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16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 2010

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Surge Transfer Study for Power Transformer Using EMTDC/PSCAD


Veerabrahmam Bathini, Chandra Shekhar Reddy Atla, Dr. K. Balaraman and K. Parthasarathy
Abstract- The lightning and switching surges can be transferred from one voltage level to another through transformer couplings. A distribution system, which may not be directly exposed to the overvoltages of atmospheric origin, but connected to a utility system through a transformer of high turns ratio will be exposed to overvoltages on the secondary side due to overvoltages on the primary windings. The resulting stresses on the distribution system may exceed the BIL levels. This paper presents modeling of high frequency autotransformer and frequency dependent surge arrester models and results of simulations for lightning and switching surges transferred through 502 MVA, 380/132/13.8 kV autotransformer using EMTDC/PSCAD. Surge arresters are usually provided on the high voltage side and low voltage side of the autotransformers. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the surges transferred towards tertiary of autotransformer. If these surges are to be controlled to safe levels it may be necessary to provide the surge arresters at tertiary side also. This aspect has been highlighted in present paper.
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I. INTRODUCTION The most common primary distribution voltage in industrial systems is 13.8/11 kV. However, for large power demands, the utility system voltage may be as high as 380/400 kV. The surge transfer through the transformers depends upon the voltage turn ratio, as well as electrostatic and electromagnetic couplings of the windings. The lightning and steep fronted waves are partially transferred through the electromagnetic coupling, which is the mechanism that governs the transformer operation at power frequencies and depends upon the turns ratio. The magnitude of these surges transferred through electromagnetic coupling is far less than the magnitude of surges transferred through electrostatic coupling hence electrostatic effects dominate the coupling of transients from the primary to the secondary windings. For slower switching surges, the electromagnetic coupling effect predominates [1]. The overvoltages caused by transfer of lightning and steep fronted waves or switching surges are compared with BIL of the equipments on low voltage side. In case the magnitude of transferred overvoltages exceed the BIL levels, mitigation techniques like provision of properly rated surge arresters (SA), surge capacitors etc., have to be
Veerabrahmam Bathini, Sr. Power system Engineer, is with M/s Power research and development consultants Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India. (e-mail:veerabrahmam@prdcinfotech.com) Chandra Shekhar Reddy Atla, Power system Engineer, is with M/s Power research and development consultants Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India. (e-mail:sekhar.atla@gmail.com) Dr. K Balaraman, CGM, Power System Group, is with M/s PRDC Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. (e-mail: balaraman@prdcinfotech.com) Prof. K Parthasarathy, Retired Professor from IISc, Bangalore.
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employed to control these overvoltages. This paper concentrates on mitigation technique provided by surge arrester. The selection of an appropriate surge arrester is an important consideration. System overvoltages under normal and faulted conditions, system grounding and ground fault clearance times should be considered in selecting a surge arrester. The selection procedure is as follows [2] [7]. Arrester rated voltage (Vn): selected based on maximum temporary overvoltages (TOV) appearing in the power network, considering earth fault factor. Maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV): selected based on the maximum system steady state operating voltage. Energy Capability: selected based on switching and lightning overvoltage studies. This paper presents the modeling of high frequency autotransformer and frequency dependent surge arrester to conduct surge transfer studies for 502 MVA, 380/132/13.8 kV autotransformer using EMTDC/PSCAD. Considering a worst case scenario for simulation, the lightning impulse or switching impulse injected currents at high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) terminals of the autotransformer are selected based on the V-I characteristics of corresponding surge arresters. The modeling methodologies, data considered for case study and simulation results are presented in following sections. II. MODELING This section presents the modeling details of 502 MVA, 380/132/13.8 kV autotransformer and surge arresters. A. Autotransformer Model The parameter specifications of 502 MVA, 380/132/13.8 kV autotransformer provided by manufacturer are presented in Table 1.
TABLE 1 AUTOTRANSFORMER PARAMETERS S.No. Parameter 1 2 3 4 5 Rated capacity Rated voltages (High/medium/low) Lightning BIL (High/medium/low) Switching BIL (High/medium/low) frequency Type of system grounding Value 502 MVA 380/132/13.8 kV 1300/650/95 kV 1050/650/95 kV 60 Hz HV Solidly LV Solidly TV Effectively Common neutral (autotransformers) Solidly Short circuit Impedances : %Z (on 500 ZHL=19.3%

7 8

Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.

16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 2010

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S.No. Parameter MVA base)

Value

Terminal to ground capacitances and terminal to terminal capacitances

ZHT=268.75% ZLT=243.38% CHG = 5854.1pF CLG = 8057.6 pF CTG = 14424.4 pF CHL = 3023.8 pF CHT = 1889 pF CLT = 5033.8pF

performing surge transfer study. The surge arrester model is presented in Fig. 3.
8057.6e-6 [uF]
LV

3023.8e-6 [uF]

5033.8e-6 [uF]

HV

e1t e1l

TV

e1r
14424.4e-6 [uF]

5854.1e-6 [uF]

In PSCAD/EMTDC, the built in model for three phase autotransformer with tertiary is not available. Hence the modeling implementation is described in this section. Three single phase three winding transformers are used to represent three phase autotransformer with tertiary as shown in Fig.1. The leakage impedances for three single phase three winding transformers can be determined from the leakage impedances of the autotransformer by using the procedure described in Appendix [3]. The input data required for this model can be extracted from the data provided in Table 1. To represent high frequency model for the autotransformer, terminal capacitances mentioned in Table 1 are connected as shown in Fig. 2.
LVa

1889e-6 [uF]

Fig. 2: High frequency Autotransformer model

Fig. 3: Frequency dependent surge arrester model proposed by Pinceti [5].

HVa #2 #1 #3
LVb TVa

HVb #2 #1 #3 HVc
LVc TVb

#2 #1 #3
TVc

This model is composed by two sections of non-linear resistance usually designated by A0 and A1 which are separated by inductance L1 and L0. The resistance R (about 1 M ) is added to avoid the numerical problems. The values L1 and L0 are computed based on the procedure described in [5]. The computation procedure is described in flow chart shown in Fig. 4. Vn is arrester rated voltage (kV), Vr8/20 is the residual voltage (kV) for the discharge current of 10 kA, 8/20 s impulse, Vr1/T2 is the residual voltage (kV) for the discharge current 10 kA, 1/T2 s steep front impulse. The fall time T2 can vary between 2 and 20 s. The nonlinear resistors A0 and A1 can be modeled as a piecewise linear V-I curves. V-I characteristic of A1 arrester is selected from manufacturer data sheet and V-I characteristic of A0 is selected based on curves proposed by IEEE W.G.3.4.11 [4] which are shown in Fig. 5. Data Sheet

Fig. 1: Autotransformer model in PSCAD/EMTDC. B.

Frequency Dependent Surge Arrester Modeling Surge arrester dynamic characteristics are significant for studies involving lightning and other fast transient surges. The time to crest for surges used in lightning studies can range from 0.5 s to several s. For a given current magnitude in an arrester, the voltage developed across the arrester can increase by approximately 6% as time to crest of current is decreased from 8 s to 1.3 s. One approach for an arrester model for lightning studies would be to use a simple non-linear V-I characteristics based on 0.5 s discharge voltage. This would give conservative results (higher voltages) for surges with slower time to crest. The frequency dependent model will give good results for current surges with times to crest from 0.5 s to 40 s [4]. The surge arrester model proposed by Pinceti [5] derived from IEEE model [4] is used in the present paper for

Vr1/T2 K=Vr1/T2/Vr8/20

K<1.18

V 1 V L1 = . r1/ T 2 r 8/ 20 .Vn 4 Vr 8/ 20 L0 =

L1=0.03 Vn L0=0.01 Vn

1 Vr1/ T 2 Vr 8/ 20 . .Vn 12 Vr 8/ 20
Fig. 4: Flowchart to calculate elements L0 and L1 [5].

Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.

16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 2010

550

The V-I characteristic of A0 and value of L1 in the model have to be properly adjusted to match the manufacturers data with respect to switching and lighting characteristics. Adjustment of V-I characteristics of A0 to match switching surge Voltages: The V-I characteristics of A0 are adjusted in surge arrester model to get a good match between model and manufacturers switching surge voltages and currents.

TABLE 3 120 kV FREQUENCY DEPENDENT SURGE ARRESTER PARAMETERS Rated arrester voltage (kVrms) 120 MCOV (kVrms) 97 Leakage current at MCOV (mA) 5 TOV 1 sec rating (kVrms) 139 TOV 10 sec rating (kVrms) 132 Maximum residual 30/60 s switching (0.5 , 233) , (1, 240 ), (2, 255), voltage (kV crest) at surge current (3, 258) discharge of 8/20 s lightning (5, 264), (10, 273), (20, 291) (kAp, kVp) surge current [provided by 0.5 s steep front (10, 335), (20, 372 ) manufacturer, A1] current V-I characteristics of A0 (Adjusted) (0.5, 289), (1, 296), (2, 306), (kAp, kVp) (3, 314), (5, 320), 10, 335), (20, 372) Line discharge class [Energy Absorption] 4 [ 1440 kJ] TABLE 4 12 kV FREQUENCY DEPENDENT SURGE ARRESTER PARAMETERS Rated arrester voltage (kVrms) 12 MCOV (kVrms) 10.2 Leakage current at MCOV (mA) 5 TOV 1 sec rating (kVrms) 14.0 TOV 10 sec rating (kVrms) 13.2 Maximum residual 30/60 s switching (0.5, 25.7) , (1, 26.7) voltage (kV crest) at surge current discharge of 8/20 s lightning (1.5, 27.6 ), (3, 29.1), (5, 30.2), (kAp, kVp) surge current (10, 32.4), (20, 35.9), (40, 40.2) [provided by 0.5 s steep front (10, 40), (20, 44) manufacturer, A1] current V-I characteristics of A0 (Adjusted ) (0.5, 34.3), (1, 35.2), (2, 36.3), (kAp, kVp) (3, 37.2), (5, 38), 10, 40), (20, 44) Line discharge class [Energy Absorption] 4 [ 90 kJ] TABLE 5 L0 and L1 VALUES FOR 360 kV, 120 kV and 12 kV SURGE ARRESTERS L1(Adjusted) Surge Arrester rating L0 [ H] [ H] 360 kV 2.42 35.0 120 kV 1.2 3.6 12 kV 0.12 0.36

Fig. 5: Characteristics

of nonlinear elements A0 and A1 proposed by IEEE W.G. 3.4.11 [4].

Adjustment of L1 to match V8/20 voltages: The value of L1 in model is adjusted with V-I characteristic of A1 and modified V-I characteristics of A0 to obtain a good match between the manufacturer data and model discharge voltages for an 8/20 s current. The frequency dependent surge arrester models used for the case studies are presented Tables 2, 3 and 4 and L0 and L1 values are presented in Table 5.
TABLE 2 360 kV FREQUENCY DEPENDENT SURGE ARRESTER PARAMETERS Rated arrester voltage (kVrms) 360 MCOV- Maximum Continuous Operating 289 Voltage (kVrms) Leakage current at MCOV (mA) 5 TOV 1 sec rating (kVrms) 410 TOV 10 sec rating (kVrms) 388 Maximum residual 30/60 s switching (0.5 , 674) , (1, 692), (2, 712), voltage (kV crest) at surge current (3, 725) discharge of 8/20 s lightning (5, 761), (10, 792), (20, 856), (kAp, kVp) surge current (30, 899) [provided by 0.5 s steep front (10, 856), (20, 927) manufacturer, A1] current V-I characteristics of A0 (Adjusted ) (0.5, 721), (1, 739), (2, 764), (kAp, kVp) (3, 783), (5, 798), 10, 856), (20, 927) Line discharge class [Energy Absorption] 4 [ 4320 KJ]

III. CASE STUDIES Case studies have been performed for 502 MVA, 380/132/13.8 kV autotransformer in order to find the surges transferred to tertiary voltage (TV) side with lightning or switching or steep front impulse applied at HV or LV terminals. The Basic Insulation Levels (BIL) for the autotransformer is presented in Table 1. Considering a worst case scenario for simulation, the lightning impulse or switching impulse injected currents at HV or LV terminals of the autotransformer are selected based on the V-I characteristics of corresponding surge arresters. The generated impulse currents namely 3 kA, 30/60 s switching impulse, 20 kA, 8/20 s lightning current impulse and 20 kA, 0.5/20 s steep front current impulse, presented in Fig. 6, 7 and 8 respectively, are used in the simulation. Case study 1: Switching current impulse of 3kA, 30/60 s The study results with switching current impulse of 3 kA, 30/60 s as shown in Fig. 7 at autotransformer terminals are

Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.

16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 2010

551

presented in Table 6 and the corresponding voltage waveforms at the tertiary are shown in Figures 9 and 10. Case study 2: Lightning current impulse of 20kA, 8/20 s The study results with lightning current impulse of 20 kA, 8/20 s as shown in Fig. 8 at autotransformer terminals are presented in Table 7 and the corresponding voltage waveforms at the tertiary are shown in Figures 11 to 13. Case study 3: Steep front current impulse of 20kA, 0.5/20 s The study results with lightning current impulse of 20 kA, 0.5/20 s as shown in Fig. 9 at autotransformer terminals are presented in Table 8 and the corresponding voltage waveforms at the tertiary are shown in Figures 14 to 16.

TABLE 6 SWITCHING SURGES TRANSFERRED THROUGH TRANSFORMER Refer Case Switching Energy absorbed Voltage at Transformer surge by SA at [KJ] terminal [kVp] and Figures applied at Corresponding %BIL transformer HV LV TV HV LV %BIL TV %BIL terminal side side side [SA location] 1 HV side 114.6 22.0 - 220 34 87 93 Fig. 9 [HV, LV] 2 3 LV side [HV, LV] HV side [HV, LV,TV] LV side [HV, LV,TV] 9.0 119 33.3 17.5 1.5 612 220 58.3 34 63 66.3 Fig. 10

23.2 25.2

12.1

32.4

0.1 612

58.3

23

24.2

Fig. 6: switching impulse current, 3kA, 30/60 s

TABLE 7 LIGHTNING SURGES TRANSFERRED THROUGH TRANSFORMER Case Switching Energy absorbed Voltage at Transformer Refer surge by SA at [KJ] terminal [kVp] and Figures applied at Corresponding %BIL transformer HV LV TV HV LV %BIL TV %BIL terminal side side side [SA location] 1 HV side 339 6.8 - 220 34 121 128 Fig. 11 [HV, LV] 2 3 LV side [HV, LV] HV side [HV, LV,TV] LV side [HV, LV,TV] 11 335 116 7.1 5.0 610 - 47 220 34 86 29 91 30.5 Fig. 12 -

7.4

114 0.15 610

- 47

30

31.6

Fig. 13

Fig. 7: Lightning impulse current, 20kA, 8/20 s

TABLE 8 STEEP FRONT SURGES TRANSFERRED THROUGH TRANSFORMER Case Switching Energy absorbed Voltage at Transformer Refer surge by SA at [KJ] terminal [kVp] and Figures applied at Corresponding %BIL transformer HV LV TV HV LV %BIL TV %BIL terminal side side side [SA location] 1 HV side 433 17.7 - 249 38.5 155 163 Fig. 14 [HV, LV] 2 3 LV side [HV, LV] HV side [HV, LV,TV] LV side [HV, LV,TV] 22.5 142.6 434 17.2 5.3 615 - 47.3 222 34 128 135 43 45.3 Fig. 15 Fig. 16

16.6

143

0.2 615

- 47

45

47.4

Fig. 8: Steep front impulse current, 20kA, 0.5/20 s

Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.

16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 2010

552

Fig. 9: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 1, Table 6.

Fig. 13: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 4, Table 7.

Fig. 10: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 3, Table 6.

Fig. 14: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 1, Table 8.

Fig. 11: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 1, Table 7.

Fig. 15: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 2, Table 8.

Fig. 12: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 2, Table 7.

Fig. 16: Voltage at TV side of transformer for case 3, Table 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.

16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 2010

553

According to IEC Standard 60099-5[6], considering a safety factor of 1.15, the acceptable overvoltages must be within 87% of BIL values. From the case studies, it is seen that with surge arresters at autotransformer HV and LV terminals the overvoltages at tertiary side of the transformer are high and beyond the recommended BIL levels. Hence in addition to provision of surge arresters at HV and LV sides of transformer, 12 kV surge arrester at tertiary side of transformer is required to limit the overvoltages to safe levels. It is also seen that the energy absorbed by the three surge arresters are well within the allowable ratings as presented in Tables 2, 3 and 4. IV. CONCLUSIONS The paper presents the modeling details of high frequency autotransformer and frequency dependent surge arrester for surge transfer studies. The results of simulations for lightning and switching surges transferred through 502 MVA, 380/132/13.8 kV autotransformer using EMTDC/PSCAD are presented. Three case studies have been performed to determine need for surge arrester at tertiary of autotransformers. Based on these studies it is observed that in addition to surge arresters at HV and LV side of autotransformer, surge arrester is required at tertiary side of the transformer to limit the overvoltages to safe levels. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] J.C. Das, Surges transferred through transformers, IEEE Conference on pulp and Industry technical conference, 2002, pp. 139-147. IEC 60071-2, Insulation co-ordination: part 2: Application guide, third edition, 1996-12. V. Brandwajn, H.W. Dommel, I.I. Dommel, Matrix Representation of three-phase N-winding transformers for the steady state and transient studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No.6, June 1982, pp.1369-1378. IEEE working Group 3.4.11, Application of surge protective devices subcommittee, Surge protective Devices Committee, Modeling of Metal Oxide Surge Arresters, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 7, no.1, January 1992, pp. 302-309. Micaela Caserza, Marco Giannettoni, Paolo Pinceti, Validation of ZnO Surge Arresters Model for Overvoltage Studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 19, no.4, Oct. 2004, pp-1692-1695. IEC 60099-5, Surge Arresters- Part 5 Selection and Application Recommendations, edition 1.1, March 2000. Andrew R. Hileman, Insulation Coordination for Power Systems, Taylor & Francis Publications, 1999.

For a accurate representation of autotransformer the high and low voltage terminals should be represented with the actual common winding II and series winding I, as shown in Fig. 17 [3] for autotransformer with a tertiary winding III. This requires a re-definition of the short circuit data in terms of windings I, II, III, with their voltage ratings V I = VH - VL VII = VL (1) VIII = VT The test between H and L is already the correct test between I and II, since II is shorted and the voltage is applied across I with b and c being at the same potential through the short circuit connection. Therefore, simply change ZHL to the new voltage base VI,

VH Z I , II = Z HL (2) in p.u. VH VL No modifications are required for the test between II and III, ZII,III = ZLT in p.u. (3) For the test between H and T, the modification can best be explained in terms of the equivalent star-circuit of Fig. 17, with the impedances being ZI, ZII, ZIII, based on VI, VII, VIII, in this case. With III short circuited, 1 p.u. current (based on VIII = VT) will flow through ZIII. This current will also flow through I and II as 1 p.u. based on VH, or converted to bases VI, VII, II = (VH VL) / VH and III = VL / VH. With these currents, p.u. voltages become V VL VI = Z I H + Z III , in p.u. (4) VH
VL (5) + Z III , in p.u. VH Converting VI and VII to physical units by multiplying eq.(4) with (VH VL) and eq. (5) with VL, adding them up, and converting the sum back to a p.u. value VII = Z II

[4]

[5]

[6] [7]

APPENDIX: AUTOTRANSFORMER

V VL VL Z HT = Z I H (6) + Z II + Z III in p.u VH VH Eqs. (2), (3) and (6) can be solved for ZI, ZII, ZIII since ZI,II = ZI+ZII and ZII,III = ZII+ZIII, VH VV VH VL Z I , III = Z HL + Z HL Z LT in p.u. (7) VH VL VH VL (VH VL ) 2 The autotransformer of Fig. 17 can therefore be treated as a transformer with 3 windings I, II, III by simply re-defining the short circuit input impedances with eqs. (2), (3) and (7).

Fig. 17: Autotransformer with Tertiary Winding

Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA.