You are on page 1of 104

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO.

CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION 1.1 ORGANIZATION PROFILE 1.2 ABSTRACT

2 . SYSTEM ANALYSIS 2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM 2.3 PROPOSED SYSTEM 2.4 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS 2.5 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATIONS 2.6 FEASIBILITY STUDY 3. SYSTEM DESIGN 3.1 PROJECT MODULES 3.2 DATA DICTIONARY 3.3 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIRMENTS 4. SYSTEM TESTING 6. TECHNICLAL NOTES 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO REAL TIME PROGRAMMING 6.2 INTRODUCTION TO OOPS AND WINDOWS 6.3 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA 7. BIBILOGRAPHY 1. INTRODUCTION

The main objective of the proposed solution is to be automated the various functions and activities of the Student Information through standard application program. The solution will facilitate to the student details with the different modules. This solution is very much necessary for the Administrator of the entire system. The Information system will take a new feature having to modify and updated the database . Using this solution the student information can generate various kinds of reports.

STUDENT SYSTEM

INFORMATION

MANAGEMENT

The Student Information management System application is a record keeping system. This application allows the administrative department of an educational institution to collect accurate and comprehensive student information. It allows authorized users to access the system by typing a valid login name and password. This application enables you to enter the details of new students joining the institute. It also enables due to modify the records of existing students and delete the records of students that have left the institute. This application provides an interface using java swings and uses java database connectivity(JDBC) for establishing connection with the student database.

EXISTING SYSTEM:
Currently, whenever a Student wants to a join in a institute, he go to there for enquiry the councilor takes all the details of the student. Here we maintain

all details in a book. It is a time consuming process to modify and remove the records. There may be a chance to do the mistakes but the system never. PROPOSED SYSTEM:
In order to eliminate the drawbacks of the existing system, a system has been developed due to which the councilor need not spend much time in taking the details of a student, he can easily modify and delete the records of a student. The database is built that takes care of every transaction thereby reducing the burden on administrator.

PURPOSE:
The purpose of the system, which has been developed, is to allow an administrator to enter the details of a student , modify the details and whenever the student completes his course it can be deleted. This will also save a lot of time and gives the accurate information.

Hardware and Software requirements Software requirements Technologies Operating System : Java : windows 2000 /SP

Hardware requirements Processor system Processor Speed RAM : Intel Pentium based : 250 MHz to 833 MHz 256 MB

2.SYSTEM ANALYSIS

EXISTING SYSTEM:

Currently, whenever a Student wants to a join in a institute, he go to there for enquiry the councilor takes all the details of the student. Here we maintain

all details in a book. It is a time consuming process to modify and remove the records. There may be a chance to do the mistakes but the system never. PROPOSED SYSTEM:
In order to eliminate the drawbacks of the existing system, a system has been developed due to which the councilor need not spend much time in taking the details of a student, he can easily modify and delete the records of a student. The database is built that takes care of every transaction thereby reducing the burden on administrator.

PURPOSE:
The purpose of the system, which has been developed, is to allow an administrator to enter the details of a student , modify the details and whenever the student completes his course it can be deleted. This will also save a lot of time and gives the accurate information.

Modules: AdminModule: This module deals with the registration of students, taking the on line registration in feature this is able to deal with the all components of the system in this module the privilizers are given to the different users who are accessing this system .

Login Module: The login module will validate the user based on the user name and password, if the entered userid and pwd is valid then based on the designation the privileges are being accessed by that user. Student Report : In this report we can take the student details based on the student id .

SYSTEM ANALYSIS
SYSTEM DEFINITION:

Requirement Analysis: A requirement is a feature that must be included in the system. Before the actual design and implementation start, getting to know the system to be implemented is of prime importance. Main emphasis should be on: The inputs to the system. The outputs expected from the system. The people involved in the working of the system. The volume of DATA (INPUTS) and the amount of

INFORMATION (outputs) that will be involved.

With respect to the system itself, the following facts should be taking into consideration The major processes involved. entries. The main points of application. The processing rules for the collected data. The exceptions that may be present. The checks that should be in place in order to avoid wrong

PROJECT SCHEDULE STUDY PHASE In the study phase we do the preliminary investigation and determine the system requirements. We study the system and collect the data to draw the dataflow diagrams. We follow the methods like questions and observation to find the facts that are involved in the process. This is an important because if the specification study is not done properly then following design phase etc will go wrongly.

DESIGN PHASE

In this design phase we design the system making use of study phase and the data flow diagrams. We make use the general access methods for designing. We consider the top down approach. In the design phase we determine the entities and their attributes and the relationships between the entities. We do both logical and the physical design of the system.

DEVELOPMENT PHASE

In the development phase we mostly do the coding part following the design of the system. We follow modular programming for development and after development and after developing each and every module we do the unit testing followed by the integration testing.

IMPLEMENTATION PHASE

The last phase of the project is the implementation phase. Quality assurance is the primary motive in this phase. The quality assurance is the for review of software products and related and documentation completeness, correctness, reliability

maintainability. The philosophy behind the testing is it finds errors. The testing strategies are of two types, the code testing and the specifications testing. In the code testing we examining the logic of the program. On the surface, code testing seems to be ideal methods for testing software, but no tall software errors are uncovered.

FEASIBILITY STUDY

Investigation For the study of the project, I went for the various software Development organizations There I met the Admin There we got the Information about various levels of student management system assigned for each phase. The different functions are LonginDetails, AnalysisDetails, and Student Activity analysis. The data all about the above are stored in different registers (admin register, subadmin register, student register, course register) in different departments. In manual process whenever project came they maintain registers to store Admin details, student proposed for each phase like analysis, design. According to the requirements we divided this manual process Into 3phases: AdminPhase:

StudentPhase: Report Phase: After problem is clearly understood and Solutions are proposed the next step is to conduct the feasibility study, which is the part of the system analysis. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the proposed system is feasible or not. Solutions strategies are usually generated \without regard for feasibility because one cannot be both creative & critical at the same time. Hence feasibility analysis is a must to arrive at the most appropriate solution strategy. This feasibility analysis is done after the thorough study of the system. The planning objective is achieved through a process of information discovery that leads to reasonable estimation. Keeping the following aspect in mind the system analysis for the development of the project Identify the drawbacks of the existing system. Identify the need for conversion. Perform feasibility study. Identify hardware, software and the database requirements. Create a system definition that forms the foundation for the subsequent work.

Software scope:

The first activity in software project planning is the determination of software scope. Function and performance allocated to software should be assessed to establish a project scope. Software scope describes function, performance, constraints and reliability.

Estimation : Software project planning estimate can do many ways, such as LOC (line of code)-based estimation, FP (function point) estimation. Process-based estimation. We should select best of one depending on the requirement.

Resource availability: The resources, which are common to any system consist, of human effort, information and development resource. Developing any system any system without satisfactory resources is inappropriate and impossible. The design development team for this project consists of three members who are responsible for software development and internal testing. Information assembly is to this project as with every other project. Various sources of Information are available. Human resources: The number of people required for a software development can be determined only after an estimate of development effort. The

planner begins by evaluating scope and selecting the skills required to complete development.

Reusable software resources: Existing software that can be acquired from a third party or that has been developed internally for past project. Environmental resources: The environment that supports the software, often called a software engineering environment (SEE). Hardware provides the platform that supports the tools required.

Operational feasibility: It determines how much effort will go into educating, selling and training the user staff on a candidate system. People are inherently resistant to change and computers have been known to facilitate changes. An estimate should be made of how strong a reaction the user staff is likely to have towards the development of a computerized system. Operational feasibility checks the operational scope of the system. The system under consideration should have enough operational reach. It is observed that the proposed system would provide a very interactive means to share information and have a far and wide reach. The proposed system would make the information more interactive. Thus operational feasibility of the proposed system is found to be high.

Technical feasibility: Technical feasibility centers on the existing computer system and to what extent it can support the proposed addition. The benefits such as high accuracy, minimum response time and user friendliness of the proposed system our weights cost for designing and installing the new system. The level of technology comprises of the software tools, the development platform and the machine environment, which already exists within the organization. Since all the required tools and platform that were mentioned above were already available, the technical feasibility of this project ids justified. The procedure in the economic feasibility analysis is to determine the benefits and savings that we expected from a candidate system and compare them with cost. If benefits overweigh cost then design decision is made to design and implement the system. The major disadvantages of the existing system are slow transmission of information between various locations and increased average waiting time. By the candidate system we can reduce processing charges and time of processing. By comparing the benefits with the cost of the proposed system benefits out weights costs.

System analysis.

3.1 PROJECT MODULES The modules and their roles are:

Login user: the user enter to the system, and enter the login form, the login user name and password is valid or not . The user is to maintain the student information about the project.

Administrator: The Administrator is the main user and the admin will have to privilege to entire the system, so Administrator will have to update and delete the student details of the entire system.

DESIGN PHASE INTRODUCTION:

Design is the first step in the development of any engineered product or system. It may be defined as the process of applying various techniques and principles for the purpose of defining a device, a processor or a system insufficient detail to permit its physical reallzation. In the design phase the detailed design of the system selected in the study takes place. System design is stated by reviewing the study phase activities and making decisions as to which functions are to be performed by hardware, software or manually. This process through which the initial requirements are specified in the study phase are translated into a representation of the software. Initially, the representation depicts holistic view of the software. Subsequent refinement leads to a design representation, which is very close to that of the source code. The design phase recommendations are presented as reports to the user. The following steps are followed in designing software. a. The statements of functions desired from software to be

developed are recognized.

b.

The database design steps are applied to identify the various

entities and relationships between them. c. General access methods are then applied to the conceptual

schema to get the logical model, which is then further transformed into relational tables. d. The concept of software engineering is then applied to get of the system comprising of different

the logical architecture

modules, each containing all related functions.

3.2 DATA DICTIONARY

Data dictionary consists of descriptions of all the data used in the system. It consists of logical characteristic of current systems data stores including name, description, aliases, contents and organization. Data dictionary serves as basis for identifying databases requirements during requirements during system design. Data dictionary is a catalog a repository of the elements in the system. The Data dictionary is used to manage the detail in large systems, to communicate a common meaning for all system elements, to document the features of the system elements, to document the feature of the system, to locate errors and omissions in the system. Data dictionary contains two types of description for the data flowing through the system: Data element and Data structure. Data Element are used to group together to make up the Data Structure. The most fundamental level is the data element. Data Structure is a set of data items data related to one another and collectively describe a component in the system. The description of the data elements consists of data names, data description, aliases, and length and data values. The description of data structure consists sequence relationship, selection , Iteration relationship and option relationship.

TABLE NAME:

LOGIN

This table describes the user and password for the Admin To Login To the system

Ser.NO

FIELD NAME

DATA TYPE

CONSTRAINT NULL

1.

NAME

VARCHAR2(20) NULL

2.

PASSWORD

VARCHAR2(20)

S.NO

FIELD NAME

DATATYPE

CONSTRAIN PrimaryKey

1.

STUDENTID

NUMBER(6) NULL

2.

LASTNAME

VARCHAR2(15) NULL

3.

FIRSTNAME

VARCHAR2(15) NULL

4.

JOINDATE

VARCHAR2(15)

TABLE NAME: STUDENT This table describes the all the details of the student with unique ids and the name of the student this table maintains the master details of the student only once.

UML Diagrams
3.4 UMLDIAGRAMS UML is a notation that resulted from the unification Of Object Modeling Technique and Object Oriented Software Technology .UML has been designed for broad range of application. Hence, it provides constructs for a broad range of systems and activities.

AN OVERVIEW OF UML IN FIVE NOTATIONS

1.USE CASE DIAGRAMS Use cases are used during requirements elicitation and analysis

To represent the functionality of the system. Use cases focus on the behaviour of the system from the external point of view. The actor is Outside the boundary of the system, whereas the use cases are inside the boundary of the system. 2.CLASS DIAGRAMS Class diagrams to describe the structure of the system. Classes Are abstraction that specify the common structure and behaviour of a set Of objects.
Class diagrams describe the system in terms of objects, classes, attributes, operations and their associations.

3.SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS
Sequence diagrams are used to formalize the behaviour of the system and to visualize the communication among objects. They are useful for identifying additional objects that participate in the use cases. A Sequence diagram represents the interaction that take place among these objects.

4.STATECHART DIAGRAMS

State chart diagrams describe the behaviour of an individual object as a number of states and transitions between these states. A state represents a particular set of values for an object. The sequence diagram focuses on the messages exchanged between objects, the state chart diagrams focuses on the transition between states .

5.ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS

An activity diagram describes a system in terms of activities. Activities are states that represent the execution of a set of operations. Activity diagrams are similar to flowchart diagram and data flow. Class diagram for student management:

Sequence Diagram:

Use Case Diagram:

Activity Diagram:

4.Technical Notes

HISTORY OF JAVA Java language was developed by James Gosling and his team at sun micro systems and released formally in 1995. Its former name is oak. Java Development Kit 1.0 was released in 1996. to popularize java and is freely available on Internet. Overview of Java

Java is loosely based on C++ syntax, and is menat to be Object-Oriented Structure of java is midway between an interpreted and a compiled language . java programs are compiled by the java compiler into Byte Codes which are secure and portable across different platforms . these byte codes are essentially instructions encapsulated in single type, to what is known as ajava virtual machine (JVM) which resides instandard browser. JVM verifies these byte codes when downloaded by the browser for integrity. Jvms are available for almost all OS. JVM converts these byte codes into machine specific instructions at runtime.

FEATURES OF JAVA java is object-oriented language and supports encapsulation, inheritance , polymorphism and dynamic binding , but does not support multiple inheritance.every thing in java is an object except some primitive datatypes . java is portable architecture neutral that is java programs once compiled can be executed on any machine that is enabled. JAVA is distributed in its approach and used for internet programming.

Java is robust, secured, high performing and dynamic in nature. Java supports multithreading. There for different parts of the program can be executed at the same time JAVA AND INTERNET Java is strongly associated with internet and known as internet programming language. Internet users can use java to create applet programs and run them locally using java enabled browser search as hot java. Applets can be downloaded from remote machine via internet and run it on local machine .

JAVA AND WORLD WIDE WEB World wide web is an open ended information retrieval system designed to be used in the distributed environment. This system contains web pages that provide both information and controls. We can navigate to a new web page in any direction. This is made possible worth HTML java was meant to be used in distributed environment such as internet. So java could be easily incorporated into the web system and is capable of supporting animation graphics , games and other special effect. The web has become more dynamic and interactive with support of java. We can run a java program on remote machine over internet with the support of web . JAVA ENVIRONMENT

Java environment includes a large no.of tools which are part of the system known as java development kit (JDK) and hundreds of classes, methods, and interfaces grouped into packages forms part of java standard library(JSL). JAVA ARCHITECTURE Java architecture provides a portable , robust , high performing environment for development. Java provides portability by compiling the byte codes for the java virtual machine which are then interpreted on each platform by the runtime environment . java also provides stringent compile and runtime checking and automatic memory management in order to ensure solid code . JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE When we compile the code, java compiler creates machine code (byte code) for a hypothetical machine called java virtual machine (jvm). The jvm will execute the byte code and overcomes the issue of portability . the code is written and compile for one machine and interpreted all other machines . this machine is called java virtual machine .

PARADIGM OF JAVA Dynamic down loading applets(small application programs);

Elimination of flatware phenomenon that is providing those features of a product that user needs at a time. The remaining features of a product can remain in the server. Changing economic model of the software Up-to-date software availability Supports network entire computing Supports CORBA & DCOM
AWT

A user interface object such as a button or a scrollbar is called, in AWT terminology, a component. The Component class is the root of all AWT components. See Component for a detailed description of properties that all AWT components share. Some components fire events when a user interacts with the components. The AWTEvent class and its subclasses are used to represent the events that AWT components can fire. See AWTEvent for a description of the AWT event model. A container is a component that can contain components and other containers. A con tainer can also have a layout manager that controls the visual placement of components in the container. The AWT package contains several layout manager classes and an interface for building your own layout manager. See Container and LayoutManager for more information.

A flow layout arranges components in a left-to-right flow, much like lines of text in a paragraph. Flow layouts are typically used to arrange buttons in a panel. It will arrange buttons left to right until no more buttons fit on the same line. Each line is centered. For example, the following picture shows an applet using the flow layout manager (its default layout manager) to position three buttons:

The GridBagLayout class is a flexible layout manager that aligns components vertically and horizontally, without requiring that the components be of the same size. Each GridBagLayout object maintains a dynamic, rectangular grid of cells, with each component occupying one or more cells, called its display area. Each component managed by a GridBagLayout is associated with an instance of GridBagConstraints. The constraints object specifies where a component's display area should be located on the grid and how the component should be positioned within its display area. In addition to its constraints object, the GridBagLayout also considers each component's minimum and preferred sizes in order to determine a component's size. The overall orientation of the grid depends on the container's ComponentOrientation property. For horizontal left-to-right orientations, grid coordinate (0,0) is in the upper left corner of the container with x increasing to the right and y increasing downward. For horizontal right-to-left orientations, grid coordinate (0,0) is in the upper right corner of the container with x increasing to the left and y increasing downward. The GridLayout class is a layout manager that lays out a container's components in a rectangular grid. The container is divided into equal-sized rectangles, and one component is placed in each rectangle.

If the container's ComponentOrientation property is horizontal and left-to-right, the above example produces the output shown in Figure 1. If the container's ComponentOrientation property is horizontal and right-to-left, the example produces the output shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1: Horizontal, Left-to-Right

Figure 2: Horizontal, Right-to-Left

When both the number of rows and the number of columns have been set to non-zero values, either by a constructor or by the setRows and setColumns methods, the number of columns specified is ignored. Instead, the number of columns is determined from the specified number or rows and the total number of components in the layout. So, for example, if three rows and two columns have been specified and nine components are added to the layout, they will be displayed as three rows of three columns. Specifying the number of columns affects the layout only when the number of rows is set to zero. A layout manager that allows multiple components to be laid out either vertically or horizontally. The components will not wrap so, for example, a vertical arrangement of components will stay vertically arranged when the frame is resized. Nesting multiple panels with different combinations of horizontal and vertical gives an effect similar to GridBagLayout, without the complexity. The diagram shows two panels arranged horizontally, each of which contains 3 components arranged vertically. The BoxLayout manager is constructed with an axis parameter that specifies the type of layout that will be done. There are four choices:
X_AXIS Y_AXIS

- Components are laid out horizontally from left to right. - Components are laid out vertically from top to bottom.

- Components are laid out the way words are laid out in a line, based on the container's ComponentOrientation property. If the container's ComponentOrientation is horizontal then components are laid out horizontally, otherwise they are laid out vertically. For horizontal orientations, if the container's ComponentOrientation is left to right then components are laid out left to right, otherwise they are laid out right to left. For vertical orientations components are always laid out from top to bottom.
LINE_AXIS

- Components are laid out the way text lines are laid out on a page, based on the container's ComponentOrientation property. If the container's ComponentOrientation is horizontal then components are laid out vertically, otherwise they are laid out horizontally. For horizontal orientations, if the container's ComponentOrientation is left to right then
PAGE_AXIS

components are laid out left to right, otherwise they are laid out right to left. For vertical orientations components are always laid out from top to bottom. For all directions, components are arranged in the same order as they were added to the container. BoxLayout attempts to arrange components at their preferred widths (for horizontal layout) or heights (for vertical layout). For a horizontal layout, if not all the components are the same height, BoxLayout attempts to make all the components as high as the highest component. If that's not possible for a particular component, then BoxLayout aligns that component vertically, according to the component's Y alignment. By default, a component has a Y alignment of 0.5, which means that the vertical center of the component should have the same Y coordinate as the vertical centers of other components with 0.5 Y alignment. Similarly, for a vertical layout, BoxLayout attempts to make all components in the column as wide as the widest component. If that fails, it aligns them horizontally according to their X alignments. For PAGE_AXIS layout, horizontal alignment is done based on the leading edge of the component. In other words, an X alignment value of 0.0 means the left edge of a component if the container's ComponentOrientation is left to right and it means the right edge of the component otherwise. Instead of using BoxLayout directly, many programs use the Box class. The Box class is a lightweight container that uses a BoxLayout. It also provides handy methods to help you use BoxLayout well. Adding components to multiple nested boxes is a powerful way to get the arrangement you want. A border layout lays out a container, arranging and resizing its components to fit in five regions: north, south, east, west, and center. Each region may contain no more than one component, and is identified by a corresponding constant: NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, WEST, and
CENTER.

When adding a component to a container with a border layout, use one of these five

constants In addition, BorderLayout supports the relative positioning constants, PAGE_START, PAGE_END, LINE_START, and LINE_END. In a container whose ComponentOrientation is set to ComponentOrientation.LEFT_TO_RIGHT, these constants map to NORTH, SOUTH, WEST, and EAST, respectively. For compatibility with previous releases, BorderLayout also includes the relative positioning constants BEFORE_FIRST_LINE, AFTER_LAST_LINE, BEFORE_LINE_BEGINS and AFTER_LINE_ENDS. These are equivalent to PAGE_START, PAGE_END, LINE_START and LINE_END respectively. For consistency with the relative positioning constants used by other components, the latter constants are preferred.

Mixing both absolute and relative positioning constants can lead to unpredicable results. If you use both types, the relative constants will take precedence. For example, if you add components using both the NORTH and PAGE_START constants in a container whose orientation is LEFT_TO_RIGHT, only the PAGE_START will be layed out. NOTE: Currently (in the Java 2 platform v1.2), BorderLayout does not support vertical orientations. The isVertical setting on the container's ComponentOrientation is not respected. The components are laid out according to their preferred sizes and the constraints of the container's size. The NORTH and SOUTH components may be stretched horizontally; the EAST and WEST components may be stretched vertically; the CENTER component may stretch both horizontally and vertically to fill any space left over. Here is an example of five buttons in an applet laid out using the BorderLayout layout manager:

The code for this applet is as follows:

A CardLayout object is a layout manager for a container. It treats each component in the container as a card. Only one card is visible at a time, and the container acts as a stack of cards. The first component added to a CardLayout object is the visible component when the container is first displayed.

The ordering of cards is determined by the container's own internal ordering of its component objects. CardLayout defines a set of methods that allow an application to flip through these cards sequentially, or to show a specified card.

2 Applets

An applet is a special kind of Java program that a browser enabled with Java technology can download from the internet and run. An applet is typically embedded inside a web-page and runs in the context of the browser. An applet must be a subclass of the java.applet.Applet class, which provides the standard interface between the applet and the browser environment.

Swing provides a special subclass of Applet, called javax.swing.JApplet, which should be used for all applets that use Swing components to construct their GUIs.

By calling certain methods, a browser manages an applet life cycle, if an applet is loaded in a web page.

Life Cycle of an Applet: Basically, there are four methods in the Applet class on which any applet is built.

init: This method is intended for whatever

initialization is needed for your applet. It is called after the param attributes of the applet tag.

start: This method is automatically called after

init method. It is also called whenever user returns to the page containing the applet after visiting other pages.

stop: This method is automatically called

whenever the user moves away from the page containing applets. You can use this method to stop an animation.

destroy: This method is only called when the

browser shuts down normally. Thus, the applet can be initialized once and only once, started and stopped one or more times in its life, and destroyed once and only once.

For more information on Life Cylce of an Applet,

please refer to The Life Cycle of an Applet section. Applets vs. Applications In the early days of Java, one of the critical advantages that Java applets had over Java applications was that applets could be easily deployed over the web while Java applications required a more cumbersome installation process. Additionally, since applets are downloaded from the internet, by default they have to run in a restricted security environment, called the "sandbox", to ensure they don't perform any destructive operations on the user's computer, such as reading/writing to the filesystem. However, the introduction of Java has made it possible for Java applications to also be easily deployed over the web, as well as run in a secure environment. This means that the predominant difference

between a Java applet and a Java application is that an applet runs in the context of a web browser, being typically embedded within an html page, while a Java application runs standalone, outside the browser. Thus, applets are particularly well suited for providing functions in a web page which require more interactivity or animation than HTML can provide, such as a graphical game, complex editing, or interactive data visualization. The end user is able to access the functionality without leaving the browser. Loading Applets in a Web Page In order to load an applet in a web page, you

must specify the applet class with appropriate applet tags. A simple example is below: <applet code=AppletWorld.class width="200" height="200"> </applet>

For development and testing purposes, you can run your applet using the lightweight appletviewer application that comes with the JDK. For example, if AppletWorld.html is the html file name, then you run the command as

appletviewer AppletWorld.html important to test your applet running in a web browser by loading the applet's web page into the browser window. The browser can retrieve the class files either from the internet or from the local working directory used during development. If you make changes to your

Once you know your applet runs within the appletviewer, it is

applet's code while it is loaded in the browser, then you must recompile the applet and press the "Shift + Reload" button in the browser to load the new version.

Swings Swing is important to develop Java programs with a graphical user interface (GUI). There are many components which are used for the building of GUI in Swing. The Swing Toolkit consists of many components for the building of GUI. These components are also helpful in providing interactivity to Java applications. Following are components which are included in Swing toolkit:

list controls buttons labels tree controls table controls

The main characteristics of the Swing toolkit


platform independent customizable extensible configurable lightweight

Swing is probably the most advanced toolkit on this planet. It has a rich set of widgets. From basic widgets like Buttons, Labels, Scrollbars to advanced widgets like Trees and Tables. All AWT flexible components can be handled by the Java Swing. Swing toolkit contains far more components than the simple component toolkit. It is unique to any other toolkit in the way that it supports integrated internationalization, a highly customizable text package, rich undo support etc. Not only this you can also create your own look and feel using Swing other than the ones that are supported by it. The customized look and feel can be created using Synth which is specially designed. Not to forget that Swing also contains the basic user interface such as customizable painting, event handling, drag and drop etc. Swing is a part of JFC, Java Foundation Classes. It is a collection of packages for creating full featured desktop applications. JFC consists of AWT, Swing, Accessibility, Java 2D, and Drag and Drop. Swing was released in 1997 with JDK 1.2. It is a mature toolkit. The Java platform has Java2D library, which enables developers to create advanced 2D graphics and imaging. There are basically two types of widget toolkits.

Lightweight Heavyweight

A heavyweight toolkit uses OS's API to draw the widgets. For example Borland's VCL is a heavyweight toolkit. It depends on WIN32 API, the built in Windows application programming interface. On Unix systems, we have GTK+ toolkit, which is built on top of X11 library. Swing is a lightweight toolkit. It paints it's own widgets. It is in fact the only lightweight toolkit I know about.

The Java Foundation Classes (JFC) which supports many more features important to a GUI program comprises of Swing as well. The features which are supported by Java Foundation Classes (JFC) are the ability to create a program that can work in different languages, the ability to add rich graphics functionality etc. The features which are provided by Swing and the Java Foundation Classes are as follows: Swing GUI Components There are several components contained in Swing toolkit such as check boxes, buttons, tables, text etc. Some very simple components also provide sophisticated functionality. For instance, text fields provide formatted text input or password field behavior. Furthermore, the file browsers and dialogs can be used according to one's need and can even be customized.

Programming has become more interactive with Java 2D API. You can add images, figures, animation to your GUI and even pass visual information with the help of Java 2D API. You can easily use 2D within Swing components such as drop shadows since Swing is built on 2D package. Pluggable Look and Feel The Java Swing supports the plugging between the look and feel features. The look and feel that means the dramatically changing in the component like JFrame, JWindow, JDialog etc. for viewing it into the several types of window. You can create your own look and feel using Synth package. There are many of existing look and feels which are available to Swing programs provided by GTK+ look and feel. Moreover, the look and feel of the platform can be specified by the program while running and also to use Java look and feel can be specified by it. The pluggable look and feel indicates that the whole look of the GUI element can be changed i.e. both the visual representation and behavior of a GUI can be changed at the time of display of the component. The new object which is created by the Swing application i.e. a new button by instantiating the JButton class already knows that how to react to mouse movements and mouse clicks. Some tasks are only performed by certain specialized classes like mouse handling that is why there is no need to change the code to modify the look. However, if the code is contained by the button itself that creates its visual representation then this code would be required to be changed to modify the look and feel of the GUI. Due to this reason only Swing provides custom look and feel. Compiling and Running Swing Programs

Install the latest release of the Java SE platform, if you haven't already done so. Create a program that uses Swing components. Compile the program. Run the program. About the JFC and Swing JFC is short for Java Foundation Classes, which encompass a group of features for building graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and adding rich graphics functionality and interactivity to Java applications. It is defined as containing the features shown in the table below. Features of the Java Foundation Classes Feature Swing GUI Components Description Includes everything from buttons to split panes to tables. Many components are capable of sorting, printing, and drag and drop, to name a few of the supported features. The look and feel of Swing applications is pluggable, allowing a choice of look and feel. For example, the same program can use Pluggable Lookand-Feel Support either the Java or the Windows look and feel. Additionally, the Java platform supports the GTK+ look and feel, which makes hundreds of existing look and feels available to Swing programs. Many more look-and-feel packages are available from various sources. Enables assistive technologies, such as screen readers and Braille displays, to get information from the user interface.

Accessibility API

Enables developers to easily incorporate high-quality 2D Java 2D API graphics, text, and images in applications and applets. Java 2D includes extensive APIs for generating and sending high-quality output to printing devices. Allows developers to build applications that can interact with users worldwide in their own languages and cultural Internationalization conventions. With the input method framework developers can build applications that accept text in languages that use thousands of different characters, such as Japanese, Chinese, or Korean. This trail concentrates on the Swing components. We help you choose the appropriate components for your GUI, tell you how to use them, and give you the background information you need to use them effectively. We also discuss other JFC features as they apply to Swing components. AWT stands for Abstract Windowing Toolkit. It contains all classes to write the program that interface between the user and different windowing toolkits. You can use the AWT package to develop user interface objects like buttons, checkboxes, radio buttons and menus etc. This package provides following interfaces and classes as follows: Interfaces and Descriptions of AWT Package: ActionEvent This interface is used for Adjustable handling events. This interface takes numeric value to adjust within the bounded range.

Composite

This interface defines methods to draw a graphical area. It combines a shape, text, or image etc. This interface allows the existence of several context simultaneously for a single composite object. It handles the state of the operations. This interface is used for maintaining zero or more selection for items from the item list. The KeyEventDispatcher implements the current KeyboardFocusManager and it receives KeyEvents before despatching their

CompositeContext

ItemSelectable

KeyEventDispatcher

targets. KeyEventPostProcessor This interface also implements the current KeyboardFocusManager. The KeyboardFocusManager receives the KeyEvents after that dispatching their LayoutManager targets. It defines the interface class

LayoutManager2

and it has layout containers. This is the interface extends from the LayoutManager and is subinterface of that. This interface has all menu containers. This interface is used to color pattern. It used for the Graphics2D operations. This interface also used the color pattern. It provides an important color for the Graphics2D operation and uses the ColorModel. This interface provides print a graphics context for a page. This interface used for represent the geometric shapes. This interface allows the Graphics2D object and contains the shapes to outline or stylistic representation of outline. This interface defines the transparency mode for implementing classes.

MenuContainer Paint

PaintContext

PaintGraphics

Shape

Stroke

Transparency

Classes and Descriptions of AWT Package: AlphaComposite This class implements the basic alpha compositing rules. It combines the source and destination pixels to achieve transparency effects to graphics AWTEvent and images. This is a supper class of all AWT AWTEventMulticaster Events. This class implements threadsafe multi-cast event and it is despatching for the AWT event. The AWT events defined in the java.awt.event AWTKeyStroke package. This class used to key action on the

keyboard or equivalent input AWTPermission devices. This class uses for the AWT BasicStroke permissions. This class defines the basic set of rendering attributes for using outlines BorderLayout of graphics. This class uses to arranging the components. It has five components such as: east, west, north, south and the BufferCapabilities center. This class has properties of BufferCapabilities.FlipContents buffers. This class has a type-safe enumeration of buffer. It contains Button after page-flipping. This class used to create a label

Convas

button It represents the blank rectanglular area on screen. It can draw or trap input events from the user. It is a layout manager for a comtainer. It is a graphical component. It has two states. True state that means "on" or false sate that means "off". This class to be used together multiple checkbox buttons. This class represents the checkbox and also include the menu. This class represents pop-up menu to user's choice.

CardLayout

Chaeckbox

CheckboxGroup

CheckboxMenuItem

Choice

Color

This class has colors. The default color is RGB color. Color library specify the all color, it identified by ColorSpace. This is a graphical representation to interacted by user. It displays on the screen. This class encapsulates the language-sensitive orientation. It also used the order the element of component or text.. A generic AWT container object has other AWT

Component

ComponentOritentation

Container

components. ContainerOrderFocusTraversalPolicy It determines the traversal order based on the order of child

components in a Cursor container. This class represents the bitmap representation of DefultFocusTraversalPolicy the mouse cursor. This class determines the traversal order on the order of child components of DefultKeyboardFocusManager container. This class used for handle the AWT Dialog applecations. This is a top label window. It has title and border. It can be used for taking a some input of Dimension users. This class describe the height and width of a component in a DisplayMode single object. This class

encapsulates the bit depth, height, width and refresh rate of a Event GraphicsDevice. This class available only for the backwards EventQueue compatilibility. It is a platform independent class. It has both classes underlying peer class and trusted application class.
DBMS A data base management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data helps them transform the data into information. Such as management system include dbase, paradox, SQL and SQL server. These systems allow users to create update and extract from their database. a database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the characterstics of people, things and events, SQL server stores each data in its own fields. In sql server the fields relating to particular person, thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data, called a record (it can also be referred to as a row or an occurrence). Each record is made up of a number of fields .no two fields in a record can have the same field. During an SQL server database design project the analysis of your business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest .if your business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or change the defination of existing fields. SQL sever tables

SQL server stores records relating to each other in a table. Different tables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables are grouped together to form a database.

PRIMARY KEY Every table in SQL server has a field or a combination of fields that uniquely identifies each record in table. The unique identifier is called the primary key, or simply the key. The primary key provides the means to distinguish one record from all Relational database Some times all the information of interest to business operation can be stored in one table .sql Server makes it very easy to link the data in multiple tables. Matching an employee to the department in which they work is one example. This is what makes sql server a relational database management system, or RDBMS. It stores data in two or more tables and enables you to define relationships between the tables and enables you to define relationships between the tables.

FOREIGN KEY

When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field is referred to as a foreign key. A foreign key field or a group of fields in one table whose values match those of the primary key of another table.

REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY

Not only does SQL Server allow you to link multiple tables, it also maintains consistency between them. Ensuring that the data among related tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity.

DATA ABSTRACTION

A major purpose of database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. This system hides certain details of how data is stored and maintained. Data abstraction is divided into three levels.\ Physical level: this is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describes how the data are actually stored. Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all attributed and what data are actually stored is described and relationship among them View Level: this is the highest level of abstraction at which one describes only part of the database.

ADVANTAGES OF RDBMS Redundancy can be avoided Inconsistency can be eliminated Data can be shared Standards can be enforced Security restrictions can be applied Integrity can be maintained Conflicting requirements can be balanced Data independence can be achieved.

DISADVANTAGES OF DBMS

A significant disadvantage of the DBMS System is cost. In addition to the cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to be upgrade to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for their execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so that in case of failure the data can be recovered.

FEATURES OF SQL SERVER (RDBMS)

SQL Server is one of the leading database management system (DBMS) because it is the only Database that that meets the uncompromising requirements of todays most demanding information systems. From complex decision support system (DSS) to the most rigorous online transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that require simultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data, SQL Server Leads the industry in both performance and capability SQL SERVER is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that delivers unmatched performance, continuous and support for every database.

Sql SERVER RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is specially designed for online transaction processing and for handling large database application. SQL SERVER with transaction processing option offers two features which contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are The row level lock manager

ENTERPRISE WIDE DATA SHARING The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the sql server DBMS enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into a single, integrated computing resource.

PORTABILITY SQL SERVER is fully portable to more 80 distinct hardware and operating systems platforms, including UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2, Macintosh and dozens of proprietary platforms. This portability gives complete freedom to choose the database server platform that meat the system requirements.

OPEN SYSTEM SQL SERVER offers a leading implementation of industry-standard SQL. SQL Servers open architecture integrates SQL SERVER and non-SQL SERVER DBMS with industries most comprehensive collection of tools, application, and third party software products SQL Servers open architecture provides transparent to data from other relational database and even nonrelational database.

DISTRIBUTED DATA SHARING SQL Servers networking and distributed database capabilities to access data stored on remote server with the same ease as if the information was stored on a single local computer. A single SQL statement can access data multiple sites. You can store data where system requirements such as performance, security or availability dictate.

UNMATCHED PERFORMANCE The most advanced architecture in the industry allows SQL SEVER DBMS to deliver unmatched performance.

SOPHISTICATED CONCURRENCY CONTROL Real world applications demand access to critical data. With most database Systems applications becomes connection bound- which performance is limited not by the CPU power or by disk I/O, but user waiting on one another contention free queries to minimize and in many cases entirely eliminates contention wait times.

NO I/O BOTTLENECKS SQL Servers fast commit groups commit and deferred write technologies dramatically reduce disk I/O bottlenecks. While some database write whole data block to disk at commit time, SQL SERVER commits transactions with at most sequential log file on disk at commit time, On high throughput systems, one sequential log file on disk at commit multiple transactions. Data read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that other transactions may access that data with out reading it again from disk. Since fast commits write all data necessary to the recovery to the log file, modified blocks are written back to the database independently of the transactions commit, when written from memory to disk.

6. TESTING

TESTING

Testing is a process, which reveals errors in the program. It is the major quality measure employed during software development. During software development. During testing, the program is executed with a set of test cases and the output of the program for the test cases is evaluated to determine if the program is performing as it is expected to perform.

In order to make sure that the system does not have errors, the different levels of testing strategies that are applied at differing phases of software development are:

1.

UNIT TESTING

Unit Testing is done on individual modules as they are completed and become executable. It is confined only to the designer's requirements.

Each module can be tested using the following two strategies: I) BLACK BOX TESTING: In this strategy some test cases are generated as input conditions that fully execute all functional requirements for the program. This testing has been uses to find errors in the following categories: a) Incorrect or missing functions b) Interface errors c) Errors in data structure or external database access d) Performance errors e) Initialization and termination errors. In this testing only the output is checked for correctness. The logical flow of the data is not checked. ii) WHITE BOX TESTING In this the test cases are generated on the logic of each module by drawing flow graphs of that module and logical decisions are tested on all the cases. It has been uses to generate the test cases in the following cases: a) Guarantee that all independent paths have been executed. b) Execute all logical decisions on their true and false sides. c) Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. d) Execute internal data structures to ensure their validity.

2.

INTEGRATING TESTING Integration testing ensures that software and subsystems work together as a whole. It tests the interface of all the modules to make sure that the modules behave properly when integrated together.

3.

SYSTEM TESTING Involves in-house testing of the entire system before delivery to the user. Its aim is to satisfy the user the system meets all requirements of the client's specifications.

4.

ACCEPTANCE TESTING It is a pre-delivery testing in which entire system is tested at client's site on real world data to find errors.

VALIDATION:

The system has been tested and implemented successfully and thus ensured that all the requirements as listed in the software requirements specification are completely fulfilled. In case of erroneous input corresponding error messages are displayed.

TEST PLAN:

The importance of software testing and its implications can be over emphasized. Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specifications, design and coding. The main objective of testing is to uncover a host of errors, systematically and with minimum effort and time stating formally we can say.
Testing is a process of executing a program of intent of finding and error.

A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error

A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding error, if it exists .

But there is one thing that testing cant do testing cannot show the absence of defects, it can be so that defects are present. As the test results are gathered and evaluated. They begin to give a qualitative indication of the reliability of the software if severe errors the overall quality of software is a natural suspect. If, one the other hand, all the errors, which are encountered is easily modifiable, the one of two conclusions can be made 1. The tests are inadequate to detect possible present errors . 2. The software more or less confirms to the quality and reliable standards . TESTING STRATEGY: A testing strategy is a roadway, giving through how to conduct a test out testing strategy is flexible enough to promote customization that may be necessary in due course of development process for instance during coding we find that a change in design we maintain a change a log and refer to it at appropriate time during the testing .

INTEGRATION TESTING: Integration is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests at the same time to uncover errors associated with interfacing we have used incremental integration testing for this module.

VALIDATION TESTING: At the time of culmination of integration testing the software is complete as a package and the interfacing errors have been uncovered and fixed and final test validation testing may begin validation test succeed when the software performs exactly in the manner as expected by the user.

TEST CASE DESIGN: The techniques that are used in deriving the test cases are explained below

CONDITION TESTING:
Condition testing is a test case design method that exercises the logical conditions contained in the program the possible components in a condition statement are a Boolean operator, Boolean variable, relational operator, arithmetic expression and parenthesis simple or compound conditions the condition testing method focuses on testing each condition in the program.

BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS : Boundary value analysis leads to a selection of test cases that exercise the boundary conditions or boundary values it has been observed that a large number of errors tend to appear at the boundaries of the input domain than in the center.

EQUIVALENCE PORTIONING: Equivalence portioning is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived a typical test uncovers a class errors might otherwise require many more test cases before the error is observed.

Equivalence classes for input determine the valid and invalid inputs for the program.

Screens and Reports

DATA DICTIONARY

FEATURES OF DATA DICTIONARV The Volume of data in most Information system applications is substantially more than a single user can easily keep track of data dictionaries are an integral component of structural analysis, since data flow diagrams by themselves do not fully describe the subject of investigation. The data dictionary provides additional information about the system.

What is Data Dictionary? A Data Dictionary a repository of the elements in a system. As the name suggests, these elements center around data and the way they are structured to meet user requirements and organization needs. In a data dictionary we will find a list of all elements composing the data flowing through a system. The major elements are data flows, data stores and process the Data Dictionary stores details and descriptions of these elements.

Why is a data dictionary important? Analysts use data dictionaries for five important reasons. 1. To manage the detail in large systems. 2. To communicate a common meaning for all elements. 3. To document the features of the system. 4. To facilitate analysts of details in order to evaluate

characteristics and determine where system changes would be made. 5. To locate errors and omissions in the system. Manage Detail Large systems have huge volumes of data flowing them in the form of documents, reports and even. Similarly many different activities take place that use existing data or create new details. The best organized or most effective analysis use automated data dictionaries designed specifically for systems analysis and design. Communicate Meaning Data dictionaries assist in ensuring common meanings for system elements and activities. Data dictionaries record additional details about the data flow in a system; so that the persons who are involved may look up the description if data flows, data stores and processes. Document System Features Documenting the features of an information system is the third reason for using the data dictionary systems. Features include the parts or components and the characteristics that distinguish

each. Having to formally describe, system features will produce a more complete understanding.

Facilitate

Analysis

The Fourth reason for using data dictionaries is to determine whether new features are needed in a system or whether change of any type is in order. For any situation, system analysts will typically focus on the following system characteristics. a) b) Nature if transaction Inquiries

c)Output and Report generation

DataBase Design:

TABLE NAME:

LOGIN

Ser.NO

FIELD NAME

DATA TYPE

CONSTRAINT

1.

NAME

VARCHAR2(20)

2.

PASSWORD

VARCHAR2(20)

S.NO

FIELD NAME

DATATYPE

CONSTRAIN PrimaryKey

1.

STUDENTID

NUMBER(6)

2.

LASTNAME

VARCHAR2(15)

3.

FIRSTNAME

VARCHAR2(15)

4.

JOINDATE

VARCHAR2(15)

S.NO

FIELD NAME

DATA TYPE

CONSTRAINT ForeignFromStudent

STUDENTID

NUMBER(6)

LASTNAME

VARCHAR2(15)

FIRSTNAME

VARCHAR2(15) ForeignKeyfrom CourseTable

COURSE

VARCHAR2(15)

LOGINTIME

VARCHAR2(15)

6 7 8

LOGOUTTIME DATE1 DATE2

VARCHAR2(15) DATE DATE

TABLE NAME: COURSES

S.NO

FIELD NAME

DATA TYPE

CONSTRAINT

PrimaryKey 1 COURSEID NUMBER(6) PrimaryKey 2 COURSENAME VARCHAR2(15)

ENTERDATE

VARCHAR2(15)

4.Technical Notes

HISTORY OF JAVA Java language was developed by James Gosling and his team at sun micro systems and released formally in 1995. Its former name is oak. Java Development Kit 1.0 was released in 1996. to popularize java and is freely available on Internet. Overview of Java Java is loosely based on C++ syntax, and is menat to be Object-Oriented Structure of java is midway between an interpreted and a compiled language . java programs are compiled by the java compiler into Byte Codes which are secure and portable across different platforms . these byte codes are essentially instructions encapsulated in single type, to what is known as ajava virtual machine (JVM) which resides instandard browser.

JVM verifies these byte codes when downloaded by the browser for integrity. Jvms are available for almost all OS. JVM converts these byte codes into machine specific instructions at runtime.

FEATURES OF JAVA java is object-oriented language and supports encapsulation, inheritance , polymorphism and dynamic binding , but does not support multiple inheritance.every thing in java is an object except some primitive datatypes . java is portable architecture neutral that is java programs once compiled can be executed on any machine that is enabled. JAVA is distributed in its approach and used for internet programming. Java is robust, secured, high performing and dynamic in nature. Java supports multithreading. There for different parts of the program can be executed at the same time JAVA AND INTERNET Java is strongly associated with internet and known as internet programming language. Internet users can use java to create applet programs and run them locally using java enabled

browser search as hot java. Applets can be downloaded from remote machine via internet and run it on local machine .

JAVA AND WORLD WIDE WEB World wide web is an open ended information retrieval system designed to be used in the distributed environment. This system contains web pages that provide both information and controls. We can navigate to a new web page in any direction. This is made possible worth HTML java was meant to be used in distributed environment such as internet. So java could be easily incorporated into the web system and is capable of supporting animation graphics , games and other special effect. The web has become more dynamic and interactive with support of java. We can run a java program on remote machine over internet with the support of web . JAVA ENVIRONMENT Java environment includes a large no.of tools which are part of the system known as java development kit (JDK) and hundreds of classes, methods, and interfaces grouped into packages forms part of java standard library(JSL). JAVA ARCHITECTURE Java architecture provides a portable , robust , high performing environment for development. Java provides

portability by compiling the byte codes for the java virtual machine which are then interpreted on each platform by the runtime environment . java also provides stringent compile and runtime checking and automatic memory management in order to ensure solid code . JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE When we compile the code, java compiler creates machine code (byte code) for a hypothetical machine called java virtual machine (jvm). The jvm will execute the byte code and overcomes the issue of portability . the code is written and compile for one machine and interpreted all other machines . this machine is called java virtual machine .

PARADIGM OF JAVA Dynamic down loading applets(small application programs); Elimination of flatware phenomenon that is providing those features of a product that user needs at a time. The remaining features of a product can remain in the server. Changing economic model of the software Up-to-date software availability Supports network entire computing Supports CORBA & DCOM

AWT

A user interface object such as a button or a scrollbar is called, in AWT terminology, a component. The Component class is the root of all AWT components. See Component for a detailed description of properties that all AWT components share. Some components fire events when a user interacts with the components. The AWTEvent class and its subclasses are used to represent the events that AWT components can fire. See AWTEvent for a description of the AWT event model. A container is a component that can contain components and other containers. A con tainer can also have a layout manager that controls the visual placement of components in the container. The AWT package contains several layout manager classes and an interface for building your own layout manager. See Container and LayoutManager for more information.

A flow layout arranges components in a left-to-right flow, much like lines of text in a paragraph. Flow layouts are typically used to arrange buttons in a panel. It will arrange buttons left to right until no more buttons fit on the same line. Each line is centered. For example, the following picture shows an applet using the flow layout manager (its default layout manager) to position three buttons:

The GridBagLayout class is a flexible layout manager that aligns components vertically and horizontally, without requiring that the components be of the same size. Each GridBagLayout object maintains a dynamic, rectangular grid of cells, with each component occupying one or more cells, called its display area.

Each component managed by a GridBagLayout is associated with an instance of GridBagConstraints. The constraints object specifies where a component's display area should be located on the grid and how the component should be positioned within its display area. In addition to its constraints object, the GridBagLayout also considers each component's minimum and preferred sizes in order to determine a component's size. The overall orientation of the grid depends on the container's ComponentOrientation property. For horizontal left-to-right orientations, grid coordinate (0,0) is in the upper left corner of the container with x increasing to the right and y increasing downward. For horizontal right-to-left orientations, grid coordinate (0,0) is in the upper right corner of the container with x increasing to the left and y increasing downward. The GridLayout class is a layout manager that lays out a container's components in a rectangular grid. The container is divided into equal-sized rectangles, and one component is placed in each rectangle.

If the container's ComponentOrientation property is horizontal and left-to-right, the above example produces the output shown in Figure 1. If the container's ComponentOrientation property is horizontal and right-to-left, the example produces the output shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1: Horizontal, Left-to-Right

Figure 2: Horizontal, Right-to-Left

When both the number of rows and the number of columns have been set to non-zero values, either by a constructor or by the setRows and setColumns methods, the number of columns specified is ignored. Instead, the number of columns is determined from the specified number or rows and the total number of components in the layout. So, for example, if three rows and two columns have been specified and nine components are added to the layout, they will be displayed as three rows of three columns. Specifying the number of columns affects the layout only when the number of rows is set to zero. A layout manager that allows multiple components to be laid out either vertically or horizontally. The components will not wrap so, for example, a vertical arrangement of components will stay vertically arranged when the frame is resized.

Nesting multiple panels with different combinations of horizontal and vertical gives an effect similar to GridBagLayout, without the complexity. The diagram shows two panels arranged horizontally, each of which contains 3 components arranged vertically. The BoxLayout manager is constructed with an axis parameter that specifies the type of layout that will be done. There are four choices:
X_AXIS Y_AXIS

- Components are laid out horizontally from left to right. - Components are laid out vertically from top to bottom.

- Components are laid out the way words are laid out in a line, based on the container's ComponentOrientation property. If the container's ComponentOrientation is horizontal then components are laid out horizontally, otherwise they are laid out vertically. For horizontal orientations, if the container's ComponentOrientation is left to right then components are laid out left to right, otherwise they are laid out right to left. For vertical orientations components are always laid out from top to bottom.
LINE_AXIS

- Components are laid out the way text lines are laid out on a page, based on the container's ComponentOrientation property. If the container's ComponentOrientation is horizontal then components are laid out vertically, otherwise they are laid out horizontally. For horizontal orientations, if the container's ComponentOrientation is left to right then components are laid out left to right, otherwise they are laid out right to left. For vertical orientations components are always laid out from top to bottom.
PAGE_AXIS

For all directions, components are arranged in the same order as they were added to the container. BoxLayout attempts to arrange components at their preferred widths (for horizontal layout) or heights (for vertical layout). For a horizontal layout, if not all the components are the same height, BoxLayout attempts to make all the components as high as the highest component. If that's not possible for a particular component, then BoxLayout aligns that component vertically, according to the component's Y alignment. By default, a component has a Y alignment of 0.5, which means that the vertical center of the component should have the same Y coordinate as the vertical centers of other components with 0.5 Y alignment. Similarly, for a vertical layout, BoxLayout attempts to make all components in the column as wide as the widest component. If that fails, it aligns them horizontally according to their X alignments. For PAGE_AXIS layout, horizontal alignment is done based on the leading edge of the component. In other words, an X alignment value of 0.0 means the left edge of a component if the container's ComponentOrientation is left to right and it means the right edge of the component otherwise. Instead of using BoxLayout directly, many programs use the Box class. The Box class is a lightweight container that uses a BoxLayout. It also provides handy methods to help you use

BoxLayout well. Adding components to multiple nested boxes is a powerful way to get the arrangement you want. A border layout lays out a container, arranging and resizing its components to fit in five regions: north, south, east, west, and center. Each region may contain no more than one component, and is identified by a corresponding constant: NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, WEST, and
CENTER.

When adding a component to a container with a border layout, use one of these five

constants In addition, BorderLayout supports the relative positioning constants, PAGE_START, PAGE_END, LINE_START, and LINE_END. In a container whose ComponentOrientation is set to ComponentOrientation.LEFT_TO_RIGHT, these constants map to NORTH, SOUTH, WEST, and EAST, respectively. For compatibility with previous releases, BorderLayout also includes the relative positioning constants BEFORE_FIRST_LINE, AFTER_LAST_LINE, BEFORE_LINE_BEGINS and AFTER_LINE_ENDS. These are equivalent to PAGE_START, PAGE_END, LINE_START and LINE_END respectively. For consistency with the relative positioning constants used by other components, the latter constants are preferred. Mixing both absolute and relative positioning constants can lead to unpredicable results. If you use both types, the relative constants will take precedence. For example, if you add components using both the NORTH and PAGE_START constants in a container whose orientation is LEFT_TO_RIGHT, only the PAGE_START will be layed out. NOTE: Currently (in the Java 2 platform v1.2), BorderLayout does not support vertical orientations. The isVertical setting on the container's ComponentOrientation is not respected. The components are laid out according to their preferred sizes and the constraints of the container's size. The NORTH and SOUTH components may be stretched horizontally; the EAST and WEST components may be stretched vertically; the CENTER component may stretch both horizontally and vertically to fill any space left over. Here is an example of five buttons in an applet laid out using the BorderLayout layout manager:

The code for this applet is as follows:

A CardLayout object is a layout manager for a container. It treats each component in the container as a card. Only one card is visible at a time, and the container acts as a stack of cards. The first component added to a CardLayout object is the visible component when the container is first displayed. The ordering of cards is determined by the container's own internal ordering of its component objects. CardLayout defines a set of methods that allow an application to flip through these cards sequentially, or to show a specified card.

2 Applets

An applet is a special kind of Java program that a browser enabled with Java technology can download from the internet and run. An applet is typically embedded inside a web-page and runs in the context of the browser. An applet must be a subclass of the

java.applet.Applet class, which provides the standard interface between the applet and the browser environment.

Swing provides a special subclass of Applet, called javax.swing.JApplet, which should be used for all applets that use Swing components to construct their GUIs.

By calling certain methods, a browser manages an applet life cycle, if an applet is loaded in a web page.

Life Cycle of an Applet: Basically, there are four methods in the Applet class on which any applet is built.

init: This method is intended for whatever

initialization is needed for your applet. It is called after the param attributes of the applet tag.

start: This method is automatically called after

init method. It is also called whenever user returns to the page containing the applet after visiting other pages.

stop: This method is automatically called

whenever the user moves away from the page containing applets. You can use this method to stop an animation.

destroy: This method is only called when the

browser shuts down normally.

Thus, the applet can be initialized once and only once, started and stopped one or more times in its life, and destroyed once and only once.

For more information on Life Cylce of an Applet,

please refer to The Life Cycle of an Applet section. Applets vs. Applications In the early days of Java, one of the critical advantages that Java applets had over Java applications was that applets could be easily deployed over the web while Java applications required a more cumbersome installation process. Additionally, since applets are downloaded from the internet, by default they have to run in a restricted security environment, called the "sandbox", to ensure they don't perform any destructive operations on the user's computer, such as reading/writing to the filesystem. However, the introduction of Java has made it possible for Java applications to also be easily deployed over the web, as well as run in a secure environment. This means that the predominant difference between a Java applet and a Java application is that an applet runs in the context of a web browser, being typically embedded within an html page, while a Java application runs standalone, outside the browser. Thus, applets are particularly well suited for providing functions in a web page which require more interactivity or animation than HTML can provide, such as a graphical game, complex editing, or interactive data visualization. The end user is able to access the functionality without leaving the browser.

Loading Applets in a Web Page In order to load an applet in a web page, you

must specify the applet class with appropriate applet tags. A simple example is below: <applet code=AppletWorld.class width="200" height="200"> </applet>

For development and testing purposes, you can run your applet using the lightweight appletviewer application that comes with the JDK. For example, if AppletWorld.html is the html file name, then you run the command as

appletviewer AppletWorld.html important to test your applet running in a web browser by loading the applet's web page into the browser window. The browser can retrieve the class files either from the internet or from the local working directory used during development. If you make changes to your applet's code while it is loaded in the browser, then you must recompile the applet and press the "Shift + Reload" button in the browser to load the new version.

Once you know your applet runs within the appletviewer, it is

Swings Swing is important to develop Java programs with a graphical user interface (GUI). There are many components which are used for the building of GUI in

Swing. The Swing Toolkit consists of many components for the building of GUI. These components are also helpful in providing interactivity to Java applications. Following are components which are included in Swing toolkit:

list controls buttons labels tree controls table controls

The main characteristics of the Swing toolkit


platform independent customizable extensible configurable lightweight

Swing is probably the most advanced toolkit on this planet. It has a rich set of widgets. From basic widgets like Buttons, Labels, Scrollbars to advanced widgets like Trees and Tables. All AWT flexible components can be handled by the Java Swing. Swing toolkit contains far more components than the simple component toolkit. It is unique to any other toolkit in the way that it supports integrated internationalization, a highly customizable text package, rich undo support etc. Not only this you can also create your own look and feel using Swing other than the ones that are supported by it. The customized look and feel can be created using Synth which is

specially designed. Not to forget that Swing also contains the basic user interface such as customizable painting, event handling, drag and drop etc. Swing is a part of JFC, Java Foundation Classes. It is a collection of packages for creating full featured desktop applications. JFC consists of AWT, Swing, Accessibility, Java 2D, and Drag and Drop. Swing was released in 1997 with JDK 1.2. It is a mature toolkit. The Java platform has Java2D library, which enables developers to create advanced 2D graphics and imaging. There are basically two types of widget toolkits.

Lightweight Heavyweight

A heavyweight toolkit uses OS's API to draw the widgets. For example Borland's VCL is a heavyweight toolkit. It depends on WIN32 API, the built in Windows application programming interface. On Unix systems, we have GTK+ toolkit, which is built on top of X11 library. Swing is a lightweight toolkit. It paints it's own widgets. It is in fact the only lightweight toolkit I know about.

The Java Foundation Classes (JFC) which supports many more features important to a GUI program comprises of Swing as well. The features which are

supported by Java Foundation Classes (JFC) are the ability to create a program that can work in different languages, the ability to add rich graphics functionality etc. The features which are provided by Swing and the Java Foundation Classes are as follows: Swing GUI Components There are several components contained in Swing toolkit such as check boxes, buttons, tables, text etc. Some very simple components also provide sophisticated functionality. For instance, text fields provide formatted text input or password field behavior. Furthermore, the file browsers and dialogs can be used according to one's need and can even be customized. Programming has become more interactive with Java 2D API. You can add images, figures, animation to your GUI and even pass visual information with the help of Java 2D API. You can easily use 2D within Swing components such as drop shadows since Swing is built on 2D package. Pluggable Look and Feel The Java Swing supports the plugging between the look and feel features. The look and feel that means the dramatically changing in the component like JFrame, JWindow, JDialog etc. for viewing it into the several types of window. You can create your own look and feel using Synth package. There are many of existing look and feels which are available to Swing programs provided by GTK+ look

and feel. Moreover, the look and feel of the platform can be specified by the program while running and also to use Java look and feel can be specified by it. The pluggable look and feel indicates that the whole look of the GUI element can be changed i.e. both the visual representation and behavior of a GUI can be changed at the time of display of the component. The new object which is created by the Swing application i.e. a new button by instantiating the JButton class already knows that how to react to mouse movements and mouse clicks. Some tasks are only performed by certain specialized classes like mouse handling that is why there is no need to change the code to modify the look. However, if the code is contained by the button itself that creates its visual representation then this code would be required to be changed to modify the look and feel of the GUI. Due to this reason only Swing provides custom look and feel. Compiling and Running Swing Programs Install the latest release of the Java SE platform, if you haven't already done so. Create a program that uses Swing components. Compile the program. Run the program. About the JFC and Swing JFC is short for Java Foundation Classes, which encompass a group of features for building graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and adding rich graphics functionality and interactivity to Java applications. It is defined as containing the features shown in the table below.

Features of the Java Foundation Classes Feature Swing GUI Components Description Includes everything from buttons to split panes to tables. Many components are capable of sorting, printing, and drag and drop, to name a few of the supported features. The look and feel of Swing applications is pluggable, allowing a choice of look and feel. For example, the same program can use Pluggable Lookand-Feel Support either the Java or the Windows look and feel. Additionally, the Java platform supports the GTK+ look and feel, which makes hundreds of existing look and feels available to Swing programs. Many more look-and-feel packages are available from various sources. Enables assistive technologies, such as screen readers and Braille displays, to get information from the user interface. Enables developers to easily incorporate high-quality 2D graphics, text, and images in applications and applets. Java 2D includes extensive APIs for generating and sending high-quality output to printing devices. Allows developers to build applications that can interact with users worldwide in their own languages and cultural Internationalization conventions. With the input method framework developers can build applications that accept text in languages that use thousands of different characters, such as Japanese, Chinese, or Korean. This trail concentrates on the Swing components. We help you choose the appropriate components for your GUI, tell you how to use them, and give you the background information you need to

Accessibility API

Java 2D API

use them effectively. We also discuss other JFC features as they apply to Swing components. AWT stands for Abstract Windowing Toolkit. It contains all classes to write the program that interface between the user and different windowing toolkits. You can use the AWT package to develop user interface objects like buttons, checkboxes, radio buttons and menus etc. This package provides following interfaces and classes as follows: Interfaces and Descriptions of AWT Package: ActionEvent This interface is used for Adjustable handling events. This interface takes numeric value to adjust Composite within the bounded range. This interface defines methods to draw a graphical area. It combines a shape, CompositeContext text, or image etc. This interface allows the existence of several context simultaneously for a single composite object. It handles ItemSelectable the state of the operations. This interface is used for maintaining zero or more selection for items from the item list.

KeyEventDispatcher

The KeyEventDispatcher implements the current KeyboardFocusManager and it receives KeyEvents before despatching their

targets. KeyEventPostProcessor This interface also implements the current KeyboardFocusManager. The KeyboardFocusManager receives the KeyEvents after that dispatching their LayoutManager LayoutManager2 targets. It defines the interface class and it has layout containers. This is the interface extends from the LayoutManager MenuContainer Paint and is subinterface of that. This interface has all menu containers. This interface is used to color pattern. It used for the PaintContext Graphics2D operations. This interface also used the color pattern. It provides an important color for the Graphics2D operation and

uses the ColorModel. PaintGraphics This interface provides print a graphics context for Shape a page. This interface used for represent the geometric Stroke shapes. This interface allows the Graphics2D object and contains the shapes to outline or stylistic Transparency representation of outline. This interface defines the transparency mode for implementing classes. Classes and Descriptions of AWT Package: AlphaComposite This class implements the basic alpha compositing rules. It combines the source and destination pixels to achieve transparency effects to graphics

AWTEvent

and images. This is a supper class of all AWT Events. This class implements threadsafe multi-cast event and it is despatching for the AWT event. The AWT events defined in the java.awt.event package. This class used to key action on the keyboard or equivalent input devices. This class uses for the AWT permissions. This class defines the basic set of rendering attributes for using outlines of graphics. This class uses to

AWTEventMulticaster

AWTKeyStroke

AWTPermission

BasicStroke

BorderLayout

arranging the components. It has five components such as: east, west, north, south and the BufferCapabilities center. This class has properties of BufferCapabilities.FlipContents buffers. This class has a type-safe enumeration of buffer. It contains Button after page-flipping. This class used to create a label Convas button It represents the blank rectanglular area on screen. It can draw or trap input events from CardLayout the user. It is a layout manager for a Chaeckbox comtainer. It is a graphical component. It has

two states. True state that means "on" or false sate CheckboxGroup that means "off". This class to be used together multiple checkbox CheckboxMenuItem buttons. This class represents the checkbox and also Choice include the menu. This class represents pop-up menu to user's Color choice. This class has colors. The default color is RGB color. Color library specify the all color, it identified Component by ColorSpace. This is a graphical representation to interacted by user. It displays on the screen.

ComponentOritentation

This class encapsulates the language-sensitive orientation. It also used the order the element of component or text.. A generic AWT container object has other AWT

Container

components. ContainerOrderFocusTraversalPolicy It determines the traversal order based on the order of child components in a Cursor container. This class represents the bitmap representation of DefultFocusTraversalPolicy the mouse cursor. This class determines the traversal order on the order of child components of

DefultKeyboardFocusManager

container. This class used for handle the AWT applecations. This is a top label window. It has title and border. It can be used for taking a some input of users. This class describe the height and width of a component in a single object. This class encapsulates the bit depth, height, width and refresh rate of a GraphicsDevice. This class available only for the backwards compatilibility. It is a platform independent class. It has both classes

Dialog

Dimension

DisplayMode

Event

EventQueue

underlying peer class and trusted application class.


DBMS A data base management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data helps them transform the data into information. Such as management system include dbase, paradox, SQL and SQL server. These systems allow users to create update and extract from their database. a database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the characterstics of people, things and events, SQL server stores each data in its own fields. In sql server the fields relating to particular person, thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data, called a record (it can also be referred to as a row or an occurrence). Each record is made up of a number of fields .no two fields in a record can have the same field. During an SQL server database design project the analysis of your business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest .if your business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or change the defination of existing fields. SQL sever tables SQL server stores records relating to each other in a table. Different tables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables are grouped together to form a database.

PRIMARY KEY Every table in SQL server has a field or a combination of fields that uniquely identifies each record in table. The unique identifier is called the primary key, or simply the key. The primary key provides the means to distinguish one record from all Relational database Some times all the information of interest to business operation can be stored in one table .sql Server makes it very easy to link the data in multiple tables. Matching an employee to the department in which they work is one example. This is what makes sql server a relational database management system, or RDBMS. It stores data in two or more tables and enables you to define relationships between the tables and enables you to define relationships between the tables.

FOREIGN KEY

When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field is referred to as a foreign key. A foreign key field or a group of fields in one table whose values match those of the primary key of another table.

REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY

Not only does SQL Server allow you to link multiple tables, it also maintains consistency between them. Ensuring that the data among related tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity.

DATA ABSTRACTION A major purpose of database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. This system hides certain details of how data is stored and maintained. Data abstraction is divided into three levels.\ Physical level: this is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describes how the data are actually stored. Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all attributed and what data are actually stored is described and relationship among them View Level: this is the highest level of abstraction at which one describes only part of the database.

ADVANTAGES OF RDBMS Redundancy can be avoided

Inconsistency can be eliminated Data can be shared Standards can be enforced Security restrictions can be applied Integrity can be maintained Conflicting requirements can be balanced Data independence can be achieved.

DISADVANTAGES OF DBMS

A significant disadvantage of the DBMS System is cost. In addition to the cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to be upgrade to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for their execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so that in case of failure the data can be recovered.

FEATURES OF SQL SERVER (RDBMS)

SQL Server is one of the leading database management system (DBMS) because it is the only Database that that meets the uncompromising requirements of todays most demanding information systems. From complex decision support system (DSS) to the most rigorous online transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that require simultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data, SQL Server Leads the industry in both performance and capability SQL SERVER is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that delivers unmatched performance, continuous and support for every database.

Sql SERVER RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is specially designed for online transaction processing and for handling large database application. SQL SERVER with transaction processing option offers two features which contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are The row level lock manager

ENTERPRISE WIDE DATA SHARING The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the sql server DBMS enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into a single, integrated computing resource.

PORTABILITY SQL SERVER is fully portable to more 80 distinct hardware and operating systems platforms, including UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2, Macintosh and dozens of proprietary platforms. This portability gives complete freedom to choose the database server platform that meat the system requirements.

OPEN SYSTEM SQL SERVER offers a leading implementation of industry-standard SQL. SQL Servers open architecture integrates SQL SERVER and non-SQL SERVER DBMS with industries most comprehensive collection of tools, application, and third party software products SQL Servers open architecture provides transparent to data from other relational database and even nonrelational database.

DISTRIBUTED DATA SHARING SQL Servers networking and distributed database capabilities to access data stored on remote server with the same ease as if the information was stored on a single local computer. A single

SQL statement can access data multiple sites. You can store data where system requirements such as performance, security or availability dictate.

UNMATCHED PERFORMANCE The most advanced architecture in the industry allows SQL SEVER DBMS to deliver unmatched performance.

SOPHISTICATED CONCURRENCY CONTROL Real world applications demand access to critical data. With most database Systems applications becomes connection bound- which performance is limited not by the CPU power or by disk I/O, but user waiting on one another contention free queries to minimize and in many cases entirely eliminates contention wait times.

NO I/O BOTTLENECKS SQL Servers fast commit groups commit and deferred write technologies dramatically reduce disk I/O bottlenecks. While some database write whole data block to disk at commit time, SQL SERVER commits transactions with at most sequential log file on disk at commit time, On high throughput systems, one sequential log file on disk at commit multiple transactions. Data read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that other transactions may access that data with out reading it again from disk. Since fast commits write all data necessary to the recovery to the log file, modified blocks are written back to the database independently of the transactions commit, when written from memory to disk.

6. TESTING

TESTING

Testing is a process, which reveals errors in the program. It is the major quality measure employed during software development. During software development. During testing, the program is executed with a set of test cases and the output of the program for the test cases is evaluated to determine if the program is performing as it is expected to perform.

In order to make sure that the system does not have errors, the different levels of testing strategies that are applied at differing phases of software development are:

2.

UNIT TESTING

Unit Testing is done on individual modules as they are completed and become executable. It is confined only to the designer's requirements.

Each module can be tested using the following two strategies: I) BLACK BOX TESTING: In this strategy some test cases are generated as input conditions that fully execute all functional requirements for the program. This testing has been uses to find errors in the following categories: f) Incorrect or missing functions

g) Interface errors h) Errors in data structure or external database access i) Performance errors

j)

Initialization and termination errors. In this testing only the output is checked for correctness. The logical flow of the data is not checked.

iii)

WHITE BOX TESTING In this the test cases are generated on the logic of each module by drawing flow graphs of that module and logical decisions are tested on all the cases. It has been uses to generate the test cases in the following cases: e) Guarantee that all independent paths have been executed. f) Execute all logical decisions on their true and false sides. g) Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. h) Execute internal data structures to ensure their validity.

2.

INTEGRATING TESTING Integration testing ensures that software and subsystems work together as a whole. It tests the interface of all the modules to make sure that the modules behave properly when integrated together.

3.

SYSTEM TESTING Involves in-house testing of the entire system before delivery to the user. Its aim is to satisfy the user the system meets all requirements of the client's specifications.

5.

ACCEPTANCE TESTING It is a pre-delivery testing in which entire system is tested at client's site on real world data to find errors.

VALIDATION:

The system has been tested and implemented successfully and thus ensured that all the requirements as listed in the software requirements specification are completely fulfilled. In case of erroneous input corresponding error messages are displayed.

TEST PLAN:

The importance of software testing and its implications can be over emphasized. Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specifications, design and coding. The main objective of testing is to uncover a host of errors, systematically and with minimum effort and time stating formally we can say.
Testing is a process of executing a program of intent of finding and error.

A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding error, if it exists .

But there is one thing that testing cant do testing cannot show the absence of defects, it can be so that defects are present. As the test results are gathered and evaluated. They begin to give a qualitative indication of the reliability of the software if severe errors the overall quality of software is a natural suspect. If, one the other hand, all the errors, which are encountered is easily modifiable, the one of two conclusions can be made 1. The tests are inadequate to detect possible present errors . 2. The software more or less confirms to the quality and reliable standards .

TESTING STRATEGY: A testing strategy is a roadway, giving through how to conduct a test out testing strategy is flexible enough to promote customization that may be necessary in due course of development process for instance during coding we find that a change in design we maintain a change a log and refer to it at appropriate time during the testing .

INTEGRATION TESTING: Integration is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests at the same time to uncover errors associated with interfacing we have used incremental integration testing for this module.

VALIDATION TESTING: At the time of culmination of integration testing the software is complete as a package and the interfacing errors have been uncovered and fixed and final test validation testing may begin validation test succeed when the software performs exactly in the manner as expected by the user.

TEST CASE DESIGN: The techniques that are used in deriving the test cases are explained below

CONDITION TESTING:
Condition testing is a test case design method that exercises the logical conditions contained in the program the possible components in a condition statement are a Boolean operator, Boolean variable, relational operator, arithmetic expression and parenthesis simple or compound conditions the condition testing method focuses on testing each condition in the program.

BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS : Boundary value analysis leads to a selection of test cases that exercise the boundary conditions or boundary values it has been observed that a large number of errors tend to appear at the boundaries of the input domain than in the center.

EQUIVALENCE PORTIONING: Equivalence portioning is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived a typical test uncovers a class errors might otherwise require many more test cases before the error is observed.

Equivalence classes for input determine the valid and invalid inputs for the program.

Screens and Reports

Front page:

Login Screen:

Add New Student Scrren:

Modify Students List in drop down Menu:

Modify Details:

If You Click Modify Button Then Modify Record Conformation Screen:

Delete Records:

Delete Record Conformation Screen: