Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

Pollution is the introduction oI contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability,

disorder, harm or discomIort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.

Pollution can take the Iorm oI chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
Pollutants, the elements oI pollution, can be either Ioreign substances/energies or naturally
occurring contaminants. Pollution is oIten classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
The Blacksmith Institute issues an annual list oI the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007
issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and

Ancient cultures
AIR POLLUTION has always accompanied civilizations. According to a 1983
article in the journal Science, "soot Iound on ceilings oI prehistoric caves provides ample
evidence oI the high levels oI pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation oI open
The Iorging oI metals appears to be a key turning point in the creation oI signiIicant air
pollution levels outside the home. Core samples oI glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in
pollution associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production.

XXicial acknowledgement
ing Edward I oI England banned the burning oI sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272,
aIter its smoke had become a problem.
But the Iuel was so common in England that this
earliest oI names Ior it was acquired because it could be carted away Irom some shores by the
wheelbarrow. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during
the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog oI 1952.
London also recorded one oI the earlier extreme cases oI water quality problems with the Great
Stink on the Thames oI 1858, which led to construction oI the London sewerage system soon
It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.
The emergence oI great Iactories and consumption oI immense quantities oI coal and other Iossil
Iuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume oI industrial chemical
discharges added to the growing load oI untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were
the Iirst two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Other cities Iollowed
around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived OIIice oI Air Pollution
was created under the Department oI the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the
cities oI Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public

Modern awareness
Pollution became a popular issue aIter World War II, due to radioactive Iallout Irom atomic
warIare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog oI 1952 in London, killed at
least 4000 people.
This prompted some oI the Iirst major modern environmental legislation,
The Clean Air Act oI 1956.
Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and
early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water
Act and the National Environmental Policy Act.
Bad bouts oI local pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River
resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption oI its Iish in 1974. Long-term dioxin contamination
at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the SuperIund
legislation oI 1980. Legal proceedings in the 1990s helped bring to light Chromium-6 releases in
CaliIornia--the champions oI whose victims became Iamous. The pollution oI industrial land
gave rise to the name brownIield, a term now common in city planning. DDT was banned in
most oI the developed world aIter the publication oI Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.
The development oI nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain
lethally radioactive Ior hundreds oI thousands oI years. Lake arachay, named by the
Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth, served as a disposal site Ior the Soviet
Union thoroughout the 1950s and 1960s. Second place may go to the area oI Chelyabinsk
U.S.S.R. (see reIerence below) as the "Most polluted place on the planet".
|citation needed|

Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, sometimes near inhabited areas,
especially in the earlier stages oI their development. The toll on the worst-aIIected populations
and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by
radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though
extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential Ior disaster suggested by incidents such as
those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter oI public mistrust. One legacy
oI nuclear testing beIore most Iorms were banned has been signiIicantly raised levels oI
background radiation.
|citation needed|

International catastrophes such as the wreck oI the Amoco Cadiz oil tanker oII the coast oI
Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality oI such
events and the scale on which eIIorts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature oI
atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication oI pollution on a planetary level
with the issue oI global warming. Most recently the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has
come to describe a group oI chemicals such as PBDEs and PFCs
|disambiguation needed |
others. Though their eIIects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack oI
experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats Iar removed Irom
industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diIIusion and bioaccumulation aIter only a
relatively brieI period oI widespread use.
Growing evidence oI local and global pollution and an increasingly inIormed public over time
have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to
limit human impact on the environment.

Forms oX pollution
The major Iorms oI pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to
each oI them:
O Alr polluLlon Lhe release of chemlcals and parLlculaLes lnLo Lhe aLmosphere Common gaseous
polluLanLs lnclude carbon monoxlde sulfur dloxlde chlorofluorocarbons (ClCs) and nlLrogen
oxldes produced by lndusLry and moLor vehlcles hoLochemlcal ozone and smog are creaLed as
nlLrogen oxldes and hydrocarbons reacL Lo sunllghL arLlculaLe maLLer or flne dusL ls
characLerlzed by Lhelr mlcromeLre slze M
Lo M

O lghL polluLlon lncludes llghL Lrespass overlllumlnaLlon and asLronomlcal lnLerference
O lLLerlng Lhe crlmlnal Lhrowlng of lnapproprlaLe manmade ob[ecLs unremoved onLo publlc
and prlvaLe properLles
O -olse polluLlon whlch encompasses roadway nolse alrcrafL nolse lndusLrlal nolse as well as
hlghlnLenslLy sonar
O oll conLamlnaLlon occurs when chemlcals are released lnLenLlonally by splll or underground
leakage Among Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL soll conLamlnanLs are hydrocarbons heavy meLals M18L

herblcldes pesLlcldes and chlorlnaLed hydrocarbons
O adloacLlve conLamlnaLlon resulLlng from 20Lh cenLury acLlvlLles ln aLomlc physlcs such as
nuclear power generaLlon and nuclear weapons research manufacLure and deploymenL (ee
alpha emlLLers and acLlnldes ln Lhe envlronmenL)
O 1hermal polluLlon ls a LemperaLure change ln naLural waLer bodles caused by human lnfluence
such as use of waLer as coolanL ln a power planL
O Ilsual polluLlon whlch can refer Lo Lhe presence of overhead power llnes moLorway blllboards
scarred landforms (as from sLrlp mlnlng) open sLorage of Lrash or munlclpal solld wasLe
O JaLer polluLlon by Lhe dlscharge of wasLewaLer from commerclal and lndusLrlal wasLe
(lnLenLlonally or Lhrough spllls) lnLo surface waLers dlscharges of unLreaLed domesLlc sewage
and chemlcal conLamlnanLs such as chlorlne from LreaLed sewage release of wasLe and
conLamlnanLs lnLo surface runoff flowlng Lo surface waLers (lncludlng urban runoff and
agrlculLural runoff whlch may conLaln chemlcal ferLlllzers and pesLlcldes) wasLe dlsposal and
leachlng lnLo groundwaLer euLrophlcaLlon and llLLerlng
Human bealtb
Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause
respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inIlammation, chest pain, and congestion.
Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination oI
drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 700 million Indians
have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die oI diarrhoeal sickness every
Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to saIe drinking water.
656,000 people die
prematurely each year in China because oI air pollution. In India, air pollution is believed to
cause 527,700 Iatalities a year.
Studies have estimated that the number oI people killed
annually in the US could be over 50,000.

Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood
pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deIicits in
children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air
pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and inIants are
also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological
problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth deIects.
Pollution has been Iound to be present widely in the environment. There are a number oI eIIects
oI this:
O 8lomagnlflcaLlon descrlbes slLuaLlons where Loxlns (such as heavy meLals) may pass Lhrough
Lrophlc levels becomlng exponenLlally more concenLraLed ln Lhe process
O Carbon dloxlde emlsslons cause ocean acldlflcaLlon Lhe ongolng decrease ln Lhe pP of Lhe
LarLhs oceans as CC
becomes dlssolved
O 1he emlsslon of greenhouse gases leads Lo global warmlng whlch affecLs ecosysLems ln many
O nvaslve specles can ouL compeLe naLlve specles and reduce blodlverslLy nvaslve planLs can
conLrlbuLe debrls and blomolecules (allelopaLhy) LhaL can alLer soll and chemlcal composlLlons
of an envlronmenL ofLen reduclng naLlve specles compeLlLlveness
O -lLrogen oxldes are removed from Lhe alr by raln and ferLlllse land whlch can change Lhe specles
composlLlon of ecosysLems
O mog and haze can reduce Lhe amounL of sunllghL recelved by planLs Lo carry ouL
phoLosynLhesls and leads Lo Lhe producLlon of Lropospherlc ozone whlch damages planLs
O oll can become lnferLlle and unsulLable for planLs 1hls wlll affecL oLher organlsms ln Lhe food
O ulfur dloxlde and nlLrogen oxldes can cause acld raln whlch lowers Lhe pP value of soll
nvironmental bealtb inXormation
The Toxicology and Environmental Health InIormation Program (TEHIP)
at the United States
National Library oI Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental
health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government
agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials,
and other scientiIic and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible Ior the
Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET)
an integrated system oI toxicology and
environmental health databases that are available Iree oI charge on the web.
TOXMAP is a Geographic InIormation System (GIS) that is part oI TOXNET. TOXMAP uses
maps oI the United States to help users visually explore data Irom the United States
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and SuperIund Basic
Research Programs.
Listed below are the major air pollutants and their sources.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the incomplete
burning oI carbon-based Iuels including petrol, diesel, and wood. It is also produced Irom the
combustion oI natural and synthetic products such as cigarettes. It lowers the amount oI oxygen
that enters our blood . It can slow our reIlexes and make us conIused and sleepy.
Carbon dioxide (CO
) is the principle greenhouse gas emitted as a result oI human activities
such as the burning oI coal, oil, and natural gases.
Chloroflorocarbons (CFC) are gases that are released mainly Irom air-conditioning systems
and reIrigeration. When released into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere, where they come in
contact with Iew other gases, which leads to a reduction oI the ozone layer that protects the earth
Irom the harmIul ultraviolet rays oI the sun.
Lead is present in petrol, diesel, lead batteries, paints, hair dye products, etc. Lead aIIects
children in particular. It can cause nervous system damage and digestive problems and, in some
cases, cause cancer.
Ozone occur naturally in the upper layers oI the atmosphere. This important gas shields the earth
Irom the harmIul ultraviolet rays oI the sun. However, at the ground level, it is a pollutant with
highly toxic eIIects. Vehicles and industries are the major source oI ground-level ozone
emissions. Ozone makes our eyes itch, burn, and water. It lowers our resistance to colds and
Nitrogen oxide (Nox) causes smog and acid rain. It is produced Irom burning Iuels including
petrol, diesel, and coal. Nitrogen oxides can make children susceptible to respiratory diseases in
Suspended particulate matter (SPM) consists oI solids in the air in the Iorm oI smoke, dust,
and vapour that can remain suspended Ior extended periods and is also the main source oI haze
which reduces visibility. The Iiner oI these particles, when breathed in can lodge in our lungs and
cause lung damage and respiratory problems.
Sulphur dioxide (SO
) is a gas produced Irom burning coal, mainly in thermal power plants.
Some industrial processes, such as production oI paper and smelting oI metals, produce sulphur
dioxide. It is a major contributor to smog and acid rain. SulIur dioxide can lead to lung diseases.
Chemical Pollution
In some parts oI the world, the bodies oI whales and dolphins washing ashore are so highly
contaminated that they qualiIy as toxic waste and have to be specially disposed oI. There are
many diIIerent sources oI chemical pollution, including:
O domestic sewage
O industrial discharges
O seepage Irom waste sites
O atmospheric Iallout
O domestic run-oII
O accidents and spills at sea
O operational discharges Irom oil rigs
O mining discharges and
O agricultural run-oII.
However, the chemicals that are probably oI most concern Ior everyone are the persistent
pollutants: those substances that enter marine Iood chains and are eventually passed along the
chain to the marine top predators in increasing amounts.Persistent pollutants include pesticides,
such as DDT, and industrial chemicals, most Iamously the PCBs.

Say No to Crackers` and Yes to life`!
Crackers are a source oI highly toxic chemical air pollutants. Besides air pollution there are other
ethical reasons Ior not using crackers. Thousands oI children are employed in the manuIacture oI
crackers. This violates the rights oI the children they should be in school, not exposing
themselves to severe health hazards while making crackers.

Additionally, air pollution and smog is extremely common at night and on the morning aIter
Deepavali, and may be harmIul to inhale and causes diIIiculty Ior drivers through reduced

Deepavali is oIten be treated by some as an opportunity to show oII their status or purchasing
power. This competitive approach encourages the use oI ever larger and noisier Iireworks.

EIIorts to combat the menace include
O The Supreme Court oI India, observing that the "right to peaceIul sleep is a
Iundamental right oI the citizens", has banned crackers between the hours oI 10 pm and 6
am during the Dasara and Diwali Iestival
O The Central Pollution Control Board has banned Iire-crackers with a decibel level
oI more than 125 at a distance oI 4 meters Irom the bursting point.

Fire Crackers AIIect our Health

Sudden exposure to loud noise could cause temporary deaIness or permanent relative deaIness

Noise pollution may lead to:
Hearing loss
High blood pressure
Sleeping disturbances

Crackers that make a noise oI more than 125 decibels upto a distance oI 4 mtrs are banned by the law.

Harmful effects of chemicals used in crackers
Copper: Irritation oI respiratory tract
Cadmium: Anaemia and damage to kidney
Lead: AIIects the nervous system
Magnesium: Dust and Iumes cause metal Iume Iever
Manganese: Emotional disturbances, spastic gait and paralysis
Sodium: React violently with moisture and can attack the skin
Zinc: Leads to vomiting
Nitrate: Could lead to mental impairment
Nitrite: Could lead to coma

Children get most affected by air pollution!

Anti Crackers Campaign

Approach: Campaign

Method: Discuss issues related to Iire-crackers with the students. Ask them about, and supplement their inIormation
O The air and noise pollution caused by Iire-crackers
O The advantages oI banning Iire-crackers
O The problems in banning the use oI Iire-crackers

Help students plan a 'No Crackers' campaign to reach out to the whole school.

They could work in groups choosing Irom the Iollowing ideas:
1. Announcement in the assembly and class to class appeals and discussions
2. Write and perIorm a skit to educate others about the negative eIIects oI crackers (air pollution,
noise pollution, injury and support oI child labor)
3. Recruiting volunteers Irom each class to make posters Ior their own class this is likely to evoke
greater participation and thereIore greater commitment Irom more students
4. Prepare an Oath Letter Ior not using the crackers at any celebrations or Iestivals and circulate
copies to schools. Invite all students to take a pledge in the days just beIore the Iestival
5. Make and distribute badges oI Say No to Crackers` or Shun Crackers` They should explain to all
students that only iI they are really committed should they wear the badge. At the same time, they should
explain why it is important to reduce the use oI crackers
6. Form a network oI Anti Crackers Schools

Related activity: Anti-Cracker Slogans
Divide the students into small groups oI 4-5 and have them come up with slogans Ior an anti-cracker campaign.
Give them 20-30 minutes to come up with a catchy slogan (such as cracker-Iree community`).

Groups can then present their best slogan and the class can vote on which one/ones they like the best. This slogan
can then be incorporated into a class anti-cracker campaign.

ATER POLLUTION is the contamination oI water bodies (e.g.
lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged
directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmIul
Water pollution aIIects plants and organisms living in these bodies oI water. In almost all cases
the eIIect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural
biological communities.

Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision oI
water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquiIers and wells). It has
been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause oI deaths and diseases,
and that it
accounts Ior the deaths oI more than 14,000 people daily.
An estimated 700 million Indians
have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die oI diarrheal sickness every day.

Some 90 oI China's cities suIIer Irom some degree oI water pollution,
and nearly 500 million
people lack access to saIe drinking water.
In addition to the acute problems oI water pollution
in developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as
well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent oI
assessed stream miles, 47 percent oI assessed lake acres, and 32 percent oI assessed bay and
estuarine square miles were classiIied as polluted.

Water is typically reIerred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and
either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, and/or undergoes a marked shiIt in
its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as Iish. Natural phenomena such as
volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and
the ecological status oI water.
SurIace water and groundwater have oIten been studied and managed as separate resources,
although they are interrelated.
SurIace water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater.
Conversely, groundwater can also Ieed surIace water sources. Sources oI surIace water pollution
are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin.
Point sources
Point source water pollution reIers to contaminants that enter a waterway Irom a single,
identiIiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples oI sources in this category include
discharges Irom a sewage treatment plant, a Iactory, or a city storm drain. The U.S. Clean Water
Act (CWA) deIines point source Ior regulatory enIorcement purposes.
The CWA deIinition oI
point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as
industrial stormwater, such as Irom construction sites.

on-point sources
Nonpoint source pollution reIers to diIIuse contamination that does not originate Irom a single
discrete source. NPS pollution is oIten the cumulative eIIect oI small amounts oI contaminants
gathered Irom a large area. A common example is the leaching out oI nitrogen compounds Irom
Iertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoII in stormwater Irom "sheet Ilow" over an agricultural
Iield or a Iorest are also cited as examples oI NPS pollution.
Contaminated storm water washed oII oI parking lots, roads and highways, called urban runoII,
is sometimes included under the category oI NPS pollution. However, this runoII is typically
channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surIace waters, and is a
point source. However where such water is not channeled and drains directly to ground it is a
non-point source.
Croundwater pollution
ee also Pydrogeology
Interactions between groundwater and surIace water are complex. Consequently, groundwater
pollution, sometimes reIerred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily classiIied as
surIace water pollution.
By its very nature, groundwater aquiIers are susceptible to
contamination Irom sources that may not directly aIIect surIace water bodies, and the distinction
oI point vs. non-point source may be irrelevant. A spill or ongoing releases oI chemical or
radionuclide contaminants into soil (located away Irom a surIace water body) may not create
point source or non-point source pollution, but can contaminate the aquiIer below, deIined as a
toxin plume. The movement oI the plume, called a plume Iront, may be analyzed through a
hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis oI groundwater contamination
may Iocus on the soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature
oI the contaminants.
The speciIic contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum oI chemicals,
pathogens, and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration.
While many oI the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring
(calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration is oIten the key in determining what
is a natural component oI water, and what is a contaminant. High concentrations oI naturally-
occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic Ilora and Iauna.
Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials, such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and
grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause
turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills oI some
Iish species.

Many oI the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either
human or animal hosts.
Alteration oI water's physical chemistry includes acidity (change in
pH), electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is an increase in the
concentration oI chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary
productivity oI the ecosystem. Depending on the degree oI eutrophication, subsequent negative
environmental eIIects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reductions in water quality
may occur, aIIecting Iish and other animal populations.
ColiIorm bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator oI water pollution, although not an
actual cause oI disease. Other microorganisms sometimes Iound in surIace waters which have
caused human health problems include:
O 8otkbolJetlo pseoJomollel
O typtospotlJlom potvom
O lotJlo lombllo
O olmooello
O -ovovltos and oLher vlruses
O araslLlc worms (helmlnLhs)

High levels oI pathogens may result Irom inadequately treated sewage discharges.
This can be
caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treatment (more typical in less-
developed countries). In developed countries, older cities with aging inIrastructure may have
leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer
overIlows. Some cities also have combined sewers, which may discharge untreated sewage
during rain storms.

aLhogen dlscharges may also be caused by poorly managed llvesLock operaLlons
bemical and otber contaminants
Organic water pollutants include:
O eLergenLs
O lslnfecLlon byproducLs found ln chemlcally dlslnfecLed drlnklng waLer such as chloroform
O lood processlng wasLe whlch can lnclude oxygendemandlng subsLances faLs and grease
O nsecLlcldes and herblcldes a huge range of organohalldes and oLher chemlcal compounds
O eLroleum hydrocarbons lncludlng fuels (gasollne dlesel fuel [eL fuels and fuel oll) and
lubrlcanLs (moLor oll) and fuel combusLlon byproducLs from sLormwaLer runoff

O 1ree and bush debrls from logglng operaLlons
O IolaLlle organlc compounds (ICCs) such as lndusLrlal solvenLs from lmproper sLorage
O ChlorlnaLed solvenLs whlch are dense nonaqueous phase llqulds (-As) may fall Lo Lhe
boLLom of reservolrs slnce Lhey donL mlx well wlLh waLer and are denser
4 olychlorlnaLed blphenyl (C8s)
4 1rlchloroeLhylene
O erchloraLe
O Iarlous chemlcal compounds found ln personal hyglene and cosmeLlc producLs

Inorganic water pollutants include:
O AcldlLy caused by lndusLrlal dlscharges (especlally sulfur dloxlde from power planLs)
O Ammonla from food processlng wasLe
O Chemlcal wasLe as lndusLrlal byproducLs
O lerLlllzers conLalnlng nuLrlenLsnlLraLes and phosphaLeswhlch are found ln sLormwaLer runoff
from agrlculLure as well as commerclal and resldenLlal use

O Peavy meLals from moLor vehlcles (vla urban sLormwaLer runoff)
and acld mlne dralnage
O llL (sedlmenL) ln runoff from consLrucLlon slLes logglng slash and burn pracLlces or land
clearlng slLes
Macroscopic pollutionlarge visible items polluting the watermay be termed "Iloatables" in
an urban stormwater context, or marine debris when Iound on the open seas, and can include
such items as:
O 1rash or garbage (eg paper plasLlc or food wasLe) dlscarded by people on Lhe ground along
wlLh accldenLal or lnLenLlonal dumplng of rubblsh LhaL are washed by ralnfall lnLo sLorm dralns
and evenLually dlscharged lnLo surface waLers
O -urdles small ublqulLous waLerborne plasLlc pelleLs
O hlpwrecks large derellcL shlps
ransport and cbemical reactions oX water pollutants
Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas oI the world
the inIluence can be traced hundred miles Irom the mouth by studies using hydrology transport
models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in
many locations worldwide to examine the Iate oI pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator Iilter
Ieeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant Iates in the New York
Bight, Ior example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth oI the Hudson River,
but 100 kilometers south, since several days are required Ior incorporation into planktonic tissue.
The Hudson discharge Ilows south along the coast due to coriolis Iorce. Further south then are
areas oI oxygen depletion, caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by
excess nutrients Irom algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellIish kills have been
reported, because toxins climb the Iood chain aIter small Iish consume copepods, then large Iish
eat smaller Iish, etc. Each successive step up the Iood chain causes a stepwise concentration oI
pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT.
This is known as biomagniIication, which is occasionally used interchangeably with
A polluLed rlver dralnlng an abandoned copper mlne on Anglesey
Large gyres (vortexes) in the oceans trap Iloating plastic debris. The North PaciIic Gyre Ior
example has collected the so-called "Great PaciIic Garbage Patch" that is now estimated at 100
times the size oI Texas. Many oI these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs oI marine
birds and animals. This results in obstruction oI digestive pathways which leads to reduced
appetite or even starvation.
Many chemicals undergo reactive decay
|disambiguation needed |
or chemically change especially over
long periods oI time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class oI such chemicals is the
chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and
electronics manuIacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry (note latest
advances in liquid carbon dioxide in dry cleaning that avoids all use oI chemicals). Both oI these
chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial decomposition reactions, leading
to new hazardous chemicals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride).
Groundwater pollution is much more diIIicult to abate than surIace pollution because
groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquiIers. Non-porous aquiIers such as
clays partially puriIy water oI bacteria by simple Iiltration (adsorption and absorption), dilution,
and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity: however, in some cases, the
pollutants merely transIorm to soil contaminants. Groundwater that moves through cracks and
caverns is not Iiltered and can be transported as easily as surIace water. In Iact, this can be
aggravated by the human tendency to use natural sinkholes as dumps in areas oI arst
There are a variety oI secondary eIIects stemming not Irom the original pollutant, but a
derivative condition. An example is silt-bearing surIace runoII, which can inhibit the penetration
oI sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.
Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories oI methods: physical,
chemical and biological. Most involve collection oI samples, Iollowed by specialized analytical
tests. Some methods may be conducted in situ, without sampling, such as temperature.
Government agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated
analytical test methods to Iacilitate the comparability oI results Irom disparate testing events.

Sampling oI water Ior physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending
on the accuracy needed and the characteristics oI the contaminant. Many contamination events
are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason
"grab" samples are oIten inadequate Ior Iully quantiIying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering
this type oI data oIten employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments oI water at either time
or discharge intervals.
Sampling Ior biological testing involves collection oI plants and/or animals Irom the surIace
water body. Depending on the type oI assessment, the organisms may be identiIied Ior
biosurveys (population counts) and returned to the water body, or they may be dissected Ior
bioassays to determine toxicity.

ontrol oX pollution
Domestic sewage
Domestic sewage is 99.9 percent pure water, while the other 0.1 percent are pollutants. Although
Iound in low concentrations, these pollutants pose risk on a large scale.
In urban areas,
domestic sewage is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. In the U.S., most oI
these plants are operated by local government agencies, Irequently reIerred to as publicly owned
treatment works (POTW). Municipal treatment plants are designed to control conventional
pollutants: BOD and suspended solids. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., secondary
treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more oI these pollutants. Some plants have
additional sub-systems to treat nutrients and pathogens. Most municipal plants are not designed
to treat toxic pollutants Iound in industrial wastewater.

Cities with sanitary sewer overIlows or combined sewer overIlows employ one or more
engineering approaches to reduce discharges oI untreated sewage, including:
O uLlllzlng a green lnfrasLrucLure approach Lo lmprove sLormwaLer managemenL capaclLy
LhroughouL Lhe sysLem and reduce Lhe hydraullc overloadlng of Lhe LreaLmenL planL

O repalr and replacemenL of leaklng and malfuncLlonlng equlpmenL

O lncreaslng overall hydraullc capaclLy of Lhe sewage collecLlon sysLem (ofLen a very expenslve
A household or business not served by a municipal treatment plant may have an individual septic
tank, which treats the wastewater on site and discharges into the soil. Alternatively, domestic
wastewater may be sent to a nearby privately owned treatment system (e.g. in a rural
ndustrial wastewater
Some industrial Iacilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal
Iacilities. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations oI conventional pollutants
(e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other
nonconventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some oI these
Iacilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the
partially-treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generating large volumes oI
wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems.
Some industries have been successIul at redesigning their manuIacturing processes to reduce or
eliminate pollutants, through a process called pollution prevention.
Heated water generated by power plants or manuIacturing plants may be controlled with:
O coollng ponds manmade bodles of waLer deslgned for coollng by evaporaLlon convecLlon and
O coollng Lowers whlch Lransfer wasLe heaL Lo Lhe aLmosphere Lhrough evaporaLlon and/or heaL
O cogeneraLlon a process where wasLe heaL ls recycled for domesLlc and/or lndusLrlal heaLlng
Agricultural wastewater
Nonpoint source controls
Sediment (loose soil) washed oII Iields is the largest source oI agricultural pollution in the
United States.
Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoII Ilows and retain soil on
their Iields. Common techniques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation, planting
perennial crops and installing riparian buIIers.
|26||27|:pp. 4-954-96

Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are typically applied to Iarmland as commercial Iertilizer;
animal manure; or spraying oI municipal or industrial wastewater (eIIluent) or sludge. Nutrients
may also enter runoII Irom crop residues, irrigation water, wildliIe, and atmospheric
|27|:p. 2-9
Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce
excess application oI nutrients.
|26||27|:pp. 4-374-38

To minimize pesticide impacts, Iarmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques
(which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on
chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.

o|nt source wastewater treatment
larms wlLh large llvesLock and poulLry operaLlons such as facLory farms are called nooneottoteJ oolmol
feeJloq opetotloos or noofloeJ oolmol feeJloq opetotloos ln Lhe u and are belng sub[ecL Lo lncreaslng
governmenL regulaLlon
Anlmal slurrles are usually LreaLed by conLalnmenL ln lagoons before
dlsposal by spray or Lrlckle appllcaLlon Lo grassland ConsLrucLed weLlands are someLlmes used Lo
faclllLaLe LreaLmenL of anlmal wasLes as are anaeroblc lagoons ome anlmal slurrles are LreaLed by
mlxlng wlLh sLraw and composLed aL hlgh LemperaLure Lo produce a bacLerlologlcally sLerlle and frlable
manure for soll lmprovemenL

- CD@C- ls Lhe degradaLlon of LarLhs land surfaces ofLen caused by human
acLlvlLles and Lhelr mlsuse of land resources L occurs when wasLe ls noL dlsposed properly PealLh
hazard dlsposal of urban and lndusLrlal wasLes explolLaLlon of mlnerals and lmproper use of soll by
lnadequaLe agrlculLural pracLlces are a few facLors urbanlzaLlon and lndusLrlallzaLlon are ma[or causes
of land polluLlon 1he ndusLrlal evoluLlon seL a serles of evenLs lnLo moLlon whlch desLroyed naLural
hablLaLs and polluLed Lhe envlronmenL causlng dlseases ln boLh humans and oLher specles of anlmals
ncreased mecbanization
The major increase in the concentration oI population in cities, along with the internal
combustion engine, led to the increased number oI roads and all the inIrastructure that goes with
As the demand Ior Iood has grown exponentially with the increase oI the human population,
there is an increase in Iield size and mechanization. The increase in Iield size makes it
economically viable Ior the Iarmer but results in loss oI person and shelter Ior wildliIe, as
hedgerows and copses disappear. When crops are harvested, the naked soil is leIt open to wind
aIter it has been compacted by heavy machinery. Another consequence oI more intensive
agriculture is the move to monoculture. This is unnatural, will deplete the soil oI nutrients,
allows diseases and pests to spread and, as it happens, it quickly exhausts all the natural
resources in an area, causing the introduction oI chemical Iertilizers and Ioreign substances to the
soil that poisons it. The chemical Iertilizers in the soil cause its inIertility.BY DAvard Delancy
Pesticides and berbicides
A pesticide is a substance or mixture oI substances used to kill a pest. A pesticide may be a
chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinIectant or
device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds,
mammals, Iish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans Ior Iood,
destroy property, spread or are a vector Ior disease or cause a nuisance. Although there are
beneIits to the use oI pesticides, there are also drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans
and other organisms.
Herbicides are used to kill weeds, especially on pavements and railways. They are similar to
auxins and most are biodegradable by soil bacteria. However, one group derived Irom
trinitrotoluene (2:4 D and 2:4:5 T) have the impurity dioxin, which is very toxic and causes
Iatality even in low concentrations. Another herbicide is Paraquat. It is highly toxic but it rapidly
degrades in soil due to the action oI bacteria and does not kill soil Iauna.
Insecticides are used to rid Iarms oI pests which damage crops. The insects damage not only
standing crops but also stored ones and in the tropics it is reckoned that one third oI the total
production is lost during Iood storage. As with Iungicides, the Iirst insecticides used in the
nineteenth century were inorganic e.g.Paris Green and other compounds oI arsenic. Nicotine has
also been used since the late eighteenth century.
There are now two main groups oI synthetic insecticides - Organochlorines include DDT, Aldrin,
Dieldrin and BHC. They are cheap to produce, potent and persistent. DDT was used on a
massive scale Irom the 1930s, with a peak oI 72,000 tonnes used 1970. Then usage Iell as the
harmIul environmental eIIects were realized. It was Iound worldwide in Iish and birds and was
even discovered in the snow in the Antarctic. It is only slightly soluble in water but is very
soluble in the bloodstream. It aIIects the nervous and endocrine systems and causes the eggshells
oI birds to lack calcium causing them to be easily breakable. It is thought to be responsible Ior
the decline oI the numbers oI birds oI prey like ospreys and peregrine Ialcons in the 1950s - they
are now recovering. As well as increased concentration via the Iood chain, it is known to enter
via permeable membranes, so Iish get it through their gills. As it has low water solubility, it tends
to stay at the water surIace, so organisms that live there are most aIIected. DDT Iound in Iish that
Iormed part oI the human Iood chain caused concern, but the levels Iound in the liver, kidney
and brain tissues was less than 1 ppm and in Iat was 10 ppm which was below the level likely to
cause harm. However, DDT was banned in Britain and America to stop the Iurther build up oI it
in the Iood chain. The USA exploited this ban and sold DDT to developing countries, who could
not aIIord the expensive replacement chemicals and who did not have such stringent regulations
governing the use oI pesticides.
Organophosphates, e.g. parathion, methyl parathion and about 40 other insecticides are available
nationally. Parathion is highly toxic, methyl-parathion is less so and Malathion is generally
considered saIe as it has low toxicity and is rapidly broken down in the mammalian liver. This
group works by preventing normal nerve transmission as cholinesterase is prevented Irom
breaking down the transmitter substance acetylcholine, resulting in uncontrolled muscle
O Modern mlnlng pro[ecLs leave behlnd dlsrupLed communlLles damaged landscapes and
polluLed waLer
O Mlnlng also affecLs ground and surface waLers Lhe aquaLlc llfe vegeLaLlon solls anlmals and
Lhe human healLh
O Acld mlne dralnage can cause damage Lo sLreams whlch ln reLurn can klll aquaLlc llfe
O 1he vasL varleLy of Loxlc chemlcals released by mlnlng acLlvlLles can harm anlmals and aquaLlc
llfe as well as Lhelr hablLaL
Mining gas and petroleum also pollutes the land. Petroleum extraction and manuIacturing
contaminates the soil with bitumen, gasoline, kerosene and mining brine solutions.
Opencast mining, which is a process where the surIace oI the earth is dug open to bring out the
underground mineral deposits, destroys the topsoil and contaminates the area with toxic metals
and chemicals.
ncreased waste disposal
In Scotland in 1993, 14 million tons oI waste was produced. 100,000 tons was toxic waste and
260,000 tons was controlled waste Irom other parts oI Britain and abroad. 45 oI the special
waste was in liquid Iorm and 18 was asbestos - radioactive waste was not included. OI the
controlled waste, 48 came Irom the demolition oI buildings, 22 Irom industry, 17 Irom
households and 13 Irom business - only 3 were recycled. 90 oI controlled waste was buried
in landIill sites and produced 2 million tons oI methane gas. 1.5 was burned in incinerators and
1.5 were exported to be disposed oI or recycled. There are 900 disposal sites in Scotland.
There are very Iew vacant or derelict land sites in the north east oI Scotland, as there are Iew
traditional heavy industries or coal/mineral extraction sites. However some areas are
contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons (500 cubic meters).
The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive allows sewage sludge to be sprayed onto land and
the volume is expected to double to 185,000 tons oI dry solids in 2005. This has good
agricultural properties due to the high nitrogen and phosphate content. In 1990/1991, 13 wet
weight was sprayed onto 0.13 oI the land , however this is expected to rise 15 Iold by 2005.
There is a need to control this so that pathogenic microorganisms do not get into water courses
and to ensure that there is no accumulation oI heavy metals in the top soil.
auses oX soil pollution
Soil is polluted by many ways:
1. When pollutants get mixed with air, this causes acid rain. Acid rain degrades the top soil.
2. Garbage dumping, specially plastics, degrade the soil Iertility as they are non biodegradable.
3. Chemical Iertilizers and pesticides,when over used pollute the soil and also penetrate into
ground water and make it non potable.

NOISE POLLUTION is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-
created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance oI human or animal liIe. The
word noise comes Irom the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness.
The source oI most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems,
including motor vehicle noise, aircraIt noise and rail noise.
Poor urban planning may give
rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise
pollution in the residential area
Healtb XXects
Human bealtb
Noise health eIIects are both health and behavioral in nature. The unwanted sound is called
noise. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution
can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep
disturbances, and other harmIul eIIects.
Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the
leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to IorgetIulness, severe depression
and at times panic attacks.

Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to
signiIicant occupational noise demonstrate signiIicantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their
non-exposed peers, though diIIerences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two
groups are indistinguishable by age 79.
A comparison oI Maaban tribesmen, who were
insigniIicantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed
that chronic exposure to moderately high levels oI environmental noise contributes to hearing

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular eIIects and exposure to moderately high levels
during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure oI Iive to ten points
and an increase in stress
and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted
above as well as to increased incidence oI coronary artery disease.
Noise pollution is also a cause oI annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers Iound that in
urban areas households are willing to pay approximately Iour Euros per decibel per year Ior
noise reduction.

WildliXe bealtb
Noise can have a detrimental eIIect on animals, increasing the risk oI death by changing the
delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interIering the use oI the
sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic
overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss oI hearing.

An impact oI noise on animal liIe is the reduction oI usable habitat that noisy areas may cause,
which in the case oI endangered species may be part oI the path to extinction. Noise pollution
has caused the death oI certain species oI whales that beached themselves aIter being exposed to
the loud sound oI military sonar
(see also Marine mammals and sonar).
Noise also makes species communicate louder, which is called Lombard vocal response.

Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer
when submarine-detectors are on.
II creatures do not "speak" loud enough, their voice will be
masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, Iinding oI prey, or
preparations oI net-bubbling. When one species begins speaking louder, it will mask other
species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem to eventually speak louder.
European Robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with
high levels oI noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is
quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly.
The same
study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor oI nocturnal singing than night-time
light pollution, to which the phenomenon is oIten attributed.
Zebra Iinches become less IaithIul to their partners when exposed to traIIic noise. This could
alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources normally
devoted to other activities and thus lead to proIound genetic and evolutionary consequences.

mpact in tbe United Kingdom
Figures compiled by Rockwool, the mineral wool insulation manuIacturer, based on responses
Irom local authorities to a Freedom oI InIormation Act (FOI) request reveal in the period April
2008 2009 U councils received 315,838 complaints about noise pollution Irom private
residences. This resulted in environmental health oIIicers across the U serving 8,069 noise
abatement notices, or citations under the terms oI the Anti-Social Behaviour (Scotland) Act. In
the last 12 months, 524 conIiscations oI equipment have been authorised involving the removal
oI powerIul speakers, stereos and televisions. Westminster City Council has received more
complaints per head oI population than any other district in the U with 9,814 grievances about
noise, which equates to 42.32 complaints per thousand residents. Eight oI the top 10 councils
ranked by complaints per 1,000 residents are located in London.
Mitigation and control oX noise
Technology to mitigate or remove noise can be applied as Iollows:
There are a variety oI strategies Ior mitigating roadway noise including: use oI noise barriers,
limitation oI vehicle speeds, alteration oI roadway surIace texture, limitation oI heavy vehicles,
use oI traIIic controls that smooth vehicle Ilow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire
design. An important Iactor in applying these strategies is a computer model Ior roadway noise,
that is capable oI addressing local topography, meteorology, traIIic operations and hypothetical
mitigation. Costs oI building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these solutions are sought in
the planning stage oI a roadway project.
AircraIt noise can be reduced to some extent by design oI quieter jet engines, which was pursued
vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s. This strategy has brought limited but noticeable reduction oI
urban sound levels. Reconsideration oI operations, such as altering Ilight paths and time oI day
runway use, has demonstrated beneIits Ior residential populations near airports. FAA sponsored
residential retroIit (insulation) programs initiated in the 1970s has also enjoyed success in
reducing interior residential noise in thousands oI residences across the United States.
Exposure oI workers to Industrial noise has been addressed since the 1930s. Changes include
redesign oI industrial equipment, shock mounting assemblies and physical barriers in the
Noise Free America, a national anti-noise pollution organization, regularly lobbies Ior the
enIorcement oI noise ordinances at all levels oI government
egal status
Governments up until the 1970s viewed noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental
problem. In the United States there are Iederal standards Ior highway and aircraIt noise; states
and local governments typically have very speciIic statutes on building codes, urban planning
and roadway development. In Canada and the EU there are Iew national, provincial, or state laws
that protect against noise.
|citation needed|

Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in
some cities. An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a
nuisance, or it may set out speciIic guidelines Ior the level oI noise allowable at certain times oI
the day and Ior certain activities.
Dr. Paul Herman wrote the Iirst comprehensive noise codes in 1975 Ior Portland, Oregon with
Iunding Irom the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and HUD (Housing and Urban
Development). The Portland Noise Code became the basis Ior most other ordinances Ior major
U.S. and Canadian metropolitan regions.

Most city ordinances prohibit sound above a threshold intensity Irom trespassing over property
line at night, typically between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., and during the day restricts it to a higher
sound level; however, enIorcement is uneven.
|citation needed|
Many municipalities do not Iollow up
on complaints. Even where a municipality has an enIorcement oIIice, it may only be willing to
issue warnings, since taking oIIenders to court is expensive.
The notable exception to this rule is the City oI Portland Oregon which has instituted an
aggressive protection Ior its citizens with Iines reaching as high at $5000 per inIraction, with the
ability to cite a responsible noise violator multiple times in a single day.
Many conIlicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the
receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with
local authorities, in particular the police. Noise pollution oIten persists because only Iive to ten
percent oI people aIIected by noise will lodge a Iormal complaint. Many people are not aware oI
their legal right to quiet and do not know how to register a complaint.
|citation needed|

Noise pollution is a major problem in countries like India during the Iestivals oI Diwali, Navratri
and Ganpati. The Government oI India has regulations against Iire crackers and loudspeakers but
enIorcement is extremely lax