * E * ea/R = 1.21 * pr/S = 0.1516/ 1.1, = 0.1516/

1848

shape deviation < 30% 1.1*(1.3* 1848/ )

pr/S*(1.3*R/RKmax)

Max. measuring length of curvature deviation acc. to 8.7.2: Bog = = 2.4* (ea*RKmax) = 2.4* ( 3.65* )

Vessel ends acc. to section 8.8: Semi-spherical ends shall be designed acc. to the rules for spheres. The mean sphere radius for torispherical shells is R=crown outside radius and for the stress calculation acc. 7.5.2 (inside pressure P<0 with module EN07) holds N=1. For semi-ellipsoidal ends the mean sphere radius is R=D/(4h).

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

10 EN09 B6.6 Betr.


Openings in spherical and cylindrical shells EN 13445-3/9, A5:2006D + EN14025:2008-08

9. Isolated openings in spherical and cylindrical shells Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) EN 13445-3: Unfired pressure vessels Load case: Operation = 1, test = 2 Calculation temperature Calculation pressure Material properties shell Material designation 1.4404(H Thickness allowance e 0 Corrosion allowance c 0 Manufacturing allowance 0 Total allowance 0 ( ) 430 Strength Re, Rp, Rm K 3 Safety factor S Allowable stress f 143.3 Weld factor 9.5.2.3 1 Remark: TFZ t P nozzle 1.4404(H 0 0 0 0 430 3 143.3 1 0 (0,1) 1 100 0.3 reinforcement mm mm mm mm MPa MPa mm mm mm mm MPa MPa C MPa

mm mm mm mm MPa MPa

Geometry of shell: Shell: Cylinder=1; sphere+semi-sphere+torispherical=2; elliptical=3; cone=4 Final wall thickness acc. drawing ens Calculation thickness without allowance eas Reduced calculation thickness without all.*) ecs Outside diameter of shell De Actual length ls Conical shell: semi-apex angle Elliptical shell: internal height h
*)eas=ecs must satisfy the strength condition: ecs>required thickness

1 3.64 3.64 3.64 2307 500 0

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Geometry of opening: Type of nozzle: without=1, set-in=2, set-on=3 reinforcement ring=4, extruded=5 Orientation of sectional cut: axial=1 (cylinder) lateral=2 (sphere, cylinder) Outside diameter of opening, nozzle or ring d,deb Final nozzle (ring) thickness acc. drawing ev,lr Application acc. 9.4.6: Fatigue=1, creep range=2, other=3 External cover (1=yes, 2=no) Length of nozzle extension outside the shell lb1 Length of nozzle extension inside the shell lbi Insertion length for partial penetration lbp Reinforcement ring: Final axial length ear Reinforcement ring: Radial thickness lr Oblique nozzle: axial inclination angle a Oblique nozzle: circumferent. inclination angle u Geometry of reinforcement: Final thickness Width of reinforcement enp lp

2 1 510 5 mm mm

1 1 (1,2) 150 mm 50 mm 3.64 mm 0 mm mm 0 0 0 0 mm mm

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Results Allowable pressure (P = 0.3 Pmax) Pmax Pressure loaded area of shell Aps Pressure loaded area of nozzle Apb Additional pressure loaded area of oblique nozzle Ap Cross-sectional area of fillet weld Afw Shell: Inside radius Maximum supporting length Supporting length of cylindrical connection Effective supporting length Min(ls,lso) Cross-sectional area of shell Nozzle: Accountable wall thickness acc. 9.4.6 Calculation thickness without allowances Max. supporting length of nozzle outside shell Max. supporting length of nozzle inside shell Reduced nozzle length outside shell Min(lb,lbo) Red. nozzle length inside shell Min(lbi,lbo/2) Reduced stress, Min(fs,fb) Cross-sectional area of nozzle Adapted penetration length Min(lbp,eas) Inside diameter of nozzle Outside radius of nozzle or opening Mean thickness of ring reinforcem. (iterative) Accountable reinforcement width of ring Accoutable axial ring length (9.5-44) Reinforcement: Final thickness without allowances Reduced thickness Min. (eap,eas) Reduced width Min. (lp,lso) Cross-sectional area Reduced allowable stress Min(fs,fp) ris lso lcyl l's Afs eb eab lbo lbo/2 l'b l'bi fob Afb e's dib a eams l0 er eap ep l'p Afp fop 0.4367 398557 38410 0 0 1150 91.57 91.57 91.57 333.3 5 5 50.25 25.12 150 46.36 143.3 1000 3.64 500 255 0 MPa mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm MPa mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm MPa

0 0 0 0 0

Geometrical condition for openings: 9.4.5 Shell without nozzle: d/(2*ris) = 0.2174 0.5 9.4.5 Spheres+domed heads: d/De, dib/De or dir/De = 0.2174 0.6 0.2174 1 9.4.5 Cylinder with nozzle: d/(2*ris) = 1.374 2 9.4.6 Reduced nozzle thickness:*) (ev-c)/eas = 1.374 3 9.4.6 Max. nozzle thickness (fatigue): eab/eas = *)Only for creep range or fatigue Load case Application case Shell type Type of nozzle Orientation of section The strength condition is The geometrical conditions are Operation Fatigue Cylinder Set-in nozzle longitudinal valid valid

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Additional results for openings close to discontinuities acc. 9.7 9.7.2.1 Permissible distance wmin between opening a) dished/flat end, reducer, flange b) small conical end, convex shell, branch c) expansion joint 9.7.2.2 Permissible distance wmin between opening a) Cylindrical shell at wide end b) Cylindrical shell at small end 2304 mm with a connection diameter Dc = and a thickness e1 (or e2 acc. Fig. 9.7-10) 9.7.2.3 Permissible distance wmin between opening head and a flange 9.7.2.4 Permissible distance wmin between opening torispherical heads and the knuckle (De/10 acc. Available distance (please specify a value) 9.5.2.2: Reinforcement dispensable if: d= 510 in cylindrical shell and: wmin 18.31 mm wmin 91.57 mm 45.79 mm wmin in conical shell and: wmin 18.31 mm wmin 91.57 mm 3.64 mm in domed and bolted 18.31 mm wmin in elliptical and Fig.9.5-4) wmin = 0 w mm

13.74=0.15*lso and w>wmin

9.7.3 Reduced distance from discontinuity: For w = < wp, the available support length of the reinforcement for the calculation ls = 500 of the shell must be reduced. The minimum distance wp of the opening from discontinuities without influence on ls and the reduced available support length Max(ls) wp Max(ls) acc. 9.7.3 amount to: a) acc. to 9.7.2.1a), 9.7.2.2a), 9.7.2.3, 9.7.2.4 91.57 b) acc. to 9.7.2.1b) 183.1 b) acc. to 9.7.2.1c) 137.4 c) acc. to 9.7.2.2b) 183.1 Equations lso = lso = (2 * ris + ecs) * ecs 91.57 mm 2: 3.64) (Type) (2) (3) (4) (5) = (2 * 1150 + 3.64) * 3.64

Cross-sectional area Afb of the nozzle for type = Afb = = = = eb*(l'b+l'bi+e's) = 5 * eb * l'b = er * lr = * eb * l'b = 5 * 5*( 150 150+ 46.36+

150 (Approximation)

Cross-sectional area Afs of the shell: 91.57 Afs = ecs * l's = 3.64 * = ecs * (eb + l's) = 3.64 * ( Afs = Afp = 333.3, Afb = 1000, Afw = 0 * 5 + 0 0 91.57) (1,2,4,5) (3)

0 = ep * l'p =

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Pressure loaded area of nozzle 38410 Apb = 0.5 * di * (l'b + eas) = = 0.5 * 510 * ( 150 + = 0 for Typ 1 and 4

mm 3.64)

Additional pressure loaded area for oblique direction longitudinal Ap = (dib*tan())/2 = 0 = ( 500*tan( 0))/2 (axial) = ( 500*tan( 0))/2 (lateral) P (Afs + Afw) * (fs - 0.5*P) + Afp * (fop - 0.5*P) + Afb * (fob - 0.5*P) (Aps + Apb) ( P + 333.3+ 0*( 0)*( 143.3-0.5* 0.3)+ 0-0.5* 0.3)+ 1000*( ( 398557 + 38410) : Efficiency = 0.687 1 143.3-0.5* 0.3)

The strength condition is valid Maximum permissible pressure Pmax = ( ( 0.4367 = 333.3+ 398557+

(Afs + Afw) * fs + Afb * fob + Afp * fop (Aps + Apb) + 0.5 * (Afs + Afw + Afb + Afp)

Pmax =

0)*

143.3 +

1000* 333.3+

143.3 + 0+ 1000+

0* 0)

38410) + 0.5*(

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

11 EN09 B6.6 Prf.


Openings in spherical and cylindrical shells EN 13445-3/9, A5:2006D + EN14025:2008-08

9. Isolated openings in spherical and cylindrical shells Regulation (0=EN13445-3, 1=EN14025) EN 13445-3: Unfired pressure vessels Load case: Operation = 1, test = 2 Calculation temperature Calculation pressure Material properties shell Material designation 1.4404(H Thickness allowance e 0 Corrosion allowance c 0 Manufacturing allowance 0 Total allowance 0 ( ) 530 Tensile stress 20C Rm 260 Proof stress 20C Rp f=Min[Rm20/2,Rpe*3/4]= 195 Weld factor 9.5.2.3 1 Remark: TFZ t P nozzle 1.4404(H 0 0 0 0 530 260 195 1 0 (0,1) 2 100 0.4 reinforcement mm mm mm mm MPa MPa MPa mm mm mm mm MPa MPa MPa C MPa

mm mm mm mm MPa MPa MPa

Geometry of shell: Shell: Cylinder=1; sphere+semi-sphere+torispherical=2; elliptical=3; cone=4 Final wall thickness acc. drawing ens Calculation thickness without allowance eas Reduced calculation thickness without all.*) ecs Outside diameter of shell De Actual length ls Conical shell: semi-apex angle Elliptical shell: internal height h
*)eas=ecs must satisfy the strength condition: ecs>required thickness

1 3.64 3.64 3.64 2307 500 0

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Geometry of opening: Type of nozzle: without=1, set-in=2, set-on=3 reinforcement ring=4, extruded=5 Orientation of sectional cut: axial=1 (cylinder) lateral=2 (sphere, cylinder) Outside diameter of opening, nozzle or ring d,deb Final nozzle (ring) thickness acc. drawing ev,lr Application acc. 9.4.6: Fatigue=1, creep range=2, other=3 External cover (1=yes, 2=no) Length of nozzle extension outside the shell lb1 Length of nozzle extension inside the shell lbi Insertion length for partial penetration lbp Reinforcement ring: Final axial length ear Reinforcement ring: Radial thickness lr Oblique nozzle: axial inclination angle a Oblique nozzle: circumferent. inclination angle u Geometry of reinforcement: Final thickness Width of reinforcement enp lp

2 1 510 5 mm mm

1 1 (1,2) 150 mm 50 mm 3.64 mm 0 mm mm 0 0 0 0 mm mm

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Results Allowable pressure (P = 0.4 Pmax) Pmax Pressure loaded area of shell Aps Pressure loaded area of nozzle Apb Additional pressure loaded area of oblique nozzle Ap Cross-sectional area of fillet weld Afw Shell: Inside radius Maximum supporting length Supporting length of cylindrical connection Effective supporting length Min(ls,lso) Cross-sectional area of shell Nozzle: Accountable wall thickness acc. 9.4.6 Calculation thickness without allowances Max. supporting length of nozzle outside shell Max. supporting length of nozzle inside shell Reduced nozzle length outside shell Min(lb,lbo) Red. nozzle length inside shell Min(lbi,lbo/2) Reduced stress, Min(fs,fb) Cross-sectional area of nozzle Adapted penetration length Min(lbp,eas) Inside diameter of nozzle Outside radius of nozzle or opening Mean thickness of ring reinforcem. (iterative) Accountable reinforcement width of ring Accoutable axial ring length (9.5-44) Reinforcement: Final thickness without allowances Reduced thickness Min. (eap,eas) Reduced width Min. (lp,lso) Cross-sectional area Reduced allowable stress Min(fs,fp) ris lso lcyl l's Afs eb eab lbo lbo/2 l'b l'bi fob Afb e's dib a eams l0 er eap ep l'p Afp fop 0.5941 398557 38410 0 0 1150 91.57 91.57 91.57 333.3 5 5 50.25 25.12 150 46.36 195 1000 3.64 500 255 0 MPa mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm MPa mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm MPa

0 0 0 0 0

Geometrical condition for openings: 9.4.5 Shell without nozzle: d/(2*ris) = 0.2174 0.5 9.4.5 Spheres+domed heads: d/De, dib/De or dir/De = 0.2174 0.6 0.2174 1 9.4.5 Cylinder with nozzle: d/(2*ris) = 1.374 2 9.4.6 Reduced nozzle thickness:*) (ev-c)/eas = 1.374 3 9.4.6 Max. nozzle thickness (fatigue): eab/eas = *)Only for creep range or fatigue Load case Application case Shell type Type of nozzle Orientation of section The strength condition is The geometrical conditions are Test Fatigue Cylinder Set-in nozzle longitudinal valid valid

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Additional results for openings close to discontinuities acc. 9.7 9.7.2.1 Permissible distance wmin between opening a) dished/flat end, reducer, flange b) small conical end, convex shell, branch c) expansion joint 9.7.2.2 Permissible distance wmin between opening a) Cylindrical shell at wide end b) Cylindrical shell at small end 2304 mm with a connection diameter Dc = and a thickness e1 (or e2 acc. Fig. 9.7-10) 9.7.2.3 Permissible distance wmin between opening head and a flange 9.7.2.4 Permissible distance wmin between opening torispherical heads and the knuckle (De/10 acc. Available distance (please specify a value) 9.5.2.2: Reinforcement dispensable if: d= 510 in cylindrical shell and: wmin 18.31 mm wmin 91.57 mm 45.79 mm wmin in conical shell and: wmin 18.31 mm wmin 91.57 mm 3.64 mm in domed and bolted 18.31 mm wmin in elliptical and Fig.9.5-4) wmin = 0 w mm

13.74=0.15*lso and w>wmin

9.7.3 Reduced distance from discontinuity: For w = < wp, the available support length of the reinforcement for the calculation ls = 500 of the shell must be reduced. The minimum distance wp of the opening from discontinuities without influence on ls and the reduced available support length Max(ls) wp Max(ls) acc. 9.7.3 amount to: a) acc. to 9.7.2.1a), 9.7.2.2a), 9.7.2.3, 9.7.2.4 91.57 b) acc. to 9.7.2.1b) 183.1 b) acc. to 9.7.2.1c) 137.4 c) acc. to 9.7.2.2b) 183.1 Equations lso = lso = (2 * ris + ecs) * ecs 91.57 mm 2: 3.64) (Type) (2) (3) (4) (5) = (2 * 1150 + 3.64) * 3.64

Cross-sectional area Afb of the nozzle for type = Afb = = = = eb*(l'b+l'bi+e's) = 5 * eb * l'b = er * lr = * eb * l'b = 5 * 5*( 150 150+ 46.36+

150 (Approximation)

Cross-sectional area Afs of the shell: 91.57 Afs = ecs * l's = 3.64 * = ecs * (eb + l's) = 3.64 * ( Afs = Afp = 333.3, Afb = 1000, Afw = 0 * 5 + 0 0 91.57) (1,2,4,5) (3)

0 = ep * l'p =

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

Pressure loaded area of nozzle 38410 Apb = 0.5 * di * (l'b + eas) = = 0.5 * 510 * ( 150 + = 0 for Typ 1 and 4

mm 3.64)

Additional pressure loaded area for oblique direction longitudinal Ap = (dib*tan())/2 = 0 = ( 500*tan( 0))/2 (axial) = ( 500*tan( 0))/2 (lateral) P (Afs + Afw) * (fs - 0.5*P) + Afp * (fop - 0.5*P) + Afb * (fob - 0.5*P) (Aps + Apb) ( P + 333.3+ 0*( 0)*( 195-0.5* 0.4)+ 0-0.5* 0.4)+ 1000*( ( 398557 + 38410) : Efficiency = 0.6733 1 195-0.5* 0.4)

The strength condition is valid Maximum permissible pressure Pmax = ( ( 0.5941 = 333.3+ 398557+

(Afs + Afw) * fs + Afb * fob + Afp * fop (Aps + Apb) + 0.5 * (Afs + Afw + Afb + Afp)

Pmax =

0)*

195 +

1000* 333.3+

195 + 0+ 1000+

0* 0)

38410) + 0.5*(

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

12 Zusammenfassung
Documentation

Beispiel EN 14025 Anhang B, Vergleich Lauterbach-Berechnung Berechnung nach EN14025 Abschnitt | Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik ------------------------------------------|----------------------------B.5.1: Prfdruck Zylinder | erforderliche Dicke e = 2.95 mm | e = 2.953 mm B.5.2: Prfdruck Korbbogen erforderliche Dicke e = 3.6 ey = 2.91 (mit ev=5mm) mm | | | | | | | | | e = 3.602 mm ey = 2.988 (iterativ mit ey) Pzul = 0.5994 MPa e = 3.013 mm emin = 3.654 mm Pzul = 0.3827 MPa

B.5.3: Prfdruck Trennwand e=8mm zulssiger Prfdruck P = 0.6 MPa B.6.1: Betriebsdruck 3bar Zylinder erforderliche Dicke e = 3.02 mm B.6.2: Betriebsdruck 3bar Korbbogen erforderliche Dicke emin = 3.65 mm

B.6.3: Betriebsdruck 3bar Trennwand e=8mm | zulssiger Betriebsdruck p = 0.383 MPa | B.6.4.2 wie B.6.4.3 B.6.4.3: Versagen zwischen Versteifungen zulssiger Auendruck p=0.04 MPa B.6.4.4: Versteifter Zylinder zulssiger Auendruck p=0.190 MPa Spannung in der Versteifung SigS = 129.1 Seitliche Auslenkung: Sigi/4 = 766.72/4 > 0.04*132.8/0.932 B.6.5: Auendruck 0.4 bar Kugelschale pzul = 0.138 MPa B.6.6 Betriebsdruck Ausschnitt 131 200 / 190 663 = 0.688 < 1 B.6.6: Prfdruck Ausschnitt 174 933 / 259 995 = 0.673 < 1 | | |

pzul = 0.04002 MPa

| | pzul = 0.1899 MPa (8.5.3-31) | SigS = 128.1 | | 765.3/4 > 0.04*132.8/0.9335 | | pzul = 0.1378 MPa | | Auslastung = 0.687 < 1 | | Auslastung = 0.6733 < 1

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Example EN 14025 Appendix B

13 Summary
Documentation

Example EN 14025 Appendix B, Comparison with calculation by Lauterbach Calculation acc. EN14025 section | Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik -------------------------------------------|---------------------------B.5.1: Testing pressure cylinder | required thickness e = 2.95 mm | e = 2.953 mm B.5.2: Test pressure Korbbogen required thickness e = 3.6 mm ey = 2.91 (with ev=5mm) B.5.3: Test pressure baffle e=8mm allowable pressure P = 0.6 MPa B.6.1: Operation pressure 3bar Cylinder required thickness e = 3.02 mm B.6.2: Operation pressure 3bar Korbbogen required thickness emin = 3.65 mm | | | | | | | | | e = 3.602 mm ey = 2.988 (iter. with ey) Pzul = 0.5994 MPa e = 3.013 mm emin = 3.654 mm Pzul = 0.3827 MPa

B.6.3: Operation pressure 3bar baffle e=8mm| allowable pressure p = 0.383 MPa | B.6.4.2 as B.6.4.3 B.6.4.3: Failure between stiffeners allowable external pressure p=0.04 MPa B.6.4.4: Stiffened cylinder allowable external pressure p=0.190 MPa Stress in stiffener SigS = 129.1 Sideways tripping: Sigi/4 = 766.72/4 > 0.04*132.8/0.932 B.6.5: External pressure 0.4bar sphere pzul = 0.138 MPa B.6.6 Operation pressure opening 131 200 / 190 663 = 0.688 < 1 B.6.6: Test pressure opening 174 933 / 259 995 = 0.673 < 1 | | |

pzul = 0.04002 MPa

| | pzul = 0.1899MPa (8.5.3-31) | SigS = 128.1 | | 765.3/4 > 0.04*132.8/0.9335 | | pzul = 0.1378 MPa | | efficiency = 0.687 < 1 | | efficiency = 0.6733 < 1

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