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LINEAR FEEDBACK CONTROLLER FOR D-STATCOM IN DPG FAULT

APPLICATION

S. Aizam I", Kok. B.C. "', N. Mariun (2), H. Hizam (2) and N. I. Abd Wahab(2)

(1) University College of Technology Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia, (2) University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the application of linear feedback controller on Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D- STATCOM) for mitigating Double Phase to Ground (DPG) fault at the distribution system. The pole placement technique is applied by shifting the existing poles to the new poles locations for fast response compare to the conventional controller. This type of inverter control is very useful in D-STATCOM application which controls the

inverter to inject the unbalanced current or voltage or both for mitigating the fault condition that occurs at the distribution system. The controller will give respond to the lines that are affected by the fault and restore the system to its normal conditions. The simulation and design of the controller is done using MATLAB software with Power

Blockset Toolbox and SIMULINK.

feedback controller and the proposed controller is it has

been design using Signal Flows diagram with feedback

D-STATCOM has been implemented in distribution loops of the gain rather than using transfer function system rather than transmission system because it is which needs more equations.

where most of power quality problems occur. D-

STATCOM is a shunt device that generates a balanced In this linear feedback controller the combination of

three phase voltage or current with ability to control the input-output pole placement method as well as DQ

transformations are utilized. Pole placement method is

magnitude and the phase angle [1]. These parameters

are varied by referring to absorbing or generating VAR used to shift the existing poles from the right to the left

at the faulted system that happen in milliseconds. The of the complex diagram, in order to increase the stability

of the system and damping response [1]. Another

absorbing or generating VAR is proportional to the

injected currents from the inverter which is controlled advantage of using the pole placement method is the D-

by the controller. Because of the faulted time period, it STATCOM is a MIMO system which is based on

dynamic model rather than phasor diagram [4] and is also known as a discrete time control technique with

Input and Multi Output (MIMO) system. Due to this close loop poles [3]. The DQ transformation is applied

needs a controller that gives fast response which operates in milliseconds. The D-STATCOM is a Multi

advantage, the controller that gives better performance

to change the 3 phase system into vector representation

and fast response can be designed. The new controller system by reducing the number of equations for

must have a capability to give fast response to any designing the controller circuit. In this paper, the D-

STATCOM with the linear feedback controller is applied on an llkV distribution system and was tested

Generally, the controller of the D-STATCOM is a

Proportional Integration (PI) controller which is not

changes of the operating point in the system.

INTRODUCTION

in DPG fault situation.

suitable to operate at all operating point [2] and gives low response which is about 100 ms [1]. This will cause TRANSFORMATION OF D-STATCOM

the injected currents from the D-STATCOM gives slow

response to mitigate the faulted lines. One of the In designing the linear feedback controller, the state

methods to solve these problems is by using the pole space equations from the D-STATCOM circuit must be

placement method. This method has been used because introduced. The theory of DQ transformation of currents

it consistence to any changes in the operating points and

gives fast response. This linear feedback controller is components as independent parameters. Figure 1 shows

has been applied in the circuit, which makes the d and q

design based on pole placement method and it is not the circuit diagram of the D-STATCOM. It consists of

Voltage Source Converter (VSC), dc energy storage

widely used as the D-STATCOM controller. This type

of controller has been used in D-STATCOM application device and a step down transformer connected in shunt

[1,3] The different between the existing linear

with the ac system.

986

Distribution Line

IMeasure{ Variables

vs Wables

|

_

I

LO|@

I

[AV]=

-RSbIcbk

L

-'b

b

-R swb

(Obk

cos(a)

sin(a)

StepDownTransformer

-3!kCwbcos(a) 3-kCobwsin(a)

0 b

2

Rp

HARMONIC BLOCKING

REACTOR

1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ovj

L

CCONTROL

[BV ]=

°0

0

I~~~~~~~~~-kico1 b-vIkbdb dc -sin( a)

L

b

cos( a)

2

3 PH ASE

dc capacitor

.4

L-

Note: Vi -inverter output

voltage

Vs - system voltage

Figure 1 D-STATCOM Configuration

The configuration of Figure 1 can be simplified to

single phase diagram as shown in Figure 2.

2 kC cob (i d sin( a) - i q cos( a))

The prime parameters indicate the p.u values. The D-

STATCOM

discussion are given as,

a= 0; V

parameters (in p.u.) used in the following

as,

L: =0.1;

R', =0.01; k=1.273;

?L= 0;V dc= 1.0;

Rs

L

1. 2

cb=314;C = 2.275; i d = 0.082 ;i q = -0.048

a

/; L

v

/; )

-J

Substituting the above values into Equation 5 produces

the complete equation as follows,

Figure 2 Single Phase Diagram

The equations for single phase diagram can be written

as,

R s

+ L

di

d

R i+L

+

+

v =

L

di

dt= e - v - R s

di e-v

dt

L

L

e

.

(1)

(1)

(2)

(3)

The loop equation for the circuit may be written in

vector as,

vector as,

abc

dtj'abc

Labc + L (eabc-vabc)

L ac

bc

Rs

d

(4)

Equation 4 represents the D-STATCOM circuit

without

DQ

transformation.

After

the

DQ

transformation and linearization process to Equation

the state space for D-STATCOM is shown in

5 [5],

4,

Equation

F-d j

F-d -

dIq' = [A ] Iq ++[By]

dt! V

v dc

'V'dc

ac-

(5)

where

d

dt

id

iq

--31.4

314

314

=-314 -31.4

I

0

vdc -136405

3997.22 -31 id

0

0

0

~~Iq

iq

v'dc

+

+

-3140

0

0

0

0

5396247 bz

65.474

This

damp

equation

and

will

give

the

high frequency

existingpoles

oscillation

to have

highly

at the operating

points which

These

D-STATCOM controller due to the existingpoles

are located at

-15.9±2346j

and -30.8.

point locations are not suitable in designing the

~~~~~LINEAR FEEDBACK CONTROLLER DESIGN

1In designing the linear feedback controller, the new

poles must satisfy

a few conditions stated

below,

* the oscillations in id, iq and Vd, must respond

less then one

period

of the

of

cycle due to system

L4],

ms

po

shouldb

should be

frequency which is 50 Hz

theqoershoot

the

k the

kept

ovoltag

voltage

of 5dan

Of

M

th capacitor (e

capacitor (Vdo

constant [4, 6] in the

controller,

id must give zero output because it represents

the active power [1].

The new p oles locations are then selected according to

*

locations is needed to be at the

origin to fulfill the requirements stated above. In

designing

using

application is done after the

new poles locations have determined based to Figure 3

[3] where one of the pole

the

controller block

diagram

~~~~~~~~~~SIMULINK-MATLAB

987

concept. This figure shows the block Equation 5 with a Kp feedback block which is used to stabilize and increase the response system where the gains are determined from the new poles locations.

Ref

t

Inu

(id,

d'_ji

d

.

Output

dd, i, Vdc)

N.-

diagram based on Figure 4 and the complete signal flow

is given in Figure.5.

Vdcf

id

q

iq

'

Vdc

Kp x(t)

Figure 3 Control Block Diagram

The new poles locations and the Kp values can be determined by writing the program in MATLAB M-File referring to Figure 3 flow diagram. Figure 4, shows the

response of the new poles locations which are at (-

5000± 2346j, 0) to fulfill the conditions in designing the

linear feedback controller and the values of Kp gains, been used as reference

iK

Figure 5.Signal Flows Diagram of Linear Feedback Controller

The outputs of this controller which are id and iq have

signals to generate the triggering

signals to the power electronic devices

and the Vdc is the

id 0.06-

0.04

0,02

0.3 -

iq 0.2 -

0.1

-

input to the inverter. The concept of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) has been applied by comparing the references signal with the carrier

of the reference sine

waveform must be in the

application. The generated pulses from the linear feedback controller are shown in Figure 6. Figure 6 shows the firing pulse from SPWM. There are 3 pairs of pulses which are pulse 1 and 2, 3 and 4, and 5 and 6. The firing pulses for 1 and 2 must have the opposite direction because, inverter 1 and 2 are located at the

same arm which means it must not operate at the same time.

frequency. The magnitude

range of [-1 to 1] for switching

irin

ls

VdCO.6

0.05

LLLIffio L L LL LLL I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~II

I

0.

0.0Z.0.02

0.03

0.03.

0.04

0o0250o02

0 03

0o035

0.04

0.06

0.045 0.050.055

0.045

0o05 0o0550o06

Figure 4 Response of The New Poles to The System

repne the V1 is kept contan duin the0irllaio,A1St0

0

0.0250.02 0.03

From Figure it shows that the id,

response, the Vdc is kept constant during the simulation and the id iS maintain zero before designing the controller. From this simulation it is indicated that the

iq andVdc give fast

0Figure 6

00]t

0.035

STATCOMNIarapplicationl11;IV forDPGfaltC'1- r

1+ apliatin.h1-

ki '~BH1UUH

]0jt

0.04

S

0.045 0.0550.05 0.06

T

19

HI IID[JHH[HJ

D-STATCOM CONFIGURATION FOR DPG FAULT SIMULATION

DPG period, the current in lines A and B are less than

the current in line C.

The system shown in Figure 7 has been simulated using 2

MATLAB software. The

transformer data for the simulation

system parameters and the

are given in Table 1.

II

LoadVoltg

r

A

;

i ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A,

Ti.

1.17

V-~~Tim

SourceVoltage1

ToePablmen 1Sse

lnl ~

>he

h

0 0.050.150.1

-TTO

sapidi thDPfalan

0.2

~~~~~0.25

0.3

0.40.35

aab)CretLa

Figur8 Wih DPGFaulta) VotageLoadand~n

Source~~~~i pedane

18

0i esrda h -TTOinverter110 005i1u05r0

Fodigur 7.63.11janeD9TACO indDitibto SytmFgr

Sourt

impedanc

e

Volta

Fault timeht

gea1oVlWnthe

Transfource impedance

|0.0l+3l.4jQ

SIMULATION RESULT

10is

ad-STATCO

sut

mea

~~~~~0IN~

ithFesentautDPG

is aplited.TheD

a)eVoltfagetL

tthoadan

amut

and

is ru ansetheoalultp

are ishownui

IthD-stA m inverter. In Fie

F

Systemtrnforeqen

501 HzV

Load impedance72.6+35.1618j

Fiur9.8

~be9auansb

ansedit mesredvatuthe load siden whileAFigur

it canobfesee tha the DPG fault. ato theioa

because it ihosnlot affec tesontheDPGefaulest.aFromths.

The simulation of the D-STATCOM in fault condition

is done

by using DPG faults. The duration of the fault is

curetsIa=8AJb=9AadI~=lS

uigte.0

stfor 0.2 sec and the total simulation time is 0.4 sec.

n14Slala

Tine

InDGfauLlt siultion thefulvB:tis introuce aitnlinesd

for 0.4 sec with fault occurring from 0.1 sec to 0.3 sec.

The results for the simulation are shown in Figure 8

that

Figsuredat oandb show theloadvoltageandtheload

current at the distribution system. Figure 8a, it shows

the voltage sag appeared during the DP fault and the

bUre16%. Fgur8bAshowsthemneasured values for line

fault period and the percentage of unbalanced current is

and

about 11%. The unbalanced current occurred is high

needs to be reduced to a level below 2%. During the

0.05

measuredatloadside.

0

5074

01

015

0.2

0.25

0.3

Currentatload~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Clren a la

.S

0.4

l°

I0W ltl

71.ltVySTalyValyVa

ll

0

0.05

01

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Figure 9 Mitigation of

DPG Fault a) Voltage Load

b) Current Load

989

l00

InjectedCunentatD-STATCOM

-A

Figure10 Mitigation ofDPGFaultInjectedCu n

response tosqunc.heinetecrrntad

0

005

0a10t15 0f20l250a3

0.35

0.4

Figure 10 Mitigation of DPG Fault Injected Current

at Load

maintain the showsthat to 1ip.ujsysted cuets fm te s s

theeferncenputto

tat,

F

igure10

shows

hae nrleisfxdt1.Ts

the D-

i

te

chos

from

current compare to phase A and C because this phase is n

response to Vab andeVb sequence. The injected current

is almost constant during fault and without fault

the reference input to the controller is fixed to 1. This

because

will causes the D-STATCOM to inject the currents to

maintain the system toi

p.u system. It can be

seems

that, from the DPG fault analysis, it shows that the D-

STATCOM with linear feedback controller is able in

controlling the line currents that need to be injected for

the DPG mitigation.

CONCLUSION

The modeling of linear feedback controller for the D-

STATCOM is presented in this paper. The linear

feedback controller is capable to control the

injected

current from the inverter for DPG faults correction. The

efficiency of the controller is studied by simulation on a distribution system with the DPG fault. The D-

STATCOM will inject more currents to the lines that

will are affected inject the to the currents fault and to make during the no system fault condition meet the it

normal value and the response time is about 20ms faster from the PI controller that response in lOOms.

REFERENCES

1. Rao, P, Crow, M.L & Yang, Z, STATCOM Control

for Power System Voltage Control Applications, IEEE

Transactions on Power Delivery, Volume 5, 1311-1317,

Oct2000.

2. Sahoo, N.C, Panigrahi, BoK, Dash, P.K, & Panda, G,

Application of a Multivariable Feedback Linearization Scheme for STATCOM Control, International Journal

of Electric Power Research, Volume 62, 81-91, June

3. Ghosh, A, Jindal, AK, & Joshi, A, Inverter Control

Using Output Feedback for Power Compensating

Devices, TENCON 2003 Conf. on Convergent

Tc

4. Xing, L, A Comparison of Pole Assignment and LQR

6Design Methods

Dstechnoloion,

STATCOM

Florida

folumAsia

For Multivariable Control

State University, 2003

Paciic-306o,48uly 2003

for

. Schauder, C, & Metha, H,

Vector Analysis and

Control of Advanced Static Var

Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and

Distribution, Volume 140, 299-306, July 1993 6. Gonzalez, P.G, & Cerrada, A.G, Control System for

Compensators, IEE

PWM-Based STATCOM, IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 1252-1257, 2000

AUTHOR'S ADDRESS

SHAMSUL AIZAM

Department of Electrical Power Engineering

Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

University College of Technology Tun Hussein Onn

86400 PanitRaja,

Batu Pahat

Johore, Malaysia

email:

aizam@kuittho.edu.my