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Question 1 Study Sources A and B.

Source A: A proclamation by King George III in 1780 saying that the army will be used to deal with riots. A great number of people have gathered together in a riot. It has become necessary to use military force in order to deal with these disturbances, to protect the lives and properties of individuals, and to restore the peace of the country. Source B: Police in riot gear controlling a demonstration in London in 1999.

Question 1 Study Sources A and B. Source A: A vagabond being punished during the Tudor period.

Question 1 Study Sources A and B. Source A: From the records of the Old Bailey Court, 1695. David Davis was accused of cheating the Bank of England. Davis forged a false statement claiming to be Charles Lloyd and saying he was entitled to inherit 1,858. He then used this false statement to take out a loan from the Bank. Source B: A pie chart showing the different ways that a false identity is used to commit theft in the twenty-first century. Theft committed by opening new accounts under a false name

Source B: From a statement announcing a new government programme, made in December 1999, by Tony Blair, the Prime Minister of Britain. Tonight and every night hundreds of people are sleeping rough on the streets of our towns and cities. These people need to know that there are places they can go and sleep; they need someone to help them find a job. Some of them need skills and training. We can provide that help. 1 What can you learn from Sources A and B about changes in attitudes towards the problems of homelessness? Explain your answer, using these sources. (4) 2 The boxes below show two violent challenges to authority. Choose one and explain the problems faced by the government at that time in dealing with the challenge to authority. (9) Guy Fawkes and the attempt to blow up the Suicide bombers in Houses of Parliament London, July 2005. in 1605.

1 What can you learn from Sources A and B about changes in riot control in the period from the eighteenth century to the end of the twentieth century? Explain your answer, using these sources. (4)

2 The boxes below show two important changes in punishments. Choose one of these changes and explain why it happened at that time. (9) The change from public execution to execution inside the prison in the nineteenth century. The ending of the death penalty in the twentieth century.

1 What can you learn from Sources A and B about changes in crime using a false identity? Explain your answer, using these sources. (4) 2 The boxes below show developments in policing. Choose one and explain its importance. (9) Robert Peel and the The Fielding brothers creation of the and the creation of the Metropolitan police Bow Street Runners. force.

Answer EITHER Question 3 OR Question 4. 3 How far do you agree that new crimes since 1900 are simply old crimes in a new format? (12) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. By 1996, there were over 1.3 million motor crimes in Britain in a year. In 2000, it was claimed that one third of the cigarettes in Britain had been smuggled into the country. In 2001, the theft of mobile phones amounted to 28% of all robberies in Britain. OR

Answer EITHER Question 3 OR Question 4. 3 In what ways did the desire to reform prisoners lead to changes in the prison system during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries? (12) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. 1825: Elizabeth Fry published her ideas on how to reform prisons. 1908: A prison for young offenders was opened at Borstal in Kent. 1933: The first open prison was set up near Wakefield. OR

Answer EITHER Question 3 OR Question 4. 3 Why did public executions end in 1868? (12) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. A drawing of a scene at a public execution.

4 How far did attitudes towards punishment change in the period c1450c1850? (12) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. In 1531 an act of parliament said vagabonds should be dragged behind a cart and whipped. In 1723 the Black Act created 50 new crimes which were punishable by death. By 1841 only murder and treason still carried the death penalty.

4 Why did the authorities start using transportation as a punishment in the 1660s and stop using it in 1868? (12) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. In the 1660s some criminals were sent to the American colonies. 1823: Gaol Act passed. By the 1830s it was costing half a million pounds per year to transport criminals to Australia. (Total for Question 4 = 12 marks)

OR 4 Why did the government punish Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plotters so severely? (12) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. A drawing showing the execution in 1606 of Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder. Plotters who had been found guilty of treason.

6 Changing views of the nature of criminal activity c1450 to the present day. (a) Explain the treatment of conscientious objectors during the First World War. (9) *(b) The acceptance of scientific explanations was the main reason why trials for witchcraft ended. Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (16) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. Most executions for witchcraft occurred during the Civil Wars of 164249. By the end of the seventeenth century, Britain had become a wealthy country. In 1751 a man was hanged for killing a woman suspected of being a witch. (Total for Question 6 = 25 marks)

6 Changing views of the nature of criminal activity c1450 to the present day. (a) In what ways did religion influence peoples reactions to witchcraft? (9) *(b) Domestic violence became a crime in 1976 mainly due to campaigns by women. Do you agree? Explain your answer. (16) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. During the 1960s the Womens Liberation movement campaigned for more legal rights for women. In 1971 the MP Jack Ashley spoke in parliament about the need for action on domestic violence. 1971: Erin Pizzey set up the Chiswick Womens Aid Refuge. (Total for Question 6 = 25 marks)

6 Changing views of the nature of criminal activity c1450 to the present day. (a) Why were so many women accused of witchcraft in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? (9) *(b) The attitude of the government was the most important reason why conscientious objectors in the Second World War were treated differently from conscientious objectors in the First World War. Do you agree? Explain your answer. (16) You may use the following in your answer and any other information of your own. First World War: People handed out white feathers to men who were not in uniform. 1916: Absolutists were sent to Dartmoor prison. Second World War: 6,766 conscientious objectors carried out medical duties, bomb disposal and other non-combatant work. (Total for Question 6 = 25 marks)