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Why standards matter? What if standards did not exist?


If there were no standards, we would soon notice. Standards make an enormous contribution to most aspects of our lives - although very often, that contribution is invisible. It is when there is an absence of standards that their importance is brought home. For example, as purchasers or users of products, we soon notice when they turn out to be of poor quality, do not fit, are incompatible with equipment we already have, are unreliable or dangerous. When products meet our expectations, we tend to take this for granted. We are usually unaware of the role played by standards in raising levels of quality, safety, reliability, efficiency and interchangeability - as well as in providing such benefits at an economical cost. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer of standards. Although ISO's principal activity is the development of technical standards, ISO standards also have important economic and social repercussions. ISO standards make a positive difference, not just to engineers and manufacturers for whom they solve basic problems in production and distribution, but to society as a whole. The International Standards which ISO develops are very useful. They are useful to industrial and business organizations of all types, to governments and other regulatory bodies, to trade officials, to conformity assessment professionals, to suppliers and customers of products and services in both public and private sectors, and, ultimately, to people in general in their roles as consumers and end users. ISO standards contribute to making the development, manufacturing and supply of products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner. They make trade between countries easier and fairer. They provide governments with a technical base for health, safety and environmental legislation. They aid in transferring technology to developing countries. ISO standards also serve to safeguard consumers, and users in general, of products and services - as well as to make their lives simpler. When things go well - for example, when systems, machinery and devices work well and safely - then it is because they conform to standards. And the organization responsible for many thousands of the standards which benefit society worldwide is ISO. BENEFITS OF STANDARDIZATION 1. For businesses, the widespread adoption of International Standards means that suppliers can base the development of their products and services on specifications that have wide acceptance in their sectors. This, in turn, means that businesses using International Standards are increasingly free to compete on many more markets around the world.

2. For customers, the worldwide compatibility of technology which is achieved when products and services are based on International Standards brings them an increasingly wide choice of offers, and they also benefit from the effects of competition among suppliers. 3. For governments, International Standards provide the technological and scientific bases underpinning health, safety and environmental legislation. 4. For trade officials negotiating the emergence of regional and global markets, International Standards create "a level playing field" for all competitors on those markets. The existence of divergent national or regional standards can create technical barriers to trade, even when there is political agreement to do away with restrictive import quotas and the like. International Standards are the technical means by which political trade agreements can be put into practice. 5. For developing countries, International Standards that represent an international consensus on the state of the art constitute an important source of technological know-how. By defining the characteristics that products and services will be expected to meet on export markets, International Standards give developing countries a basis for making the right decisions when investing their scarce resources and thus avoid squandering them. 6. For consumers, conformity of products and services to International Standards provides assurance about their quality, safety and reliability. 7. For everyone, International Standards can contribute to the quality of life in general by ensuring that the transport, machinery and tools we use are safe. 8. For the planet we inhabit, International Standards on air, water and soil quality, and on emissions of gases and radiation, can contribute to efforts to preserve the environment. VARIOUS STANDARD DEVELOPING ORGANIZATIONS: ISO ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization: its members are not, as is the case in the United Nations system, delegations of national governments. Nevertheless, ISO occupies a special position between the public and private sectors. This is because, on the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, ISO is able to act as a bridging organization in which a consensus can be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as the needs of stakeholder groups like consumers and users. What ISO's name means Because "International Organization for Standardization" would have different abbreviations in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in French for Organisation

internationale de normalisation), it was decided at the outset to use a word derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal". Therefore, whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's name is always ISO. How it all started International standardization began in the electrotechnical field: the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was established in 1906. Pioneering work in other fields was carried out by the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA), which was set up in 1926. The emphasis within ISA was laid heavily on mechanical engineering. ISA's activities came to an end in 1942. In 1946, delegates from 25 countries met in London and decided to create a new international organization, of which the object would be "to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards". The new organization, ISO, officially began operations on 23 February 1947. What 'international standardization' means When the large majority of products or services in a particular business or industry sector conform to International Standards, a state of industry-wide standardization can be said to exist. This is achieved through consensus agreements between national delegations representing all the economic stakeholders concerned - suppliers, users, government regulators and other interest groups, such as consumers. They agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in the classification of materials, in the manufacture and supply of products, in testing and analysis, in terminology and in the provision of services. In this way, International Standards provide a reference framework, or a common technological language, between suppliers and their customers - which facilitates trade and the transfer of technology. The hallmarks of the ISO brand Equal footing Every participating ISO member institute (full members) has the right to take part in the development of any standard which it judges to be important to its country's economy. No matter what the size or strength of that economy, each participating member in ISO has one vote. ISO's activities are thus carried out in a democratic framework where each country is on an equal footing to influence the direction of ISO's work at the strategic level, as well as the technical content of its individual standards. Voluntary ISO standards are voluntary. As a non-governmental organization, ISO has no legal authority to enforce their implementation. A certain percentage of ISO standards - mainly those concerned with health, safety or the environment - has been adopted in some countries as part of their regulatory framework, or is referred to in legislation for which it serves as the technical basis. Such adoptions are sovereign decisions by the regulatory authorities or governments of the countries concerned; ISO itself does not regulate or legislate. However, although ISO standards are voluntary, they may become a market

requirement, as has happened in the case of ISO 9000 quality management systems, or of dimensions of freight containers and bank cards. Market-driven ISO develops only those standards for which there is a market requirement. The work is carried out by experts from the industrial, technical and business sectors which have asked for the standards, and which subsequently put them to use. These experts may be joined by others with relevant knowledge, such as representatives of government agencies, consumer organizations, academia and testing laboratories. Consensus Although ISO standards are voluntary, the fact that they are developed in response to market demand, and are based on consensus among the interested parties, ensures widespread applicability of the standards. Consensus, like technology, evolves and ISO takes account both of evolving technology and of evolving interests by requiring a review of its standards at least every five years to decide whether they should be maintained, updated or withdrawn. In this way, ISO standards retain their position as the state of the art, as agreed by an international cross-section of experts in the field. Worldwide ISO standards are technical agreements which provide the framework for compatible technology worldwide. Developing technical consensus on this international scale is a major operation. In all, there are some 3 000 ISO technical groups (technical committees, subcommittees, working groups etc.) in which some 50 000 experts participate annually to develop ISO standards. Who develops ISO standards ISO standards are developed by technical committees comprising experts from the industrial, technical and business sectors which have asked for the standards, and which subsequently put them to use. These experts may be joined by others with relevant knowledge, such as representatives of government agencies, testing laboratories, consumer associations, environmentalists, academic circles and so on. The experts participate as national delegations, chosen by the ISO national member institute for the country concerned. These delegations are required to represent not just the views of the organizations in which their participating experts work, but of other stakeholders too. According to ISO rules, the member institute is expected to take account of the views of the range of parties interested in the standard under development and to present a consolidated, national consensus position to the technical committee. How ISO standards are developed The national delegations of experts of a technical committee meet to discuss, debate and argue until they reach consensus on a draft agreement. This is then circulated as a Draft International Standard (DIS) to ISO's membership as a whole for comment and balloting. Many members have public review procedures for making draft standards known and available to interested parties and to the general public. The ISO members then take account of any feedback they receive in formulating their position on the draft standard.

If the voting is in favour, the document, with eventual modifications, is circulated to the ISO members as a Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). If that vote is positive, the document is then published as an International Standard. Every working day of the year, an average of ten ISO meetings are taking place somewhere in the world. In between meetings, the experts continue the standards' development work by correspondence. Increasingly, their contacts are made by electronic means and some ISO technical bodies have already gone over entirely to electronic working, which speeds up the development of standards and reduces travel cost.

Bureau of Indian Standards


The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India is involved in the development of technical standards (popularly known as Indian Standards), product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. It resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization, Certification and Quality. In order to attain this, the Bureau strives: To provide efficient timely service. To satify the customers' needs for quality of goods and services. To work and act in such a way that each task, performed as individuals or as corporate entity, leads to excellence and enhances the credibility and image of the Organization. BIS would achieve these objectives by working in close cooperation with all concerned organizations and by adopting appropriate management systems, motivating and ensuring active participation of all the employees. Purpose During the pre independence period, standardization activity was sporadic and confined mainly to a few Government purchasing organizations. However, immediately after independence, economic development through coordinated utilization of resources was called for and the government recognized the role for standardization in gearing industry to competitive efficiency and quality production. The Indian Standards Institution (ISI) was, therefore, set up in 1947 as a registered society, under a Government of India resolution. The Indian Standards Institution gave the nation the standards it needed for nationalization, orderly industrial and commercial growth, quality production and competitive efficiency. However, in 1986 the government recognized the need for stregthening this National Standards Body due to fast changing socio-economic scenario and accorded it a statutory status. Thus, came the Bureau of Indian Standards Act 1986 and on 1 April 1987, newly formed BIS took over staff assets, liabilities and functions of erstwhile ISI. Through this change over, the Government envisaged building of the climate of quality culture and consciousness and greater participation of consumers in formulation and of National Standards.1 April 1987 Objective Harmonious development of standardization, marking and quality certification

To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of production and exports Functions 1. Formulation of Indian Standards for products and services by bringing together and coordinating various interest groups like manufacturers, consumers, technical experts, testing personnel and others interested. The standards so prepared are known as Indian Standards (IS) and are considered as legal documents. The first Indian Standard formulated was for the National Flag (IS 1). So far BIS has published about 18000 Indian Standards covering various products, codes of practices, terminology, etc for various industrial and economic sectors. The Indian Standards are used not only by the industry but also by the Government, students, consumers and regulatory authorities. The standards are priced publications and are available from all the offices of the Bureau. 2. Certification Schemes Product Certification Scheme is a scheme whereby manufacturers of products interested in producing their products as per relevant Indian Standards are permitted to use the Standard Mark of the Bureau (the popular ISI mark) on their products after obtaining a licence from the Bureau. The pre-requisites for obtaining a licence are that the manufacturer has the necessary manufacturing and testing facility for the product and agrees to follow the quality assurance scheme of the Bureau in addition to payment of necessary fees as stipulated. The licence is initially granted for a period of one year which is renewable for subsequent periods based on satisfactory operation of the scheme. The scheme is voluntary in nature for most products. However, the government has insisted on ISI marking of about 136 products which affect the health and safety of consumers or are products of mass consumption like LPG Cylinders, Food Colours and Additives, Cement, Packaged Drinking Water, etc. Certification for Indian Importers is a similar scheme operated for importers who are desirous of using the standard mark (ISI Mark) on imported products. The Government of India has also stipulated that some of the products be imported into the country only after approval of BIS is obtained. Certification for Foreign Manufacturers is another scheme again operated on the same lines whereby manufacturers located in foreign countries are permitted to use the Standard (ISI) mark on their products. ECO MARK BIS grants licences to environment friendly products under this special scheme. For obtaining the ECO Mark Certificate the products should conform to additional requirements specified in the Indian Standards. IECEE & IECQ Certification BIS is a National Certifying Body (issuing and recognizing) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment (IECEE). The product

categories for which BIS has IECEE acceptance are Cables and Chords, Capacitors as components, Low voltage high power switching equipment, Installation of protective equipment and Electronics entertainment. BIS is also the National Authorised Institution and the National Standards Organization under the IEC System of Quality Assessment of Electronic Components (IECQ). 3. Management System Certifications : Under the Management System Certifications, the Bureau operates the following four Certification Schemes: Quality Management System Certification (ISO 9001 Certification) : The Bureau operates the Quality Management System Certification for organizations based on the ISO 9001:2000 Standard published by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Being a member of ISO the standards of ISO can be adopted in-toto by the Bureau and can be published as IS/ISO standards. Accordingly, the ISO 9000 series of standards have been adopted and are published as the IS/ISO 9000 series of standards. The certification is for the systems implemented by an organization and not for the product or service provided by them. The Standard requires implementation of systems as required by the Standard in all relevant activities and functions within an organization that goes to satisfy the needs of customers. The standard also requires that the organization shows continual improvement by defining specific objectives and measuring and monitoring the same in its activities. The certification being operated by the Bureau is accredited by the Dutch Council of Accreditation - Raad voor Accreditatie (RvA), The HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) programme for the food industry which envisages identification and control of hazards-physical, chemical or biological-can also be covered in QMS Certification Scheme if so desired by any organization. Environment Management System Certification : The certification scheme is based on the ISO 14001 standard which as in the case of ISO 9000 standards has been adopted as IS/ISO 14001. The thrust of the standard is ensuring that organizations meet the legal requirements of environmental protection and has systems whereby they control and improve upon measures that will lead to a healthier environment. Information Security Management System Certification (ISMS based on ISO/IEC 27001) Food Safety Management System Certification (FSMS based on ISO 22000) 4. Hall Marking of Gold Jewellery : India is the largest consumer of gold and the purchaser of gold jewellery is the common consumer. The Hall Marking of Gold Jewellery indented to ensure that the consumer gets gold jewellery of the purity declared was launched on 11 April 2000 at the behest of the Government of India. The certification of purity of Gold Jewellery is done in accordance with the Indian Standard IS:1417 (Specification for Gold and Gold Alloys, Jewellery/Artefacts - Fineness and Marking). The Standard is equivalent to the International Standard ISO 9202:1991Jewellery Fineness of Precious Metal Alloys. The scheme is voluntary in nature. 5. Other Actitvities of the Bureau include Operation of Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award instituted in 1991, with a view to encouraging Indian manufacturing and service organizations to strive for excellence and giving special recognition to those who are considered to be the leaders of quality

movement in India. This award is intended to generate interest and involvement of Indian Industry in quality programmes, drive our products and services to higher levels of quality and equip our Industry to meet the challenges of domestic and International markets. WTO-TBT Enquiry Point : The Government of India, Ministry of Commerce has designated BIS as the enquiry point under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade of the World Trade Organization (WTO). According to the Agreement, the Enquiry Point issues notifications on proposed technical regulations and certification systems in India to WTO, Geneva. Standards development BIS is engaged in formulation of Indian Standards for the following sectors : Basic & Production Engineering Chemicals Civil Engineering Electronics and Information Technology Electrotechnical Food and Agriculture Mechanical Engineering Management and Systems Medical Equipment and Hospital Planning Metallurgical Engineering Petroleum Coal and Related Products Transport Engineering Textile Water Resources Each of these sectors has a Division Council to oversee and supervise its work. BIS publishes detailed Work Programme for each of the 14 Division Councils once in a year on 1 April. The Work Programme, besides giving scope of Division Council and Sectional Committees, contains committeewise position of standards published and draft standards (like preliminary, wide circulation and finalized draft standards) at different stages of preparation. The copies of Work Programme (and also of wide circulation drafts for comments during the wide circulation period) can be obtained from the Director of the concerned Technical Divisions, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. The Work Programme is updated through Standards Monthly Additions (SMA), a monthly publication which contains information on standards published (new and revised), dual no. standards, amendments to standards, draft standards for comments, standards withdrawn and standards proposed for withdrawal up to 15th of the preceding month. Special attention is given to multidisciplinary areas such as energy conservation, environmental protection, rural development and safety. So far over 17,000 standards have been formulated in different technology areas. The standards formulated fall in the following categories:

Product Specifications Methods of Test Codes of Practices, Guidelines, etc Terminologies, Glossaries, etc Basic Standards Standards Promotion Apart from formulation, emphasis is laid also on regular review of the standards to keep them in line with modern technological developments, as also to harmonise them with international standards or their equivalents.

BRITISH STANDARDS
About BSi The British Standards Institute (BSi), which is now the world's leading standards and quality services organisation, was formed in 1901 and incorporated under Royal Charter in 1929. The BSi is the oldest national standards-making body in the world. What are British Standards? BSi's British Standards are codes of best practice that improve safety, efficiency, interoperability and facilitate trade. BSi Standards cover every area of life from technical guidelines for production processes in a diverse range of industries to specifications for 'making things happen' such as in the service sector and in systems for the management of e.g. CCTV systems, customer loyalty and even skate parks. British Standards is the National Standards Body of the UK responsible for facilitating, drafting, publishing and marketing standards and related information products. British Standards provides organizations with leading-edge best practice solutions that represent and support the needs of UK business and society at home and abroad. With collaborative ventures and a strong national and international profile, British Standards is at the heart of the world of standardization, providing UK industry and other stakeholders with their major access to and influence on standardization, both in the European arena (with CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) and internationally (with ISO and IEC). The British Standards Institution offers a portfolio of over 25,000 publications and provides expert help with drafting and delivering private company and consortia standards. The institute also provides technical advice on import and export regulations and requirements, as well as running a comprehensive seminar and workshop programme. Relevant British Standards List Agricultural machinery: combine and forage harvesters BS EN 632 Agricultural machinery: silage cutters BS EN 703

- earth-moving machinery BS 6812 - hydraulic transmission systems BS 5944 - fire extinguishing systems BS 5306 - fire extinguishers BS 6535 - cylindrical storage tanks BS 2594 - alloy steel BS 3458 - high tensile steel BS 2902 - steel use and maintenance BS 6968 - welded BS 6304 Cleaning and surface repair of buildings BS 6270 Closed circuit escape breathing apparatus BS 4667 Ear protectors, sound attenuation measurement BS EN 24689-1 Earth moving equipment BS 6912 Electrical equipment - explosive atmospheres BS 4683, 5501, 5345, 6941 - fire hazard testing BS 6458 Electrical resistance materials - bare fine resistance wires BS 1117 - industrial electric plugs BS 4343 - industrial machines BS 2771 - marking for low-voltage industrial switchgear/controlgear BS 6272 Fire detection/alarm systems BS 5839 Fire detection/alarm systems - design, installation and servicing of integrated systems BS 7807 Fire door assemblies BS 8214 high tensile, steel chain BS 2902 - textile BS 6668 - electric, passenger/materials BS 4465 Insulating material BS 7737, BS 7831, BS 5626, BS EN 26874, BS EN 60383-2, BS 7822, BS 2844, BS 5691 Machine tools - emergency stop equipment, functional aspects BS EN 418 - noise measurement methods BS 4813 - safeguarding BS 5304 Machinery, safety of - drafting and presentation BS EN 414 - noise measurement BS 7135 Radiation protection - area radiation monitors, X-ray and gamma radiation BS 5566 Refrigeration systems BS 4434 - industrial trucks, stacking with masted tilt forward BS 5778 - pallet stackers/high lift platform trucks BS 5777 - reach and straddle fork trucks BS 4436 Rope pulley blocks

- gin blocks BS 1692 - synthetic fibre BS 4344 - wire, heavy duty BS 4536

WHO IS ANSI?
Among safety product standards, the most familiar name is ANSI, which stands for the American National Standards Institute. But while its the most familiar, ANSIs role is often misunderstood. ANSI is a federation formed by standards writers and users, that manages the voluntary standards system in the United States. ANSI is not a government agency, although it works closely with the government, and is the official United States voice in international standards bodies. Its revenue comes from its membership, in the form of dues and fees, and from the sales of standard publications. ANSI does not develop standards. This comes as a surprise to a lot of people. ANSIs role is to coordinate the activities of organizations in the US that do develop standards. ANSI approves the establishment of standards committees and new standards projects, sets the rules for the various methods that standards developers use, oversees the process, and approves the final products as American National Standards. ANSI rules and procedures require that standards development processes incorporate the elements of openness, balance, transparency, consensus and due process. ANSI standards may be developed by accredited organizations such as ASTM or NFPA, by accredited standards committees such as Z87 (administered by ISEA), or by trade associations and professional societies through the canvass method. Regardless of how a standard is drafted, it has to be offered for public review, and the sponsoring organization has to resolve the public comments before it gets ANSI approval. Once approved, an ANSI standard has a 5-year lifetime. ANSI will withdraw approval from a standard that is not revised, rescinded or reaffirmed at least every five years. Who Develops ANSI Standards? Many ANSI standards are born in trade associations, whose members have special product expertise. These groups may achieve consensus through the canvass method. For example, ANSI standards for head protection, emergency eyewash and shower equipment, first aid, and other products are drafted by ISEA product groups, then sent for review to a balanced list of producers, users, government agencies and experts. The group considers the canvassees comments, and continues to rewrite the standard until all the objections are resolved and a final ballot indicates consensus. Public comments are also solicited through ANSI. Standards organizations such as NFPA and ASTM develop standards through technical committees, made up of experts on the product or process under review. They have their own structures and systems to achieve consensus, and generally submit their standards for public review and approval as ANSI standards as well.

Order NSF Standards and Publications NSF has developed voluntary consensus standards for the following types of food equipment: NSF/ANSI Standard 2: Food Service Equipment Equipment commonly known as 'fabricated food equipment': kitchen, bakery, pantry and cafeteria units, and other food handling and processing equipment including tables and components, counters, shelves, sinks, hoods, etc. NSF Standard 3: Commercial Spray-Type Dishwashing and Glasswashing Machines Stationary racks, conveyor machines, etc. NSF/ANSI Standard 4: Commercial Cooking and Hot Food Storage Equipment Ranges, ovens, deep fat fryers, fat filters, griddles, broilers, steam and pressure cookers, steam jacketed kettles, toasters, rotisseries, hot beverage makers and component water heating equipment, proof boxes or cabinets, hot food holding and transport cabinets, rethermalization units, etc. NSF Standard 5: Hot Water Generating and Heat Recovery Equipment Automatic storage, circulating tank, and instantaneous water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and steam heat exchangers. NSF/ANSI Standard 6: Dispensing Freezers Dispensing freezers, including heat treatment dispensing freezers which process and dispense previously pasteurized soft ice cream, ice milt, malts, custards, and similar frozen dairy products by batch or continuous feed directly into the customer's container. NSF/ANSI Standard 7: Food Service Refrigerators and Storage Freezers Reach-in, undercounter and walk-in storage refrigerators and freezers, rapid pull down refrigerators, refrigerated buffet units, and refrigerated food preparation units used in the food service industry. NSF/ANSI Standard 8: Commercial Powered Food Preparation Equipment Mixers, peelers, grinders, slicers, tenderizers, saws, coffee grinders, pasta makers, etc. NSF/ANSI Standard 12: Automatic Ice Making Equipment Ice manufacturing equipment and the attached appurtenances used in storing and dispensing ice in connection with this equipment. NSF/ANSI Standard 13: Refuse Compactors and Compactor Systems Trash compactors except for those intended for the compaction of hazardous or infectious materials. NSF/ANSI Standard 18: Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment Equipment that dispenses food or beverages in bulk or portions.

NSF/ANSI Standard 20: Commercial Bulk Milk Dispensing Equipment Commercial bulk milk dispensing equipment of milk product dispensers. NSF Standard 21: Thermoplastic Refuse Containers Containers intended for indoor and outdoor storage of refuse. NSF/ANSI Standard 25: Vending Machines for Food and Beverages Food and beverage vending machines. NSF/ANSI Standard 29: Detergent/Chemical Feeders for Commercial Spray-Type Dishwashing Machines Chemical sanitizing feeders, detergent dispensers, drying agent injectors, and similar devices that automatically maintain the concentration of additives in the prewash, wash, pumped rinse, or final rinse of commercial spray-type dishwashing machines. NSF/ANSI Standard 35: Laminated Plastics for Surfacing Food Service Equipment Laminated plastic sheets (high pressure) for limited use as work, splash, and nonfood contact surfaces of foodservice equipment. NSF/ANSI Standard 36: Dinnerware New dinnerware intended for use in foodservice establishments. It includes plates, bowls, saucers, cups, insulated trays, covers and similar items, regardless of size or configuration. NSF/ANSI Standard 37: Air Curtains for Entranceways in Food Establishments Air curtains for entranceways in food and food service establishments, e.g., service and customer entries, service windows, cooler and cold storage entries. OCCATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATIONS STANDARDS Where Does OSHA fit in? Product standards determine performance requirements, and certification indicates conformity to standards. How those products are installed and used in the workplace falls under OSHA. OSHA standards and regulations may mandate the use of a product that meets a standard, but not specify how that product is certified. For example, the OSHA PPE standards require that hard hats, safety glasses and safety footwear meet specific ANSI standards; the OSHA respirator standard requires that products be NIOSH approved. OSHA officials often participate in the development of those standards, and ANSI and OSHA work in close cooperation. For some products, such as electrical products in the workplace, OSHA requires thirdparty approval. When this is the case, it specifies the standards to which the products must be approved, and accredits test labs to certify to those standards. These labs are designated Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories, or NRTLs. Keep in mind,

however, that OSHA does not require third-party approval for PPE. Therefore no lab even if it is an NRTL should claim to be recognized by OSHA to test and approve PPE. OSHA General Industry standards pertaining to the safe use of a Bell Industries "CarbCutter" include: 1. 29 CFR 1910.132 and 1910.133, require personal protective equipment be provided, used, and maintained wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes. In this instance eye and face protection, gloves, and additional protective clothing are indicated as necessary and are an industry practice as stipulated by the applicable ANSI standards. (Reference ANSI B7.1 and ANSI 01.1.) 2. 29 CFR 1910.219, requires that the chain, vee-belt, and sprockets or pulleys be fully guarded to prevent employee exposure to the nip point hazards of the power transmission apparatus. 3. 29 CFR 1910.242(a), states that employers are responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees. 4. 29 CFR 1910.243(a)(1), (2) and (4). These standards require that when the device is equipped with a circular carbide tipped saw, such as Bell part numbers E914N and E918N, it must be provided with various safeguards including a lower saw blade retractable guard. 5. 29 CFR 1910.243(c)(1), (3), (4) and (5). These standards pertain to the device when it is equipped with an abrasive disc and specify that a 180 degree guard be provided. It should be noted that due to the various functions possible with this device the degree of required safeguarding is related to the specific function being accomplished. Therefore, only applicable portions of 1910.243 are required for any specific operational use. OSHA Construction Industry Standards pertaining to the safe use of a Bell Industries "Carb-Cutter" include: 1. 29 CFR 1926.28 and.102(a) require the use of appropriate personal protective equipment as in 1910.132 and 1910.133. 2. 29 CFR 1926.300(a), (b), and (d). These requirements are similar to 1910.219, 1910.242 and .243. Personal protective equipment use and guarding per ANSI B15.11953 (or current) is specified. 3. 29 CFR 1926.302(c). This requirement pertains to fuel powered tools such as the chain saw power unit. 4. 29 CFR 1926.303(a), (b), (c) and (d). These requirements are similar to 1910.243(c) above. It includes by reference the stipulations of ANSI B7.1-1970; however, OSHA accepts the provisions of ANSI B7.1-1978 as an alternative under our de minimis violation procedure, enclosed. 5. 29 CFR 1926.304(d), (e) and (f). These requirements are similar to 1910.243(a) and include by reference the requirements of ANSI 01.1-1961. OSHA accepts the provisions of ANSI 01.1-1975 and ANSI 01.1(a)-1979 as an alternative.

STANDARDS FOR MATERIAL CONSUMPTION Standards and Interoperability Industry standards in the chemical industry are essential to the efficiency of collaborative business process scenarios in the chemical manufacturing value chain. The primary business processes that leverage standards are information exchanges between chemical manufacturers and their suppliers as well as chemical manufacturers and their customers not only in the chemical industry but across a number of vertical industries including automotive, high tech, mill products and others. The chemical industry also faces an increasing number of regulations created by local and national governments and companies need to demonstrate that they are fulfilling new policy requirements. The more important standards and regulations become, the more they influence the tactics of the information systems as well as influence the strategic direction of companies. Business Process Standards for the Chemical Industry: These are the key business standards in the chemical industry that affect SAP solution maps and help customers achieve the business value of an enterprise service-oriented architecture. Vertical Industry Standards Affecting the Chemical Industry: The chemical industry is a key supplier to a number of other manufacturing industries. As such, companies in the chemical industry frequently have to support the industry standards for other vertical markets including high tech, automotive, mill products and others. Financial Regulatory Compliance Affecting the Chemical Industry: SAP solutions for the chemical industry provide a complete financial management solution for chemical companies. It is the leading enterprise software solution for accounting, financial reporting, performance management, and corporate governance. SAP for Chemicals addresses a broad range of compliance and governance issues, including Sarbanes-Oxley, IFRS, Basel II, Global Trade Compliance and Environmental Health and Safety. OBJECTIVES: The Guidelines of ISO 9001:2000 are a revision of the new standard and the experience obtained by chemical companies in the use of the previous Guidelines. They have been produced in order to: provide common application of this standard by the European chemical industry and certification bodies; help the chemical industry to implement or adapt current quality management systems to conform to the new standard; promote the establishment of quality management systems in the European chemical industry (and their certification) according to the revised standard and help further progress of quality management systems towards levels aspired to in excellence models. Primarily ISO 9000:2000 describes fundamentals of quality management systems and defines related terms. ISO 9001:2000 is based on the following eight quality management principles: Customer focus

Leadership Involvement of people Process approach System approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationship The Scope has changed from addressing organisations capability to design and supply conforming product (where this) needs to be demonstrated to ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction. The new standard emphasizes the involvement of Top Management, in the quality management process. In this context customer satisfaction and continual improvement are of particular concern. The new standard promotes the adoption of a process-approach. Processes convert inputs into outputs. They have first to be identified, then managed and linked to other processes. They form part of a system and can extend beyond the boundaries of the organisation. Once a process is identified and appropriately defined, the following points should be checked: - are responsibilities assigned (e.g. process owners nominated)? - are the procedures implemented and maintained? - is the process effective and providing the required results? As a result of this process approach ISO 9001:2000 has been completely restructured in the number and sequence of clauses. PROCESS APPROACH: In the new standard the process approach encompasses all organizational and operational activities. ISO 9001:2000 not only promote the adoption of a process approach to quality management but also their application throughout the organisation are identified and described. The Chemical Industry is familiar with manufacturing processes, which are often interlinked. The extension of the process approach to other relevant organizational activities should, therefore, not cause undue difficulties and should improve the efficiency of the whole organisation. It may help to bring down functional hurdles, flatten the structure, further improvement and facilitate the integration of the different management systems. Financial issues and business planning valuable instruments for improving competitiveness are not explicit requirements of ISO 9001:2000. Their inclusion is, however, strongly recommended, as they will provide a more complete quality management system. ISO 9001:2000 defines the requirements which have to be fulfilled in order to accomplish compliance with customer needs and continuous improvement of the quality management system. In addition, if considered necessary, this standard can be used to achieve third party certification. ISO 9004:2000 develops the concept in a more extensive and intensive manner as a roadmap for organizations on their way to excellence. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: A key objective of an organisations quality management system is to ensure that only products and/or services that meet customers requirements are delivered to them. An effectively operating quality management system is a powerful instrument enhancing the

organisations competitive performance (e.g. cost reduction). Prior to the introduction of a quality management system it is essential for the organisation to make an inventory of all relevant processes which determine the quality of the products and/or services generated by the organisation. To this end it is necessary to identify, measure, describe, monitor and control all of the identified processes. The generic ISO 9000 term, process, as applied to the chemical industry, relates in the first place to chemical processes in which raw materials are converted into intermediates or end products by means of chemical reactions. The conversion can take place in continuous or batch processes, following strict set-up requirements (parameters, such as, temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, etc.) to achieve end products. A reliable quality management system will control all variations of raw materials, the process parameters, in-process control and analysis of intermediates and end products. In manufacturing where multiple-staged processes are involved it will be necessary to establish a hierarchy of the processing stages and key parameters, which mostly determine the end products quality. Where applicable, the interaction of the various processes will need to be taken into account. It is clear that chemical companies perform many other activities besides manufacturing. Activities that support product realization may include development, marketing, purchasing, warehousing, distributing and servicing its products, in addition to the management and administration of the company. All of these activities are processes (in the sense of the ISO 9001 standard) which are necessary for the implementation of the quality management system. They therefore have to be established, documented, implemented, maintained, monitored and continually improved. The standard makes no distinction whether the processes are performed within the organisation or outsourced. Relevant outsourced processes must be monitored and controlled within the quality management system. A documentation system remains, however, a fundamental component of any quality management system. The main objective of such documentation is to identify and describe what should be done, how it should be done and record what has been achieved to supply product, which meets customer requirements. The documentation is a useful tool to keep all processes in a state of control and is a primary means of demonstrating conformance with the standard. Additional documents in the form of organisation descriptions, operational procedures and records will be necessary. Their number and degree of detail will depend on the size and complexity of the organisation and its processes. Regulatory requirements also need to be taken into account. PLANNING: Quality objectives: A basic requirement is that top management should ensure that quality objectives are known and widely used within the organisation. This will create a working environment that enables employees to identify with and become fully involved in reaching the agreed objectives. Emphasis should be placed on the measurable nature of the quality objectives set and their alignment with the quality policy, as well as continual improvement. The SMART criteria; S=Specific M=Measurable A=Achievable R=Relevant T=Timeframed, should be applied when establishing quality objectives.

Quality management system planning: Planning should ensure that the integrity of the quality management system is maintained when making the changes necessary to keep it effective and efficient. Inputs for quality planning could include strategies and organizational objectives needs and expectations of the customers and other interested parties (including regulatory authorities), performance levels of the products, services and processes, risk assessment and analysis. Outputs from the quality planning could include skill and knowledge requirements, allocation of task responsibilities, resources, including financial and infrastructure metrics to monitor performance contingency plans, etc. To manufacture products and/or deliver services, an organisation needs to provide all kinds of resources, including: people, raw materials, facilities, financial means, etc. It is the responsibility of the organizations management to identify and to provide the needed resources to achieve the objectives stated in the companys policy directed towards meeting customers requirements and thus satisfaction. ISO 9001:2000 only includes those aspects of people involvement relating directly to product quality. Clearly, far more contribution is needed from people in order to run an effective and efficient organisation. To achieve and maintain conformity of its products to customer requirements, the organisation must have the appropriate facilities, processes and equipment. Where cross contamination can occur, measures are to be taken to avoid incidents. The same applies to piping systems used for multiple purposes and equipment susceptible to explosions. People operating at such facilities need to be aware of potential implications and must know how to behave and react. The installed facilities and the equipment, as well as the qualifications of the personnel, must meet all legislative requirements laid down by the regulatory authorities (safety issues, occupational health problems, environmental aspects, etc.). The work environment must be conductive to maintaining conformity of the product to specification. For example, clothing which eliminates product contamination, filtration and dehumidification equipment to maintain appropriate atmospheric conditions should be considered. Product contamination can occur from a variety of causes, including improper tools, poor work instructions or inadequate cleaning practices. These risks must be identified and minimized or eliminated. Additionally, conditions in work areas (temperature, noise, humidity, smell, exposure to chemicals) should be such that the performance and health and safety of the personnel will not be detrimentally affected. Full account should be taken of regulatory requirements. Design and development: These activities must be planned and targets must be defined. The progress of development should be monitored and assessed on the basis of milestones. Throughout the design and development process, responsibilities and authorities must be clearly

defined. This is especially important for the transition period as a newly developed process or product becomes the standard routine. There has been a tendency to understand design and development as referring purely to material products, i.e. the activities of a classical R&D department. It should be noted that changes to product realization processes might also constitute design changes under this clause of the standard if they impact product quality. The development result must be assessed, verified and validated, i.e. checked against the specification and the customers requirements. Any changes necessary must be documented and the new results, where appropriate, must be verified and validated. Control of monitoring and measuring devices: Devices used to monitor product and process characteristics must be confirmed suitable for the intended purpose, controlled, calibrated and regularly maintained. This includes equipment used for in-process instrumental control and/or measurement of process parameters, as well as laboratory instruments, e.g. viscometers, hydrometers and reagents (standard analytical solutions, buffer solutions, etc.). The requirements of the standards in a chemical industry refer to products and processes that must be monitored and measured against policies, objectives and requirements for the product. The results are used to demonstrate conformity of the product and quality management system and improve the effectiveness of the system. Monitoring and measurement: Customer satisfaction Internal audits Monitoring and measuring of processes. Monitoring and measurement of product. Improvement: The intention of the standard is that continual improvement shall be planned and implemented on all levels: The quality management system shall be improved. This will have a positive effect on the entire organisation. The improved quality management system will influence the production processes through better control and better knowledge of the effect of variations. The improved production processes combined with the improved quality management system will supply products that will better meet customer requirements. The organisation will also be in a position to respond to changing requirements and supply improved products. Ultimately improved customer satisfaction and a more cost-effective operation should result. STANDARDS FOR EQUIPMENTS Standards are an important part of the world of safety equipment. Manufacturers need them to determine the performance requirements for products they design, make and sell, and the test procedures to assess conformity to those requirements. Sellers, purchasers and users need them to select the right product for the job, and understand its application

and limitations. Government agencies incorporate them into workplace safety and health regulations. Standards are written by manufacturers and users, government officials, experts, academics, consultants anyone with knowledge of the product, process or service, an understanding of how to establish common performance characteristics and guidelines, and a willingness to devote time and energy to the process. There are three broad categories of standards: Government standards are generally developed through a formal rulemaking process. Even a government agencys decision to use voluntary standards must go through noticeand-comment rulemaking. When issued as final rules, they are the law of the land. Company standards are specifications that are developed in-house and made available widely. A good example is the PC. IBMs decision to let other computer makers see and copy the PCs architecture helped establish its dominance. The most common type of standard is the voluntary standard, developed by consensus and nationally recognized. Voluntary standards share certain important principles. First, they are established by consensus. Note that this does not mean unanimity standards seldom satisfy all interests equally. But they are developed using a process that ensures that all views are heard and considered, and that conflicts are resolved where possible, so that the final product represents a general agreement among all concerned parties. Standards must be impartial, and not be used to restrict commerce. They are, after all, agreements among competitors, who must be careful not to write specifications that would squeeze another companys product out of the market, or require product approvals available only to certain companies. Standards and certification activities fall under close scrutiny by the US Justice Department, as well as international trade agreements. All standards establish a baseline of performance. They are seldom the leading edge of technology, but rather a set of essential performance characteristics. This enables consumers to choose from a range of products from companies that compete on design, comfort, fit, durability, appearance, cost, service etc but not on the performance requirements. STANDARDS FOR MANUAL WORK What is "Work"? Work is service performed by an employee at the request and under the control of an employer and on the employer's time. Work is compensable for which an employee is entitled to be paid. It is different from volunteer service, if the individual took the job with the full and voluntary understanding that he or she would not be paid, there is in fact no employer-employee relationship, and the activity is performed for the benefit of a charitable, educational, not for profit, or religious organization. Work does not necessarily require an employee to do or accomplish anything. Work may only involve fulfilling the requirements or following the directions of the employer -even where an employer instructs a worker to report to the jobsite at 7 AM and do nothing until called on.

What are standards for work? Standards for work are minimum standards of work for employers and employees in the workplace. Minimum standards of work have been established for: 1. Wage 2. Hours of work, Rest periods and days of rest 3. Overtime and overtime pay 4. Facilities A. Basket of allowances B. Loan allowances C. Group health insurance scheme D. Others 5. Surroundings 6. Termination of employment 7. Employment of individuals under 18 year of age 8. Older system and shortcomings 1. Wage A. What is a "Wage"? A wage is payment or compensation earned by an employee for work performed under an employer's direction, or with the employer's knowledge or consent. Generally, wages are paid as currency representing a length of time worked, but may also include the following: 1. Bonus. This could include a monetary reward for finishing a special project or completing a length of employment 2. Commission. This is usually a portion of the sale price of some commodity or service which the employee has sold on behalf of the employer, or some promised amount of money as a reward for making the sale. 3. Fringe Benefit. This could be many things, but often involves some accrued or accumulated compensation such as vacation ("annual") leave, sick leave, or other promised benefit. 4. Any Other "Remuneration" (compensation) promised for work performed. Examples could include room and board, materials and inventory, etc. B. Frequency of Pay Employees must be paid at least once every two weeks or twice in a month. However, Executive, Professional and Administrative employees may be paid less frequently C. Wage Payment at Termination: When Final Pay Due Each employer shall pay an employee, or the authorized representative of an employee, all wages due for work that the employee performed before the termination of employment, on or before the day on which the employee would have been paid the wages if the employment had not terminated. D. Wages Paid on Time Generally, an employer must set regular paydays, and pay all earned wages of an employee on time regardless of whether the employee has turned in a time sheet or punch card, quit without notice, or provided any other form or document required by the employer. In addition, earned wages must be paid on time whether or not the employer has received payment from a customer or client for a job on which the employee worked.

If payday falls on a nonworking day, such as a weekend or holiday, wages must be paid on the preceding workday. E. Deductions from Wages Work, whether satisfactory or not, must be awarded compensation. Wage deductions are extraordinary, and are prohibited unless: 1. A court has ordered or allowed the employer to make the deduction. Examples include court ordered wage garnishments and orders to pay child support. 2. The owner of the company has allowed the deduction to offset or "pay for" something of value the employee has received. Examples include long distance telephone calls on the employer's business phone, personal loans, wage advances, etc. 3. Allowed by some law or regulation of the government. Examples include state and federal taxes. 4. The employee has given express written authorization to the employer to make the deduction. This should take the form of a separate and distinct statement, signed by the employee, concerning only the deduction and nothing more. Even with a proper authorization, however, employers must still pay at least the federal minimum wage in the case of a deduction made to offset a loss to the employer due to the admitted or court determined fault or negligence of an employee (for example, careless damage to the employer's truck). If the deduction is made to offset something the employee received or retained from the employer which had monetary value (for example, personal loan, use of long-distance telephone line, materials, etc.), the deduction may, in that case, reduce the employee's wages below the minimum wage. Finally, an authorized deduction may be invalid if it violates or is inconsistent with other federal or state laws or regulations. F. Deductions for Unemployment and Workers' Compensation An employer may not deduct any part of the wages of an employee as representing or contributing to the employer's legal obligation to pay unemployment or workers' compensation insurance premiums. G. Unused Vacation at Termination -- Is It Payable? The answer to this question depends on the employer's policy, and whether this policy was communicated to the employee in advance. For example, if an employer informs employees at hiring that unused vacation leave will be lost or forfeited when employment ends, then an employee will probably not be able to claim it. On the other hand, where no policy exists or was made known in advance to a terminated employee regarding forfeiture of accrued vacation, the employee may receive the cash value of whatever unused earned vacation leave was left -- provided it was otherwise usable. H. Unused Sick Leave at Termination -- Is It Payable? Because sick leave is generally meant to be used in the case of sickness or for medical attention, its use is limited to those situations. Sick leave is therefore a contingency against illness, and cannot be claimed at termination in the same manner as unused vacation leave, unless expressly allowed in a contract or an employer's policy. I. Holidays and Holiday Pay: No Entitlement Unless there is an employment contract, agreement or policy providing for such benefits, state law does not guarantee days off for holidays or any special holiday pay for private sector employees, except an unpaid religious day of rest each week for retail employees who give prior written notice to their employers. Moreover, an employer may require an employee to work on a holiday, and is not required to pay extra in doing so.

J. Temporary Closures, Snow Days, Etc.: Not Compensable An employer may temporarily close its business for any reason and for any length of time without offering special compensation to non-exempt employees who cannot go to work as a result. This is commonly true, for example, during snow emergencies. However, for salaried employees who fit the definition of Executive, Administrative or Professional and who are ready, willing, and able to work, deductions may not be made for time when work is not available. Doing so will remove this category of employee from exempt salary status, entitling the worker to payment of overtime. K. Change of Pay: In the Employer's Discretion In the absence of an employment contract, agreement or policy which states otherwise, an employer may lower the pay of an employee at any time following one full pay period advance notice. Prior notice of a pay increase is not required. L. Compensable Time: For What Time Must an Employee Be Paid? All of the time an employer requires an employee to be at work is compensable time, whether or not the employee is officially "on the clock". This includes time driving in the employer's truck from worksite to worksite during the day. It also includes time driving from the shop to the work site at the beginning of the day and returning to the shop at the end of the day, if the employer requires the employee to report to and return to the shop. Some examples of illegal practices include the following: Example 1: An employee is required to report to work at 7:30, but is not paid for the time before punch-in at 8:00. Example 2: An employee is not paid for the time she is required to clean-up the employer's shop at the end of the day. M. Commuting to Work: Non-Compensable Time spent traveling or "commuting" to work is non-compensable (not payable). This is true, even where an employee must drive a long distance. However, as stated in the previous section, once reporting to work (such as to the employer's shop or office, or any other place an employer requires an employee to report), the employee must then be paid for the time necessary to travel to a work site or to accomplish some other mission the employer assigns. N. Trainings and Meetings: Compensable Time Generally, an employee must be paid for training time and meetings -- whether held during regular work hours or not -- if attendance at a training or meeting is required and not "voluntary". Trainings and meetings are not "voluntary" if it is generally known, or the employee reasonably believes, that non-attendance will result in some negative effect on employment. O. Recordkeeping: An Employer's Responsibility Each employer shall keep, for at least 3 years, in or about the place of employment, a record of the name, address, and occupation of each employee; the rate of pay of each employee; the amount that is paid each pay period to each employee, and; the hours that each employee works each day and workweek. P. Holding Wages: "One Pay in the Hole" An employer may not keep any part of the wage of an employee, either by withholding an entire paycheck, part of a paycheck, or by way of incremental wage deductions from

several paychecks, as security against some future or contingent occurrence. This practice amounts to a confiscation of pay and is a direct violation of the law requiring timely payment of earned wages. Q. Commissions Commissioned sales agreements between an employee and employer are generally enforceable contracts. Where an employee completes the specified services on a sale or account, and the transaction is finalized through settlement, delivery and payment, the commission is usually payable unless a reasonable -- but not excessive -- lag time is agreed to in the event of customer return or default. 2. Hours of work, Rest periods and days of rest Maximum daily hours An employees works hour falls within a 12 hour period in a workday unless an unforeseeable emergency occurs, or the Director of Employment Standards issues a permit authorizing extended hours of work. Shift changes and rest between two shifts An employee must be notified in writing about a shift change 24 hours before hand. Employees must get at least 8 hours rest between two shifts. Daily rest periods During each shift in excess of five consecutive hours of work an employee is entitled to at least a half hour break, except where it is unreasonable or impossible. Weekly rest days An employer must give an employee: a. One day of rest each week b. Two consecutive days of rest in each period of two consecutive weeks c. Three consecutive days of rest in each period of three consecutive weeks d. Four consecutive days of rest in each period of four consecutive weeks 3. Overtime and overtime pay Overtime is payment to an employee of one and one-half (1.5) times the regular hourly wage for work performed in excess of 40 hours in a 7-day week. All employees, including those who are paid a weekly, monthly, or annual salary, must be paid overtime pay for overtime hours they work. Leave hours, including vacation, sick time, holiday, etc., are not counted toward the accumulated hours in a week for overtime purposes. Overtime is calculated on hours actually worked. 4. Facilities Company may provide facilities to employees. Some of them are mentioned below A. Basket of Allowance The basket of allowance is paid to employee as part of his salary every month. The components are house rent allowance, leave travel allowance, medical allowance,

transport allowance and childrens education allowance. An employee can split BOA under the above mentioned heads according to his preferences and tax plans. He would be eligible for tax exemptions under the different components as per the rules determined by the Income Tax Authorities. B. Loan Allowance The company may extend a Loan Allowance for loan availed from banks for car, subject to submission of proof of ownership and disbursement of the loan amount by a bank. C. Group health insurance scheme This policy covers a maximum of four family members including the employee. The employee is automatically covered under the scheme. The employee should necessarily nominate his/her immediate family first, in the order mentioned below: Spouse Children If there are vacant slots, the employee may choose to nominate his/her dependent parents. D. Others Company may provide accommodation and conveyance for its employees in less or nominal charges. It may provide tour package for its employees and their family once in a year. 5. Surroundings For better productivity workplace must have clean environment and healthful working conditions. Now a days aesthetic appearance of workplace is gaining importance as it can encourage employees to work efficiently. National Policy on Safety, Health and Environment at Workplace mentions that attention should be paid to hazardous occupations and employees in precarious conditions. Increasing use of chemicals, exposure to physical, chemical and biological agents with hazard potential may be extremely dangerous. So these policies should be followed in chemical and other industries to eliminate the incidence of work related injuries, diseases, fatalities, disaster and loss of national assets. 6. Termination of employment In some companies, employees work "at the will" of their employers. This means, in the absence of an express contract, agreement or policy to the contrary, an employee may be hired or fired for almost any reason. There are certain exceptions to this general rule which provide some protection to employees from illegal discrimination based on such categories as race, color, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability or marital status. Examples of other employment at-will exceptions include laws which protect employees from termination or retaliation for filing workers' compensation claims, for attempting to enforce rights to receive overtime or the minimum wage, for asserting rights to work in a safe and healthy workplace, for refusing to commit criminal acts, for reporting for jury duty or military service, or for being subject to a wage attachment for any one indebtedness. Terminating an employee for any of these specific reasons may constitute a violation under the applicable State or federal law.

7. Employment of individuals under 18 year of age Employment restrictions are placed on persons under the age of 18. Unless enrolled in an off-campus education program under the school Act, no one under the age of 16 is permitted to be employed during normal school hours. Children under the age of 14 These children are not permitted to be employed at any time in any occupation. 8. Older system and shortcomings In older system there were not appropriate labor laws for employees. A significant number of employers were miscalculating the employees regular rate of pay for purposes of overtime pay by not including items such as bonuses. There was insufficient pay for overtime work and misapplied overtime exemptions. In some cases employees were improperly being paid straight time for hours that should have been paid at time and one half. Also child labor laws were not so stringent as they are at present.

Quality standards
Quality. The term quality finds its roots back to the medieval Europe. From the end of 13th century to early 19th century, craftsmen across medieval Europe were organized into unions, which were responsible for developing strict rules for product and service quality. Inspection committees enforced the rules by marking flawless goods with a special mark or symbol. Sometimes craftsmen themselves placed a 2nd mark on the goods they produced, which was helpful to track the origin of faulty items. This approach to manufacturing quality was dominant till 19th century when factory system aroused. In this system, craftsmen became factory workers and forced shop owners to become supervisors. Quality was ensured by proper audits and inspections. After entering World War II, quality became an important safety issue. Unsafe military equipments were clearly unacceptable and US armed forces inspected virtually each unit produces to ensure that it was safe for operation. This practice required huge inspection forces. As such acts led to some quality improvement, most companies got little motivation to truly integrate the technique. Since 21st century began, the quality movement gained momentum. Quality had moved beyond manufacturing sector into areas like service, health, education, banking, etc.Quality standards have been developed to assist companies in order to control quality and maintain a high standard for customers satisfaction. Such standards are established by certain standard organizations called SDOs.These organizations include global organizations like ISO(International Standard Organization),national organizations like BS,BIS,ANSI,etc.,regional organizations like COPANT(America),ARSO(Africa),CEN(Europe),etc. Quality is defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need. Quality of a product matching its fitness or use is achieved through following steps:

Quality of specification. Quality of design. Quality of conformance. Specification of the product as conceived by customer. The main Quality management concern is ISO-9000.Its main aim is to look towards anything that affects a product or service required by a customer and what should be done to ensure that a certain standard is achieved and maintained. Talking about India, BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) aims at providing third party guarantee of quality to the customer. This certification allows the licensees to use popular ISI mark, which has become synonymous with quality product for Indian and neighboring markets over past 50 years. BIS collects samples from concerning firms and get them tested in their labs. When the reports are found satisfactory then a verification visit is made. The license is granted thereafter if the verification report is up to the mark. The initial validity period of license is 1 year. License can be renewed for further period of 1 or 2 years, subject to satisfactory operation of license as observed during periodic inspections, factory and independent testing of samples drawn from factory or market. A firm certified with Quality Standard organization provides: Clear indication of its capabilities. Strong evidence of its commitment to quality. Assurance of consistency in quality of product/ service with timely delivery. Benefits of quality standards to firms: Disruptions to routine caused due to multiple assessments by various customers are reduced. Firm is forced by itself-self motivated to consider improvement to the system through regular audits by BIS. Reduces the incidence of product failure, in-turn improves credibility of the firm. Leads to less material wastage, production down time, rework, etc. through an increase in `quality know-how' and efficiency. Being internationally recognized, the firm's quality will have world-wide acceptance. Better choice and monitoring of the firm's supplies. Puts all operations on a scientific basis. Motivates all employees and ensures their involvement. Benefits of quality standards to customers: Provides assurance and satisfaction that their needs for quality will be met. E.g. Parents tend to send their children to affiliated schools rather than non affiliated. Why? Just because of standard. They are assured of their satisfaction. Saves time and money by reducing the need for assessment of their suppliers. E.g. While purchasing goods; ISI mark is itself a token for quality. Customers need no experiments to be carried out for that good. Work with reduced inventory levels, effecting significant cost reductions.

Simplifies purchase decisions. Consider gold jewellery, Hallmarked jewellery is purchased more in comparison to local ones. Customers take a quick decision in doing so. Creates confidence in their suppliers because of the approval by an independent third party. Suppliers can easily convince their customers. Better service, better and quick complaint redressal. ROLE OF QUALITY STANDARDS IN INDUSTRIES In an industry, quality plays an important role from top to bottom, i.e. right from the selection of raw materials to the manufacture of products. This includes quality of raw materials, equipments, design, manufacture, labor and working environment and at last quality of products. Quality of raw materials The quality of raw materials influences the techno-economic performance of the plants significantly. Many companies were not using specifications and did not communicate well with their suppliers. Numerous problems were noted of handling unworkable materials and of producing unserviceable garments. The properties of raw material affect not only its handling characteristics during production, but also the quality of final product as well. Now manufacturers generally recognize the importance of selecting appropriate raw materials of high quality for the formulation and manufacture of their products. Under Indian conditions, the role of raw materials is more critical on account of their intrinsic quality considerations which are unique compared to global scenario. The cost of products can be brought down considerably by improving the physical and chemical quality of rawmaterials.eg It has been well established that the cost of steel can be brought down considerably by improving the physical and chemical quality of raw materials. Indian iron ores are generally quite high in iron content and low in gangue but are characterized by high alumina content. Alumina in iron ore fines affects the process of sintering and quality of sinter. Reduction in cost of hot metal production can be achieved by lowering the cost of iron ore produced, as well as improving the granulometry and quality of iron ore. As regards coal, wide fluctuations in ash, volatile matter and coking properties are observed. Wide variation in quality of coal and erratic supply results in inconsistency in coal blend. In view of the decline in supply and inconsistency in coal from indigenous sources, good quality coking coals are imported to reduce ash and improve other metallurgical properties. The ingredients of a raw material specification: Physical characteristics: Details should be stated about material construction, finishing treatment, finished width and acceptable tolerances. Chemical characteristics like corrosivity,flammability,etc Performance characteristics: All important characteristics need to be specified, together with tolerances. Typical areas are resistivity, conductivity, tensile strength, care characteristics, flame retardants features, Etc.

Sufficient cold and hot strength of materials. As needed. Uniformity of chemical and physical properties. . Quality of equipments Equipments should be properly tested before made to operate. Their operating conditions must be specified. Labor involved must also be fully trained. Quality of design and manufacture Quality of design refers to how attractive a product is to its target market, how well chosen its materials and components are, and how easy the product is to manufacture and maintain. Quality of manufacture has a more specific meaning. Well-made products (ones with a high quality of manufacture) will have the following characteristics: they use materials that are suitable for the end-use they match the product specifications they meet performance requirements they are manufactured by safe production methods they are made within budget limits they sell at an attractive price, and they are safe for the environment Quality of working environment Everyone would like to work in a quality work environment. This truism is borne out in our daily experiences. No one really enjoys those little things, and sometimes big things, that detract from our enjoyment of our workplace. Even those with attitudes such as "work is work who says you have to like it?" appreciate the days that flow smoothly without tension and conflict. The problem with this truism is that people differ on what a quality workplace may be. For some it may be a place that is people-friendly, where congeniality and connection with fellow workers is desired. For others, efficiency and professionalism may be paramount. Some people prefer a certain comfortable looseness in the workplace; others, clearly defined rules that are meant to be followed. This is all to be expected; people are as different, after all, in their expectations of the workplace as they are in their personal lives. Members of a good quality work environment are friendly; they are open, nice to each other, caring about each other and helpful to each other. They work together as a cohesive unit, approaching their work with a team spirit. The facilities and resources for a quality work environment are comfortable and enjoyable to work in, and easily accessible to both workers and the public. They are the best possible, the newer the better, well equipped and well maintained. Both the public and the staff are proud of the facilities and the adequacy of the resources.

A positive attitude toward the work, the public and co-workers is of the utmost importance. A good work ethic, flexibility, sensitivity, appreciation of co-workers and the public, and a positive self-image are also valued. This can be obtained by a good quality working environment. The leadership in a quality work environment exhibits confidence in and respect for subordinates. It supports the staff, through timely sharing of information and goals, and encourages input in decision making and program development. Quality of labor Quality of labor is a broad term. Quality of labor can be easily substituted with quality of output be that output a product, service, or mix thereof. Labor quality cannot be defined by just two or three parameters like attitude and sincerity towards work; it should also measure domain knowledge, soft skills like leadership and managerial quality, creativity, and the ability to learn and adapt to the changing environment. The term Quality of Labor is something that was used during the industrialization period of economic development. It basically stresses the importance of labor in the overall configuration of what makes up the mode of production. In the post-modern world, quality of labor zeroes in more on the quality of labors knowledge. Its no longer an issue of cheap labor, but rather of the value that labor can create given the appropriate prices. Quality of labor is an outcome or result of factors which can be seen from the perspective of organization and society. Attitude and ability are two very important attributes that can lead to success; the key determinant of labor quality is attitude, because with this comes innovation, creativity, and the scope for self-management. Someone might have the best skills in an organization, but with a poor attitude the quality of his work or output will be low. Its agreed that some people with the right attitude might not have the right mental capacity to cope with the skill requirements of some jobs, but its easier to build skills in someone with the right attitude than change the character and values of a highly skilled person with a poor attitude. Quality of labor does matterfor a company to offer higher value to its customers, and to make workers feel that they are sharing useful, appreciated information and knowledge with others to raise everyones understanding of better ways to do business. Labor has two parts: completing routine tasks in a repetitive manner, and completing fairly non-routine tasks by using degrees of cognitive skills. Its the second part thats becoming more and more important in todays world, and which drives the quality of labor everywhere. Labor quality is extremely importantit outweighs most other topics. Without the proper communication, education, training, procedures, and the solid foundation of commitment to following those procedures, labor quality is poor. And the environment surrounding poor labor quality produces bad customer experiences, as well as angst and morale issues within the organization itself. Labor quality has given nations competitive advantage: Japan, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan are just familiar examples. Therefore, countries that wish to take full advantage of globalization need to clearly understand how important the labor quality component is in the rest of the competitiveness puzzle. Nike is a good example of this

phenomenon. Their footballs and shoes are stitched all over the world but none of these manufacturers have the knowledge and brand power to ever threaten Nikes dominance of the market. The critical advantage is not in the factories but in the brains that make Nike. Quality is a measure of the degree of ownership and involvement that an individual or team puts into a project or mission. Economics will decide the shift of jobs. Systems that may not have been there in societies till today can be put in place by change but The basic tenets of any successful human congregation remain unchangedwillingness to invite change, the ability to dream and aspire to a higher order of living, and the desire to put in hard work. Quality of product Quality of a good can be improved by keeping following points in mind: Understand customer needs. This is done using voice of the customer techniques to determine customer needs and using quality function deployment to organize those needs and translate them into product characteristics/requirements. Proactive feedback & corrective action. The advance quality planning process provides feedback from other similar projects with the objective of developing counter-measures on the current project. Other mechanisms with verification and validation, design reviews, analysis of customer feedback and warranty data also satisfy this objective. Design within process capabilities. This objective assumes that the company has brought processes under statistical control, has determined its process capability and has communicated it process capability to its development personnel. Once this is done, development personnel need to formally determine that critical or special characteristics are within the enterprise's process capability or initiate action to improve the process or acquire more capable equipment. Verification & validation. Design verification is testing to assure that the design outputs meet design input requirements. Design verification may include activities such as: design reviews, performing alternate calculations, understanding tests and demonstrations, and review of design documents before release. Validation is the process of ensuring that the product conforms to defined user needs, requirements, and/or specifications under defined operating conditions. Design validation is performed on the final product design with parts that meet design intent. Production validation is performed on the final product design with parts that meet design intent produced production processes intended for normal production. Design reviews. Design reviews are formal reviews conducted during the development of a product to assure that the requirements, concept, product or process satisfies the requirements of that stage of development, the issues are understood, the risks are being managed, and there is a good business case for development. Typical design reviews include: requirements review, concept/preliminary design review, final design review, and a production readiness/launch review. Control special/critical characteristics. Special/critical characteristics are identified through quality function deployment or other similar structured method. Once these characteristics are understood, and there is an assessment that the process is capable of

meeting these characteristics (and their tolerances), the process must be controlled. A control plan is prepared to indicate how this will be achieved. Control Plans provide a written description of systems used in minimizing product and process variation including equipment, equipment set-up, processing, tooling, fixtures, material, preventative maintenance and methods Quality assurance and Quality control The terms quality assurance and quality control are often used interchangeably to refer to ways of ensuring the quality of a service or product. The terms, however, have different meanings. Assurance: The act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain. Quality assurance: The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. Control: An evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses; the act of guiding a process in which variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes. Quality control: The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality. Conclusion Quality Standards were developed to assist companies control quality and maintain a high standard of customer satisfaction. Quality has become a lot more than that, quality standards can assist your company with good management practices, reduce risk and increase profit margins. A good quality system should not be written just to satisfy the accreditation process, but should be written with the company's business practices in mind and to enhance procedures and policies to ensure sound operation. Having a good quality system in place will ensure that your products, services are of the highest standards, your customers are happy and the future of your organization is heading in the right direction. A well managed quality system will have an impact on: customer loyalty and repeat business market share operational efficiencies flexibility and ability to respond to market opportunities effective and efficient use of resources cost reductions competitive advantages participation and motivation of human resources industry reputation control on all processes The design and implementation of a quality management system (QMS) will vary depending on the type, size and products of the organization. Each company will have it's own objective, however most companies objective is to increase profitability. A Quality Management System will assist by: managing costs and risks

increasing effectiveness and productivity identifying improvement opportunities increasing customer satisfaction

Implementation and Certification of a QMS:


Responsibility Process Set objectives and goals of the Quality Management System Appoint a Quality Team to develop and maintain the QMS Set timelines and project scope Allocate resources required for the development, implementation and on-going management of the system Inform all staff and seek participation from all levels Decide if a Consultant is required for the project Prepare a project plan and allocate resources Assess an appropriate budget based on equipment, training, time and personnel required Seek approval from management to procure required resources and attend any training Assess method for documenting the QMS Design templates and documentation Set timelines for the various tasks Schedule individual departments and positions for development of policies and procedures Develop Quality Management System policies to reflect company objectives Start to develop procedures and work instructions with each department Report to management any risks and improvement opportunities that have been found Document any Quality Corrective Action Requests that might be identified (identified risk areas that require management attention and improvements) Approve and issue the Quality Management System Operate the QMS for a minimum period of 3 months Carry out initial audits to ensure documentation matched processes Ensure that "you do what you say you do" if any deficiencies are found either change processes or change the QMS to reflect what is actually done Assess the effectiveness of the QMS and implement any changes that might be required Undertake management review of the QMS Adjust resource requirements

Management

Management/ Quality Team

Quality Team

Quality Team/ Management

Management

Quality Team

Management

Accreditation Body Quality Team/ Management Accreditation Body

Quality Team/ Management Accreditation Body

Decide if accreditation assessment is required Set accreditation assessment timelines Appoint Accreditation Body Undertake Audit Report findings to management including any changes required to the QMS Make changes to the QMS according to the findings of the Accreditation Body Advise Accreditation Body to reassess the QMS Undertake follow-up audit If all requirements are met, accreditation will be issued Continue to audit, review and assess the QMS at the agreed time intervals Continue to assess risk areas and identify improvement opportunities Continue to review policies and procedures and make amendments as required Continue to measure effectiveness of QMS to the overall company performance

UNIT 2 APPROACH TO STANDARDIZATION

Objectives of systems
Importance of Standards Weights and measures may be ranked among the necessaries of life to every individual of human society. They enter into the economical arrangements and daily concerns of every family. They are necessary to every occupation of human industry; to the distribution and security of every species of property; to every transaction of trade and commerce; to the labors of the husbandman; to the ingenuity of the artificer; to the studies of the philosopher; to the researches of the antiquarian; to the navigation of the mariner, and the marches of the soldier; to all the exchanges of peace, and all the operations of war. The knowledge of them, as in established use, is among the first elements of education, and is often learned by those who learn nothing else, not even to read and write. This knowledge is riveted in the memory by the habitual application of it to the employments of men throughout life. I. Introduction Are standards important? The quotes on the previous page show that while the details have changed over time, standards are more essential today than at any time in our nations history. Voluntary consensus standards are at the foundation of the U.S. economy. The U.S. based standards system promotes the public good, enhances the competitiveness of U.S. industry, and contributes to a liberalized global trading system. This "essential infrastructure" is therefore important to everyone, and it is important that everyone understand that and work towards maintaining and improving the system. The United States is a market-driven, highly diversified society, and its standards system encompasses and reflects this framework. This framework is viewed as a positive attribute; a standards system is strengthened whenever standards developers share a common vision for meeting stakeholder needs. It is important for public and private sectors to share this common vision, since they provide the people, the resources, the technical contributions, and the intellectual vitality that underpin the U.S. standards system. The active involvement of government at all levels and all places, i.e., federal, state, and local, is key to both the development of the vision and the implementation of a standards strategy Standards are essential to a sound national economy and to the facilitation of global commerce. The global standards landscape is rich with entities, systems and processes, and both the U.S. government and private sector participate in international standards activities in a variety of ways: through treaty organizations where governments are members; through private, voluntary organizations where the United States is represented by a single "national body" organization; through professional and technical organizations whose membership is on an individual or organizational basis; and through

consortia, whose membership is typically technology based. II. Imperatives for Action The global economy has raised the stakes in standards development. Competition for the advantages that accompany a widespread adoption of technology has reached a new level, and the impetus to develop globally accepted standards is greater now than ever before. Globally Global standardization goals are achieved in the United States through sector-specific activities and through alliances and processes provided by companies, associations, standards developing organizations, consortia, and collaborative projects. This market-driven, private sector-led approach to global standardization is substantially different from the top-down approach favored in many other countries. Emerging economies understand that standards are synonymous with development and request standards-related technical assistance programs from donor countries. Increasingly our trading partners utilize such programs to influence the selection of standards by these economies and create favorable trade alliances. Policies that protect patents, trademarks, and other intellectual property are not universally or rigorously applied. The standardization process must respect the rights of intellectual property owners while ensuring users have access to the intellectual property rights (IPR) incorporated in standards. When standards are utilized as non-tariff barriers to trade, the ability of U.S.-based companies and technologies to compete in the international marketplace is adversely affected. Standardization and the manner in which agreements are reached between suppliers and customers continue to evolve and are influenced by advances in technology. Stakeholders are no longer willing in all cases to operate within the boundaries of the formal standards system and they continue to explore new modalities of standards development. Organizations such as consortia and Internet-based processes that enable worldwide participation of stakeholders are creating an innovative environment that is becoming increasingly important in the global marketplace. The service industry sector has a significant and rapidly growing presence in the global economy and workforce. The United States must devote more attention to understanding the needs of the service industry sector and establishing service standards initiatives to meet those needs. At home Investment by public and private sectors in the development of global standards is directly related to the health of the economy. Economic downturns produce reductions in the resources available for global standards development. Users of standards are increasingly aware of their importance and are demanding a U.S. system that can produce and deliver standards with maximum efficiency and minimum cost, eliminate duplication, and optimize the benefits of a decentralized system.

Government agencies at the federal, state, and local levels are willing to invest in voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with globally accepted principles. The national interest in some emerging areas of standardization such as homeland security demands a level of coordination and effort. III. Principles It is well established in the community of nations that standards should meet societal and market needs and should not be developed to act as barriers to trade. In approving the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement, WTO members recognized that goal and established globally accepted principles as a framework to promote cooperation and discourage the use of standards as trade barriers. The U.S. standardization system is based on the following set of globally accepted principles for standards development: Transparency Essential information regarding standardization activities is accessible to all interested parties. Openness Participation is open to all affected interests. Impartiality No one interest dominates the process or is favored over another. Effectiveness and Relevance Standards are relevant and effectively respond to regulatory and market needs, as well as scientific and technological developments. Consensus Decisions are reached through consensus among those affected. Performance Based Standards are performance based (specifying essential characteristics rather than detailed designs) where possible. Coherence The process encourages coherence to avoid overlapping and conflicting standards. Due Process Standards development accords with due process so that all views are considered and appeals are possible. Technical Assistance Assistance is offered to developing countries in the formulation and application of standards. In addition, U.S. interests strongly agree that the process should be: Flexible, allowing the use of different methodologies to meet the needs of different technology and product sectors; Timely, so that purely administrative matters do not result in a failure to meet market expectations; and Balanced among all affected interests.

IV. Our Strategic Vision Working from these principles, the U.S. standards community is strongly committed to the following strategic vision for standards development globally and at home. Globally There is universal application of the globally accepted principles for the development of global standards. Governments rely on voluntary consensus standards as much as possible in regulation and procurement rather than creating additional regulatory requirements. The system is diverse and inclusive and supports flexible standards solutions. Consortia and forums are illustrative of that flexibility and are an integral part of the global standards system. Electronic tools are used effectively for the optimized production of global standards and to facilitate their dissemination throughout a global economy. At home A cooperative process involving all stakeholders produces technically superior and unified standards that promote and strengthen U.S. global competitiveness. All interests work together to eliminate redundancy and overlap. Public and private sector management recognize the value of standardization at national and global levels and provide adequate resources and stable funding mechanisms to support such efforts. The U.S. standards system responds quickly and responsibly to provide standards that address national and international needs. V. Moving Forward The strength of standardization is a sectoral focus supported by a dynamic infrastructure. The sectoral focus comes from the participants companies, government agencies, public interest organizations, talented individuals who understand what is needed in their sector, and the standards developers through which they work to meet those customer needs. The sectoral approach allows interested parties to address their own issues and develop working methods that fit the problems at hand, since no single standards system can satisfy all needs. This allows efficient standards development and fosters innovation and competition. When cross-sectoral issues arise, sector definitions change, or in venues where a single national voice is required, the infrastructure provided by the American National Standards Institute provides facilitation and mediation. A sectoral approach recognizes that there is no simple prescription that can be handed down to fit all needs. Sectors must develop their own plans; the purpose of this strategy is to provide guidance, coherence and inspiration without constraining creativity or effectiveness. The Strategy therefore consists of a set of strategic initiatives having broad applicability that will be applied according to their relevance and importance to particular

sectors. Stakeholders are encouraged to develop their own initiatives where needed and this strategy suggests some that have widespread applicability. 1 - Strengthen participation by government in development and use of voluntary consensus standards through public/private partnerships Government reliance on voluntary consensus standards continues to grow. the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA), remains the cornerstone at the federal level for promoting the use of voluntary consensus standards for both regulation and procurement. Our vision of the future involves building on our successes in this area and encouraging government, consumers and industry to use voluntary standards developers as partnership venues to create solutions to support national objectives. The key to such partnerships is participation, which requires support and resources from government policy makers at all levels. Tactical initiatives include: standards developers, government, and industry should partner to identify proposed solutions where government interests could be addressed by the use of voluntary consensus standards and work together for a common solution. Government should increase participation in the development of voluntary consensus standards. standards developers should provide state and local governments with ways to easily identify where their interests are being addressed and mechanisms for participating in voluntary consensus standards development. The government should use existing relationships with state and local government and its responsibilities under NTTAA to support greater use of voluntary consensus standards. ANSI and standards developers should raise awareness of policy makers on the benefits of voluntary consensus standards and the importance of participating in their development. 2 - Continue to address the environment, health, and safety in the development of voluntary consensus standards Consideration of the environment, health, and safety has always been a key concern of the U.S. standards system and will continue to be so in the future. It is important to take a balanced approach to ensure that the needs of all stakeholders are considered and that decisions are based on a preponderance of objective evidence. Active participation by government, consumers and industry on voluntary consensus standards committees is essential to forge the trust and synergy needed to develop standards that meet societys needs today and tomorrow. Tactical initiatives include: Standards developers should establish specific guidance to encourage participants to consider the environment, health, and safety as integral aspects of their work. Government should participate in voluntary consensus standards development efforts to ensure that they meet public objectives related to the environment, health, and safety. Industry should participate in standardization activities and consider the environment, health, and safety while ensuring that the resulting standards add value. ANSI should foster consideration of environmental, health, and safety, requirements in U.S. and international standards where appropriate.

Consumers should increase participation in the development of voluntary consensus standards to ensure that they meet public objectives related to the environment, health, and safety. 3 - Improve the responsiveness of the standards system to the views and needs of consumers The representation of consumer interests in the U.S. standards system is essential to ensure that the individuals needs are being considered and addressed. Todays consumers are concerned about such issues as product compatibility; quality of products and services; ease of use and accessibility; the environment, health, and safety; deceptive trade practices; redress; and social responsibility. The emergence of the online market means more information and more choices are available to consumers. With its emphasis on balance, openness, and transparency, the U.S. standards system provides a valuable forum for the consumer voice to be heard. However, more is needed to make consumers aware of these opportunities and to encourage and facilitate their participation. Tactical initiatives include: Standards developers should identify, encourage and support appropriate consumer representation on their committees, make virtual attendance at meetings possible through electronic means such as teleconferencing or collaborative meeting tools, and encourage consumer comment during public reviews. Industry should use consumer research as a basis for standardization initiatives and decisions. Government should strengthen its consumer-related programs and initiate standards information and participation programs as appropriate. 4 - Actively promote the consistent worldwide application of internationally recognized principles in the development of standards A key goal of international standardization is to define requirements that products and services should meet to be acceptable in all markets. To ensure broad acceptance, members of the standards community have made considerable progress in establishing internationally accepted principles on how such standards should be developed. Our strategy seeks to encourage the consistent interpretation and application of these principles. Tactical initiatives include: The standards community should work to improve global relevance by promoting participation in standards processes by a broad cross-section of both domestic and international stakeholders, particularly in markets where the relevant products are used. Stakeholders in the U.S. standards system should seek, directly or through the U.S. national body where representation is by country, to reinforce the sectoral approach to standards development in regional and international forums and highlight the benefits of this approach. The government should continue to foster and support the unique character and strengths of the public-private partnership in standards development as it pursues trade and other international agreements, regulatory harmonization, and legislative and regulatory approaches.

The government and industry should strongly and visibly coordinate their work in international forums to promote the consistent interpretation and application of internationally recognized principles on standardization, including those reflected in the WTO Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement and the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards. stakeholders participate in standards development bodies around the world to achieve their objectives. The goal of all international standards forums should be to achieve globally relevant and internationally recognized and accepted standards that support trade and commerce while protecting the environment, health, safety, and security. To advance this goal, U.S. stakeholders should pursue the following tactical initiatives: Promote the consistent application of principles for developing standards in international standards development organizations as elaborated in the TBT Agreement, including the principles on global relevance. Encourage standards development forums to work together to address the need for standards on converging technologies that affect the interests of various stakeholder communities. Work with all stakeholders to ensure that voting procedures in international standards development bodies do not limit consideration of U.S. views while respecting all other views. 5 - Encourage common governmental approaches to the use of voluntary consensus standards as tools for meeting regulatory needs Many standards are developed to meet regulatory needs. Governmental approaches to regulation, however, often differ, resulting in incompatible national and regional standards that add unnecessary expense and may limit trade. Global commerce will be facilitated if governments would apply common approaches to the use of standards as tools to meet regulatory needs. Standards developed through a voluntary consensus process have proven effective at meeting both regulatory and market needs in a variety of sectors. The following tactical initiatives would help advance this strategic goal: Governments should be encouraged to adopt compatible approaches to using standards to meet regulatory needs, and partner with all stakeholders to develop standards that have global acceptance. Standards developers and industry should work with governments to develop voluntary consensus standards that meet regulatory needs. ANSI and government should work together to improve the understanding among domestic and international stakeholders of the benefits of using voluntary consensus standards in regulation. 6 - Work to prevent standards and their application from becoming technical trade barriers to U.S. products and services As tariff barriers have been reduced, technical standards have become more prominent as potential barriers to market access for products and services. Differing technical standards can significantly raise the cost of exporting to and importing from international

markets or even prevent market access. The facilitation of global trade requires that more attention be given to preventing standards and their application from becoming market access barriers and addressing barriers which arise. Tactical initiatives include: The U.S. government should work with its counterparts in other countries and through intergovernmental organizations to ensure that standards facilitate global trade, and to minimize potential trade barriers and requirements for duplicative tests. The U.S. government should work with other WTO members to seek full implementation of the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and annexes as well as decisions taken in the WTO TBT committee. Government and industry should identify and eliminate or minimize the effect of technical barriers to trade that result from technical standards and their application. U.S. national bodies should work with their counterparts in other countries to ensure that standardization is not used to develop trade barriers in organizations where representation is on a national basis. 7 - Strengthen international outreach programs to promote understanding of how voluntary, consensus-based, market-driven sectoral standards can benefit businesses, consumers and society as a whole Our standards process offers enormous benefits to businesses, consumers and society, facilitating innovation and strengthening economic competitiveness. But this process is not well understood by many outside the United States. U.S. stakeholders need to do more to help foreign stakeholders understand the benefits of the approach embodied in the U.S. standards system. Tactical initiatives include: All stakeholders in the U.S. standards development process particularly industry, standards developers and the U.S. government need to devote more resources and greater efforts to helping stakeholders in other countries understand the U.S. process and its many benefits. U.S. stakeholders should promote policies and procedures in international forums that encourage the development of standards that are voluntary, consensus-based, marketdriven and globally relevant. Outreach efforts should be focused on countries that are still developing their standardization systems and offer important commercial market opportunities. Special attention should be given to using new communications technology, such as the Internet, teleconferencing and other new modes of communication. This will facilitate contacts with non-U.S. stakeholders (particularly in newly developing markets) and enhance their participation in standards-related activities. ANSI should play a leadership role in promoting dialogue with foreign standards organizations and in reinforcing outreach efforts of industry, standards developers, the U.S. government and other stakeholders. 8 - Continue to improve the process and tools for the efficient and timely development and distribution of voluntary consensus standards In recent years, the U.S. standards system has made significant strides in the timeliness, relevancy, and compatibility of standards by taking advantage of technologies to promote

online collaborative standards development and electronic distribution of standards. In the spirit of process improvement and in response to changing customer needs and evolving new technologies, all stakeholders in the U.S. standards system must continue to work together to build on these successes. Tactical initiatives include: Standards developers should continue to improve the working processes for voluntary consensus standards development and use standardized tools to facilitate global participation. Industry, government and consumers should provide standards developers with feedback on their needs and how well standards developers are meeting those needs. ANSI should investigate the feasibility of a central repository for all information about standards both approved and under development and recommend a course of action for the U.S. standards community. U.S. national bodies should encourage similar improvement in the processes and tools in the organizations where they represent the U.S. 9 - Promote cooperation and coherence within the U.S. standards system The diversity of the sectorally-based, decentralized U.S. standardization system can result in duplicative efforts and sometimes overlapping or conflicting standards. In many cases, apparent overlap or conflict is merely the reflection of different customer needs for different sectors or competitive approaches and solutions to new products. Duplication, where it does not add value, should be discouraged. Tactical initiatives include: ANSI should review its procedures to make sure that standards receiving the American National Standard (ANS) designation are relevant and minimize conflict with other standards. ANSI and standards developers should work together to eliminate areas of redundancy to make U.S. standardization processes more efficient and coherent. This should include publication of information about their work. Industry, consumers and government should be proactively engaged with standards developers to minimize duplication of standards development activities. ANSI should continue to reach out to standards developing organizations not under the ANSI framework to promote its programs, principles and tools to broader constituencies and explore ways to work with those broader constituencies to best serve U.S. needs. Government should provide timely information on proposed regulatory actions in order to minimize conflict with existing or proposed standards. 10 - Establish standards education as a high priority within the United States private, public and academic sectors Education programs covering the development and implementation of standards need to become a high priority within the United States. These programs must focus on the needs of leaders and top executives, those who participate in the development of standards, university and college students, and other interested parties. Tactical initiatives for all stakeholders, including standards developers, ANSI, government, and academia include: Develop new or significantly enhance existing standards education programs that address

the significance and value of standards to the well-being of the United States and global economies. Develop or significantly enhance standards education programs that address the needs of specific groups within the United States. These programs must reflect the multidisciplinary environment in which standards development takes place and address national and international standards development procedures; the relationship between private and public sector standards; the environment, health, safety, sustainability, international trade, public policy, competition, legal, economic benefits, and strategic considerations; and how to balance the interests of stakeholders. Develop a national database of standardization case histories. The database should be jointly managed by the American National Standards Institute and the U.S. Department of Commerce. Encourage universities and colleges within the United States to create standardization education programs in fields of study such as engineering, science, technology, government and public policy, business, economics and law. Facilitate and enhance the creation of a communications network for standardization education programs among all interested parties in the private, public and academic sectors. Utilize Internet technology to the fullest extent possible to facilitate the development of e-learning and standardization education programs. 11 - Maintain stable funding models for the U.S. standardization system There is no single method of funding the U.S. standardization system, and the U.S. recognizes the need to protect the pluralistic manner in which the standardization system is funded. If this standardization system meets public and private sector needs, then those who want the results will ensure that the necessary funding is provided. The tactical initiatives that support this strategy focus on the need to educate and influence policy makers and decision makers, and stress the need for the individual organizations that comprise the U.S. system to be able to maintain their various funding models. Tactical initiatives include: Standards developers should seek the participation and support of industry and government for voluntary consensus standards development. They should educate public sector policy makers, corporate leadership and consumers in the value of the diverse U.S. standardization system, including their roles in the support of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act. Government should advance and respect policies at home and abroad that ensure the continued ownership and control of the copyrights and trademarks of standards developers. Industry should support standards development through participation of their experts, funding of research, and sharing of information useful in defining and setting standards requirements. They should also utilize, and support the use of, standards to produce goods, provide services, install products, and conduct all other aspects of business activity in their respective sectors.

All elements of the U.S. standardization system should support policies that allow U.S. standards developers to participate in international standards development activity without jeopardizing their copyrights and trademarks, and that recognize the flexible funding models that exist within the U.S. Governments at all levels, in their consideration of policies and legislation, should recognize the societal benefits of standards development organizations and their role in public health and safety. Government should recognize its responsibility to the broader public interest by providing financial and legislative support, and by promoting the principles of our standardization system globally. Global competitiveness of U.S. industry depends critically on standardization, particularly in sectors that are technology driven. 12 - Address the need for standards in support of emerging national priorities The U.S. standardization system has contributed significantly to meeting a diverse range of private and public sector needs in a variety of industries. ANSI has risen to the challenge posed in areas as diverse as homeland security and nanotechnology, through the creation of standards panels that bring together all affected interest areas, both public and private sector, to achieve maximum impact for standards efforts. With threats to our national security and the development of new technologies that promise economic growth and improved quality of life, the U.S. standardization system must be prepared to respond to emerging national priorities as they are identified. Tactical initiatives include: Government at all levels should seek early collaboration with industry and standards developers to identify standards needed to meet emerging national priorities. ANSI should provide active coordination, where necessary, in areas relating to emerging national priorities to promote information sharing across all affected interest areas and minimize overlap and duplication of standards-related efforts. Standards developers should proactively identify standards work in existence or underway that could support emerging national priorities. Industry should participate actively in efforts to identify needed standards and in the timely development of those standards. Government, industry and standards developers should be proactive in addressing international implications of standards in support of national priorities. VI. In the Longer Run This document represents an architecture for achieving goals. The proof of this strategy, however, will lie in the achievement of those goals. In that sense the document is also a challenge to all those involved in the standards system and those who are not currently involved but are affected by it to make the vision a reality. This will happen only when the architecture is translated into action. What lies in the balance is the competitiveness of U.S. industry, the vitality of the U.S. economy, and a balanced global trading system. The next steps will engage all concerned in the implementation of this strategy. Tactical issues must be addressed. This will require communication, cooperation, planning, and a commitment to action. In the longer run progress must be measured, and this strategy,

like all plans made within the constraints of time, must be revisited and reevaluated. The American National Standards Institute will continue to serve as a mechanism for coordinating, integrating, and reporting progress in regular intervals. Open and accessible, the U.S. standardization system has contributed its technology, in gigantic proportions, to other standardization models and to other societies. It is committed, not only to interests within its own territory, but to international standardization, and to a global trading system that is balanced and without obstacles. This strategy is designed to strengthen the standards system of the United States and all who benefit from it.

Idealized model for national standard system


How standardization came into picture:
There are many approaches in achieving sustainable excellence. Excellence is dependent upon balancing and satisfying the needs of all relevant status holders. Customer focus, Leadership, Management by Processes and Facts, Development of people and their involvement, continuos improvements, Development of partners and public responsibility form the basis for business excellence. Objective: We are committed to consistently deliver enhanced value to our customers, through continual improvement of our products and processes. 1.Effective and Efficient design and development process, considering the present and future needs of customers. 2.Enhanced customer satisfaction by on-time delivery of defect free products and effective life cycle support. 3.Continual upgradation and utilization of infrastructure and human resources. 4.Mutually beneficial alliances with suppliers. 5.Continual improvement of processes through innovation, technology and knowledge management. BE QUALITY INSTITUTE: The management of BEL is convinced of the need for Quality Enhancement, on a continuos basis, in the company. Need was felt to impart Education / Training to all the officers on the various facets of quality management. Accordingly, an institute called Bharat Electronics Quality Institute ( BEQI) was established in 1999. Regular training programs are conducted for all employees working in different units of the company. Business Excellence models being followed by different organisations are studied and efforts are being made to implement the best possible practices in the functioning of the organisation. TORQUE: (Total ORganisational Quality Enhancement) is the mantra being followed in BEL today.

It is being imbibed into BELs culture through three phases: (1) Knowledge (2) Application and (3) Normalization EVOLUTION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: 1.0 Development Of Quality Assurance System In The Early Stages 1.1 Right from inception in 1954, the Management of Bharat Electronics has understood the varying levels of Quality and Reliability required by our customers and has been striving to give them complete satisfaction in these areas. Bharat Electronics has developed Quality Systems and Procedures over the years. 1.2 Right from inception in 1954, the Management of Bharat Electronics has understood the varying levels of Quality and Reliability required by our customers and has been striving to give them complete satisfaction in these areas. Bharat Electronics has developed Quality Systems and Procedures over the years. 1.3 From the initial days of the company, we had an unique opportunity to interact with large electronic manufacturers like Siemens, Germany; Plessey, U; Contraves, Switzerland; Signaal Apparaten, Netherlands; Bendix & RCA, USA; Nippon Electric, Japan; Thompson CSF, France; etc. Based on these interactions and our own studies was have developed a good Quality Assurance Systems. 1.4 Quality is the responsibility of the owner of the process. Quality functions of the design, manufacture, etc., are well integrated with the Central Quality Assurance Division which provides overall support for QA activities in the company. Starting as an inspection oriented Quality system during the fifties and sixties, we are the pioneers in adopting the MIL-Q-9858 Quality Management System during the early seventies. The distinguishing features of this QA System are: Bifurcation of Quality functions into staff and line functions Responsibility for satisfactory conduct of line functions is assigned to respective manufacturing divisions and responsibility for satisfactory conduct of staff functions is assigned to QA division. The central QA division was therefore, equipped with all the required infrastructure facilities to perform the intended QA functions.

1.5 During the period 1976 to 1987, a number of initiatives were taken to improve the Quality Management System. They include: a) Release of documented QA manual b) Promotion of participative culture in the organization c) Launching of QC Circles & Suggestion Scheme d) Introduction of Quality Management System e) Product Quality Improvement covering: i) Identification of implicit and explicit needs of the customer for each product ii) Design control aimed at optimum design and development iii) Standardisation aiming at careful selection of materials, components, processes and vendors iv) Quality assessment using intensive testing and evaluation at each stage

(inward goods, prototypes, production models and final products). v) Building robustness in design using parameter design and tolerance design techniques vi) Provision of useful documentation for operation, maintenance, installation and useful hints for proper usage of equipment vii) Customer support aimed at warranty support, provision of spares with commitments up to 10 years or more viii) Training of customer representatives in understanding the layout and operation of equipment, etc. 2.0 INTRODUCTION TO TQM: 2.1Bharat Electronics has adopted the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy under the acronym "TORQUE" which stands for Total Organisational Quality Enhancement. This is a disciplined approach to manage Quality by involvement and commitment of all levels in the organization. TORQUE is a problem solving and process-improving methodology. TORQUE is used as one of the factors to evaluate the performance of the divisions. The various parameters adopted for evaluation are given in 2.2 2.2 TORQUE Parameters 1.Quality cost (percentage to production value) 2.(a) Number of processes under Statistical Process Control(SPC ) (b) Yield increase percentage 3. Cycle time reduction for purchase requisition to purchase order (average lead time in number of days) 4.Cycle time reduction for sub-contract requisition to sub-contract order (average lead time in number of days) 5.Percentage full-kit launching to total 6.Down time for key machines (% down time to available time) 7.Worst case response time to customer complaints for service (in number of days) 8.Delay in supplies - rupee months (with reference to monthly action plan) 9Quality Control Circle (QCC) % Coverage Number of case study presentations Number of dormant circles for activation

2.3 Major TQM Initiatives The major initiatives taken for implementation of TQM (TORQUE) during the period from 1987 till date are as follows:

Formation of Steering Committee and Training on TORQUE; release of TORQUE Manual Introduction of Quality Cost calculation methodology and improvement of the same Revision of QA Manual based on ISO 9000 standards Formulation of Quality Policy and further revision of the same during 1996 Revision of Company's Mission and Objectives Certification of 2 divisions to ISO 9001 and 27 divisions to ISO 9002 Quality System standards Customer Satisfaction Service Audits of Quality Systems, Processes and Products Reliability prediction for all products Computerisation of Quality Management System (MRP II)

2.4 Thrust areas of AREAS OF TORQUE a) Improvement in Quality Management Systems b) Consolidation and improvement of Quality Control Circles c) Introduction of Statistical Process Control (SPC) d) Reduction of cycle time in all areas and thus reduction delivery time of products e) Improvement in Quality of design f) Collection and analysis of Quality costs and reducing cost of poor Quality g) Institutionalising continuous improvements with the involvement of employees in all areas h) Improvements in safety of operations, Quality of worklife and customer satisfaction 2.5 Journey through TQM (TORQUE) Our journey towards TQM (TORQUE) covers the following aspects: 2.5.1 Human Resource Development And Utilisation: Education, Training, self-development and career development opportunities form the essential elements of HRD, aimed at utilization of full potential of human resources. 2.5.2 Employees' Participation In Improvement Process: Quality Control Circles (QCCs) are playing a significant role for contributing in improvement in various areas. There are 462 circles covering 35% of employees and more than 1300 problems have been identified & solved so far. Many of our QCCs have won awards at various forums and two circles have participated in International Conventions bringing laurels to the organization. Suggestion Scheme is playing complementary role to QCC in the improvement process. From April '95 to Dec '95, total number of suggestions given are 355 involving 517 suggestors. 2.5.3 Safety And Health Of Employees: Safety and health of employees are considered important factors contributing to productivity. A full fledged Safety Department takes care of this aspect, with various

activities having focus on creating awareness among the employees. Quality of worklife of employees, conducive work environment and concern for society play a significant role for organization efficiency. Statutory committees formed within the organization, welfare measures adopted by the management and effective steps taken to maintain a healthy and clean environment are aimed at achieving this objective. 2.5.4 Company's Standardisation: Standardisation & Quality are two inseparable parts of TQM process and they play a complementary role. The corporate standards department, with four decades of its activity, has evolved 4000 standards providing effective support for design, manufacturing and vendor development. 2.5.5 Quality Function Deployment(QFD): To ensure that the requirements of the customers are understood and the same are translated into product design, the following steps are taken: R & D holds regular meetings with the customers to understand their requirements before actual design work is started Design review meetings are held to make mid-course corrections Products undergo evaluation at each & every stage to check that they meet quality and reliability requirements of the customers Extensive user trials are carried out before finalization of design Design modification takes place based on feedback provided by customers Feedback meetings with all major customers are held twice in a year to resolve problems Every product shipped from the factory goes with a set of feedback cards in which customers can report any defects observed in the product for corrective action Senior officers from R & D, quality and Sales visit customers periodically to understand the customer problem and the information is passed on to the concerned agencies Accessibility is provided to customer to have any information needed by him Customer Satisfaction survey is made once in three years by a Senior Executive of the Company

2.5.6 Listening Of The Voice Of The Customer

2.5.7 Monitoring Quality During Manufacturing The major thrust is on prevention of defects rather than detection and correction. This is ensured by: Having line Quality functions in manufacturing divisions by the respective QA departments Central QA division overseas implementation of Quality Management System and Procedures by production divisions

Use of standard & approved components and materials Identification of 'special processes" and application of SPC techniques Periodic calibration of all instruments used in manufacturing areas and preventive maintenance of machines Formation of fact based "problem solving terms" in production areas Modernisation of assembly, testing, plating and painting shops to ensure better infrastructure facilities Formation of Productivity Steering Committee for monitoring productivity Establishing "task force" for better inventory control Strict monitoring of vendors / sub-contractors by vendor evaluation and rating system

2.5.8 Other Initiatives For Further Improvement Include:

Professional Councils Professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards. The statutory professional councils are: Recognition and GUN: Professional Councils All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) Medical Council of India (MCI) Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) Dental Council of India (DCI) Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) Indian Nursing Council (INC) Bar Council of India (BCI) Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM) Council of Architecture Distance Education Council Rehabilitation Council National Council for Rural Institutes State Councils of Higher Education

1.All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) All India council for Technical Education has been established under the AICTE Act, 1987. The council is authorized to take all steps that are considered appropriate for ensuring coordinated and integrated development of technical education and for maintenance of standards. The Council may, amongst other things: coordinate the development of technical education in the country at all levels; evolve suitable performance appraisal system for technical institutions and universities imparting technical education, incorporating norms and mechanisms for enforcing accountability; laydown norms and standards for courses, curricula, physical and instructional facilities, staff pattern, staff qualifications, quality instruction, assessment and examinations; grant approval for starting new technical institutions and for introduction of new course or programmes in consultation with the agencies concerned.

2.Medical Council of India (MCI) The Medcial Council of India (MCI) was set up by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, amended in 1993. The council is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education required for granting recognized medical qualifications by universities or medical institutions in India. The Council is empowered to make regulations relating to: the course and period of study, including duration of practical training to be undertaken, the subjects of examination, and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained in universities or medical institutions for grant of recognized medical qualifications; the standard of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for medical education; and the conduction of professional examinations, qualifications of examiners, and the conditions of admissions to such examinations.

The Council is also responsible to give its recommendations to the Central Government for establishing new medical colleges, opening of new or higher courses of study and increase in admission capacity in any courses of study or training. 3.Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) ICAR has established various research centres in order to meet the agricultural research and education needs of the country.It is actively pursuing human resource development in the field of agricultural sciences by setting up numerous agricultural universities spanning the entire country. It provides funding to nearly 30(Thirty) State Agricultural Universities, one Central University and several Deemed Universities. These universities employ about 26,000 scientists for teaching, research and extension education; of these over 6000 scientists are employed in the ICAR supported coordinated projects. 4.National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)

The National Council for Teacher Education is a statutory body set up under the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 to facilitate planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system in the country, and for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system. The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programs including research and training of persons to equip them to teach at preprimary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and non-formal education, part-time education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses. The Council, under Section 12 is responsible for the following activities and functions: to coordinate and monitor teacher education and its development in the country; lay down guidelines in respect of minimum qualifications for a person to be employed as a teacher; lay down norms for any specified category of courses or trainings in teacher education; lay down guidelines for compliance by recognised institutions for starting new courses or training; lay down stadards in respect of examiniations, leading to teacher education qualifications;and examine and review periodically the implementation of the norms, guidelines and standards laid down by the Council.

The Council is empowered to grant recognition of institutions offering courses or training in teacher education. 5..Dentists Council of India (DCI) Dentists Council of India, constituted under the Denstists Act, 1948, is a Statutory Body incorporated under an Act of Parliament to regulate the dental education and the profession of Dentistry throughout India. The Council is responsible for according recognition to dental degree awarded by various universities and also for maintaining uniform standards of dental education in India. The Dental Council of India (DCI) lays down minimum requirements in respect of staff and infrastructure and prescribes the syllabus and the scheme of examinations. 6.Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), also known as Central council, was constituted under section 3 of the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The PCI controls pharmacy education and profession in India up to graduate level. The Council prescribes the minimum standard of education for qualification as pharmacist.The Council prescribes: The nature and period of study of practical training to be undertaken before admission to an examiniation; the equipment and facilities to be provided for students undergoing approved courses of study; the subject of examination and the standards therein to be attained;and

any other conditions of admission to examinations.

7.Indian Nursing Council (INC) The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxilliary Nurse-Midwives and Health Visitors. Amongst other things, the Council is empowered to make regulations for: prescribes the standard curricula for the training of nurses, midwives and health visitors; and for trining courses for teachers of nurses, midwives and health visitors, and for training in nursing administration; prescribes conditions for admission to above courses; and prescribes standard of examination and other requirements to be satisfied for securing recognization.

8.Bar Council of India (BCI) The Bar Council of India is empowered to make rules to discharge its functions under the Advocates Act 1961. An important rule-making power is with reference to laying down guidelines for the standards of professional conduct and etiquette to be observed by advocates. The Bar Council of India Rules may prescribe for a class or category of person entitled to be enrolled as advocate. The Bar Council of India can also specify the conditions subject to which an advocate must have the right to practise and the circumstances under which a person must be deemed to practise as an advocate in a court. 9.Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) The Central Council of Homoeopathy was establishedunder the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. The Council prescribes and recognizes all homeopathic medicine qualifications. Any university or medical institutions that desires to grant a medical qualification in homeopathy is required to apply to the Council. The Council is responsible for constitution and maintenance of a Central Register of Homoeopathy and for matters connected therewith. All universities and Board of medical institutions in India are required to furnish all information regarding courses of study and examination. The Council is empowered to appoint inspectors at examinations and visitors to examine facilities. 10.Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM) The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. This Council prescribes minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. The Council is responsible to maintain a Central Register on Indian Medicine and prescribes Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Council is empowered to appoint medical inspectors to observe the conduct of examinations, and visitors to inspect facilities in colleges, hospitals and other institutions imparting instruction in Indian medicine. The Council is responsible to frame regulations with respect to: the courses and period of study, including practical training to be undertaken, the

subject of examinations, and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained in any university, board or medical institution for grant of recognized medical qualifications; the standard of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for education in Indian medicine; and the conduct of professional examinations, etc.

11.Council of Architecture The Council of Architecture (COA) was constituted under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India.The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is responsible to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of "Architect" must register himself with Council of Architecture. The registration with Council of Architecture entitles a person to practice the profession of architecture, provided he holds a Certificate of Registration with up-to-date renewals. The registration also entitles a person to use the title and style of Architect. The title and style of architect can also be used by a firm of architects, of which all partners are registered with COA. Limited Companies, Private/Public Companies, societies and other juridical persons are not entitled to use the title and style of architect nor are they entitled to practice the profession of architecture. The practice of profession of an architect is governed by the Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations, 1989 (as amended in 2003), which deals with professional ethics and etiquette, conditions of engagement and scale of charges, architectural competition guidelines, etc. Pursuant to these Regulations, the Council of Architecture has framed guidelines governing various aspects of practice. The Council prescribes qualifications and standards of education being imparted in institutions imparting architecture education. It set forth the requirement of eligibility for admission, course duration, standards of staff & accommodation, course content, examination, etc. These standards as provided in the said Regulations are required to be maintained by the institutions. The COA oversees the maintenance of the standards periodically by way of conducting inspections through Committees of Experts. The COA is required to keep the Central Government informed of the standards being maintained by the institutions and is empowered to make recommendations to the Government of India with regard to recognition and de-recognition of a qualification. 12.Distance Education Council Distance Education Council was constituted under statute 28 arising from Section 25 of the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985. The Distance Education Council (DEC) is responsible for the promotion and coordination of the open university and distance education system and for determination of its standards. The Council provides academic guidelines to promote excellence, encourage use of innovative technologies and approaches, enable convergence of all systems and sharing of resources through

collaborative networking for access to sustainable education, skill upgradation and training to all. 13.Rehabilitation Council The Rehabilitation Council of India was set up as a registered society in 1986. However, it was soon found that a Society could not ensure proper standardization and acceptance of the standards by other Organizations. The Parliament enacted Rehabilitation Council of India Act in 1992. The Rehabilitation Council of India become Statutory Body on 22nd June 1993. The RCI Act was amended by the Parliament in 2000 to work it more broad based. The Act casts onerous responsibility on the Council. It also prescribes that any one delivering services to people with disability, who does not possess qualifications recognised by RCI, could be prosecuted. Thus the Council has the twin responsibility of standardizing and regulating the training of personnel and professional in the field of Rehabilitation and Special Education. 14.National Council for Rural Institutes National Council of Rural Institutes is an autonomous society fully funded by the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India. Registered on 19th October, 1995 with its Headquarter at Hyderabad, It was established with a main objective of promoting Rural Higher Education for advancing rural livelihoods with the instrument of education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhiji's revolutionary concept of Nai Talim, a functional education based on the values proposed by Gandhiji. Other objectives of the council include teachers training, extension and research by networking with policy making bodies such as UGC, AICTE and research organizations like CSIR, AICTE etc., in addition to encouraging other educational institutions and voluntary agencies to develop in accordance with Gandhian Philosophy of education. 15.State Councils of Higher Education Following the National Policy on Education, respective state governments have established State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE). These councils prepare coordinated programmes of development of higher education in each state. Thus they seek to consolidate the efforts and investments of institutions of higher education with the state. Andhra Pardesh State Council for Higher Education Tamil Nadu State Council for Higher Education UP State Council for Higher Education

A Agreement which provides norms and standards in respect of following areas of intellectual property Copyrights and related rights Trade Marks Geographical Indications Industrial Designs

Lay out Designs of Integrated Circuits Protection of Undisclosed Information (Trade Secrets) Patents Plant varieties

The importance of intellectual property in India is well established at all levels- statutory, administrative and judicial. India ratified the agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation (WTO). This Agreement, inter-alia, contains an Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) which came into force from 1st January 1995. It lays down minimum standards for protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights in member countries which are required to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights with a view to reducing distortions and impediments to international trade. The obligations under the TRIPS Agreement relate to provision of minimum standard of protection within the member countries legal systems and practices. Copyrights Indias copyright law, laid down in the Indian Copyright Act, 1957 as amended by Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1999, fully reflects the Berne Convention on Copyrights, to which India is a party. The copyright law has been amended periodically to keep pace with changing requirements. The recent amendment to the copyright law, which came into force in May 1995, has ushered in comprehensive changes and brought the copyright law in line with the developments in satellite broadcasting, computer software and digital technology. The amended law has made provisions for the first time, to protect performers rights as envisaged in the Rome Convention Several measures have been adopted to strengthen and streamline the enforcement of copyrights. These include the setting up of a Copyright Enforcement Advisory Council, training programs for enforcement officers and setting up special policy cells to deal with cases relating to infringement of copyrights. Trade Marks Trade marks have been defined as any sign, or any combination of signs capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. Such distinguishing marks constitute protectable subject matter under the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. The Agreement provides that initial registration and each renewal of registration shall be for a term of not less than 7 years and the registration shall be renewable indefinitely. Compulsory licensing of trade marks is not permitted. Keeping in view the changes in trade and commercial practices, globalisation of trade, need for simplification and harmonisation of trade marks registration systems etc., a comprehensive review of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 was made and a Bill to repeal and replace the 1958 Act has since been passed by Parliament and notified in the Gazette on 30.12.1999. This Act not only makes Trade Marks Law, TRIPS compatibility but also harmonises it with international systems and practices. Work is

underway to bring the law into force. The Trade and Merchandise Marks Act,1958 An Act to provide for the registration and better protection of Trade Marks and for the prevention of the use of fraudulent marks on merchandise. Geographical Indications The Agreement contains a general obligation that parties shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner which misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the goo. There is no obligation under the Agreement to protect geographical indications which are not protected in their country or origin or which have fall en into disuse in that country. Industrial Designs Industrial designs refer to creative activity which result in the ornamental or formal appearance of a product and design right refers to a novel or original design that is accorded to the proprietor of a validly registered design. Industrial designs are an element of intellectual property. Under the TRIPS Agreement, minimum standards of protection of industrial designs have been provided for. As a developing country, India has already amended its national legislation to provide for these minimal standards. The essential purpose of design law it to promote and protect the design element of industrial production. It is also intended to promote innovative activity in the field of industries. Patents The basic obligation in the area of patents is that, invention in all branches of technology whether products or processes shall be patentable if they meet the three tests of being new involving an inventive step and being capable of industrial application. In addition to the general security exemption which applied to the entire TRIPS Agreement, specific exclusions are permissible from the scope of patentability of inventions, the prevention of whose commercial exploitation is necessary to protect public order or morality, human, animal, plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment. Further, members may also exclude from patentability of diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods of the treatment of human and animals and plants and animal other than microorganisms and essentially biological processes for the production of plants and animals.

CASE STUDY
PRODUCTION CERTIFICATION SCHEMES The Product Certification Scheme of BIS aims at providing Third Party Guarantee of quality, safety and dependability of products to the ultimate customer. Presence of ISI certification mark known as Standard Mark on a product is an assurance of conformity to

the specifications. The conformity is ensured by regular surveillance of the licensee's performance by surprise inspections and testing of samples, drawn both from the market and factory The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India is involved in the development of technical standards (popularly known as Indian Standards), product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. It resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization, Certification and Quality. In order to attain this, the Bureau strives: To provide efficient timely service. To satisfy the customers' needs for quality of goods and services. To work and act in such a way that each task, performed as individuals or as corporate entity, leads to excellence and enhances the credibility and image of the Organization. BIS would achieve these objectives by working in close cooperation with all concerned organizations and by adopting appropriate management systems, motivating and ensuring active participation of all the employees.

PURPOSE: During the pre independence period, standardization activity was sporadic and confined mainly to a few Government purchasing organizations. However, immediately after independence, economic development through coordinated utilization of resources was called for and the government recognized the role for standardization in gearing industry to competitive efficiency and quality production. The Indian Standards Institution (ISI) was, therefore, set up in 1947 as a registered society, under a Government of India resolution. The Indian Standards Institution gave the nation the standards it needed for nationalization, orderly industrial and commercial growth, quality production and competitive efficiency. However, in 1986 the government recognized the need for stregthening this National Standards Body due to fast changing socio-economic scenario and accorded it a statutory status. Thus, came the Bureau of Indian Standards Act 1986 and on 1 April 1987, newly formed BIS took over staff assets, liabilities and functions of erstwhile ISI. Through this change over, the Government envisaged building of the climate of quality culture and consciousness and greater participation of consumers in formulation and of National Standards.1 April 1987. Objective Harmonious development of standardization, marking and quality certification To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of production and exports

OPERATING PRINCIPLE The BIS Product certification Scheme operates in an impartial, non discriminatory and transparent manner. The documents stating the powers, rights and responsibilities of BIS and the affected sectors of society are published by the Government of India as the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986, Rules and ( Certification ) Regulations, 1988. The specific rules for operating a licence are given in another document called the Scheme of Testing and Inspection ( STI ), described later. Procedures provide for maintaining a very high degree of confidentiality and integrity among its personnel who perform certification related tasks. A body called the ' Certification Advisory Committee' composed of persons from varied sectors like manufacturers, consumers, Government agencies, industries associations reviews the performance of the scheme and advises on key policy issues. Internally, a senior functionary designated as 'Additional Director General (Marks)' is responsible for ensuring that the scheme operates within the framework of rules and procedures established. RESOURCES The finances of the Bureau are self managed, with certification operations accounting for more than 80 percent of the revenue. The BIS employs a staff complement of engineers, scientists and statisticians to cater to all its fields of operations. They are trained into evaluation and assessment techniques to a high degree of professional competence. All preliminary and surveillance inspections are carried out by qualified personnel only. BIS has set up eight laboratories in different cities of India for testing samples of products taken during preliminary and surveillance operations. In addition, independent laboratories having demonstrated ability and a quality system complying with ISO/IEC Guide 17025:1999 have been recognised for testing of samples drawn. The certification scheme operates through a network of 19 Branch Offices set up in state capitals or major industrial towns and 5 Regional Offices overseeing the work of the branch offices. CONSUMER AFFAIRS The Bureau of Indian Standards has a full fledged Grievance Cell functioning at its HQ in Delhi with Public Grievance Officers at all its Regional and Branch Offices to provide consumers with prompt attention and speedy redressal of their grievances. If a customer feels unhappy about the quality of a BIS certified product, he/she should get in touch with the nearest office of the Bureau of Indian Standards. BIS arranges for their redressal by way of replacement/repair of the product in case the complaint is found to be genuine

Complaint on a BIS certified product can be lodged in the following manner : Personally contact/write to Public Grievances officer of the nearest Regional/ Branch/Inspection Office of BIS or directly to the Director (Standards Promotion, Consumer Affairs & Public Grievances Department). Public can complain regarding the following a) Regarding quality of BIS certified product. b) Regarding services of BIS such as, Sales, Library, Technical Information Services, General Services, etc. c) Regarding activities of BIS, such as, Standard Formulation . Product and Management Systems Certification, Laboratory testing etc. d) Regarding unauthorized use of BIS Standard Mark by licensees/applicants/others. e) Regarding irregularities in operation and misuse of licence by BIS licensees. f) Regarding flase/misleading advertisements and claims by licensees/applicants/nonlicensees g) Regarding delays in grant/renewal of licensees and delays in inclusion of additional varieties. h) About BIS officers and employees about services rendered by them. Functions 1. Formulation of Indian Standards for products and services by bringing together and coordinating various interest groups like manufacturers, consumers, technical experts, testing personnel and others interested. The standards so prepared are known as Indian Standards (IS) and are considered as legal documents. The first Indian Standard formulated was for the National Flag .So far BIS has published about 18000 Indian Standards covering various products, codes of practices, terminology, etc for various industrial and economic sectors. The Indian Standards are used not only by the industry but also by the Government, students, consumers and regulatory authorities. The standards are priced publications and are available from all the offices of the Bureau. 2. Certification Schemes Product Certification Scheme is a scheme whereby manufacturers of products interested in producing their products as per relevant Indian Standards are permitted to use the Standard Mark of the Bureau (the popular ISI mark) on their products after obtaining a licence from the Bureau. The pre-requisites for obtaining a licence are that the manufacturer has the necessary manufacturing and testing facility for the product and agrees to follow the quality assurance scheme of the Bureau in addition to payment of necessary fees as stipulated. The licence

is initially granted for a period of one year which is renewable for subsequent periods based on satisfactory operation of the scheme. The scheme is voluntary in nature for most products. However, the government has insisted on ISI marking of about 136 products which affect the health and safety of consumers or are products of mass consumption like LPG Cylinders, Food Colours and Additives, Cement, Packaged Drinking Water, etc. Certification for Indian Importers is a similar scheme operated for importers who are desirous of using the standard mark (ISI Mark) on imported products. The Government of India has also stipulated that some of the products be imported into the country only after approval of BIS is obtained. Certification for Foreign Manufacturers is another scheme again operated on the same lines whereby manufacturers located in foreign countries are permitted to use the Standard (ISI) mark on their products. ECO MARK BIS grants licences to environment friendly products under this special scheme. For obtaining the ECO Mark Certificate the products should conform to additional requirements specified in the Indian Standards. IECEE & IECQ Certification BIS is a National Certifying Body (issuing and recognizing) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment (IECEE). The product categories for which BIS has IECEE acceptance are Cables and Chords, Capacitors as components, Low voltage high power switching equipment, Installation of protective equipment and Electronics entertainment. BIS is also the National Authorised Institution and the National Standards Organization under the IEC System of Quality Assessment of Electronic Components (IECQ).

3. Management System Certifications : Under the Management System Certifications, the Bureau operates the following four Certification Schemes: Quality Management System Certification (ISO 9001 Certification) : The Bureau operates the Quality Management System Certification for organizations based on the ISO 9001:2000 Standard published by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Being a member of ISO the standards of ISO can be adopted in-toto by the Bureau and can be published as IS/ISO standards. Accordingly, the ISO 9000 series of standards have been adopted and are published as the IS/ISO 9000 series of standards. The certification is for the systems implemented by an organization and not for the product or service provided by them. The Standard requires implementation of systems as required by the Standard in all relevant activities and functions within an organization that goes to satisfy the needs of customers. The standard also requires that the organization shows continual improvement by defining specific objectives and measuring and monitoring the same in its activities. The certification being operated by the Bureau is accredited by the Dutch Council of Accreditation Raad voor Accreditatie (RvA), The HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) programme for the food industry which envisages identification and control of hazards-physical, chemical or biological-can also be covered in QMS Certification Scheme if so desired by any organization.

Environment Management System Certification : The certification scheme is based on the ISO 14001 standard which as in the case of ISO 9000 standards has been adopted as IS/ISO 14001. The thrust of the standard is ensuring that organizations meet the legal requirements of environmental protection and has systems whereby they control and improve upon measures that will lead to a healthier environment. Information Security Management System Certification (ISMS based on ISO/IEC 27001) Food Safety Management System Certification (FSMS based on ISO 22000)

4. Hall Marking of Gold Jewellery : India is the largest consumer of gold and the purchaser of gold jewellery is the common consumer. The Hall Marking of Gold Jewellery indented to ensure that the consumer gets gold jewellery of the purity declared was launched on 11 April 2000 at the behest of the Government of India. The certification of purity of Gold Jewellery is done in accordance with the Indian Standard IS:1417 (Specification for Gold and Gold Alloys, Jewellery/Artefacts - Fineness and Marking). The Standard is equivalent to the International Standard ISO 9202:1991Jewellery Fineness of Precious Metal Alloys. The scheme is voluntary in nature. 5. Other Actitvities of the Bureau include Operation of Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award instituted in 1991, with a view to encouraging Indian manufacturing and service organizations to strive for excellence and giving special recognition to those who are considered to be the leaders of quality movement in India. This award is intended to generate interest and involvement of Indian Industry in quality programmes, drive our products and services to higher levels of quality and equip our Industry to meet the challenges of domestic and International markets. WTO-TBT Enquiry Point : The Government of India, Ministry of Commerce has designated BIS as the enquiry point under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade of the World Trade Organization (WTO). According to the Agreement, the Enquiry Point issues notifications on proposed technical regulations and certification systems in India to WTO, Geneva.

Standards development BIS is engaged in formulation of Indian Standards for the following sectors : Basic & Production Engineering Chemicals Civil Engineering Electronics and Information Technology Electrotechnical Food and Agriculture Mechanical Engineering

Management and Systems Medical Equipment and Hospital Planning Metallurgical Engineering Petroleum Coal and Related Products Transport Engineering Textile Water Resources

Each of these sectors has a Division Council to oversee and supervise its work. BIS publishes detailed Work Programme for each of the 14 Division Councils once in a year on 1 April. The Work Programme, besides giving scope of Division Council and Sectional Committees, contains committeewise position of standards published and draft standards (like preliminary, wide circulation and finalized draft standards) at different stages of preparation. The copies of Work Programme (and also of wide circulation drafts for comments during the wide circulation period) can be obtained from the Director of the concerned Technical Divisions, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. The Work Programme is updated through Standards Monthly Additions (SMA), a monthly publication which contains information on standards published (new and revised), dual no. standards, amendments to standards, draft standards for comments, standards withdrawn and standards proposed for withdrawal up to 15th of the preceding month. Special attention is given to multidisciplinary areas such as energy conservation, environmental protection, rural development and safety. So far over 17,000 standards have been formulated in different technology areas. The standards formulated fall in the following categories: Product Specifications Methods of Test Codes of Practices, Guidelines, etc Terminologies, Glossaries, etc Basic Standards

Standards Promotion Apart from formulation, emphasis is laid also on regular review of the standards to keep them in line with modern technological developments, as also to harmonise them with international standards or their equivalents.

UNIT 3 INSPECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL Inspection- objective and function Now-a-days, the quality of goods is the main factor that determines the failure or success of companies. In an intensely competitive international market, it is of vital importance that customers are assured of high standards in quality control. It is therefore essential for companies to implement strong and effective quality control and quality assurance systems. The ISO 9000 series of standards was developed in response to this need: the standards set out procedures for ensuring that an effective quality system, which meets customers' demands, is established and maintained An inspection is, most generally, an organised examination or formal evaluation exercise. It involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regards to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually non-destructive. Non destructive examination or non destructive testing is used to analyse various inherent defects or flaws that may occur in a body due to their use for a long period of time. In our day to day life there is no field that is untouched with the concept of inspection like 1 Specific instance 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Software engineering Real estate Government Mechanics Medical Food industry

Software engineering: Software inspection, in software engineering, refers to peer review of any work product by trained individuals who look for defects using a well defined process.

Real estate: A property inspection is the examination for purposes of evaluating a property's condition. In purchasing property, a "whole house inspection" tries to detect defects in the property. Government: In government and politics, an inspection is the act of a regulatory authority administering an official review of various criteria (such as documents, facilities, records, and any other assets) that are deemed by the authority to be related to the inspection. Inspections are used for the purpose of determining if a body is complying with regulations. The inspector examines the criteria and talks with involved individuals. A report and evaluation follows such visits Mechanics: A vehicle inspection, e.g., an annual inspection, is a necessary inspection required on vehicles to conform with laws regarding safety, emissions, or both. An "automobile inspection" is an examination of a vehicle's components, usually done by a certified mechanic. Vehicles pass a pre-warranty inspection, if, and only if, a mechanic provide evidence for the proper working condition of the vehicle systems specified in the type of inspection. Food Industries: Inspection is the examination of food or systems for control of food, raw materials, processing and distribution, including in-process and finished product testing, in order to verify that they conform to norms. Thus inspection is needed to ensure fruitful nourishment in every sector. Measurements are an essential part of both quality control and quality assurance systems. Such measurements may be directly related to product quality, where they take the form of testing or inspection measurements, or they may indirectly affect product quality, where they take the form of process control measurements. Efficiency of inspection process depends upon number of factors such as: Inspection staff should have access to adequate facilities and equipment to undertake inspection procedures and Methodologies Inspection services should utilize laboratories that are evaluated and/or accredited under officially recognized programmes to ensure that adequate quality controls are in place to provide for the reliability of test results. Validated analytical methods should be used wherever available. Official inspection services should have, or have access to, a sufficient number of qualified personnel as appropriate in areas such as: food science and technology, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, veterinary science, human medicine, epidemiology, agronomic engineering, quality assurance, audit and law. Personnel should be capable and appropriately trained in the operation of food inspection and control systems. They should have a status which ensures their impartiality and have no direct commercial interest in the products or establishments being inspected or certified.

INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SYSTEM Countries should identify the main objectives to be addressed through import and export inspection and certification systems. Countries should have in place the legislative framework, controls, procedures, facilities, equipment, laboratories, transportation, communications, personnel and training to support the objectives of the inspection and certification programme. Where different authorities in the same country have jurisdiction over different parts of the food chain, conflicting requirements must be avoided to prevent legal and commercial problems and obstacles to trade. For example, while provincial or state laws may exist there should be a competent authority at the national level capable of ensuring uniform application. However, an importing country authority may recognize a sub-national competent authority for purposes of inspection or certification where this arrangement is acceptable to the national authorities concerned. Objectives of an Inspection The objectives of an inspection are to determine if a firm is complying with its quality control policies and procedures confirming with professional standards during a specified period of time to identify on a timely basis areas where improvements may be necessary. An inspection includes the following basic procedures: Reviewing and testing the firms compliance with the quality control policies and procedures that make up the firms quality control system (compliance testing). Reviewing selected engagements of the firm, including relevant working papers and reports (engagement testing). Summarizing the findings from the review of engagements and tests of compliance with quality control policies and procedures. Determining any corrective actions to be taken and improvements to be made with respect to the specific engagements reviewed or quality control system as a whole. Communicating the inspection findings and the planned corrective actions to appropriate firm personnel.

Depending on the size of a firm, the nature of its practice, and other environmental factors, an inspection may be performed by one individual or by a group of individuals. In either case, the primary responsibility for the inspection should be assigned to an owner of the firm. This person may delegate part or all of the testing procedures to qualified assistants. Depending on the size of a firm and the environmental factors previously discussed, a firm may wish to consider having someone from outside the firm perform the inspection rather than using internal personnel. Some firms have found this advantageous because

the outsider can provide a fresh perspective and may be more objective when performing the various procedures. Unlike peer reviews and quality reviews, inspections may be performed on a reciprocal basis because independence is not an issue that must be considered. Timing of the Inspection Program: The inspection program should be timely and it should cover each year between peer reviews. (A firm may elect to have its peer review substitute for an inspection for the year covered by the review.) Timeliness is important so that any necessary corrective action, especially actions that affect the performance of a subsequent audit, review or compilation, can be implemented before a deficiency, if one took place, is repeated. The scope of an inspection should be similar to that of a peer review. Sufficient testing should be performed to allow the inspectors to evaluate whether the firm is effectively applying its procedures as they relate to the other eight elements of quality control. Summarizing Inspection Findings At the conclusion of the various inspection procedures, each finding should be evaluated in conjunction with the other findings noted during the inspection for the implications to the firms quality control system as a whole. For example, on one engagement a minor disclosure may have been omitted that results in a note to the file reminding the engagement personnel to make sure that the disclosure is made in next years financial statements. If the deficiency is noted on several engagements, corrective action also may be needed on a firm-wide basis to prevent the recurrence of these deficiencies. Benefits of an Inspection An inspection can assure a firm that it has an effective quality control system in place and that the firms quality control system is being complied with. It also ensures that the firm will have the chance to make improvements or changes in its quality control system on a timely basis. Oftentimes, the professionals know the strengths and weaknesses of their firm. However, time does not always permit the firm to focus on these areas and make necessary changes. An inspection allows the firm to allocate time at least once a year to focus on its strengths and weaknesses with the intent of improving the overall quality of the firm and the services it provides. Inspection Findings and Recommendations Finding:On some of the engagements reviewed, we noted a few disclosure deficiencies that would have been caught if the firm had required the completion of a comprehensive reporting and disclosure checklist. Recommendation:The firm should adopt a policy requiring that a comprehensive reporting and disclosure checklist be completed on all engagements on which the firm reports on year-end financial statements.

Examples:

Geomagic inspection software is the platform solution for inspection and continual manufacturing improvement for anything from short-lived consumer products to mission critical parts that lives depend upon. Optical inspection apparatus for detecting differences between two dies in a photo mask and including a carriage for supporting the objects to be inspected and for simultaneously moving such objects along an inspection path, an illuminator for illuminating corresponding portions of the objects as they are moved along the inspection path, electro-optical detectors for individually inspecting the illuminated portions and for developing first and second electrical signals respectively corresponding thereto, electronic memories for storing the first and second electrical signals, a computer for scanning the memories and for electronically aligning a readout of the first signal relative to a readout of the second signal, and a comparator for comparing the electronically aligned signals and for indicating any differences there between. FUNCTIONS OF INSPECTION: 1. Inspection works as a guide: In any event there is not much point in inspecting goods at the end of the process. Since defects arise during the manufacturing process, all you are doing is discovering those defects. Adding inspection workers are pointless because there is no way you are going to reduce defects without using processing methods that prevents defects from occurring in the first place. 2. Set of a quality standard 3. To discover defects: Inspection whose sole purpose is to categorise finished products as defected or acceptable after process has been completed. Inspection is done to keep defective goods from moving on to customers or subsequent processors. In this sense it is an effective tool. It remains inherently a kind of post mortem inspection. However for no matter how accurately and thoroughly it is performed. 4. To reduce the defects: Inspection within a process is the act of comparison with a standard, mainly to eliminate defective goods. Occurrence of certain level of defects are inevitable. We can reduce defects by making inspection process more and more rigorous.

Quality of elements
1. Introduction It is estimated that there are more than 40,000 currently useful metallic alloys and probably close to that number of nonmetallic engineering materials such as plastics, ceramics and glasses, composite materials, and semiconductors. This large number of materials and the many manufacturing processes available to the engineer, coupled with the complex relationship between the different selection parameters, often make the selection of a material for a given component a difficult task. If the selection process a carried out haphazardly. There will be the risk of overlooking a possible attractive alternative material. This risk can be reduced by adopting a systematic material selection procedure. A variety of quantitative selection procedure have been developed to

analyze the large amount of data involved in the selection process so that a systematic evaluation. Unlike the exact sciences, where there is normally only one single correct solution to a problem, materials selection and substitution decisions require the consideration of conflicting advantages and limitations, necessitating compromises and trade-offs; as a consequence, different satisfactory solutions are possible. This is illustrated by the fact that similar components performing similar functions, but produced by different manufacturers, are often made from different materials and even by different manufacturing processes. 2 initial screening of materials In the first stages of development of a new product, the following questions may be posed: What is it? What does it do? How does it do it? To answer these questions it is necessary to specify the performance requirements of the different parts involved in the design and to broadly outline the main materials performance and processing requirements. This allows the initial screening of materials whereby certain classes of materials and manufacturing processes may be eliminated and others chosen as likely candidates. Analysis of Material Performance Requirements The materials performance requirements can be divided into five broad categories, namely functional requirements, processability requirements, cost, reliability, and resistance to service conditions. 1. Functional Requirements Functional requirements are directly related to the required characteristics of the part of the product. For example, if the part carries a uniaxial tensile load, the yield strength of a candidate materials can be directly related to the load-carrying capacity of the product. However, some characteristics of the part of product may not have simple correspondence with measurable materials properties, as in tance can be related to thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, ductility, and tensile strength. On the other hand, resistance to stress corrosion cracking can be related to tensile strength. Kiscc, and electrochemical potential. 2. Processability Requirements The processability of a material is a measure of its ability to be worked and shaped into a finished part. With reference to a specific manufacturing method, processability can be defined as castability, weldability, machinability, et. Ductility and hardenability can be relevant to processability if the material is to be deformed or hardened by heat treatment, respectively. The closeness of the stock form to the required product form can be taken as a measure of processability in some cases. It is important to remember that processing operations will almost always affect the material properties so that processability considerations are closely related to functional requirements. 3. Cost Cost is usually an important factor in evaluating materials because in many applications there is a cost limit for a materials intended to meet the application requirements. When the cost limit is exceeded, the design may have to be changed to allow for the use of a less expensive material. The cost of processing often exceeds the cost of the stock

material. In some cases, a relatively more expensive material may eventually yield a less expensive product than a low priced material that is more expensive to process. 4. Reliability Requirements Reliability of a material can be defined as the probability that it will perform the intended function for the expected life without failure. Material reliability is difficult to measure because it is not only dependent upon the materials inherent properties, but it is also greatly affected by its production and processing history. Generally, new and nonstandard materials will tend to have lower reliability than established, standard materials. Despite difficulties of evaluating reliability, it is often an important selection factor that must be taken into account. Failure analysis techniques are usually used to predict the different ways in which a product can fail and can be considered as a systematic approach to reliability evaluation. The causes of failure of a part in service can usually be traced back to defects in materials and processing, to faulty design, unexpected service conditions, or misuse of the product. 5. Resistance to Service Conditions The environment in which the product or part will operate plays an important role in determining the material performance requirements. Corrosive environment, as well as high or low temperatures, can adversely affect the performance Preliminary and Conceptual Design Translate marketing ideas into industrial design leading to broad description of the product What is it? What does it do? How does it do it? How much should it be? Initial Screening Use the critical requirements of each part to define the performance requirements of the material. Start with all materials available and narrow down the choices on he basis of the rigid properties.

Configuration (Embodiment) design Develop a qualitative sketch of each part giving only the order of magnitude of the main dimensions but showing the main features walls, bosses, ribs, holes, grooves, etc. Detail (Parametric) Design Determine the dimensions of the parts based on a specific material and a manufacturing process taking into account the design limitations, the manufacturing process, weight concerns, space limitations, etc. The cost must now be considered in detail.

Comparing Alternative Solutions Use soft material requirements to further narrow the field of possible materials to a few optimum candidates.

Selection of Optimum Solution Use the optimum materials and matching manufacturing processes to make detail designs. Compare alternative combinations taking into account the elements of cost. Select optimum combination of designmeterial-manufacturing process.

Generation of an alternative detail design, which requires selecting a design based on alternative materials and evaluation against requirements.

STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL SQC is a computer application which allows in line inspectors and quality auditors to maintain accurate and complete records of identified defects and maintain quality at proper levels. It provides up to date information in clean and meaningful presentations needed by plant management Techniques of SQC were introduced by Sir Walter. A Shenhart and at later stages these techniques were defined in terms of their utilization in the field of manufacturing. Objective : The purpose of SQC is to ensure, in an cost efficient manner, that the product shipped to customer meets their specification. Inspecting every product is costly and inefficient but the consequence of shipping non-conforming product can be significant in terms of customer dissatisfaction SQC is the process of inspecting enough product from given lots to probabilistically ensure a specified quality level. Functions of SQC system : Basically SQC perform 5 main functions : 1. SQC provides the ability to maintain complete and up-to-date quality records for both-in-line inspection and upto date level of quality auditing. This information can be displayed on the systems CRT screens or is printed in hard copy report formed. 2. SQC provides a measurement tolerance audit function which provides the facility to enter measurement tolerance information at a CRT and analyze this data using reports and enquiries. 3. SQC provides the ability to enter irregular unit classification information at a CRT. Irregular unit classification includes the ability to assign a defect code, classification (2, 3rd or 4th quality) and origin (factory, mill or finishing) to each defect. 4. SQC provides the ability to perform data entry at either a satellite plus real time terminal or alternatively at a CRT display. 5. SQC provides a series of management enquiries and reports. A brief list of these includes(a) Real time defect analysis including - operator defects - Job defects - operator defects by job - job defects by cut

- cut defects summary - Inspector performance (b) Historical defect analysis including- operator performance by job - bundles worked on by job - job performance by operator - job defect analysis - defects by cut or style - audit summary by cut (c) Classification of irregular unit, including - factory defect enquiries - factory irregular reports - finishing and mill irregular enquiries - finishing and mill irregular reports (d) Management tolerance audit, including - measurement audit transaction history - measurement audit bar chart Importance of SQC : The application of statistical principles and techniques in all stages of production, directed towards the economic manufacture of product(s) that is maximally useful and has a market. It is particularly importance in manufacturing and other relevant areas operated by NPL (National Physical Laborites)
D i r e c t L i n k s w e i g h t T r a d e S c i e n c e , l a b o r a t o r Ly e g a l m e t r o l o g y

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l a b o r a t M r ai en s u f a c t u r i n g i n d u o e n e r g y , d e f e n c e , e n v i r o n m e n t

The business and motivation issue are helpful to produce the continuously

improving quality. Through SQC, emphasis is laid on technological aspects, due to their quantitative nature.

Process for SQC : The root cause of the process for statistical quality (also called SPC, statistical process control) lies with the normal distribution which may take the form of histogram or continuous curve. Normal distribution is obtained when the quantities vary in random fashion. If the variability is really random, a symmetrical curve called Normal curve is obtained. Normal curve can be obtained by two numbers, the mean and the standard deviation the measure of scatter of values on either side of the mean : (i) Mean =

x=

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x) / n

12

Sometimes, the spread is also defined by the term range (R) and R= Range of spread = Xmax Xmin The normal curve shows the level of consistency which is possible to maintain with the process running as it is. No matter what the tolerance written on the drawing may be, one can expect that virtually all the parts one produce will be within a rage of six-times the standard deviation [ 3].This gives an indication of what is called the process capability of the operation. The normal curve tells how well one is doing in relation to specified tolerance. If the mean is half way between the two-limits and the 2s lines come inside the limits, then more than 95% lies within the tolerance limits. If the mean is drifted to one side, or the tolerance limits have been set more lightly, one will have a proportion of out of tolerance work, given by the area of the curve outside the tolerance limits. So, the can tell how realistic the tolerance is for the process one is running. Process capability shows the relationship between the drawing tolerance and achievable tolerance.

P r o c e s s
VARIABILITY OF DATA

T o l e r a n c e c a p a b i l i t y = S t a n d a r d

a n g e

d e v i a t i o n

There are a variety of war in which to characterize the variability of data. One the more useful quantities, although not the simplest, is the true standard deviation which is , defined as the square root of the sum of the squares of the deviations of the data points from the true mean divided by the number of observations n.

(x

x)

Units for the standard deviation are the same as for the individual observation. Because the true mean is practically never known, the true standard deviation is generally a theoretical quantity. However, may be approximated by the estimated standard deviation, s(x), where

(x) =

(x

x)2

n 1

in this relationship (n - 1) appears in the denominator rather than n in order to make s(x) an unbiased estimator of . In statistical analysis it is necessary to use a quantity called degrees of freedom, designated henceforth as d.f. Ibis quantity allows for a mathematical correction of the data for constraints placed upon the data. In this case, in the calculation of the estimated standard deviation, the number of observations n is fixed and the estimated standard deviation is calculated from the mean. Only (n-1) of the observations or sample terms can be varied and the last term is fixed by x and n. Thus, there are only (n - 1) degrees of freedom in estimating the standard deviation from a sample of the population data. Squaring the true standard deviation gives a term called the true variance, or 2. It can be shown that the standard deviation of means , calculated for samples taken from the total population of data, will have a true standard deviation equal to s / n , where n is the sample size. In other w6rds' the spread of thew means is less than the spread of the overall data around the group mean. In the same manner, squaring the estimated standard deviation results in an estimated variance s2(x). An estimated standard deviation of the mean has the same relation to the estimated standard deviation of the population as the true standard deviation of the mean, that is, s(x) is given by s(x)/ n THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION When dealing with large amounts of data, it is convenient to form an array of data in such a way that the frequencies of occurrence of given values or ranges of values can be tabulated and graphed. This grouping is accomplished the designation of ranges which

are called class intervals. The relative frequency of the class intervals is called an empirical distribution or an empirical frequency distribution and is used to estimate the theoretical frequency distribution.

Probability Curve Statistical formulas are based on various mathematical distribution functions representing these frequency distributions. The most widely used of all continuous frequency distribution&, is the normal distribution, the common bell-shaped curve. It has been found that the normal curve is the model of experimental errors for repeated measurements of the same thing. Assumption of a normal distribution is frequently and often indiscriminately made in experimental work because it is a convenient distribution on which many statistical procedures are based. However, some experimental situations subject to random error can yield data that are not adequately described by the normal distribution curve. Usefulness of the normal distribution curve lies in the fact that from two parameters, the true mean and the true standard deviation the distribution of all of the dated can be . established. The true mean determines the value on which the bell-shaped curve is centered, and or determines the spread" of the curve. A large gives a broad flat curve, while a small yields a tall narrow curve with most probability concentrated on values near the mean. It is impossible to find the exact value of the true mean from information provided by a sample. But an interval within which the true mean most likely lies can be found with a definite probability, for example, 0.95 or 0.99. The 95 percent confidence level confidence level indicates that while the true mean may or may not lit within the specified interval, the odds are 19 to 1 that it does. t Assuming a normal distribution, the 95 percent limits are x 1.96 where is the true standard deviation of the sample mean. Thus, if a process gave results that were known to fit a normal distribution curve having a mean of 11.0 and

a standard deviation of 0.1, it would-be dear from Fig. 17.1 that there is only a 5 percent chance of a result falling outside the range of 10.804 and 11.196. As suggested above it is customary to work at the 95 percent or sometimes at the 99, percent probability level. The 95 percent probability level, which gives a 5 percent chance of a Type I error, represents the usual optimum for minimizing the two types of statistical error. A Type 1 error is a false rejection by a statistical test of the null hypothesis when it is true. Conversely, a Type error is a false acceptance of the null hypothesis by a statistical test. The probability level at which statistical decisions are made will obviously depend on which type of error is more important. STATISTICAL TESTS There are a large number of statistical distributions which have for the most part been derived from the normal frequency distribution. The principles, underlying only three of these distributions will be presented here. There distributions form the basis for the most frequently used statistical tests significance. There are two important statistical tests which can be used to determine whether the differences between two sets of data are real and significant or just due to chance errors. Both assume that the experimental results are independently and normally distributed. One is the t-test and the other is the chi-squared test. The t-test applies only to continuous data-usually a measurement. The chi-squared test in many cases can approximate frequency or type of data. Statistics also provides a function for testing whether the scatter of, sets of data-as measured by the variance-is such as would be expected two samples from the same population. This test is known as the F-test. Tabular values for the above statistical tests are available in most statistical texts or engineering handbooks. The test compares the observed difference between average& with the inherent variability within the data-as measured by the standard deviation-to tell whether the difference is significant. Success of this test depends on the fact the means of groups of samples from a distribution will tend to locate Ives around a normal distribution. The t-test consists of setting up a hypothesis for the value* of the mean, calculating t from the observed mean and the estimated standard deviation, and comparing the calculated t with tabulated values of t. If the calculated t exceeds the tabulated value at the proper degree of freedom, then the original thesis may be rejected with the chance that the rejection is wrong corresponding to the probability level. Three common hypotheses and their corresponding t-equations are given below: Hypothesis A : = o (one sample test) d.f. = n 1

t=

x 0 s(x)

Hypothesis B : o (two sample test-matched pairs) d.f. = n 1

t=

x0 s(x)

Hypothesis B : = 2 (two sample test) d.f. = n1 + n2 - 2

t=

x1 x2 s(x)
s(x) = s(x) n

Where

s(x) = s(x)
s(x) =

1 1 + n1 n 2
1

(x

x1 )2 + (x2 x2 )2 n1 + n 2 2

Tabular values for the t-test are normally presented for various degrees of freedom. The probability level is the chance of obtaining a value larger than the tabular values by chance alone. As the sample size (degrees of freedom) increases, the t-values approach the probability values for the normal distribution curve. PRE-REQUISITES : There are some important pre-requisites for successful implementation of statistical principles and techniques: (i) Management must be committed to SQC, because the experience reveals that 85% of production are generated due to 15-20% of causes common to production system. A list of common causes has been given here for ready reference Hasty design of components, sub-assemblies and inadequate test on prototypes. Hasty design of production processes, and toolings and their testing in trial runs. Inadequate inspection of incoming materials, specifications too stringents, too loose or sometimes waving specifications. Failure to know the real process capabilities that are in the state of SQC and to use these incomplete information as a basis for quality design. Failure to provide production workers with statistical signals that can tell them as how are they doing and when to make changes. Failure to know the real process capabilities that are in the state of SQC and to use these incomplete information as a basis for quality design. Failure to use these charts as a measure of the faults of the system or effect of action taken by management to reduce them. Failure to mention proper job description that can take account of the capability of the process. Inadequate training of workers and lower level of management proposal. Inadequate setting of machines.

Non-reliable testing instruments, consequently demoralizing the systems workforce, causing loss of production. Presence of smoke, noise unnecessary dirt, poor light, poor humidity, confusion in communication etc. (ii)Top management must support the program willfully, and has to change their attitude regarding quality control cause or compromising for quality. Survey reveals that only 15% quality problems are generated on account of poor training of workers, poorly maintained machines and equipment. So, the workers should not singly be blamed for defects produced. (iii) Implement mechanism should not overlook any instruction i.e. implement faithfully with loyalty to quality philosophy. CONCEPT OF SAMPLING When any organisations require data they either use data collected by somebody else (secondary data), or collect it themselves (primary data). This is usually done by SAMPLING, that is collecting data from a representative SAMPLE of the population they are interested in.The use of sampling in selecting participants for a project is one of the key considerations in project planning. Familiarity with a few of the basic terms and concepts in sampling provides a basis for consideration of issues and procedures in sampling. Population :In sampling, population is the total group of people from whom information is needed. In statistics we define a population as the collection of all the items about which we want to know some characteristics. Examples of populations are hospital patients, road accidents, pet owners, unoccupied property or bridges. It is usually far too expensive and too time consuming to collect information from every member of the population, exceptions being the General Election and The Census, so instead we collect it from a sample.The population we want to know about is called the TARGET POPULATION, as it is the one we are interested in and targeting. Identifying the target population is not always as easy as it might appear, and once identified there are many practical difficulties. If your target population is cat owners how do you find a list of them? Census : This is the Data obtained from every member of the population. Sample : This is the group of individuals drawn from the population that is a subset of the population of interest.The sample must represent the whole of the population we are interested in, and not be biased in any way.As a general rule the larger the sample, the better it is for estimating characteristics of the population. It's easier to estimate the mean height of men by measuring 50 of them rather than just 2. Sampling Frame: The basis for selecting any sample is the list of all the subjects from which the sample is to be chosen - this is the SAMPLING FRAME. Although ideally the sampling frame is exactly the same as the popuation, this is difficult to achieve with most large populations.This is a list of all members of the population.

Examples are the Postcode Address File, the Electoral register, telephone directories, membership lists, lists created by credit rating agencies and others, and maps. Element or Sampling Unit: A sampling unit is an individual who is a part of the population. Representativeness of sample: When we talk about the representativeness of a sample, we are referring to the degree of similarity between the characteristics of the sample and the corresponding characteristics of the population. In selecting a sample, we would like it to be as much like the population as possible. When there is a high degree of similarity, we say that the sample is "representative" of the population. Some Bases for Defining the Population of Interest Geography : What geographic area is to be sampled? Usually a question of a clients scope of operation. Could be a city, country, metropolitan area, state, group of states, the entire United States, or a number of countries. Demographics : Given the objectives of the project and the target market for the product, whose opinions,reactions, and so on are relevant? Are we interested in getting information from women over 18; women 18-34; women 18-34 with household incomes over $35,000 per year, who work, and have preschool children? Use : The population of interest frequently is defined in terms of some product or service use requirement. This is usually stated in terms of some use versus nonuse or use of some quantity of the product or service or some period of time. The following examples of use screening questions illustrate the point: Do you drink five or more cans, bottles, or glasses of diet soft drinks in a typical week? Have you traveled in INDIA for vacation or business purposes in the past two years? Have you or has anyone in your immediate family been in a hospital for an overnight or extended stay in the past two years? Awareness : We may be interested in surveying those individuals who are aware of the companys advertising to explore what the ad communicated to them about the characteristics of the product or service.

Classification of Samples 1. Probability Samples 2. Nonprobability Samples Probability Samples are of four types :a)- Simple Random b)-Systematic

c)-Cluster d)-Stratified Nonprobability Samples are also of four types :a)-Convenience b)-Snowball c)-Judgment d)-Quota Probability Samples 1. It is a Objective procedure. 2. Probability of selection of an element is known. 3.Can calculate sampling error. 4.Strict procedures to follow. 5.Yields a representative sample. Nonprobability Samples 1. It is a Subjective procedure 2.Probability of selection of an element is unknown 3.Can't calculate sampling error 4.Sample not always TYPES OF SAMPLING SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING A simple random sample gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen. It is not a haphazard sample as some people think.One way of achieving a simple random sample is to number each element in the sampling frame (e.g. give everyone on the Electoral register a number) and then use random numbers to select the required sample. Random numbers can be obtained using your calculator, a spreadsheet, printed tables of random numbers, or by the more traditional methods of drawing slips of paper from a hat, tossing coins or rolling dice. The optimum sample is the one which maximizes precision per unit cost, and by this criterion simple random sampling can often be bettered by other methods. Advantages : ideal for statistical purposes hard to achieve in practice Disadvantages :

requires an accurate list of the whole population expensive to conduct as those sampled may be scattered over a wide area

SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING This is random sampling with a system! From the sampling frame, a starting point is chosen at random, and thereafter at regular intervals. For example, suppose you want to sample 8 houses from a street of 120 houses. 120/8=15, so every 15th house is chosen after a random starting point between 1 and 15. If the random starting point is 11, then the houses selected are 11, 26, 41, 56, 71, 86, 101, and 116. If there were 125 houses, 125/8=15.625, so should you take every 15th house or every 16th house? If you take every 16th house, 8*16=128 so there is a risk that the last house chosen does not exist. To overcome this the random starting point should be between 1 and 10. On the other hand if you take every 15th house, 8*15=120 so the last five houses will never be selected. The random starting point should now be between 1 and 20 to ensure that every house has some chance of being selected. In a random sample every member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen, which is clearly not the case here, but in practice a systematic sample is almost always acceptable as being random. Advantages : spreads the sample more evenly over the population easier to conduct than a simple random sample the system may interact with some hidden pattern in the population, e.g. every third house along the street might always be the middle one of a terrace of three

Disvantages :

CLUSTER SAMPLING In cluster sampling the units sampled are chosen in clusters, close to each other. Examples are households in the same street, or successive items off a production line. The population is divided into clusters, and some of these are then chosen at random. Within each cluster units are then chosen by simple random sampling or some other method. Ideally the clusters chosen should be dissimilar so that the sample is as representative of the population as possible. Advantages: saving of travelling time, and consequent reduction in cost

useful for surveying employees in a particular industry, where individual companies can form the clusters. units close to each other may be very similar and so less likely to represent the whole population larger sampling error than simple random sampling

Disadvantages:

STRATIFIED SAMPLING In a stratified sample the sampling frame is divided into non-overlapping groups or strata, e.g. geographical areas, age-groups, genders. A sample is taken from each stratum, and when this sample is a simple random sample it is referred to as stratified random sampling. Advantages : Stratification will always achieve greater precision provided that the strata have been chosen so that members of the same stratum are as similar as possible in respect of the characteristic of interest. The bigger the differences between the strata, the greater the gain in precision. For example, if you were interested in Internet usage you might stratify by age, whereas if you were interested in smoking you might stratify by gender or social class. It is often administratively convenient to stratify a sample. Interviewers can be specifically trained to deal with a particular age-group or ethnic group, or employees in a particular industry. The results from each stratum may be of intrinsic interest and can be analysed separately. It ensures better coverage of the population than simple random sampling.

Disvantages : Difficulty in identifying appropriate strata. More complex to organise and analyse results.

QUOTA SAMPLING In quota sampling the selection of the sample is made by the interviewer, who has been given quotas to fill from specified sub-groups of the population. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 50 females between the age of 45 and 60. There are similarities with stratified sampling, but in quota sampling the selection of the sample is non-random. Anyone who has had the experience of trying to interview people

in the street knows how tempting it is to ask those who look most helpful, hence it is not the most representative of samples, but extremely useful. Advantages : quick and cheap to organise Disvantages : not as representative of the population as a whole as other sampling methods because the sample is non-random it is impossible to assess the possible sampling

Strengths and Weaknesses of Basic Sampling Techniques

Steps in Developing a Sampling Plan 1. Define the Population 2. Choose Data Collection Method

3. Choose Sampling Frame 4. Select a Sampling Method 5. Determine Sample Size 6. Develop and of Interest Specify Operational Plan for Selecting Sample Elements 7. Execute Operational Sampling Plan SAMPLING DESIGN How do we draw samples? SCIENTIFIC/PROBABILITY SAMPLES : A)- Simple Random Sample:This has the best properties. RANDOM = each element of the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. 1. Begin with a SAMPLING FRAME = a list of every element in the population. 2. Find a Random Number Table or use excel to generate random numbers. We need as many randomly generated numbers as elements in our sample (n). 3. Pick the first number (throw darts, close your eyes and point, play "musical number generating") and find that element. 4. Pick another number, and choose that element, until we have our full sample. We can do this by two ways:with and without replacement. WITH REPLACEMENT :- after an item is chosen, it is possible to choose it again, we throw it back in the mix. WITHOUT REPLACEMENT :- after picking an element it is impossible to choose it again, we have one fewer to choose from. There are two desirable qualities associated with SRS: EQUAL PROBABILITY :- Every element has an equal probability of inclusion (the real definition of random). INDEPENDENT SELECTION :- Every possible combination of elements has an equal probability of constituting a sample. Advantages of the SRS method of sampling: Assures good representativeness of sample (particularly if large). allows us to make generalizations/inferences. In fact, most of the statistical stuff we'll do later assumes that we've actually done a simple random sample, even if we haven't. avoids biases that are possible in some of the other methods we'll talk

about. Disadvantages of SRS method: Have to have a list/sampling frame. Have to number the list. both are hard to do when the population is large.

B)- Systematic Sample/Skip Interval Sample :1. Begin with a numbered sampling frame again. 2. Choose random number. 3. Choose SAMPLING INTERVAL :- number in population divided by number desired in sample, or N/n. 4. Select the element that corresponds to the random number. Then instead of picking a second random number, etc., count out the interval (N/n) and choose that element. When we get to the end of the list go back to the beginning until we have our full sample. Advantages of Systematic Sampling method: Easier to do than SRS. We don't have to keep running back to the random number generator. Still need a list/sampling frame that is numbered. Might run into periodicity problem. If the list happened to be arranged by class (1,2,3,4), we might end up picking all first years. Have to make sure the list is not so structured.

Disadvantages of Systematic Sampling:

C)- Stratified Sampling :1. Get a sampling frame. 2. Arrange it by desired trait. For instance, if we care about class at Wellesley, we might arrange the list by class to insure all classes get represented. 3. Decide if we want proportional numbers of each group or if we want something else. If proportional, just do a systematic sample with the newly arranged list. 4. If we want an "oversample" of some group, we want to know about the first year experience, so we want a disproportionate number of first years, then create interval separately for each group ( every third person for the first years, but every fifth for the rest). We will find out that no matter how big a population is, there are minimum sample sizes that allow for good inference. In a regular sample, we might not get enough of a subgroup (first years) to do good statistical inference, so we need to oversample. Advantages of Stratified Sampling method: Increases chances that relevant traits will be represented in the sample. Allows for easy oversampling.

Disadvantages of Stratified Sampling:

Again,We need a good list. We have to know in advance two things:

D)- Cluster Sampling :This is the most commonly used scientific sampling method in the social sciences, like opinion polling, etc. We can do cluster sampling when the elements of the population naturally "cluster" into identifiable patterns, like neighborhoods, organizations, etc. The assumption here is that individuals within a cluster will be fairly homogenous. We have to come up with our clusters carefully! 1. Take the whole population and divide it into a bunch of smaller clusters. Number the clusters. 2. Do a simple random or systematic sample of the clusters. 3. Divide the chosen clusters into smaller ones and number them. 4. Repeat (2). And so on until we get to individual elements in our sample. Advantages of Cluster Sampling method: Less costly. Don't need a list. At start everyone has an approximately equal chance of selection despite the number of steps involved. more possibility of introducing error - drawing the boundaries, etc. increases with the number of steps involved. Have to figure out a balance between number of stages and the number we want in our final sample. For instance, we could get a sample of 2000 Indians by picking 2000 clusters and one person from each, or we could pick 1000 each from 2 clusters. If the clusters aren't drawn well, the second method would be unrepresentative. But if the single person drawn from the first method was weird, it wouldn't matter how good the clusters were.

Disadvantages of the Cluster Sample:

NON-SCIENTIFIC/NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLES :A)- Convenience Sample :These are the ones like "man on the street interviews," or whoever walks by. If we looked at folks' clothes in the science center, we did a convenience sample. Advantages of convenience samples: easy cheap some possibility of substantive inference, if we can justify, but not statistical inference.

Ex: many psych. studies are done with college students as subjects. If the researcher can make the case that the college students are like other people in the relevant characteristics, then it's OK, but we can't use the concept of statistical inference that we'll get to later. Disadvantages of ALL non-scientific samples: Can't do statistical inference. B)- Quota Samples :When we set beforehand the numbers of specific types of elements in the sample, like three M and Ms of every color, even though we know that is not reflective of the underlying population. Or 50% white males, or 50% defective parts when only 10% are really defective. This is like the stratified OVERsample, but it has even more "casualness" to it. We keep drawing until we get enough of the particular type and discard the ones we don't need. C)- Judgmental Sample :Recruit subjects according to a specific criteria of interest.

Concepts of Zero Defects What is it ? Zero Defects, pioneered by Philip Crosby, is a business practice which aims to reduce and minimize the number of defects and errors in a process and to do things right the first time. The ultimate aim will be to reduce the level of defects to zero. However, this may not be possible and in practice and what it means is that everything possible will be done to eliminate the likelihood of errors or defects occurring. The overall effect of achieving zero defects is the maximisation of profitability. More recently the concept of zero defects has lead to the creation and development of six sigma pioneered by Motorola and now adopted worldwide by many other organisations. How can it be used ? The concept of zero defects can be practically utilised in any situation to improve quality and reduce cost. However it doesn t just happen, as the right conditions have to be established to allow this to take place. A process, system or method of working has to be established which allows for the achievement of zero defects. If this process and the associated conditions are not created then it will not be possible for anyone to achieve the desired objective of zero defects. In such a process it will be possible to measure the cost of none conformance in terms of wasted materials and wasted time. Any process that is to be designed to include this concept must be clear on its customer expectations and desires. The ideal is to aim for a process and finished article that conforms to customer requirements and does not fall short of or exceed these requirements. For example, in recent years many financial organisations have made claims regarding how quickly they can process a home loan application. But what they may have failed to realise is that in spending a great deal of time and money reducing processing time they are exceeding

customer requirements (even if they believe that they know them). In these cases they have exceeded the cost of conformance when it was not necessary to do so. Advantages Cost reduction caused by a decrease in waste. This waste could be both wasted materials and wasted time due to unnecessary rework Cost reduction due to the fact that time is now being spent on only producing goods or services that are produced according to the requirements of consumers. Building and delivering a finished article that conforms to consumer requirements at all times result in increased customer satisfaction, improved customer retention and increased profitability. Possible to measure the cost of quality Disadvantages A process can be over engineered by an organisation in its efforts to create zero defects. Whilst endeavouring to create a situation of zero defects increasing time and expense may be spent in an attempt to build the perfect process that delivers the perfect finished product, which in reality may not be possible. For example, a consumer requirement may be a desire to buy a motor car that is 100% reliable, never rusts and maximises fuel consumption. However, in this instance, in practice, if an organisation doesn t have some kind of built in obsolescence it will have a more limited life. Will India embrace the zero concept? Japanese industry, recognized for having forced the rest of the world to pay attention to the need for higher productivity, perfect quality, and just-in-time delivery of parts, seems ready to embrace this zero- emissions concept. After all, any form of waste is a sign of inefficiency. The economic grail of "minimum input - maximum output" will only be attained when there is "total throughput." There is room for dramatic improvement as long as any input factors are discarded. Our economic system cannot be considered efficient, or ultimately competitive, if it generates waste. The concept of "from cradle to grave" actually accepts waste as a normal part of the process. Thus we embark on broad programs to recycle. This is the strategy applied today. There is a need to integrate a new concept, "from cradle to cradle." This is the strategy of tomorrow. All forms of waste must become the inputs and raw materials for another production cycle. After all, this is how nature disposes of its wastes, and this is the only way that we can secure a long term sustainable industrial process . The new clusters These developments and trends point to the emergence of new clusters of industry. A few concrete examples will clarify the argument. Take the case of de-inking and recycling of paper. Recycling of ink and paper De-inking today is a polluting, inefficient, and expensive process. Present de-inking technologies do not succeed in removing more than 65-70% of the ink particles from the wood fibers. That is the reason why recycled paper has a gray look. The waste created in the process of recycling is a toxic, useless mixture of ink, short fibers, and chemicals. It

requires both primary and secondary treatment, and thus represents high capital investments. As a result of the inefficiencies of the system, recycled paper is more expensive and is of lower quality than new paper made from freshly cut trees, even when the raw material, used paper, is obtained free of charge. Traditional Recycling Thinking Zero Emissions Thinking Recycle paper Recycle ink and paper inefficient: only 65% de-inking efficient: 100% recycling of ink on highly polluting: toxic sludge zero emissions: 100% re-use highly capital intensive due to water treatment lower capital needs systems and bleaching expensive to the consumer Price competitive replacing one problem with another problem total problem solving If a new technology were to be developed that permits the perfect and clean non-toxic separation of ink particles from the wood fibers, then we would see at once the emergence of several new industrial activities. A world of science and technology that is capable of cloning human genes and putting men price the moon should have the ingenuity to design a process that detaches ink from paper in an efficient way. Such de-inking would offer three outputs: (1) ink which can be reused for printing, which actually means the recycling of ink; there is also an option to use this ink for pencils too often still based on lead, (2) long fibers completely void of residue ink and thus needing no further bleaching, ready to be remade into paper, and (3) a sludge of short fibers and residues from the process such as coating chemicals and clay. This sludge has numerous potential applications. It can be used in a dried pulpy form as a noise absorber, filling air in the inner walls separating two rooms. It is a construction material. . Possible Pitfalls of Pushing Zero Defects Quality guru W. Edwards Deming believed that slogans and programs such as "zero defects" are usually counterproductive and commenting that these programs typically do not drive the "use of proper statistical and engineering tools into the right places of the organization," and they "devote far too little attention to variability reduction." In other words, the use of slogans such as zero defects to spur quality may lead to a de-emphasis of the tried-and-true tools and culture associated with successful continuous improvement. Literally zero defects corresponds to a defect level of infinity sigma, which most practitioners will admit is not possible. And yet an enthusiastically institutionalized zero defects program may unfortunately promote the belief and expectation that true zero can and should be achieved. This is evidenced by several phrases that quality professionals may have heard spoken or at least heavily implied by business strategists: "All defects are the same, since all defects are bad" "There is no such thing as a benign defect." "If we can get rid of the defects, then we can get rid of the testing." Statements That Do Not Align with Facts

In fact, all defects are not equal. Defects, depending on their size and type, have different probabilities of impacting the finished product. And these probabilities depend on the technology. In fact, the impact probability of a particular defect may vary within the technology that is, at the stage or layer in which it occurs. When practical definition of a defect, "bad" is a relative term. Many defects are simply neutral. They are never good, but again, depending on the technology they may cause no harm either. If all defects are considered bad, then prioritization is difficult. It is the role of statistically minded scientists and engineers to classify defects and their potential impact, based on data and engineering judgment. This allows them to systematically reduce defect levels in a prioritized fashion, starting with the worst and progressing toward the more benign. Without this kind of problem progress may be slow and confused perhaps even at a standstill. The ability to prioritize is absolutely necessary in the continuous improvement process. The statement that if fewer defects are produced, then less inspection will be required is incorrect. Actually, the opposite is true. A higher level and sophistication of testing is required to detect a smaller level of defects A more intuitive example is: If a shoebox full of needles is mixed into a haystack, only a portion of the haystack will have to be moved before the presence of needles is detected. If there is only one needle in the haystack, every straw may have to be moved before it is found, assuming it is not missed entirely.

UNIT 4 STUDY OF STANDARDS OF THE DIFFERENT CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

The Fertilizer Industry


Regulations and the EU Fertilizer Industry Manufacturing regulations Industry in the European Union is governed by a wide number of manufacturing regulations. Regulations pertaining to the fertilizer industry cover the health and safety of employees and the general public, conditions for the safe storage and transportation of manufactured fertilizer material and intermediates, limits on emissions to the atmosphere and water (fresh and marine), limits on noise levels, and the treatment and disposal of waste products resulting from the production of fertilizer or fertilizer intermediates. EU regulations are progressively replacing or encompassing the individual national regulations of the Member States. The EU fertilizer industry has generally achieved higher environmental standards of production than the law requires. Furthermore, the industry makes every effort to cooperate with the authorities in the formulation of new legislation. In anticipation of the EU Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), which was adopted in September 1996, the fertilizer manufacturers of the EU assembled their combined knowledge of pollution prevention and control techniques in order to define the "Best Available Techniques" (BATs) for the production of fertilizers. The industrys assessment of BAT is being used in the process to determine Euro-BAT emission limits for the production of fertilizer and fertilizer intermediates. Product and Marketing regulations One of the most fundamental legal requirements of fertilizers is that they contain the quantity and ratio of nutrients which has been declared. EU fertilizer directives also set minimum standards for other chemical parameters. In recent years, the directive covering straight and compound nitrogen fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers and potash fertilizers has been extended to cover secondary nutrients (calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulphur), trace elements, liquid fertilizers and some slow-release nitrogen products. Consideration is being given to a further extension to cover organic and organo-mineral fertilizers. The legislation ensures the quality of the product, thereby protecting the consumer while encouraging free trade throughout the EU. Fertilizer types, nutrient contents and tolerances are, for example, covered by specifications. This means that in the production of mineral fertilizers, extensive on-line analysis and continuous monitoring are required.

In the case of straight ammonium nitrate (AN), EU specifications are directed in particular towards product safety. Specifications which are relevant include granule or prill size, porosity, correct pH, and low organic matter, chloride and copper contamination and detonability. Other legislation covers product classification, packaging and labelling, product liability and consumer protection. Some specifies the data which must be included on package labels to ensure that the user is provided with adequate information, while other legislation requires, in certain instances, that Safety Data Sheets be provided. These provide information on product properties and health and ecotoxicological hazards. EU manufacturers have published a set of model data sheets covering 13 fertilizer materials and products. Individual companies will base their own sheets on these in order to avoid any conflict in the data provided. In short, the standards and specifications prescribed by EU law or the various national fertilizer laws are there to ensure that fertilizer material, whether traded between Member States or imported from outside the EU, meets certain quality and safety requirements. It is, however, difficult for the quality control authorities to monitor all imported material, some of which does not meet the relevant specifications. Recommendations for Use It is advisable for fertilizer applications to be calculated on a "site specific" basis, taking account not only of the specific crop and expected yield, but also the type of soil on which the crop is grown (including its nutrient status) and the local climate. In all the EU Member States, official or private analytical laboratories serve advisory agencies and farmers by providing specific data on the nutrient status of crops and soils. Other services provide data on aspects such as climate and the incidence of disease. Crop rotation and cultivation practices are important local factors which have to be taken into account. It should be noted that EU-wide regulations are not designed to govern the specific details of mineral fertilizer use. The Communitys Fifth Environmental Action Programme, "Towards Sustainability"(11), which covers the period from 1993 to 2000, targets five industrial sectors, one of which is agriculture. The framework programme includes as a key objective the establishment of an "equilibrium between the input of nutrients and the absorption of soils and plants". The Community has made financial provision for the promotion of environmentally sound farming methods within the Member States in order to meet environmental objectives set out in regulations relating to the protection of surface and ground waters (for example Nitrates Directive 91/676/EEC). There are examples in certain regions of the EU, particularly in water catchment areas, of successful co-operation between farmers, water authorities and agricultural advisory services (chambers of agriculture, the national advisory service and fertilizer industry advisers), which have enabled local environmental targets to be achieved. Such examples

demonstrate that constructive advice to farmers (supported by incentives, where necessary) is effective. The fertilizer industry, with its long experience of agronomic and environmental research and its extensive database, will contribute to the development of this process and will continue to encourage the responsible use of plant nutrients.

Standards for crude oil selection


Why there is a need for the standardization of crude? We know that crude oil is most important raw material for the petroleum industry. The most important reasons for the standardization of crude oil is given below. 1. We know that quality of the petroleum product entirely dependent on the characteristics of crude oil that is taken as the raw material. 2. Our refining process plant will be able to handle the certain type of the crude oil. For example crude containing high sulphur content requires the installation of the desulphurization process or sweetening process for streams. For example kerosene from the Aghajari crude has a peculiar problem of the colour change on storage, which can be corrected by treating in a marox unit and hence desulphurization unit would be required. Some crudes are not suitable for lubricating oils & some are not suitable for making bitumen. Thus quality of petroleum product depend upon the crude oil characteristics, so standardization of crude oil is required. Now our main objective is to select the crude oil for the particular refining operation. Or what should be range of specification or crude oil, in which it can be used for refining. Over all selection of crude Simple model for crude oil selection Availability Deliverability Profitability Availability - How much crude exist? It depends upon geographical survey? Internal demand for this crude oil? It depends on the market demand? Term of purchase. Deliverability -Can you get the crude to your refinery? It means whether this crude is suitable for the your refinery. To determine we should consider various properties of crude oil Such as viscosity, pour point, pipeline capacity, sulphur content, gravity (0API) Distillation characteristics, wax content Asphalt content. Profitability - Value of yield structure & cut point properties of the crude? Crude fits to refinery operation? Can you sell the product produced from this crude? Thus we find that properties of the crude oil plays the important role?

API - Crude oil is the complex mixture consisting of up to 200 or more different organic compound, mostly hydrocarbons. Different crude consist of the different combination and concentration of these compounds. The API gravity of a particular crude is a measure of its specific gravity or density. The higher the API number, expressed as degrees API, the less dense is the crude, similarly, the lower the degree API, more dense the crude is, crude from different fields & from different formation with in a field, can be similar in composition or be significantly different. In general we find the 0API of crude should be in the range of 30 0API-50 0API. 0 API of various crude are given below. 0 API Nigeria 38 Naharkatia (India) 36 Moran (India) 34.9 Minas (Sumatra) 36 Bombay high 38 Ankaleswar 48 Crude oil is not a uniform or a standardized material. It requires complex physical & chemical analysis to determine its quality, & hence value, to a refiner. The API gravity measurement of a crude is the best only an approximate gross indicator of quality. Pour point The pour point is also an important parameter for determining the suitability of crude for particular refining operation. Pour point is defined as the temperature below which oil will not flow. If the ambient temperature is below the pour point, the oil will essentially behave as solid. So while selecting the crude for refinery, we should keep in mind, that pour point of crude should be above the ambient temperature. Generally the pour point of crude lies (-150C to 350C). Pour point of important crude are given below Basrah -150C Aankaleshwar 180C North gujrat 150C Nigeria 120C 0 Minas (Sumatra) 35 C Bombay high 300C Distillation characteristics As the temperature of the oil is raised, different component reach their boiling point & are distilled off. The distillation characteristics are presented as the percentage volumes, which distill off with in set, with incremental temperature range. This determines the volatility of crude oil & controls the rate, extent of evaporation. Volatile products such as kerosene gasoline may evaporate completely with in few hours & light crude can lose up to 40% during the fist day in general it is found that those crude oil with a boiling point below 2000C. The crude must be selected in such as way that offer good distillation characteristic, if means various component can be separated easily

Viscosity The viscosity of an oil is its resistance to flow, high viscosity crude oil flows with difficulty while crude oil with low viscosity are highly mobile & spread quickly. Viscosity plays the important key factor in the pumpability of crude oil. Thus crude oil must be selected is such a say that it should have lower viscosity, so that it can be pumped easily. Kinematic viscosity of various crude lies with in the range of 2 cst to 10-11 at 400C. Ankaleswar 2.0 cst North gujarat 10.68 cst Bombay high 3.816 cst Sumatra 5.9 cst Wax content The behavior of crude oil may be influenced by wax content. Oil with a wax content greater then about 10% tend to have higher pour point & if the ambient temperature is below this, the oil will be either a solid or a highly viscous liquid. Thus it is clear, that crude oil must be selected in such away that wax content of crude should be less that 10% (by wt) Wax content of some important crude is Ankaleshwar 9.3% Bombay high 12.5% North Gujarat 10% Flash point The flash point of the crude oil is a temperature to which the fuel must be heated to produce a vapor/air mixture above the fuel that is ignitable when exposed to an open flame under specified test condition. The flash point is basically used as an index of fire hazard. The lower the flash point of crude means the higher the potential of crude towards the fire hazard. So crude must be selected in such as way that if should have higher flash point. Many fresh crude oil have flash point below 100C & viscosity above 9.5 cst Flash point of some important crude are Ankaleshwar <270C Bombay high <150C H2S content Unlike other sulphur compound in crude & which tend to accumulate in distillation residue, H2S is evolved during distillation or other heating process. During an oil spill, this makes it a safety concern, as hydrogen sulphide is a toxic gas minimum limit of H2S is 10 ppm. Boiling Point Distributions In the oil refining industry, boiling range distribution data are used to evaluate new crudes, to confirm crude quality before purchase, to monitor crude quality during transportation, and to provide information for the optimization of refinery processes. For the point of view of oil analysis for environmental purposes, boiling range distributions provide an indication of volatility and component distribution. In addition, this data can be used as input to some oil spill modeling programs. Boiling range distribution data may also prove to be useful in the development of equations for predicting evaporative loss. Metal Content

Metal content in crude oil can provide valuable information about the origin of those oils, potentially aiding in identifying the source of oil spills. Crude oil assays often include nickel and vanadium contents due to the detrimental effects of these metals on catalysts used in cracking and desulphurization process. Sulphur The sulphur content of a crude oil is important for a number of reasons. Downstream processes such as catalytic cracking and refining will be adversely affected by high sulphur content During an oil spill, the sulphur content becomes a health and safety concern for cleanup personnel. In addition, if high sulphur oils are burning, they can produce dangerous levels of sulphur dioxide. The total sulphur content of oil can be determined by numerous standard techniques. ASTM method D 129.

Why quality control in cement industry..? Product quality is the key to success for any company that produces construction materials. For a cement company, however, product quality is a special challenge because product components come from many different sources and are susceptible to variables such as temperature, moisture and the chemical composition of limestone and other materials used to create cement. Additionally, increasingly stringent local regulations governing the quality of building materials make quality control a mission critical activity for companies. So quality control is very necessary for the benefit of companies and consumers. Quality control in cement industryIn cement production the chemical and mineralogical composition of raw materials as well as intermediate and finished products has to be determined to control and optimize the process and to guarantee constant high product quality. The raw materials from the quarry, additives, like slag, filter dust, through all steps of the production process (milling, mixing etc), the intermediate products, e.g., clinker, hot meal, and the final products are analyzed directly. This information is important to drive the process in the most cost effective way for highest quality. Thus quality control program in cement industry can be carried out by controlling the quality of raw materials, manufacturing process, and finally the finished product. It can be explained as following1. Quality control of raw materialsHigh quality cements require adequate and uniform raw materials. Geological surveys and prospecting are carried out to establish the quality and quantity of available raw materials. From the prospecting data obtained, quarry-mining plans are drawn up and updated as mining progresses. An oxide analysis of the raw materials is the first step, which provides input for a wide variety of ratios and moduli that relate oxide compositions to one another. These include: LSF (lime saturation factor), SM (silica modulus or ratio), AR (aluminato-iron ratio), and other lesser-used formulas like the hydraulic modulus. So just how do

you come up with a raw mix proportions from an oxide analysis? Thats the basic principle behind raw mix design. The silica ratio represents the burn ability of a raw mixture. The burn ability impacts how much energy is put into the system. As the ratio of silica to alumina plus iron increases, it becomes harder to burn harder to combine the raw materials into the phases we want. As the ratio decreases, the tendency for fluxing (the ability of the solid materials to become liquid) increases, and the combining reactions become easier. Another consideration is that silica present as quartz is generally more difficult to combine than silica present as silicates. The alumina-to-iron ratio is important because of sulfate resistance, heat generation, and admixture compatibility issues. The lime saturation factor governs the early age strength and the later age strength. For this purpose XRF and XRD testing are done. The control of chemical and mineralogical compositions of both intermediate and finished products, as well as of raw materials, is of paramount importance to the cement industry. This is even truer today as fierce competition grows and cement prices drop, meaning that high quality analyses are required during the entire production process. Currently, determination of chemical composition and free lime are well-established methods. Modern technology no longer requires highly trained specialists to operate X-ray fluorescence (XRF [a method to determine elemental composition]) and X-ray diffraction (XRD [a method to determine phase composition]) systems. This allows easier implementation of these reliable and advanced methods in the entire production process. 2. Process controlNow a days cement manufacturing process is fully automated. Field Instruments installed at different locations provide data to control room operator for the purpose of monitoring of the process. Each of the equipments, right from limestone crushing to cement grinding is operated from Central Control Room (CCR).The operating parameters of each equipment are defined in the computer and the operators at CCR run the plant based on these parameters for optimal production. The status of the health of the equipments is also monitored by CCR. In addition to the operation of the plant, the CCR helps in carrying out various tests pertaining to process parameters, analyzing the power consumption, gas flow analysis and leakages for the purpose of optimal production at low cost. Adequate and advanced measures are adopted by choosing energy efficient and less polluting equipments and appropriate equipments and machineries. Since, the cement industry is one of the most energy intensive manufacturing industries worldwide, any reduction in energy use per ton directly reduces production costs and positively impacts upon the profitability of a plant. Process control software solutions have been used in a variety of industries to increase production, improve product quality, and minimize raw material use. In addition, process control solutions have been deployed to reduce energy costs per ton. 3. Quality control of intermediate product (clinker)Clinker manufacturing is the most critical stage in the process of cement. Quantitative analysis of clinker phases has been one of the most interesting analytical challenges faced

by the cement industry for quite some time. Apart from conventional chemical analysis using XRF techniques, the role of XRD has been increasingly solicited to perform the analysis of phases or minerals. Analysis of phases such as free lime in clinkers and limestone additions in cement by XRD has been extremely useful in controlling the kiln process and the quality of the end product respectively. A study was undertaken by the authors as a continuation of this effort to introduce reliable, cost effective and rapid analytical methods to address other requirements, such as clinker phase analysis. This study focused on the analysis of clinker phases in real time kiln conditions, and examined the potential use of XRD as a substitute for microscopy or other indirect methods of calculation. 4. Quality control of finished product For the quality control of the finished product following testing are done in the laboratoryChemical analysis Moisture content Chemical content Consolidation Physical analysis Fineness Soundness Initial and final setting time Compressive strength Transverse strength Drying shrinkage Permeability Specific gravity Direct shear Sieve analysis Quality control achievementBy adopting following ways quality can be controlled in cement industry. 1. SupervisionConstant supervision is carried out by the construction wing and also by QC organization on the works to ensure that work is being carried out as per the specifications. 2. Inspection NotesWhenever the works are visited by Dy. Engineer, Executive Engineer and by Superintending Engineer of QC organization, the inspection Notes are issued which are based on inspection details and deficiencies / corrections suggested are to be complied with by the construction organization. The visits are of informed as well as surprise type. 3. Co-ordination MeetingsMeetings of the construction Executive Engineers are arranged by the respective Quality Control Division Executive Engineer to sort out quality issues and maintain the cordial

relation with construction wing. These meetings help very much in solving many routine and specific problems from the both the wings. 4. Reporting and monitoringQC Jr. Engineer sends Daily placement reports of the works to quality control sub division. The executive engineer, quality control division prepares and submits work wise reports in three types. i.e. monthly, quarterly and annual. These reports are sent to construction superintending engineers/executive engineers and to superintending engineer quality control circle. The monthly, quarterly and annual Q.C. reports include number of various laboratory/Field/record tests conducted for concrete/masonry/earth work, achievement of criteria, statistical analysis of tests, results of compressive strength of cubes for concrete/masonry work. This report is scrutinized in the quality control circle, and details of works which do not satisfy the specified criteria are reported to the executive director, superintending engineer and chief engineer of construction wing to improve the quality of these works. The copy of the report is given to Govt. also.
Biotechnology Biotechnology products are proliferating in pharmacies, medical clinics, food shelves, and even in cleaning supplies. NIST technologies help develop, evaluate, and assure the quality of these new products. Here's how. Biotechnology Divisionseeks to advance the commercialization of biotechnology by providing the necessary scientific base, standards, data, and models. Follow the links below to see specific projects. Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnologydetermines three-dimensional structure of proteins; modifies protein structure to improve efficiency of industrial processes; works with industry to narrow the gap between research discoveries and commercial applications. DNA Technologiesdevelops standards to verify the accuracy of DNA profiling for forensic and medical testing; provides quality assurance for DNA tests for genetic diseases. Bioprocess Engineeringidentifies properties of biomolecules and biomaterials used for industrial processes, such as biocatalysis, bioprocessing, and biochemical separation technologies; develops technologies to improve efficiency of biochemical processes used in manufacturing. Biomolecular Materialsinvestigates properties of industrially important biomolecular materials for potential use in biosensors, bioelectronics, biocatalytic systems, and diagnostic devices. Lab-on-a-Chipdevelops and evaluates microfluidic devices for use as microanalytical diagnostic and sensing devices; seeking industrial and academic collaborators. Protein Data Bankan international data bank of three-dimensional structural data for proteins and other biological macromolecules; freely available to researchers worldwide. Biotechnology Web ResourcesHere's a collection of links including the Protein Data Bank and three other NIST biotechnology databases on crystallization, short tandem repeat DNA markers, and thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

PPL Therapeutics of Blacksburg, Va., won a 1999 NIST Advanced Technology Program grant to attempt to clone pigs that could supply organs and tissue for human transplants. On March 5, 2000, the world's first successfully cloned piglets were born as a result of this project. Amersham Pharmacia Biotech of Cleveland, Ohio, won a NIST Advanced Technology Program grant to develop enzymes that make biomedical research and diagnostics more efficient. Read more. BioTraces, Inc. of Fairfax, Va., used a NIST Advanced Technology Program award to successfully develop an ultrasensitive radioanalytical technology that can detect and measure very low concentrations of biological substances. Read more.

UNIT 5 STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER Globalization has entered a new phase in which different regions over the globe are now competing with each other on a similar technical level. Those who are faster and more innovative than others can only win the competition. As a link between inventions and their widespread application on an industrial basis standardization makes a crucial contribution towards promoting innovation. Standardization must be deployed strategically as a means of positioning high technologies in global markets. Standards not only contribute towards dismantling trade barriers worldwide. Purpose of standards making is creating an impartial and open market and helping countries and enterprises to negotiate difference. Standardization is the basis of communication between different markets, and the basis of commercial cooperation and global competition. Standardization influences the whole life cycle of product and only international technical standards support international market. Technical standards and norms play a crucial role in opening markets, promoting technological transfer and deregulating technical legislation. A company can only compete in international business if it meets international standards. Standards are important tool for turning innovative ideas into marketable products. Standards and norms have helped innovations gain marketability, and some examples include cable technology, laser technology, e-administration, mining and medical technology. Six common aspects in which standards promote innovations are: in the division of labor, open markets, measurement and test standards, and networks, and in trust between international trading partners. Standards have several benefits to innovation: firstly, standards enhance production efficiency and product quality; secondly, standards accelerate transmission of new technology; thirdly, standards promote understanding of technology by providing information. Standardization supports innovation because: first, standards are the technology sources for independent innovation; second, standards designate the direction of independent innovation; third, standards are main approaches to implement innovation; finally, the process of standardization is the same to the process of innovation.

Three reasons that innovation and standardization interact with each other can be summed up as: innovation depends on existed accumulation of technology and continuing adoption to some technology of mature products; standardization provides production innovation with wider space, more stable platform and higher basic point; moreover the enlargement of innovation achievement relies on standardization. Thus, Standardization is a valuable tool for more innovation.
"International standards are harmonized tools that make it easier to launch products on the market

STANDARDIZATION PROVEN BUSINESS BENEFITS More and more businesses are realizing the benefits of strategic use of standards to achieve measurable improvements to their competitiveness. This is providing them with: Foundation for growth efficient and secure operations enable a sustainable base for development Market access competition is stimulated through knowledge capture, shared insight and reduced risk Innovation New product development is supported by knowledge transfer and accelerated speed to market Customer confidence standards assure and reassure on quality, safety and reliability Brand building consumer confidence strengthens the brand Standards simply encapsulate best practice in a set of guidelines. Without them there would be no chip-and-pin function so that credit and debit cards can be used safely worldwide. Nor would there be a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) with phone connectivity and international roaming almost anywhere in the world. Standards can describe: How tow items of disparate technology can inter-operate through a common interface How companies can meet regulators demands The level of accomplishment or knowledge for external certification The quality of a service, management system, or product Specific business processes

Standards are voluntary and are created in response to a demand with the active involvement of a wide range of stakeholders: whether purchasers, vendors, consumers, producers, academics and indeed regulators. They can be developed privately or publicly, at company, consortium, sector, national, European, international level and can be applied to products, services, management systems and technologies.

STANDARDIZATION AS A PLATFORM FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND INNOVATION "Does standardization promote the introduction of new technologies?" .can be summed up as follows: "Standardization under no circumstances, standardization kills innovation!" What is the essence behind this statement? Many people tend to regard standardization as something slow and inert. After having finally established common ground as a result of seemingly endless negotiations, certain conditions are defined in a binding manner, giving rise to expectations of continuity or a permanence of sorts. And what about innovation? Innovation is creativity, whereby speed is the name of the game. Can the two aspects ever be reconciled? The "fire" of innovation and the "water" of standardization? Innovation as such need not oppose standardization, for after all, the pace of innovation may gain considerable momentum thanks to standardization. And viewed from the other side, standardization, if only through its communicative function, is also a medium of knowledge management that is thereby capable of accelerating innovations, or even inspiring innovative activities. Standardization and innovation are close allies. Indeed, our modern world of technology would be inconceivable without standardization. In facing reality we have to admit that standardization, by virtue of its character, is a key promoter of the concept of globalization! Just think of information technology, for example. Without the definition of interfaces there would be no networks and without protocol agreements there would be no such thing as worldwide digital communication. Although users and consumers are usually unaware of the underlying standards, the latter are indispensable for the providers of equipment and systems: whoever wishes to operate successfully in the data and communication branch on an international scale must ensure adequate interfaces to the respective technical environment. Insular solutions, as experience has shown, are almost always condemned to failure. The fact that the INTERNET exists can be attributed to worldwide consensus on protocols. If this were not the case, the Internet would be a veritable digital Babylon.

The benefits of standardization so glaringly evident in information and communication technologies have long since become an undeniable aspect in all other areas of technology, and there is hardly an audience more aware of this truth than the individuals here today. It is not sufficient to just have internationally acknowledged standards in place, but that cross-border agreements on the validity of conformity certificates and mutual acknowledgement of testing results are also essential. And now let us turn our attention to the other major aspect: Innovation. Innovations are the driving force of technological change, the guarantee of progress and increasing affluence. In order to consistently advance technological change and generate sustained, positive economic effects it is certainly not enough for science and research to merely produce a stream of new ideas. Products and process innovations have to be successfully positioned on the market and distributed accordingly. This innovation transfer from laboratories and technical universities to manufacturers, potential users and beneficiaries must be shaped and designed to function rapidly and efficiently, and supported accordingly. The reduction of "time-to-market" is not only a management challenge, but also calls for an open mentality in our societies in order to function successfully. There are hardly any serious doubts that technological dynamics will continue to increase. If nothing else, this will be advanced by an increasing number of individuals networking their knowledge and creativity worldwide. The era of networking and endless combinations has only just begun. New technologies, increasing complexity and shorter innovation cycles are also demanding more and more interdisciplinary and international cooperation in networks in order to create new, market conforming products and services. Especially highly innovative smaller and medium-size businesses often perceive opportunities on global markets in this context. Successful innovation transfer calls for well established networks, appropriate media and suitable "sending and receiving stations" in order to make sure that innovations will reach potential manufacturers, markets and cooperation partners in the most targeted manner possible. Wouldn't it be possible for international and regional standardization organizations to assume the role of these "sending and receiving stations"? Virtually, all relevant countries are represented in such organizations as ISO, IEC and ITU, which mean that their publications and electronic services can be distributed around the world at a relatively rapid pace. The standards these organizations define represent the foundation for product testing, and where necessary for certification or designation and lastly play a key role in products gaining market access. The issue here would be for all those concerned with standards and their definition to gain a new understanding of their function. This new approach to standards would no longer be a follow-up procedure, but would focus more strongly on knowledge management and would thereby also meet with a different type of acceptance on the part of corporations.

The demands made on standards organizations not only entail a high measure of specialized know-how, but also the prompt provision of standards in the form of normative documents. Should the conventional organizations succeed in providing the necessary standards at an adequate pace, there would appear to be a tremendous future market potential at hand that is waiting to be tapped. These potentials must be weighed against the costs that will arise in this context; a globalizing economy needs rules of the game that are valid worldwide so that innovations will be able to readily spread and become established on a truly global scale. Apart from their worldwide presence, the subsidiary principle of international standardization organizations is a second advantage that is not to be underestimated. Given the right orientation and focus, their basic units, the national standardization organizations, will be able to make valuable contributions in close cooperation with national scientific organizations or associations: - As branch platform between corporations, the scientific community, society and government. - As an active communicator of technological development between research and industry - And, based on their international work, the role of promoter of their knowledge of recent international developments, in order to make these developments utilizable, attractive and accessible for as many as possible, especially for creative mediumsize businesses. Especially for small and medium-sized companies, however, it is particularly important to be able to engage in national standardization organizations, thereby participating in the ongoing innovation process at reasonable costs, while benefiting from an international representation of their interests at the same time.

THE QUESTION OF WHEN?


Premature standardization entails the risk that technologies that have not yet matured or been adequately coordinated will be defined in a binding manner. Standardization that is defined too late spells the considerable risk for investors whose prematurely committed investments will become obsolete when another technology is later elected as a standard. During the research phase, however, there are some very useful coordination activities that may come into play. "Development accompanying" standardization is the keyword here. Especially international technology networks will benefit tremendously when a shared world of terminology has been defined, when basic data on materials, techniques and processes are available just think of environmental compatibility issues and when tools, methods and interfaces for effective teamwork are in place. Naturally the basics for measuring and testing should also be defined when issues of qualification and performance are to be discussed.

THE ISSUE OF HOW


Standardization organizations are able to promote innovation transfer in several ways: - Early definition of basic standards accelerates development activities - Definition of interfaces as precondition for interdisciplinary cooperation - Communication of technologies throughout industries accelerates implementation - Concentration of research and development on areas with future potential - "Export" of standards opens up global markets. The task of companies and scientific circles will be to initiate this innovation transfer with the right measures at the right time and to understand these activities as an opportunity to improve market positions. Standardization on national and international levels provides the necessary networks. The respective organizations should come to perceive their functions and that of their many services related to innovation transfer as proactive knowledge management.

STANDARDIZATION IN TECHNOLOGY-BASED MARKETS and A FEW EXAMPLES AND CASE STUDIES


The complexity of modern technology, especially its system character, has led to an increase the number and variety of standards that affect a single industry or market. Standards affect the R&D, production, and market penetration stages of economic activity and therefore have a significant collective effect on innovation, productivity, and market structure.

Through R&D-performing industries and the effect of new technologies on other parts of the economy, technology accounts significantly to GDP growth and productivity growth. However, the so-called high-tech sector (the high-tech sector is defined here as consisting of four major categories: high-tech manufacturing (IT-related plus industrial electronics), communication services, software and computer related services, and pharmaceuticals) contributes very less to the GDP. This relatively small direct contribution implies substantial leverage by this sector on the overall economy, but also that extensive diffusion of new technology must take place if adequate productivity growth rates are to be achieved by the entire economy. Standardization affects both innovation and technology diffusion. It also can influence industry structure and thereby help determine which firms benefit and which do not from technological change. Thus, a concern of R&D policy should be the evolutionary path by which a new technology or, more accurately, certain elements of a new technology become standardized. Over a technologys life cycle, standardization can affect economic efficiency. However, these effects can be both positive and negative. For example, standardization can increase efficiency within a technology life cycle, but it also can prolong existing life cycles to an excessive degree by inhibiting investment in the technological innovation that creates the next cycle. Standardization can and does occur without formal promulgation as a standard. In one sense, standardization is a form rather than a type of infrastructure because it represents a codification of an element of an industrys technology or simply some information relevant to the conduct of economic activity. On the other hand, the selection

of one of several available forms of a technology element as the standard has potentially important economic effects. Economic Functions of Standards A standard can be defined generally as a construct that results from reasoned, collective choice and enables agreement on solutions of recurrent problems. Looked upon in this way, a standard can be viewed as striking a balance between the requirements of users, the technological possibilities and associated costs of producers, and constraints imposed by government for the benefit of society in general. More functionally, an industry standard is a set of specifications to which all elements of products, processes, formats, or procedures under its jurisdiction must conform. The process of standardization is the pursuit of this conformity, with the objective of increasing the efficiency of economic activity. Nature and Scope of Impacts Standards played an important role in the industrial revolution. They allowed factories to achieve economies of scale and enabled markets to execute transactions in an equitable and efficient manner. Standardization of parts made supplier specialization possible and increased efficiency over the entire product life cycle by facilitating part repair or replacement. In a modern economy, standards constitute a pervasive infrastructure affecting the technology-based economy in a number of important and relatively complex ways. Fig. 1 depicts the multiple functions performed by standards.

The greater complexity of technologies and the associated networks of firms and supporting infrastructure that develop and disseminate these technologies mean that

supply chains are becoming the most important level of policy analysis. Greater distribution of R&D among materials and equipment suppliers, manufacturers of products, and providers of services increasingly characterize high-tech supply chains. The consequent increase in market transactions involving technology also demands standards to reduce the associated transaction costs. Technology consists of a number of discrete elements that tend to evolve in different institutional settings. These elements have distinctly different character and require different types and combinations of standards to effect efficient development and utilization. Basic Functions of Standards To analyze the economic functions of standards in a technology-based economy, a taxonomy is required that classifies standards by functions having unique economic characteristics. For the purpose of economic impact assessment, the functions of standards are classified into four categories. Quality/Reliability Standards are developed to specify acceptable product or service performance along one or more dimensions such as functional levels, performance variation, service lifetime, efficiency, safety, and environmental impact. A standard that specifies a minimum level of performance often provides the point of departure for competition in an industry. For example, a case points out that when an automobile manufacturer develops a new engine, the company specifies the minimum acceptable lubrication attributes. This specification then becomes the basis for competition among petroleum companies, who compete on price at the minimum specified level of quality or by offering motor oil with a level of performance above the minimum. Information Standards Standards help provide evaluated scientific and engineering information in the form of publications, electronic data bases, terminology, and test and measurement methods for describing, quantifying, and evaluating product attributes. In technologically advanced manufacturing industries, a range of measurement and test method standards provide information, which, by virtue of being universally accepted, greatly reduce transaction costs between buyer and seller. In their absence, especially for complex, technology-based products, considerable disagreement will often ensue over verification of performance claims. These disputes raise the cost of consummating a marketplace transaction, which is reflected in higher prices charged. The economic impact is to slow market penetration. Measurement methods are also essential to conduct state-of-the-art research.

In todays semiconductor R&D, scientists and engineers must be able to measure the distances between individual atoms (dopants) that are added to silicon to achieve the desired millions of high-density electronic functions on a single chip. Standardization of some of these methods is essential for the efficiency of R&D itself. For example, being able to replicate and verify research results is often critical to obtaining follow-on research funding or commitment to commercialization. Standardized scientific and engineering data (in the sense of having been critically evaluated and verified for accuracy) and standardized equipment calibration techniques are also essential for efficient R&D.

Finally, the typical manufacturing process is increasingly measurement intensive because of growing demands for quality and real-time process control. Traditional manufacturing processes tested products after a production run. The inefficiency of this approach is large, not only because of the wasted material and labor when a production run must be scrapped, but also because of down time and hence unused capacity incurred while a problem is identified and fixed. The availability of computers makes possible the real-time monitoring and control of a process, potentially enabling instant adjustment of process variables. When fully implemented, real-time control can virtually eliminate wastes and increases product mix flexibility. However, real-time control of a production process is a complex systems technology, requiring large numbers of sensors, computers, and software. Standardization of certain performance measurements for, say, a sensor facilitates design of the equipment. Equally large efficiency gains can occur from standardization of certain elements of the actual methods or techniques of process control, as adherence to these standards often removes the need for much of the postproduction testing. Finally, whatever production strategy is adopted, the equipment that helps execute the strategy must be periodically calibrated by standards in order to ensure maximum efficient performance. Compatibility/Interoperability Standards specify properties that a product must have in order to work (physically or functionally) with complementary products within a product or service system. This function of standards has been the most intensively studied by economists. Compatibility or interoperability is typically manifested in the form of a standardized interface between components of a larger system. An effective interface standard does not affect the design of the components themselves, such as numerically controlled machine tools or the components of these tools, including controllers. In fact, interface standards provide open systems and thereby allow multiple proprietary component designs to coexist that is, they enable innovation at the component level by being competitively neutral with respect to design. In effect, competitors can innovate on "either side" of the interface, while the consumer of the product system can select the particular components that optimize system design. They also allow substitution of more advanced components as they become available over time, thereby greatly reducing the risk of obsolescence of the entire system. Widespread factory automation as it is currently evolving in advanced economies likely will not proceed without these standards. Without interface standards, large companies often supply turnkey systems where proprietary interfaces link components. However, the cost to the user can be high because the system is not optimized for the users particular needs (competitors will

typically offer components that are superior to some of those in the turnkey system) and price competition will not be a factor when system components need replacement. In such situations, system design can still be optimized. However, the cost of modifying physical and functional interfaces to allow components from different vendors to work together (i.e., to interoperate) is usually prohibitive. Moreover, full functionality is often not obtained by reengineering proprietary (nonstandard) interfaces.

Variety Reduction Standards limit a product to a certain range or number of characteristics such as size or quality levels. The fourth function of standards is the traditional one of reducing variety to attain economies of scale. The majority of standards perform this function. However, variety reduction is no longer simply a matter of selecting certain physical dimensions of a product for standardization (such as the width between threads of a screw). Variety reduction is now commonly applied to nonphysical attributes such as data formats and combined physical and functional attributes such as computer architectures and peripheral interfaces. The process of setting variety reduction standards also varies significantly. Many standards of this type are viewed as infrastructure and thus adopted by an industry consensus process. However, standardization of some attribute or element of a product is just as often achieved through the marketplace by one firm gaining control of the underlying technology and using this control to force other manufacturers with whom that firm competes to adopt its version of the technology. The product element then becomes a de facto (non-consensus) standard. Conceptually, the variety reduction function is the most difficult category of standardization to analyze because of its ability to either enhance or inhibit innovation. Variety reduction typically enables economies of scale to be achieved, but larger production volumes tend to promote more capital-intensive process technologies. This common evolutionary pattern of a technology over a number of product life cycles usually reduces the number of suppliers and increases their average size. Such trends may or may not reduce competition, but often progressively exclude small, potentially innovative firms from entry due to increased minimum efficient scale thresholds.

CASE STUDIES / EXAMPLES


1. COMPUTERS AND THE PC INDUSTRY

One of the more visible examples of the competitive effects of de facto standardization is the "architecture" of personal computers. Elements of computer architecture such as the operating system, the "bus," the graphical user interface, and the applications programming interface, have been the focus of intense competition by firms

seeking to gain sufficient market control to set the de facto standard for the particular product element. The case of apple and sun! In this regard, Apple Computer made a brilliant move when it forced third-party software developers to adopt a standard "graphical user interface" so that all programs running on Apple's computers presented the user with the same screen format and command structure. However, Apple kept its hardware operating system proprietary (i.e., it did not adopt an open systems architecture strategy) and thus it had no chance to become the industry standard. This decision explains Apples initial prosperity and subsequent competitive decline. The term graphical user interface refers to the use of "menus" of images instead of characters to indicate instruction options for the computer user. Apple pioneered this much-preferred format and also made this approach even more attractive to users by sticking to a standardized format for all application programs In contrast, Sun Microsystems opened the microprocessor architecture for its workstations in order to obtain help in gaining market share. It was willing to share its markets in return for the increased probability that its architecture would become a standard and thereby create a large and stable customer base.
The policy issue is thus: To the degree that certain product elements must become standardized to enable economies of scale and network externalities to be realized, the potentially large benefits that accrue to the firm owning the technology element are acceptable. However, this is the case as long as competition is not constrained in the other \ elements that make up the overall product or system technology.

This caveat with respect to economic efficiency was the basis for charges by software firms that Microsoft was using its monopoly position as owner of the dominant operating system standard to gain unfair advantage in marketing its own versions of new operating system elements (such as a web browser) and applications programs that run on that operating system. Such charges were pursued in a 19981999 U.S. government antitrust lawsuit.

Over a technologys life cycle, additional elements of the products technology become standardized so that the product takes on a commodity character. Competition among suppliers of the standardized product then becomes increasingly based on price and service-related aspects of the products acquisition and use. Dell Computer, for example, has succeeded in the PC industry by being the lowcost producer and offering excellent before and after sales service. This evolutionary pattern was noted decades ago by the famous Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter,

who observed that one of the essential dynamics of capitalism, is assuring that the "silk stockings" initially purchased only by the rich would eventually be items of mass consumption. What hinders standardization? In contrast, the Japanese PC industry has never been able to establish a single standard operating system. Reasons for this include (1) an oligopolistic industry structure which has resulted in factionalism within the industry and thereby prevented a single standard (domestic or foreign) from gaining dominance; (2) a mainframe computer orientation, which for a long time relegated PCs to basically terminal status, thereby slowing market growth; (3) a reluctance to move away from customized software; and (4) a language barrier.

2. TECHNOLOGICAL INTEGRATION THROUGH STANDARDIZATION

In communication networks, for example, there are published standards and interface protocols that allow hardware components and software from many vendors to operate as a single product or as a system of products (i.e., as a network). To achieve efficient or "seamless" integration, the standards and protocols define what rules hardware components must adhere to in order to exchange signals between applications software and operating systems at different levels in the network.

3. STANDARDIZATION HELPS WORK WITH TIGHTER SPECIFICATIONS as small as 10 nanometers!

Basic standards are utilized to develop technologies upon which semiconductor industry standards are based. The production of semiconductor components is a highly demanding process. The densities of today's circuits are such that each conducting path ("line") on a chip is a small fraction of the width of a human hair. These widths must be

consistent with respect to design specifications to avoid thermal, electrical, and other problems. The semiconductor producer therefore needs to be able to measure the widths of circuit lines that make up a chip. Particularly important are line widths on the masks that are used to inscribe the multiple layers of circuit patterns on the chip itself. Such masks are used to make tens of thousands of chips. Their quality greatly affects performance of the chips produced and hence a semiconductor manufacturer's production yields. The line-width measurement equipment must be calibrated against a physical standard, which has a pattern of lines whose thickness and spacing have been determined to a specified level of accuracy. This determination is done by an authoritative source, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States. The physical or "transfer" standard used by industry must be easily transportable (a reticule in the above example) in order to ensure widespread and accurate transfer of the technology.
Line-width measurement is just one of many technologies that a competitive semiconductor industry must utilize. For example, current state-of-the-art chips consist of multiple layers of circuits. The circuits in each layer must be connected to adjoining layers. Accomplishing this very difficult manufacturing step requires a precise alignment of the mask (circuit pattern) for each layer. Until recently, the alignment process required multimillion-dollar optical equipment. NIST, however, developed a procedure that allows semiconductor manufacturers to ensure proper alignment of successive layers of an integrated circuit with a precision better than ten nanometers. This new calibration standard represents a more than fivefold improvement over current alignment calibration methods and is much less expensive. The cumulative economic impact of such advances in technologies/standards is substantial and can greatly affect price as well as quality, and hence competitive position for the domestic industry.

4. FASTER INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY

CYCLES

THROUGH

MICROFLUIDICS

Microfluidics, once considered a whiz bang technology with great appeal, but more or less impractical to implement in modern pharmaceutical laboratories, has more recently become a leading edge solution capable of addressing serious challenges in the drug discovery industry. Catalyzed by the combination of microfluidics and automated liquid handling, the latest generation of microfluidics

technologies are reliable, standardized platforms for generating reproducible, high quality data. Today, pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer, Amgen, Serono, Eli Lilly and Sanofi-Aventis are leveraging the power of microfluidics to develop new approaches in drug discovery. And suppliers of drug discovery technology - companies like Agilent and Bio-Rad are also harnessing this power to enhance and develop innovative products of their own for the industry. Not simply a tool, microfluidics is in fact an enterprise platform that can strategically transform the drug discovery process. Just five years ago, the landscape of microfluidics was convoluted and the technology was immature. The technical challenges have since been overcome and the quality of data being generated by microfluidics technology is unprecedented. The versatility of the technology is allowing its application to areas such as genomics, proteomics, high throughput screening and someday, perhaps even to molecular diagnostics.

Rapid assay development speeds innovation cycles The amount of time necessary to develop initial biological screening assays can be as long as six to nine months, which makes this step a substantial bottleneck in the discovery process. Long assay times are common because optimal substrates need to be identified, reaction conditions need to be optimized, detection reagents must be titrated and calibrations need to be done.

Using microfluidics technology, many of these steps can be eliminated or shortened. For example Caliper microfluidics platform provides direct detection of reaction components, so there is no need to develop antibodies or optimize the reaction for the detection reagents. This approach allows experiments to be conducted without the added burden of having radioisotopes in the laboratory. When assay development times are shorter, it is possible to develop more assays.

Broad applications for standard procedures and beyond Microfluidics systems are powerful, versatile data engines that yield high precision, high accuracy results. These engines are easily deployed across all of the system biology nodes and can enable organizational learning that is not otherwise available. The versatility and broad applicability of the microfluidics platform underscores the power of the technique. The Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, which uses Caliper LabChip technology, provides researchers with the ability to perform numerous standard procedures, such as protein molecular weight determination, DNA sizing, RNA analysis and cell sorting on a standardized instrument platform. Although most customers report superior quality data as the main advantage of microfluidics-based screening, shorter assay development time and greater versatility in the types of experiments that can be run are other popular benefits. And because of the high quality data and the broad applicability of the technology, one of the most compelling aspects of advanced microfluidics technology is the ability to

standardize on one platform and achieve organizational advantages by performing experiments around the globe in a uniform, directly comparable fashion.

Beyond functional silos: knowledge sharing through standardized technologies Within any given major pharmaceutical company, there are numerous functional silos generating different data from different technologies with different levels of error. The error is being generated from different assay formats, different supplier technologies, different researchers and different experimental conditions. When all of these sources of error are magnified, the resulting database becomes fraught with inconsistencies. Because of the lack of standardization, scientists become focused only on their silos; they understand and trust only the data that is generated by their teams. As a direct consequence, information is not shared within the organization and the innovation process is hindered. One way to create an organization of prepared minds is to have standardized technologies so that scientists can move among therapeutic areas or functional groups and cross-pollinate ideas by sharing data. This standardization is achieved by having researchers use the same technology platform to conduct different types of experiments. This is precisely what microfluidics can provide to the industry. This is a revolutionary development, not just in the way in which microfluidics is viewed, but also for the entire discovery process. Companies that realize the power of this

revolution have the ability to retool their discovery engines and experience enormous organizational and scientific advantages. Finally, because of the broad application of microfluidics systems to genomics, proteomics, screening and diagnostics, this technology is a platform for standardization that can be immediately deployed to strategically transform the drug discovery process.

5. HOW STANDARDS ARE DEVELOPED FOR A TECHNOLOGY THAT HOLDS FUTURE PROSPECTS THE CASE OF LIBS

Principles for the standardization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a non-contact method for analyzing the chemical composition of various substances, holds tremendous potential within industrial and environmental engineering applications. Before this method becomes further established in the market, standards must be developed to ensure that all LIBS measurement results are comparable and traceable. The first step involves defining uniform terminology and parameters. At the 22nd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro- Optics (ICALEO) held in Jacksonville, Florida on October 13-16, 2003, an international committee discussed and specified the conditions for standardized LIBS measurements. Under the framework of this agreement, six different laboratories were tasked with carrying out similar cross-national experiments under specified conditions. The results were to be compared and evaluated. The first step was to create a LIBS measuring set-up being conform to the agreed conditions. These included the laser type, laser wavelength, beam diameter at the focusing lens, FWHM temporal pulse width, repetition rate, pulse energy, focal length of the focusing lens, distance between the focusing lens and the sample, number of measuring pulses, ambient gas, focus position relative to the sample surface, core diameter of the optical fiber and its distance from the sample surface, and the angle between the fiber and the optical axis of the incident laser beam. Finally, a series of tests on a certified reference sample made of an aluminum-magnesium-silicate alloy were carried out and then evaluated.

The entire test results were presented at the LIBS 2004 International Conference. This measuring campaign is the first step towards formulating an international LIBS standard that will be proposed to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
6.

CONCLUSION

Innovation covers the entire process from the emergence of an idea to its widespread application. 80 % of the knowledge needed for innovation already exists, but lack of awareness of this makes the knowledge inaccessible at the outset. Standards provide an excellent basis for knowledge of the current state of technology, because they are developed and backed up by experts, and the standardization process is a source of high quality referencing and documentation. Standardization can make innovation more effective because knowledge can be accessed which is available worldwide, because standardized partial solutions are economically viable, and because convergence standards make system solutions feasible. For the knowledge involved in standardization to bear fruit, transfer institutions such as university and research centers need to be made more aware of it.

Businesses should make better use of the technology transfer instrument "standardization". The Future Nanotechnology is an example of an industry where standardization is not sufficiently represented in technology transfer. Despite fast growing in research in this sector, few standards projects on nanotechnology have so far materialized. In fact, this innovative sector is particularly suitable for standards work. Uniform standards for testing and measurement are essential for scientific progress, terminology definitions simplify communication, quality and safety standards serve to protect users and consumers,

increasing the acceptability of products, compatibility and interface standards integrate components into their respective systems. All in all, standards provide information about the current state of technology and create a basis for new ideas. Industries that have complex, measurement intensive production processes must reengineer multiple standards simultaneously for each new generation of the generic product technology. The semiconductor industry is an excellent example. In the past, a single dominant integrated circuit supplier has undertaken the development of standards associated with transitions between generations of semiconductor process technology (usually revolving around wafer size). However, accomplishing the transition now requires a complex and integrated standards development process, involving a large number of different standards. The huge estimated cost of next generation fabrication plants and shorter product life cycles finally have made the risk too great for individual IC manufacturers to incur the considerable burden of undertaking the standards development efforts alone. As a result, an international consortium of semiconductor firms is undertaking the development of standards for the generation of semiconductors based on a 300-millimeter wafer.

As technology-based systems become increasingly important and "windows of opportunity" for making successful investments in the associated markets continue to shrink, the relevant standards will have to be managed. If a standard is fixed, even if it is competitively neutral, it will eventually act to stifle the introduction of new technology into the system. Alternatively, if the standard is updated frequently, then version consistency (upward mobility of current system components) can become a problem. For example, efficient data processing and communications networks are possible only if standard interfaces are provided on all the communication paths in the network. Such interfaces need to be defined between application programs, data formats, network protocols, printer control codes, human/machine interfaces, and so on. But, these system elements are all evolving at different rates and thus need updated interfaces at different points in time. Thus, with new technologies continuously being introduced into ever expanding networks, the pressure on the standards infrastructure to adapt is substantial. One reason is the need to reflect changes in the core distributed processing technology. Another is the requirement to adapt system management technologies such as toleration of faults, rapid (real time) response to multimedia inputs and outputs (voice, image, text, and others), and human friendly interfaces to a constantly changing network structure as nodes are added, removed, or replaced by different systems. Over the past decade, the infrastructure roles of standards have increased in importance because (1) many new technologies are systems or networks so that increasing returns to scale can generate huge economic rewards for the version of a technology that becomes the standard, (2) the demand for quality and reliability in technologically complex products and systems requires a range of standards based on sophisticated infratechnologies, (3) the systems nature of critically important technologies means that competition is greatly affected by the degree of standardization

within product structures and at the interfaces between components of these systems, and (4) the shortening of the average technology life cycle has on average increased the pressure on the standards setting process with respect to timing. The central strategic problem of managing the timing and content of standards is a difficult one because (1) many types of standards are needed in today's typical technology based industry, (2) they interact to varying degrees with one another, and (3) nonproduct standards, as one type of technology infrastructure, derive from different sources than the industry's core technology and thereby often conflict with corporate strategies. More generally, industry structures and hence long-term economic efficiency can be significantly affected by which firms technologies become industry standards and the degree to which standardization enables or inhibits access to the markets for a technology. To the extent that monopolistic control of a standard or the existence of multiple standards produces economic inefficiency, the globalization of technology-based competition can accentuate these problems. More national economies are now capable of competing for the dominant productelement standard in technology-based industries. National governments often support the domestic industrys standard over alternatives. Moreover, multinational alliances of firms frequently pursue their versions of a product-element standard in emerging technologybased markets. Thus, multiple standards can arise and persist for some time. In such cases, multilateral efforts should be undertaken to at least harmonize these competing standards, if not to select one as a single international standard at an appropriate point in the technology life cycle. The unavailability of standards at different points in a technologys life cycle can result in large economic inefficiency. Multiple standards may exist for prolonged periods of time, limiting economies of scale or network externalities and hence total market growth, although market growth may be greater in the long run if this situation allows superior technology to eventually dominate. Therefore, especially because the process of standardization within a technology life cycle is often irreversible, these and other elements of the dynamics of this process are key policy variables. Finally, standardization over a technology life cycle has a dynamic character, in that different degrees of standardization are optimal at different points in both the technologys and the industrys evolution. Moreover, because standards interact with each other in imparting their economic impacts, the process of standardization frequently must be managed as a system.