291 views

Uploaded by Hassan Salem

- Extraction of Benzoic Acid Lab Report
- Mass Transfer
- MASS TRANSFER Coefficient and Inter Phase Mass Transfer
- Ethylene Oxide Ethylene Glycol Process Flow Diagram
- (3-2-2) NPTEL - Properties of Cryogenic Fluids
- Characteristics of Polyglycerol Ester and Its Different Fractions
- Unit 1 Science Gr 8.pdf
- JJ207 Thermodynamic Topic 3 Properties of Pure Substances
- Water/n-alkane phase behavior
- A Simple Model for Rice Grains in a Deep-bed Dryer
- apch10sc
- 282163771-002-0-Surface-Sampling-Training.pdf
- Paracetamol Solubility
- 1 Physical Metallurgy- Solid Solution[1]
- Project On
- Study Polymorphs..
- Q3
- Science (11)
- An Investigation of the Natural Operations Employed in Consolidating the Strata of the Globe
- Triple Point Plot

You are on page 1of 18

11

Most of the mass

transfer processes

involve the transfer of

solute A between two or

more immiscible phases.

The rate of mass

transfer depends on a

number of factors:

solubility of solute A and

its displacement form

equilibrium.

Design of mass transfer

equipment should take

into account not only

the temperature and

pressure, but other

factors such as

interfacial contact area

and distribution of both

phases affect the rate of

mass transfer between

the different phases.

Two resistance model of interface mass

transfer

Lewis and Whitman (1924)

22

Transfer between 2

contacting phases.

Three steps of

interface transfer.

The theory:

Rate of transfer is

controlled by diffusion

through phases on

each side of interface.

No resistance across

the interface mole

fraction in the liquid

and in the gas are at

equilibrium.

Mass transfer using local

film MTC.

33

1- Equimolar counter

diffusion

( ) ( )

/ /

A y i x i

N k y y k x x

x

y

P

M

yA

yAi

xA xAi

2

kgmol / /

s . m . mol frac

, are local liquid and gas MTC

x y

k k

( ) ( )

/ /

y i x i

k y y k x x

At steady state:

( )

( )

/

/

the slope of the line P-M

i

x

y i

y y

k

k x x

44

2- Diffusin of A through a stagnant or non

diffusing B

Mass transfer using local

film MTC.

x

y

P

M

yA

yAi

xA xAi

( ) ( )

A y i x i

N k y y k x x

( )

/ /

1

x x

x

BLM

LM

k k

k

x x

( )

/ /

1

y y

y

BLM

LM

k k

k

y y

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

1 1

1

1

ln

1

i

LM

i

y y

y

y

y

1

]

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

1 1

1

1

ln

1

i

LM

i

x x

x

x

x

1

]

( )

( )

( )

( )

/

/

1 1

y

x

A i i

LM LM

k

k

N y y x x

y x

( )

( )

( )

( )

/

/

1

slope of the line P-M

1

x i

LM

y i

LM

k x y y

k y x x

For dilute

solutions k/ and k

are equal.

For concentrated

solutions use trial

and error method

to find the slope

Overall MTC

55

x

y

P

M

yA

yA

i

xA xA

i

y*

A

x

*

A

m

require the determination of interfacial

concentrations which is impractical and

usually difficult to measure

experimentally, therefore it is more

convenient to use the overall MTCs

instead. The overall MTC is based on the

bulk concentrations.

( ) ( )

/ * / *

A y x

N K y y K x x

2

kgmol / /

s . m . mol frac

, are overall liquid and gas MTC

x y

K K

y* mole fraction of solute A in the gas phase in equilibrium with the

concentration of A in the bulk liquid phase

x* mole fraction of solute A in the liquid phase in equilibrium with the

concentration of A in the bulk gas phase

66

Overall MTC

1- Equimolar counter

diffusion

( ) ( )

/ /

A y i x i

N k y y k x x

( )

( )

* *

i i

y y y y y y +

( )

/

A

i

y

N

y y

k

( )

*

/

A

y

N

y y

K

x

y

P

M

yA

y

A

i

xA xA

i

y*

A

x

*

A

m

( )

( )

* / /

/

A

i i

x

N

y y m x x m

k

/

/ / /

A A A

y y x

N N N

m

K k k

+

} }

}

Liquid phase

Overall Gas phase

resistance

resistance resistance

/

/ / /

1 1

y y x

m

K k k

+

Similar analysis can be used to obtain the overall liquid phase

resistance as

} }

Gas phase

Overall Liquid phase

resistance

resistance resistance

/ / / / /

1 1 1

x y x

K m k k

+

678

77

Overall MTC

2- Diffusion of A through a stagnant or

non diffusing B

( )

( )

( )

( )

/

/

1 1

y

x

A i i

LM LM

k

k

N y y x x

y x

x

y

P

M

yA

y

A

i

xA xA

i

y*

A

x

*

A

m

( )

( )

( )

( )

* *

/

/

* *

1 1

y

x

A

LM LM

K

K

N y y x x

y x

( )

( )

* *

i i

y y y y y y +

( ) ( ) ( )

*

Liquid phase

Overall Gas phase

resistance

resistance resistance

/

/ / /

1 1

1 1 1

y y x

LM LM LM

m

K y k y k x

+

6 447 4 48

6 447 4 48 6 447 4 48

( ) ( ) ( )

*

Overall Gas phase Liquid phase

resistance resistance resistance

/ / / / /

1 1 1

1 1 1

x y x

LM LM LM

K x m k y k x

+

6 447 4 48 6 4 447 4 4 48 6 447 4 48

Overall MTC based on the gas

phase

Overall MTC based on the liquid

phase

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

*

*

*

1 1

1

1

ln

1

LM

y y

y

y

y

1

1

]

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

*

*

*

1 1

1

1

ln

1

LM

x x

x

x

x

1

1

]

Importance of the slope of

the equilibrium curve

88

Case I: Gas phase controlled system ( resistance in the liquid

phase is very small)

In this situation the equilibrium curve is almost a horizontal line and

the slope of the line m is quite small. This means that the a small

concentration of A in the gas phase yA will provide a large value of x*.

The gas solute is very soluble in the liquid phase and hence the term

m/kx is very small. Under such circumstances, in order to increase

the mass transfer rate efforts should be directed toward decreasing the

gas-phase resistance .

Case II: Liquid phase controlled system (resistance in the gas

phase is very small)

In this situation the slope of the line m is very large and the solute is

very insoluble in the liquid phase. The major resistance to mass transfer

resides within the liquid phase. In this situation efforts to increase mass

transfer rate should be focused on conditions that increase the liquid

mass transfer coefficient kx.

Fractional gas resistance

y

y

K

k

x

x

K

k

Example 1

99

A solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B n a wetted-

wall tower with the liquid flowing as a film downward along the wall. At a

certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration is 38% and the bulk

liquid concentration 10%. The tower is operating at 298 K and 1 atm. If

the ky and kx are 1.465 e-3, 1.967 e-3 kgmol of A/ (s.m2.m.f)

respectively. Calculate the interface concentration and the molar flux.

x

0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

y

0 0.022 0.052 0.087 0.131 0.187 0.265 0.385

Solution

Absorption process diffusion through stagnant B

Graphical trail and error solution is needed

1010

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

x

y

P

Since the slope is almost equal

to the one in the second trail

then stop iteration

First trial

x y

(1-y)LM =

1

(1-x)LM =

1

slope =

-k'x/k'y =

-1.34

Drawing the

lines

xi,yi =

0.247 0.183

Second trial:

(1-y)LM =

0.714

(1-x)LM =

0.824

slope =

-k'x/k'y =

-1.163

xi,yi =

0.258 0.196

Third trial:

(1-y)LM =

0.708

(1-x)LM =

0.818

slope =

-k'x/k'y =

-1.161

Example 1

( )

( )

( )

/

4

2

1

0.001465 kgmol

0.38 0.196 3.78 10

0.708 s.m

y

A i

LM

k

N y y

y

1111

Example 1

How to calculate the Overall MTC for the same

example

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

0

5

10

15

x

y

y* =

0.052

x* =

0.347

P

( ) ( ) ( )

*

/

/ / /

1 1

1 1 1

y y x

LM LM LM

m

K y k y k x

+

(1-y)LM =

0.708

(1-x)LM =

0.818

(1-y)LM* =

0.772

2

kgmol / 4

s.m .(m.f)

8.95 10

y

K

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

*

/

/

4

3

1

% gas phase resistance

1

8.95 10 0.708

100

1.47 10 0.772

55.8%

y

LM

y

LM

K y

k y

( )

( )

( )

( )

*

/

0.196 0.052

0.258 0.1

0.91

i

i

y y

m

x x

Example 2

1212

A wetted-wall absorption tower 2.54 cm of inside diameter is fed with water

as the wall liquid and NH3-air mixture as the central core gas. At a

particular level in the tower the NH3 concentration in the bulk gas is 0.8

(mole fraction) and in the bulk liquid is 0.05 (mole fraction). The

temperature is 26.7 C and the pressure is 1 atm. The rates of flow are

such that the local mass transfer coefficient in the liquid from a correlation

obtained with dilute solutions is 2.87 e-5 m/s and the local Sherwood

number for the gas is 40. DNH3-air is 2.297 e-5 m2/s. Calculate y*, x*,

xi, yi, Ky, Kx and the % gas phase resistance.

x

0 0.05 0.10 0.25 0.30

y

0 0.07070.1347 0.591 0.920

Solution

( )

( )

2

2

/ / 5

kgmol 5 3

m . s . (m.f)

2.87 10

.

1000

2.87 10 1.59 10

18

H O

x c

k Ck

M W

_

,

_

,

Local MTC for the liquid phase

1313

Example 2

Local MTC for the gas

phase

( )

( )

( )

5

/

2

40 2.297 10

0.0361

2.54 10

Sh AB

c

N D

k

D

( )

( ) ( )

( )

/ / /

101325

0.0361 0.00146

8314 26.7 273.15

y c c

P

k Ck k

RT

+

Example 2

1414

-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

x

y

yi =

0.73

xi =

0.277

1515

Example 2

-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

x

y

y* =

0.07

x* =

0.286

P

1616

( ) ( ) ( )

*

/

/ / /

1 1

1 1 1

y y x

LM LM LM

m

K y k y k x

+

Example 2

( ) ( ) ( )

*

/ / / / /

1 1 1

1 1 1

x y x

LM LM LM

K x m k y k x

+

m' =

2.865

K'y =

2.85E-04

m'' =

7.73

K'x =

1.52E-03

(1-y)LM* =

0.475

(1-x)LM* =

0.826

Fourth trial:

(1-y)LM =

0.234

(1-x)LM =

0.831

slope =

-k'x/k'y =

-0.306

xi,yi =

0.277 0.730

Third trial:

(1-y)LM =

0.240

(1-x)LM =

0.832

slope =

-k'x/k'y =

-0.314

xi,yi =

0.277 0.729

% gas resistance = 9.62

% liquid resistance

=

96.19

Summary of the

results

Example 3

1717

In a dilute concentration region, equilibrium data for SO2 distributed

between air and water can be approximated by PA = 25 xA, where the

partial pressure of SO2 in the vapor is expressed in atmospheres. For as

absorption column operating at 10 atm, the bulk vapor and liquid

concentrations at one point in the column are yA = 0.01 and xA = 0.0. The

mass transfer coefficients for this process are, kx = 10 and ky = 8

[kgmol/(s.m2.mf)]. Assuming equimolar counter diffusion, (a) find Kx. (b)

determine the interfacial compositions, xAi and yAi, and (c) calculate the

molar flux, NA.

Solution

25

25 2.5

10

A A A A A

P x y x x

Since the diffusion is Equimolar counter diffusion, therefore no

need for a trial and error method

1818

Example 3

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

0

5

10

15

x

y

P

/ / / / /

1 1 1

x y x

K m k k

+

/

/ / /

1 1

y y x

m

K k k

+

m' = m''

=

2.5

K'y =

2.67

K'x =

6.667

NA =

0.0267

kgmol/(s.

m2)

( )

/

A y i

N k y y

0.0066

7

0.0026

7

Summary of the

results

- Extraction of Benzoic Acid Lab ReportUploaded byJohnConor
- Mass TransferUploaded byMohit Bhore
- MASS TRANSFER Coefficient and Inter Phase Mass TransferUploaded bySannala Prudhvi
- Ethylene Oxide Ethylene Glycol Process Flow DiagramUploaded byPrabhdeep Singh Virdi
- (3-2-2) NPTEL - Properties of Cryogenic FluidsUploaded byCryogenics_NPTEL
- Characteristics of Polyglycerol Ester and Its Different FractionsUploaded bylili
- Unit 1 Science Gr 8.pdfUploaded byEthan Skinner
- JJ207 Thermodynamic Topic 3 Properties of Pure SubstancesUploaded byAh Tiang
- Water/n-alkane phase behaviorUploaded byAnonymous PO7VwbBn
- A Simple Model for Rice Grains in a Deep-bed DryerUploaded byShaswat Prince
- apch10scUploaded byScott Allred
- 282163771-002-0-Surface-Sampling-Training.pdfUploaded byAnonymous yjLUF9gDTS
- Paracetamol SolubilityUploaded byJoao Diniz
- 1 Physical Metallurgy- Solid Solution[1]Uploaded byVinod Patil
- Project OnUploaded byTushar Attar
- Study Polymorphs..Uploaded byAlvinCandra
- Q3Uploaded byShina Sean
- Science (11)Uploaded byrpyjcth
- An Investigation of the Natural Operations Employed in Consolidating the Strata of the GlobeUploaded byrobi doco
- Triple Point PlotUploaded byJorge
- Properties of Matter Power PointUploaded bynettexts
- caumon2017_2.pdfUploaded byziba
- Heat Layered Curriculum.docUploaded bywperry42
- CAMSCCHAP8Uploaded byarenestar
- Lecture7.liqliqUploaded byGIANCARLO
- Sch3u Exam Review Ws s2018.PDFUploaded bywdsf
- Recovered_PDF_17202.pdfUploaded byeidelsayed
- Absorbtion PeUploaded bykhalidhussainraza
- Http://Imechanica.org/Files/L02 VacancyUploaded byroshan2004

- Mezzo Tevion MEST-838 Toaster Operating InstructionsUploaded bypetrosyan201
- EC-2Uploaded bysusmitamandali
- Fault Identification and Monitoring in rolling element bearingUploaded byRushikesh Dandagwhal
- 2nd Lecture NanoFuelCellsUploaded byAFZB
- Sliver Line Composite Textile MillsUploaded bymac2022
- Near Perfect Solar Absorption in Ultra Thin Film GaAs Photonic CrystalsUploaded bya k
- Help for Rad Pro CalculatorUploaded byNikolić Mladen
- 48 Rowan Gorilla ViUploaded byMike Ross
- Caliber Industrial Bldg Questionaire.xlsUploaded byThirucherai Sourirajan Rajagopalan
- dce-4Uploaded bypremsempire
- operations project- kritikaUploaded byKRIZENI
- Www Svpvril Com Cosmology Cos9 HTMLUploaded byoveryounity
- MWO ManualUploaded bypeny7
- Electronics Set AUploaded byDenisse Torizo Olan
- Sunil ChefUploaded byArunkumar KP
- 22536566-Heat-LoadUploaded byjacobojosue
- Final LVEMPIICS Watch Ebulletin May 2018Uploaded byKimbowa Richard
- dataSheet_WL12-3V2431_1041537_enUploaded byJosé Manuel González
- intro specialUploaded byKit Chot
- tcsUploaded byNiranjana Dheenathayalan
- ewrs ppt 2Uploaded bySingam Ajay
- steam table.docxUploaded bysuresh
- co2Uploaded byriki187
- 21086896_V914_IOMUploaded bymefaisal75
- Lightyears Catalog 2015Uploaded byNorse Republics
- Porter 5 Force ModelUploaded byPrajesh Gupta
- Def Stan 61-5 Part 6Uploaded byNicolas Dubois
- PROMASTOP-I_TDS_Ro.pdfUploaded byMBM
- Die Penetrant-EnglishUploaded byPrasetyo Putra
- Design of Liqiud Propellant RocketsUploaded byrampage227