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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.

Ng (Last update:16/4)
1. km km km r km r
2. (a) m&r& = 2
− 2
= (1 + ) − 2 − 2 (1 − ) − 2
2
T1 (r + a) (r − a) a a a a
α
T2 α α T2 km r km r r
l sin α ≈ [1 + (−2) ] − 2 [1 + (−2)(− )] (as | ± |<< 1 )
B a2 a a a a
D
α 4km
T2 mg = r
a3
mg
4k
i.e. &r& ≈ r , which is a S.H.M.
For D: Resolving forces along vertical direction: a3
2T2 cos α = mg --- <1>
2π a3
Therefore, period = =π
For B: Resolving forces along vertical direction: 4k k
T1 cos α = mg + T2 cos α --- <2> a3
Resolving forces along horizontal direction: (b) Suppose the converse that the student is correct.
(T1 + T2 ) sin α = m(l sin α)ω 2 --- <3> 4k
Now, solve &r& = r:
a3

mg 4k k
From <1>, T2 = λ2 − 3
= 0, λ = ±2
2 cos α a a3

3mg k k
Substitute into <2>: T1 = r = A cos(2 3
t ) + B sin( 2 t) ,
2 cos α a a3

3mg mg k k k
Substitute into <3>: ( + ) sin α = m(l sin α)ω 2 r& = 2 3
[− A sin( 2 3
t ) + B cos(2 t )]
2 cos α 2 cos α a a a3

2g k a
i.e. ω2 = As r (0) = 0 and r&(0) = , we have A = 0 and B =
l cos α a 2

a k
Thus, r = sin( 2 3 t )
2 a

r
which contradicts to the assumption that | ± |<< 1 .
a

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
3. (a) Let v be the resultant speed r OA r
4. (a) F1 = 20 = 20i
after rebounded from P. P | OA |
u r r r
r AC − 2i − 4 j − 4 k r r r
θ F2 = 6λ = 6λ ⋅ = −2λi − 4λj − 4λk
π v
Resolving velocity along OP: −θ | AC | 22 + 42 + 42
2 r r
π r BD − 3 j + 4k r r
u sin θ = v sin( − θ) F3 = 15 = 15 ⋅ = −9 j + 12k
2 A O B | BD | 32 + 4 2
r r
Resolving velocity perpendicular to OP: r AB − 2i + 3 j r r
F4 = 13µ = 13µ ⋅ = −2µi + 3µj
π | AB | 2 2 + 32
eu cos θ = v cos( − θ)
2 r 4 r r r r
0 =resultant force = ∑ Fi = (20 − 2λ − 2µ)i + (3µ − 4λ − 9) j + (−4λ + 12)k
i =1

Divides two equations: 20 − 2λ − 2µ = 0

e 3µ − 4λ − 9 = 0 . On solving, λ = 3 and µ = 7
= tan θ , i.e. e = tan 2 θ − 4λ + 12 = 0
tan θ 
r r r r r r r
(b) Let t1 and t 2 be the time taken from A to P and from P to B (b) F2 = −6i − 12 j − 12k , F4 = −14i + 21 j
Consider the displacement along and perpendicular to AB: r r r r
= OA × F1 + OA × F2 + OB × F3 + OA × F3
(u cos θ)t1 + (v sin θ)t 2 = 2

(u sin θ)t1 = (v cos θ)t 2 r r r r
= 0 + OA × ( F2 + F4 ) + OB × F3
2 cos θ
Solving, we have t1 = = 4 cos θ , r r r r r r
u i j k i j k
r r r
2 sin θ cos θ = 2 0 0 +0 3 0 = 36i + 24 j + 18k
t2 = = 2 sin θ ⋅ = 4 cos θ (Q u = 2 )
v u sin θ − 20 9 − 12 0 − 9 12
r r r
3 7 36i + 24 j + 18k 6 r 4 r 3 r
Now 6 = t1 + t 2 = 8 cos θ , cos θ = , ∴ tan θ = (c) unit vector = = i+ j+ k
4 3 36 2 + 24 2 + 18 2 61 61 61

7 6 r 4 r 3 r
i.e. e = tan 2 θ = (or −( i+ j+ k) )
9 61 61 61

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
r r
5. (a) Let i and j be the unit vectors pointing East and North respectively. (c) For Q to be closest to P, d should be minimum and hence β should be

r r r r r r maximized.
v P = −u sin 45 o i + u cos 45 0 j , v Q = v sin αi + v cos αj
u − 2v cos α 2 − 2 cos α
By (a), cot β = =
r r r u r u r u + 2v sin α 2 + 2 sin α
∴ P vQ = v P − v Q = −( + v sin α)i + ( − v cos α) j
2 2 d cot β 2[1 − 2 (cos α − sin α)]
=
u u dα (2 + 2 sin α) 2
(Note: − v cos α ≥ −v > 0 )
2 2 π
r 2[1 − 2 cos(α + )]
As P vQ is in the direction of N β W, 4
=
(2 + 2 sin α) 2
u
+ v sin α
2 u − 2v cos α π
tan β = , i.e. cot β = . = 0 gives 2 cos(α + ) = 1 ,
u u + 2v sin α 4
− v cos α
2
π
α= (or 15 o )
(b) 12

N
r
P rQ r
P vQ β
Y X
d

Shortest distance occurs when their relative position at time t ⊥ path of

r r
relative velocity. (i.e. P rQ ⊥ P v Q )
Shortest distance = d cos β

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
r r
6. (a) Resolving forces along e θ and e r : dr R 1
(b) By (a), r& = gR 2 ( 3 − 2 )
r dr r r
 1 d (r 2 θ& ) er
m ⋅ =0 − −− <1>
 r dt R 1
 2 mgR 2 ∫ r&dr = gR 2 ∫ ( 3

r2
)dr
m(&r& − rθ& 2 ) = − mgR − −− < 2 > er
r
 r2 θ r2
1 2 1 R
r& = gR 2 ( − 2 ) + C
2 r 2r
gR π r θ
with r (0) = 2 R , θ(0) = 0 , r&(0) = sin
2 4 gR
At t = 0 , r (0) = 2 R and r&(0) = ,
gR π 2
and r (0)θ& (0) = cos O
2 4 1 gR 2 1 R gR
∴ ( ) = gR 2 ( − )+C , C=−
2 2 2 R 2( 2 R ) 2 4
From <1>, r 2 (t )θ& (t ) = C , a constant. 1 2 1 R gR
∴ r& = gR 2 ( − 2 ) −
2 r 2r 4
gR
At t = 0 , C = r 2 (0)θ& (0) = r (0)[r (0)θ& (0)] = 2 R ⋅ = gR 3
2 − gR
r& 2 = (r 2 − 4rR + 2 R 2 ) --- <*>
gR 3 2r 2
∴ r 2 (t )θ& (t ) = gR 3 , i.e. θ& (t ) =
r 2 (t )
To find the greatest distance r, we need to find a value of r such that r& = 0

mgR 2 mgR 2 gR 3 and r&& < 0 .

From <2>: &r& = − + rθ& 2 = − + r( )2
r2 r2 r2
gR 2 R From <*>, r& = 0 gives r 2 − 4rR + 2 R 2 = 0 ,
= ( − 1)
r2 r r = (2 ± 2 ) R

By (a), r&& r =( 2 + 2 )R
< 0 , but r&& r =( 2 − 2 )R
>0

i.e. Greatest distance = (2 + 2 ) R

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
7. (a) (i) Let x and y be the direction along and perpendicular plane. The two components of velocity make an angle α with the plane,
eu sin α e tan α
 1 2 ⇔ tan α = =
 x = (u cos α)t − 2 ( g sin θ)t g sin α g cos α
u cos α (1 − 2 tan α tan θ) 1 − 2 tan α tan θ
 α
 y = (u sin α)t − 1 ( g cos θ)t 2 x ⇔ 1 − e = 2 tan α tan θ
 2 y g
(iv) The speed just after impact at Y
Let T be the time of flight.
α = (eu sin α) 2 + [u cos α(1 − 2 tan α tan θ)] 2
Q y t =T = 0

2u sin α
∴ T= = (eu sin α) 2 + (u cos α ⋅ e) 2 = eu
g cos θ

g sin θ Recall that when 1 − e = 2 tan α tan θ , such rebounded speed at Y

OX = x t =T = T (u cos α − T)
2 make an angle α with the plane.
2u sin α g sin θ 2u sin α 2(eu ) 2 sin α
= (u cos α − ⋅ ) By (a), XY = cos(α + θ) = e 2 OX
g cos θ 2 g cos θ 2
g cos θ

2u 2 sin α XY
= 2
(cos α cos θ − sin α sin θ) i.e. = e2
g cos θ OX

2u 2 sin α 10 1 1
= 2
cos(α + θ) (b) (i) Put OX = 1 , XY = −1 = , by (iv), e= (e > 0)
g cos θ 9 9 3

2u sin α 1 1
(ii) y& t =T = u sin α − g cos θ ⋅ T = u sin α − g cos θ ⋅ = −u sin α Substitute into (iii), 1− = 2 tan α tan 30 o , tan α =
g cos θ 3 3
i.e. component of velocity = u sin α i.e. α = 30 o
2u sin α (ii) Put OX = 1 , α = 30 o , θ = 30 o into (a)(i),
(iii) x& t =T = u cos α − g sin θ ⋅ T = u cos α − g sin θ ⋅
g cos θ g cos 2 30 o = 2u 2 sin 30 o cos 60 o
= u cos α (1 − 2 tan α tan θ) 3
u=g
Just after rebound at X, the components of velocity along x- and y- 2
axes are u cos α(1 − 2 tan α tan θ) and eu sin α .

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
8. (a) Define x-y-axes as shown in the figure: x O Let ( x , y ) be the coordinates of the centre of mass of the whole solid.
The coordinates of centre of mass of the kth block n
First block
∑ x k mk ρπR 3 l(n + 1) 2 6n 3R(n + 1)
R l x= k =1
= ⋅ =
= ( xk , yk ) = ( ⋅ k , kl − ) 2
n 2 M 4n ρπR l(n + 1)(2n + 1) 2(2n + 1)
y
kR 2 n
m k =mass of the kth block = ρ ⋅ π( ρπR 2 l 2 (n + 1) 2 Ml
n
) l , where ρ =density of the solid. ∑ y k mk −
y= k =1
= 4 2
n n
kR 2 ρπR l 2 n M M
* M = ∑ m k = ∑ ρ ⋅ π( ) l= ∑k2
k =1 k =1 n n 2 k =1 ρπR 2 l 2 (n + 1) 2 6n l
= ⋅ 2

ρπR 2 l n(n + 1)(2n + 1) ρπR 2 l(n + 1)(2n + 1) 4 ρπR l(n + 1)(2n + 1) 2
= ⋅ =
n2 6 6n 3ln(n + 1) l (3n 2 + n − 1)l
= − =
n n
Rk kR ρπR 3 l n 3 2(2n + 1) 2 2(2n + 1)
* ∑ xk mk = ∑ ⋅ ρπ ( ) 2 l = ∑k
k =1 k =1 n n n 3 k =1 Therefore,

ρπR 3 l n 2 (n + 1) 2 ρπR 3 l(n + 1) 2 distance of centre of mass of the solid from L

= ⋅ =
n3 4 4n 3R (n + 1)
=x =
n n
l n
l n 2(2n + 1)
* ∑ y k m k = ∑ (kl − 2 ) ⋅ m k = ∑ klm k − 2 ∑ m k
k =1 k =1 k =1 k =1 distance of centre of mass of the solid above the table
n
kR 2 Ml (3n 2 + n − 1)l (n 2 + n + 1)l
= ∑ kl ⋅ ρπ( ) l− = nl − y = nl − =
k =1 n 2 2(2n + 1) 2(2n + 1)

ρπR 2 l 2 n
Ml
= 2 ∑k3 − 2
n k =1

ρπR 2 l 2 n 2 (n + 1) 2 Ml
= ⋅ −
n2 4 2

ρπR 2 l 2 (n + 1) 2 Ml
= −
4 2

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
(b) Distance of centre of mass of C from VA
3R(n + 1) 3R (ii) Resolving forces along horizontal and vertical directions:
= lim =
n →∞ 2( 2n + 1) 4
3W cos α
F = N 1 cos α = N 1 sin α = (sin α − cos α )
Distance of centre of mass of C from the base 2

h 3W sin α
(n 2 + n + 1)( ) N = W − N 1 sin α = W − (sin α − cos α)
= lim n =h (put l =
h
)
2
n →∞ 2(2n + 1) 4 n
Under equilibrium,
(c) V 3
F ≤ µN , where µ =
4
N
N1 4 F ≤ 3N
h
G CG = 9W sin α
α 4 6W cos α(sin α − cos α ) ≤ 3W − (sin α − cos α )
2
C 3R 3(h / 3) h
BG = = = 4 cos α (sin α − cos α) ≤ 2 − 3 sin α (sin α − cos α )
B 4 4 4
P h
F AP = 4 sc − 4c 2 ≤ 2 − 3(1 − c 2 ) + 3sc ,where s = sin α , c = cos α
A 6
α
W sc ≤ 7c 2 − 1
tan α ≤ 7 − sec 2 α = 7 − (1 + tan 2 α )
(i) Take moment about A: tan 2 α + tan α − 6 ≤ 0
AC (W cos α ) + AP ( N 1 ) = AB(W sin α) (tan α − 2)(tan α + 3) ≤ 0

h h h tan α ≤ 2
(W cos α) + ( N 1 ) = (W sin α )
4 6 4 Furthermore, N1 ≥ 0 , sin α − cos α ≥ 0 , tan α ≥ 1

3W
N1 = (sin α − cos α)
2 Combining the two results, we have 1 ≤ tan α ≤ 2 .

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
9. (a) As the string is inextensible, (ii) (1) Let a be the downward acceleration of P relative to the movable
T T
the accelerations of the two particles pulley B.
are the same, say a1 . a1 a1 Let y be the displacement of C towards left.
Resolving forces vertically:
(1 + k )mg − T = (1 + k )m ⋅ a1 --- <1> (1 + k )mg (1 − k )mg N B T
T2 C
T − (1 − k )mg = (1 − k )m ⋅ a1 --- <2>
T2 T &y&
Consider (1 + k )× < 2 > −(1 − k )× < 1 > : A &y&
F
2T = 2(1 − k 2 )mg Mg T1 T1
i.e. 2
T = (1 − k )mg 2mg

(b) (i) &y&

T2 N B T
C T
Q P T
A T2 T
&y& + a &y& − a
F
Mg T1 T1
2mg mg 3mg
2 2
1
Using the result in (a) by putting k = , we have
2

1 3mg
T1 = [1 − ( ) 2 ]mg =
2 4

3mg
B: T = 2T1 =
2
A: T2 = 2mg

3mg mg
C: F + T = T2 , ∴ F = T2 − T = 2mg − =
2 2

mg
i.e. magnitude of frictional force = , pointing towards right.
2

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
10. (a) * Let v p be the velocity of P just before impact with Q.
A: 2mg − T2 = 2m&y& --- <1>
By “ v 2 − u 2 = 2as ”, v p 2 − 0 2 = 2( g sin 30 o )l
C: N = Mg ,
T2 = T + F = T + µN = T + µMg --- <2>
v p = gl
B: T = 2T1 --- <3>

mg m * Let w be the speed of the combined particles just after impact.

Q: T− = ( &y& + a) --- <4>
2 2 By conservation of linear momentum along plane:

3mg 3m gl
P: T− = ( &y& − a) --- <5> mv p + m(0) = (m + m) w , w=
2 2 2
1 3m * By conservation of energy (from M to B):
* ×<5>+<4>: T1 = ( &y& + g )
3 4 KEi + PEi + EEi = KEf + PEf + EEf (set PE=0 at level M)

3m 1 1 λ
Substitute into <3>: T= ( &y& + g ) --- <A> 0+0+0 = (2m) w 2 + (−2m ⋅ g ⋅ l sin 30 o ) + ( )l 2
2 2 2 l
From <1>: T2 = 2mg − 2m&y& --- <B> 5mg
∴ λ=
Substitute <A> and <B> into <2>: 2
T2 = T + µMg

3m
2mg − 2m&y& = ( &y& + g ) + µMg
2

m − 2µM
&y& = g
7m + 2M

m
(2) &y& > 0 , µ<
2M

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
(b) Let x be the displacement of P measure from M. x
11. (a) * y = tan 30 o x =
o 3 IO
m&x& = −T + mg sin 30
N T
λ mg x 2a
= − x++ * I O = ∫ dI O
l 2
M y
30o x
5mg mg 1 O
=− x+ =∫ ( y 2 dm + x 2 dm) y
2l 2 mg 3

5g l 10
9 ∫
&x& = − (x − ) = x 2 dm dx
2l 5

5g 10
9 ∫
--- S.H.M. with (1) ω2 = = x 2 (ρ ⋅ 2 ydx)
2l

l 20ρ 2 a cos 30 o
(2) centre of oscillation at E, where ME =
5
, =
9

3 0
x 3 dx

l 4l 5ρa 4 m m
(3) Amplitude = EB = MB − ME = l − = . = , where ρ = =
5 5 1
3 (2a) 2 sin 60 o 3a 2
The motion from B to M corresponds to an angular displacement 2

θ = ωt in an auxiliary circle. 5
= ma 2
ωt = θ = π − φ 3
M’
−1 ME
= π − cos
M'E

l/5 M
= π − cos −1 E
4l / 5
B φ
−1 1 θ = ωt
= π − cos
4

1 1 2l 1
t= (π − cos −1 ) = (π − cos −1 )
ω 4 5g 4

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
(b) (i) * Find the centre of mass of the composite body
* It is given that the velocity of centre of mass ( VG ) is 5 ga
Define the x-y-axes as follow: y
The coordinates of centre of mass of before impact with the ground.

2a cos 30 o * Let ω be the required initial angular speed.

(1) Y are ( ,a) X Y
3
x ω
3a A
i.e. ( xY , y Y ) = ( , a)
3 x
C.G. C.G.
o
2a cos 30 VG
(2) X are ( − ,a )
3
A A
3a
i.e. ( x X , y X ) = (− , a) Before impact After impact
3
Therefore, By conservation of angular momentum about A:
( x, y ) = coordinates of centre of mass of composite body ( m + 2 m) x ⋅ V G = I A ω
x X M X + xY M Y y X M X + y Y M Y 3a
=( , ) 3m ⋅ ⋅ 5 ga = 5ma 2 ⋅ ω
M X + MY M X + MY 9

− 3a 3a g
( )(m) + ( )(2m) ω=
3 3 (a)(m) + (a)(2m) 15a
=( , )
m + 2m m + 2m

3a
=( ,a)
9
* I A = moment of inertia of the composite body about A

5ma 2 5(2m)a 2
= + = 5ma 2
3 3

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Suggested Solution for Applied Mathematics 2008 (I) Y.K.Ng (Last update:16/4)
(ii) Let d be the distance between A and the centre of mass of the Let ω f be the angular speed just before the lower side of Y hits the
composite body. floor.
x C.G. By conservation of energy:

1 1
I A ω 2 + 3m ⋅ g ⋅ y = I A ω f 2 + 3m ⋅ g ⋅ d cos(φ + 30 o )
y d C.G. 2 2
φ
φ + 30 o d 1 g 1 4 3a
⋅ 5ma 2 ⋅ + 3mga = ⋅ 5ma 2 ⋅ ω f 2 + 3mg ⋅
2 15a 2 9
A A mga 8 3mga
+ 6mga = 5ma 2 ω f 2 +
Just start to rotate Just before impact 3 3
19 − 8 3
5ma 2 ω f 2 = ( )mga
3
Before hitting the floor, the vertical distance of C.G. from the floor 19 − 8 3 g (4 − 3 ) 2 g
ωf 2 = ⋅ = ⋅
= d cos(φ + 30 o ) 15 a 15 a
= (d cos φ) cos 30 o − (d sin φ) sin 30 o g
o o
i.e. ωf = (4 − 3 )
= y cos 30 − x sin 30 15a

3 3a 1 4 3 a
= a⋅ − ⋅ =
2 9 2 9 --- End of Solutions ---

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