Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

PRCIS You may be wondering why I chose the islands of Hawaii besides the fact that they are

the living proof of beauty, warmth, peace and the perfect combination of water, earth and sky. Well I must tell you that since I was a little girl I wanted to put my bare feet in the hot sand of only one beach in Hawaii and bath only one minute in the sun above those beaches. I always wandered how it could be and I still do. I hope that I will find an answer soon. Here are some old sayings from Hawaii that made me want even more to go and visit those places: Living on isolated islands, we cherish our diversities. For we have come from many places and in many different ways to this enormous yet intimate chamber of summer. Behind us ropy waterfalls cascade thousands of feet to overflow the deep, dark valley pools, to wander and feed the fertile earth and, shimmering over pebbled shallows, to make music on their fretted journey to the sea.

GENERAL FACTS HAWAII is the largest island of the Pacific and the island group that forms the state of Hawaii. With a land area of 16,729km, it is sometimes called the Big Island. Geologically the youngest of the volcanic island group, Hawaii has a rugged coast with few beaches. It has a population of 1,172,000 (1993). Also an oceanic state of the United States, admitted to the Union as the 50th state on Aug. 21, 1959. It consists of a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, the easternmost end of the chain being about 2,400 statute miles, or 2,100 nautical miles, from California. The main group, lying just within the Tropic of Cancer, includes from east to west the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai and Niihau. Uninhabited shoals and tiny pinnacles lying much farther west are included in the state, but some distant islands that were traditionally associated with territorial Hawaii namely, Midway, Palmyra, Johnston Island and Kingman Reef were excluded by Congress from the states area. The name Hawaii is derived from the Polynesian word Hawaiki, the name of traditional homeland of the Polynesian people. According to legend, this homeland was situated to the west of Polynesia. Called sometimes the Paradise of Pacific, Hawaii is famous for its subtropical beauty, for its volcanic peaks and green plains, its palm-fringed blue water, its white surf and its flowers. It is also known for its beneficent climate, for the warmth of its personal relationships as symbolized by the word aloha , meaning love or affection and used as a greeting or farewell. It is an ever-growing tourist center. More than half of Hawaiis population is of Oriental origin, and the state is a human melting pot of Hawaiians, Japanese, Caucasians, Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others, many of them racially intermingled and all living harmoniously together. About 87 per cent of the population is American-born and of United States citizenship.

You can always find Hawaii at the latitude of 1931N-2150N and the longitude of 15449W-16015W. The highest altitude in Hawaii is at about 4,205m high. The state capital is Honolulu and the state song is Hawaii Ponoi (Our Own Hawaii).

Topography The islands of the state of Hawaii are of volcanic origin and mountainous, with the characteristic beauty of the high islands of the Pacific. The island of Hawaii (10,458km) is the largest, highest and, geologically speaking, the youngest of the group. Among its peaks, Mauna Kea (4,205m high), highest point in the state, is a dormant volcano, two of which Kilauea(1,247m) and Mauna Loa (4,169m), which is an active volcanoes. Mokuaweoweo, at its summit, erupted in 1949 and was active for six months. Again, in 1950, for 23 days it poured a large and rapid flow of lava down the mountain and into the sea. Kilauea, on the low slopes, was active for 137 days in 1952 and again for 36 days in 1959. In 1955, for the first time in more than 130 years, volcanic activity broke out in the fields and farms of Maua Loas lowest slopes; it continued sporadically for three months, threw spectacular fountains 800 feet into the air, and poured masses of lava over the land and into the sea in three different places. This flow caused the greatest property damage in the islands recorded history but, like all Hawaiian volcanic activity, was regarded as a

fascinating sight. Among the islands mountains, only the Kohala range, its oldest section, contains the characteristic deep valleys of the lofty Pacific isles.

Maui, the next largest island (1,888km), is composed of two mountain masses joined by a narrow isthmus. The highest and the youngest mountain is Haleakala (3,055m), with the worlds largest extinct crater at its summit. This crater is believed to have been active as late as 1750. The islands other mountain mass, West Maui, is older and cut by deep valleys.

Oahu (1.575km) has two old mountain ranges, cut by many valleys. A plateau lies between the ranges, and there is a narrow coastal plain along the southern shore. Oahu is partly encircled by coral reefs.

Kauai (1,432km), geologically the oldest of the islands, consists of one central mountain mass, rising to a height of 1,576m at Kawaikini Peak. The summit of nearby Waialeale (1,548m) is one of the two wettest spots on earth (the other being Charrapunji, India), its annual average rainfall being 476 inches, with a recorded fall one year of 620 inches. From Waialeales sides flow many short streams that have helped to erode the islands ancient deep valleys, notably the Waimea Canyon, comparable to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in all respects except size.

Kahoolawe (117km) is hilly and barren, with a maximum elevation of about 450m. The island is regularly inhabited and is used by the U. S. military for target practice.

Lanai (363km) is hilly and rises to 1,027m atop a long-extinct volcano. The island is privately owned by a firm that uses the land to grow pineapples.

Molokai (676km) is made up of three distinct regions, each formed by a separate volcano. In the east are rugged mountains, in the center is a fertile plain and in the west is a broad, sandy plateau.

Privately owned Niihau (189 km) is made up of a central tableland fringed by low-lying plains. The owners, descendants of Elisabeth Sinclair (who bought it in 1864), encourage the preservation of traditional Hawaiian culture and discourage outsiders from visiting the island.

Rainfall and Climate Hawaii lies in the path of rain-bearing northeast trade winds which blow consistently about nine months of the year, dropping most of their moisture on the northeast mountain slopes. The leeward sides of the islands are relatively arid, with annual rainfall averaging less than 15 inches in some localities. This is in marked contrast with the very high annual totals in nearby mountain areas, exceeding 300 inches on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. The climate of Hawaii is subtropical rather than tropical, since the island are close enough to the fringe of the tropics to experience occasional winter storms and it is these that bring the greatest amount of rain to lowland areas, especially in the normally dry leeward locations. Temperatures vary chiefly with altitude. Thus at the Mauna Loa observatory, 11,150 feet above sea level, temperatures below 20F have been recorded. Near sea level, however, temperatures below 60 are rare. In Honolulu, for example, the daily temperature typically ranges from the high 60s or low 70s at night to the high 70s or low 80s in the afternoon. The average daily range is 8 to 12.

Conservation In Hawaii conservation is largely directed to water supply. Hawaiian steams are small, and many are intermittent. There are no large lakes. Underground water is found in artesian basins and in water-soaked rocks or natural reservoirs beneath the mountains and adjacent plains. In areas where mountain waters have not been discovered, people are dependent upon rain water caught in individual tanks, or upon streams. Much of the water research and the development of mountain waters has been carried out by sugar plantations. The Board of Water Supply of Honolulu has also made conspicuous contributions. The research of engineers and geologists, the construction of pumping stations, irrigation ditches and artificial storage reservoirs, the maintenance of forest and water reservations and the continuous development of new water supplies are extremely important in Hawaii. Plant and Animal Life Plant life, indigenous and imported, is luxuriant. There are approximately 900 flowering plants, of which about one half is native. Imported plants have come principally from Asia, Australia, the United States and Pacific islands. There are over 200 species of ferns and a variety of palms. Some of the more numerous trees and plants are the koa, ohia, kukui, hau (or majagua), ti, Cassia, algarroba, monkeypod, banyan, eucalyptus, Poinciana, coffee, macadamia, sugarcane, pineapple, banana, papaya, Plumeria, citrus, breadfruit, mango, oleander, avocado, Croton, anthurium, hibiscus and orchids.

Some 14 or 15 species of endemic Hawaiian passerine birds remain in the forests. Other avifauna include native land and water birds, sea birds, migrants and a variety of introduced song and game birds. Mammals include goats, sheep, hogs, cattle, horses and deer. Insects are numerous and destructive, since the balance of nature was long since destroyed on the islands. Fish life in coastal waters is relatively plentiful.

Natural Resources The state has few sizable deposits of commercially important minerals. Bauxite is found in quantity on Kauai, and there are large amounts of limestone, sand and gravel, stone, clay, and olivine as well as small deposits of titanium and semiprecious gemstones. Few streams have a consistently large enough flow of water for hydroelectric power production, and, in general, surface water is conserved for irrigation. The increased use of limited environmental resources, due to the growth in population and in the economy, has resulted in the loss or degradation of resources, especially on Oahu where residential and economic growth are the greatest. Environmental concerns are an important part of the Hawaii State Plan, a statewide land-use and greenbelt program enacted in 1961.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS The state constitution authorizes the legislature to create counties and other political divisions and provide for the government thereof. The four existing counties upon attainment of statehood were Hawaii, Maui (including Molokai and Lanai), Kauai (including Niihau) and the city and county of Honolulu, embracing the island of Oahu and comprising also a standard metropolitan area. On July 1st, 1959, a modern city charter went into effect for the city and county of Honolulu, under which administrative authority is centered in an elected mayor, with basic policy-making and legislative authority vested in an elected nine-member council. Each of the other counties is administrated by an elected chairman and board of superiors. Honolulu, the capital, chief city and chief port, is a beautiful modern city situated on Oahus southern coastal plain, about 10 miles east of Pearl Harbor. Known as the Crossroads of the Pacific, because of its key role as an international air and shipping center, it is also the business and cultural center of the state and has important sugar and oil refineries, pineapple canneries and ironworks. Other important cities are: Hilo on Hawaii island; Wahiawa, Kailua-Lanikai and Aiea on Oahu; Wailuku and Kahului on Maui.

GOVERNMENT Constitution The state constitution, framed by an elected convention in 1950, approved by popular vote on Nov 7th, 1950, and ratified by Congress in the statehood enabling act of 1959, is a simple one. It aims at creating a more compact organization than the territorial government, which had a multiplicity of appointed, overlapping and practically autonomous boards and commissions, and at creating a stronger executive and a wider base for appointive officers. Thus, the constitution limits departments of the executive branch to 20. Each department, with the exception o public education is headed by an executive appointed by the governor, with Senate approval and directly responsible to him. Reorganization of the government under the constitution was left to the legislature, which was given three years to complete the task until the summer of 1962. The constitution contains a strong bill of rights. Constitutional amendments may be proposed by the legislature or by constitutional conventions. Besides its two United States senators, Hawaii is represented in Congress by one member of the House of Representatives. Executive The governor and lieutenant governor are elected for a term of four years. The governor chooses his own administrative assistant, to serve at his pleasure. All other executive and administrative officers are appointed. Legislature The legislature consists of a Senate of 25 members, elected for four years and representing geographical (island) divisions; and a House of Representatives of 51 members, elected for two years on a population basis. All United States citizens who have reached the age of 20 and have resided in the state 12 months and the election district 3 months are eligible to vote in state elections.

Judiciary The state supreme court consists of five members. In addition there are circuit courts and such lower courts as the legislators may establish. The governor, with Senate approval, appoints the judges of the supreme and circuit courts. Taxation and Revenue Under the constitution, taxing power is reserved to the state except so much thereof as may be delegated by the legislature to political subdivisions. The state dept is limited to 15 per cent of the assessed value of real property. The chief revenue sources, as in force under territorial status and carried over into statehood, are a general excise tax, personal and corporate income taxes and gasoline, liquor and tobacco taxes. A real property tax is collected by the state for each of the four counties. The chief categories of state expenditure are education, health, welfare and public works.

EDUCATION, HEALTH AND WELFARE Education The system of public education, dating back to the 1840s, was shaped by Americans and has reflected at any given period the content or method prevailing generally on the mainland. Hawaii departed from mainland practice in one respect only: it has maintained centralized control and support in all aspects of education except buildings and maintenance, which were delegated to the counties. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16. Enrollment in the public schools increased. Hawaii has parochial schools and also nonsectarian private schools, of which Punahou, Honolulu, founded in 1840, is the oldest and most famous. All private schools have unrestricted enrollment except The Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, which are limited to pupils with some Hawaiian blood. Higher education is the responsibility chiefly of the publicly supported University of Hawaii in Manoa Valley, Honolulu, which was founded as a land-grand college in 1907 and elevated to university status in 1919. The university has seven colleges agriculture, arts and sciences, business administration, education, engineering, general studies and nursing and a regular enrollment exceeding 7,500. It maintains a branch at Hilo, Hawaii.

University of Hawaii

Libraries Established in 1913, the Library of Hawaii, with a central library in Honolulu and branches in other areas, provides public library services throughout Oahu, while similar libraries function in Hawaii, Maui and Kauai counties. The University of Hawaii has a large reference library specialized resources in Hawaiiana, Oriental languages and material on the Pacific Ocean. There are also many specialized government and industry libraries. Health and Welfare Physical and mental health programs throughout the state are administered by the Department of Health. Outstanding in the program have been the virtual eradication of Hansens disease (leprosy) and a heavy reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis. Public welfare programs, including public assistance and institutional care, are combined under the Department of Social Services. Penal System In addition to the prison in Honolulu, the Department of Social Service maintains two work camps, one on the island of Hawaii, the other on Maui, where prisoners work under close guard, but with no traditional prison walls.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Hawaii embarked upon statehood with a vigorous and expanding economy and several economic problems. The states basic economy is agricultural and depends overwhelmingly on two export crops, cane sugar and pineapples. Tourism, a spectacularly growing industry (known in the islands as the visitor industry), has achieved major importance. But after World War II the islands chief single source of income and hence a vital factor in the economy, consisted of federal military expenditures. Post-World War II trends also include growing concentration of population and business activities on Oahu, at the expense of population and economic progress in the other islands. In the 1950-1960 decade, the proportion of the population living on Oahu, whose area is less than one tenth of the state, rose. The same island absorbed 91 per cent of tourist dollars and overwhelmingly dominated manufacturing and wholesale and retail trade. At the same time, urban encroachments tended to threaten the existence of some of Oahus agricultural activities. Both government and industry were concerned at this unbalance in the islands economy. Among the proposed remedies are: geographical diversification and expansion of industry and economic activity; shifting on Oahu dairy and truck farming to neighboring islands; development of these and other outlying islands through expanded irrigation, introduction of new crops, establishment of resort areas for Oahu residents and tourists and provision of cheap inter-island travel. Development of extensive bauxite deposits on Kauai and elsewhere offered another prospect for diversification, while efforts were being made to find commercial uses for volcanic lava deposits. Another problem facing state planers was that of the future status of military expenditures, since a change in federal policy could have a sharp impact on the economy. Here the expectation was that, should such a change occur, the states two United States

senators and its representative in Congress would seek special public works projects for Hawaii to offset the impact. Meanwhile, the possibility of reduced military outlays provided another incentive for the acceleration of industrialization in Hawaii. Agriculture Dating from 1835, when the first successful plantation was established, sugar has always been the leading crop. Located on Hawaii, Maui and Oahu, the modern sugargrowing industry is highly mechanized, extensively irrigated and, as a result of intensive scientific research, produces over 10 tons of raw sugar per acre, a yield unmatched anywhere else in the world. The annual production during the late 1950s exceeded 1 million tons valued at between $140 and $150 million. The major plantations jointly own their own refining organization, which operates the worlds largest refinery at Crockett, California, as well as a refinery at Aiea, near Honolulu.

Pineapple production dates back to 1903, utilizing land unsuitable for sugar and is concentrating on five islands Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai and Oahu. The industry grows about four fifths of the worlds pineapples. Processed by nine canneries (three on each Maui, Kauai and Oahu), its output in the later 1950s exceeded 30 million cases of fruit and juice, worth well over $100 million annually.

Both the sugar and pineapple industries maintain experiment stations in which many scientists conduct research into every aspect of production, processing and marketing. The sugar and pineapple workers are the worlds highest paid agricultural workers. However, constantly expanding mechanization has affected employment, which dropped 40 per cent in the sugar industry and 17 per cent in the pineapple industry in the 1948-1958 decade, despite increasing production. Nevertheless, sugar in the late 1950s provided year-round employment for about 17,000 persons, while employment in pineapple production varied from 20,000 at the peak of the season to 10,000 in the slack period. Aside from sugar and pineapples, the chief agricultural activities include the raising of tropical crops, fruits and vegetables; beef cattle, cows, poultry and hogs; also macadamia nuts, flowers and coffee. Visitor Industry The annual allure of the islands, vigorous promotion and rapid expansion of travel facilities, especially by air, explain the post-World War II boom in tourism. The trend is strikingly illustrated by statistics: in 1948, 36,400 visitors came to the islands and spent $19 million; in 1958, 171,588 visitors came and spent $82 million. Many expected that the visitor industry would eventually out stride the sugar industry as the islands biggest earner. Manufacturing Food processing, ship repairing and upkeep, manufacturing of such articles as clothing, furniture and many other items and processing of mainland raw materials, comprise the chief categories in the islands limited but growing industries. Except for some food processing, manufacturing is virtually confined to Oahu, which at the time of attainment of statehood possessed the islands only oil and sugar refineries, the largest pineapple canneries, the first steel mill (utilizing local scrap) and the first concrete plants.

Forestry and Fishing Almost one-quarter of Hawaiis area is kept in forest reserves. Timber harvesting is a small industry; hardwoods make up great bulk of harvested timber. Commercial fisheries, conducted chiefly from the islands of Oahu and Hawaii, are of some importance, the annual catch of aku (victorfish), tuna swordfish, wahoo and dolphin netting several million dollars. Maritime Trade The states chief exports are raw sugar and pineapple products; other exports include macadamia nuts, flowers (especially orchids) and coffee. The state imports a vast range of manufactured products essential for living, including building materials, all automobiles, trucks and buses, all newsprint, paper and books, all gasoline and fuel oils and all medical and hospital supplies, as well as canned and frozen foods, many food staples, tools, machinery, electrical equipment, fertilizers and other goods. This heavy dependence on imports has rendered the states economy particularly vulnerable to the effects of shipping strikes. In Hawaii legislation which permits government operation of shipping in the event of a strike affords some protection, but mainland west coast dock or maritime strikes can sharply disrupt Hawaiian affairs. Military Expenditures The conversion of Hawaii into a tremendous base for all branches of the armed forces in World War II set the stage for the states continuing role as a military center. Among its numerous military installation are such famous centers as Pearl Harbor, Forth Shafter, Schofield Barracks, Camp H. M. Smith, Hickam Air Force Base and Kaneohe Marine Air Station. It is thus easy to see that the federal governments military expenditures - $327.4 million in 1958, or about double the 1948 figure have played a major role in the economy. In fact, in the late 1950s, including military personnel, one out of every four persons in the islands was dependent upon the armed forces for a living.

Labor Force Hawaiis labor force has grown steadily, numbering about 224,000 in 1959, compared with 188.000 in 1950. Of those employed in 1959, the largest number were engaged in wholesale and retail trade, the other main categories of employment being agriculture, federal government, manufacturing, chiefly food processing, service industries and local government. In the late 1950s unemployment averaged 3.2 per cent of the labor force. The largest union is the International Longshoremens and Warehousemens Union (ILWU), which has organized the sugar and pineapple industries, as log as long shore activities. There are also locals of the AFL-CIO and of independent unions. Personal Income Per capita personal income in 1958 averaged $1,852, up approximately 8 per cent since 1954 but still somewhat under the continental United States average of $2,057. Total personal income in 1958 was $1,154 million, nearly 30 per cent more than in 1954. Banking and Insurance Both banking and insurance have reflected the growth of the community. The number of banks rose from 4 with 39 branches in 1948 to 6 with 70 branches in 1959. In the same decade, life insurance in force more than tripled.

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS Land Transportation Nearly all land transportation in Hawaii is by automobile, truck and bus (railroads, once important in the islands of Oahu and Hawaii, were long ago discontinued). Besides a considerable federal-aid highway system in the state, extending in 1957 to 1,181 miles, nearly all paved, the city and county of Honolulu maintains 600 miles of improved roads, of which 430 miles are in the city proper. Among important modern trends has been the construction of express routes in the Honolulu area and between the city and military installations. The only public transportation service is the bus system in Honolulu. Inter-island Transportation Although a limited inter-island ferry service was begun in 1958, virtually all interisland passenger transportation is by air and is handled by several airlines using numerous airports. However, with population and business activity increasingly concentrated on Oahu and with the need of accelerated development of the outer islands becoming more and more apparent, the provision of adequate, more rapid and relatively cheap surface transportation for inter-island passengers was considered to be one of the urgent problems facing the state. Inter-island freight, once carried by steamships, is now handled almost exclusively by regularly scheduled barges. Overseas Transportation As with inter-island movement, overseas passenger traffic has passed increasingly from surface to air. As a result, Honolulu International Airport has become the air hub of the Pacific, with frequent service by several scheduled airlines to the mainland, Canada, Philippines, New Zeeland, Australia and the Orient. In 1958, the last year before statehood, more than three fourths of all overseas passengers to and from Hawaii traveled by air; and in 1959, with the inauguration of jet service that cut flying time between the islands and the mainland from 9 hours to 4 and a half (from San Francisco), air passenger

traffic seemed headed for far greater volume. In shipping, the port of Honolulu plays a vital role in handling the bulk of the islands exports and imports, and serves as a regular port of call for steamship lines serving the mainland and no various trans-Pacific runs and on world cruises. There are also deep draft harbors al Hilo, Hawaii; Kahului, Maui; and Port Allen and Nawiliwili, Kauai. Telephone and Telegraph Hawaiis telephone system was first organized in 1883, only seven years after the invention of the telephone. With the attainment of statehood in 1959, the statewide system had 185,000 telephones, all automatic. The worlds first commercial wireless telephone system, with both inter-island and trans-Pacific service, was established in Hawaii in 1931. In 1957, installation of the worlds longest submarine cable between Hawaii and the mainland made possible direct dialing between the islands and the mainland. In telegraphy, a submarine cable laid in 1902 provided the first quick communication between Hawaii and the mainland; by 1908, wireless telegraphy to the mainland began, and in 1951 the telegraph cable was discontinued. Radio and Television The first local radio broadcasting station, KGU, Honolulu, went on the air in May 1922, the third such station to be licensed by the federal government. Upon attainment of statehood, Hawaii had 1 noncommercial and 15 commercial radio stations; also 3 television stations in Honolulu, with 4 satellite stations on other islands. Newspapers Six daily newspapers are published in Honolulu, including 2 English-language newspapers, 2 bilingual (English and Japanese) papers and 2 Chinese-language papers. The other three counties are each served by one English-language newspaper. Numerous weekly, monthly and quarterly papers and magazines are published, mostly in Honolulu.

CULTURAL LIFE The impact of the outside world destroyed the ancient Hawaiian culture. Authentic remains of it are found today only in the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, founded in 1889 and famous for its Hawaiian and Polynesian relics. The Hawaiians themselves discarded the old law and polytheistic religion before the arrival, early in the 19th century, of the first missionaries, under whose influence a new culture was developed. The Hawaiian language survived, but at the request of the Hawaiian people themselves was replaced by English as the medium of instruction in the public schools, so that by 1896 no instruction was carried on in Hawaiian. Many expressive Hawaiian words are in the vocabulary of all residents. The friendly spirit of the Hawaiian people, best expressed in the word aloha, influenced all newcomers, and the spirit remains in Hawaii as the one indestructible element of endemic culture.

Bishop Museum

In modern Hawaii, everyday living includes many features originating in diverse ancestral strains. A few illustrations will suffice. The use of flower leis is universal. Muumuus (loose flowing ankle-length garments), fitted Chinese sheaths and Japanese sandals may be worn by anyone anywhere. Lauhala mats, woven from the fibrous leaves of the pandanus tree and wooden bowls, produced in quantity, are in frequent use, as are certain features of Japanese architecture. Surf riding and hula dancing are not confined to

those of Hawaiian blood. The kimono, commonly seen on the streets before, has never been seen there since 1941; it has become a costume to add color to a restaurant service or parade. National foods, notably Chinese, Japanese and Hawaiian, are universal favorites. Most important of all, the people of Hawaii share common experiences in a state in which racial discrimination is unknown and equality of opportunity is a reality, with business, professions and government open to all qualified persons, regardless of ethnic background. In the word of music, the state is well represented by the Honolulu Symphony Orchestra and the Royal Hawaiian Band, established in 1870. The capital has an active and successful community theatre which presents hit musicals while the original casts perform on Broadway. The Honolulu Academy of Arts has an excellent collection of Hawaiian, Occidental and Asiatic art. Religion The people of Hawaii are preponderantly Christian. The first missionaries were Congregational, but today practically all the Protestant churches are represented, including the Mormon Church. The Roman Catholic Church has a large membership. There is a Jewish temple in Honolulu. The Buddhist religion has a large following.

PLACES OF INTEREST Waikiki, Honolulu, an area about two miles long paralleling Waikiki Beach and overlooked by towering Diamond Head, is the chief tourist center. It is famous for its resort hotels, shops, restaurants, swimming, surfboarding and other water sports. In addition, Honolulu contains many noted institutions such as the University of Hawaii, Bishop Museum and the Academy of Arts already mentioned. Among its historic buildings is Iolani Palace, former home of Hawaiian kings and the territorial and temporary state capitol, with a statue of King Kamehameha I in the foreground. The city and county of Honolulu maintains Koko Head Natural Park, a 1,200-acre reserve comprising a unique formation of extinct twin volcanic peaks.

Diamond Head


On Maui, there is the tropical paradise of Hana at the eastern end of the island. The 1,200-foot Iao Needle, an interesting volcanic freak, is located in the Iao Valley, a heavily forested gorge in the West Maui mountains. The plantation city of Lahaina, rich with history, is a former whaling center.

Iao Valley

Iao Needle

On Kauai, there is Waimea Canyon (2,857 feet deep) known as the Grand Canyon of the Pacific. Hanalei Beach on Kauai is often called the garden spot of the Garden Island.

Waimea Canyon

Elsewhere on the islands, the Hawaii National Park, established by Congress in 1916, constitutes one of the worlds most spectacular volcanic areas. The 176,951-acre park has two separate areas: the Kilauea-Mauna Loa section on the island of Hawaii and

the Haleakala section on Maui. Besides its volcanoes, the parks luxuriant tropical forests, native birds and rugged coastlines make it unusually attractive.


Hawaiians, with their flair for fun and friendliness, love pageants. Among the annual celebration is Lei Day, May 1st, reviving the old and colorful Hawaiian custom of wearing and giving fragrant garlands. June 11th, anniversary of the birth of King Kamehameha I, is Kamehameha Day, featuring surfboard and outrigger canoe races and other Hawaiian activities. But the bigger annual event is Aloha Week, celebrated on each island usually in October and featured by hula pageants, lantern parades, street festivals, community luaus (feasts), an Aloha king and queen, water pageants and all sorts of sports. The entire islands are extremely sports minded and enjoy almost every conceivable kind of sport, from swimming, surfing and canoeing at the beaches to skiing, hiking and hunting in the mountains and yachting and fishing in surrounding waters. The City of Refuge National Historical Park, on Hawaii island, includes prehistoric house sites, royal fishponds, coconut groves, and spectacular coastal scenery; Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site, on Hawaii island, is the site of ruins of a royal temple. The U. S. S. Arizona Memorial, at Pearl Harbor, commemorates crew members of a ship sunk by the Japanese on Dec. 7th, 1941.

HISTORY The history of Hawaii before the advent of Europeans is hidden in the oral tradition of a people who had no written language. These were the Polynesian explorers from southern Polynesian groups who discovered the islands, settled there and, after voyaging back and forth for food plants and settlers, developed a self-sufficient economy. The Hawaiian social order was stratified; the landholding system, feudal; the law, the inflexible kapu, or tabu, system; the tools and utensils, those of the Stone Age; the craftsmanship, skilled and advanced. The first recorded visit of an outsider was that of the English explorer Capt. James Cook in 1778. He named the group the Sandwich Islands in honor of the Earl of Sandwich (John Montagu), first Lord of the Admiralty. From this time on, explorers, scientists, traders and, later on, whaling fleets, visited Hawaii at increasingly frequent intervals. In Cooks time, Kamahameha, a Hawaiian chief, was beginning his rise to power. By 1810 he had established his sovereignty over the group and had united the islands for the first time. This monarch, Kamehameha I, was a strong, beneficent and wise ruler, appreciative of skills and materials previously unknown to Hawaii but exercising control over their introduction. His son Kamehameha II dramatically cast aside the old law and polytheistic religion in 1819. The first missionaries arrived, at the psychological moment, in 1820. The king and high chiefs were aware of their need for help in handling the impact of the newcomers to land on condition that they teach him to read and write. The missionaries learned the language, reduced it to written form, and by 1822 had printed elementary material in Hawaiian. The king, queen and powerful chiefs and chieftesses learned to read and write. The docile people came in droves for instruction. Within 10 years, the adult population was literate. The first Hawaiian newspaper appeared on Feb. 14th, 1834. By May 1839 the entire Bible had been translated into

Hawaiian and published. Religious had begun immediately in 1820 and after leading chiefs and chieftesses had announced their adherence to the new religion, the people followed their example. King Kamehameha III and the chiefs together promulgated the first constitution in 1840, with the result that the first commoners ever to share in lawmaking sat with the chiefs in the first legislature. This legislature passed a law establishing a public school system. In 1848 feudal landholding was given up. Kamehameha III divided all the land of Hawaii between himself and the high chiefs. He then divided his land into two parts, one for the crown and one for the government. Commoners were permitted to submit claims for land upon which they were living and which they were cultivating. Commoners received some 30,000 acres in all. The establishment of private land ownership was essential for the development of commercial agriculture; and commercial agriculture seemed the only source of a stabile income, more reliable than the trade with the whalers who wintered in Hawaiian waters. Sugar production, since its beginnings in 1835, had struggled along under feudal systems and the claims of the chiefs on water, labor of the people and land use. After 1848, sugar production was facilitated, but it was apparent that immigrant workers were needed. They were obtained chiefly from China, Madeira, Japan and, later, the Philippines. In 1875 King Kalakua went to Washington and obtained the consent on Congress to a reciprocity trade treaty with Hawaii. The treaty created more favorable conditions, including the entry of Hawaiian sugar into the United States free of duty. This treaty was renewed in 1887 at a price. The price was permission for the United States to use Pearl Harbor as a naval station and coaling base. The discovery of artesian basins on Oahu in 1879 gave another spurt to the sugar industry. When constitutional government was in jeopardy, a revolution took place in 1893, and the queen, Liliuokalani was deposed. A provisional government was followed by a

republic, with Sanford B. Dole as president. The legislature of the republic requested Congress that the United States annex Hawaii as a territory. Annexation took place formally on Aug. 12th, 1898 and by 1900 the Organic Act defining the government of the new territory was in effect. This Organic Act was detailed and advanced, suited to a people accustomed to their citizenship responsibilities under a constitutional monarchy or a republic. As an integral part of the United States, Hawaii became an increasingly important center of commerce, industry and military installations. The pineapple industry was developed and rapidly forged ahead. Since pineapples flourish on lands unsuited for sugar production, this new industry added greatly to agricultural productivity. In all phases of living transportation, communications, household conveniences, hospital facilities, public health, sanitation, welfare services the changes that took place in Hawaii after 1900 paralleled the changes taking place in any mainland state. Hawaii also experienced the gradual growth of organized labor common to the other states, with the single exception of agriculture, whose organization under the International Longshoremens and Warehousemens Union (ILWU) shortly after World War II was a precipitate and unique event in labor annals. When the United States entered World War II after the Japanese attacked on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7th, 1941, every aspect of life in Hawaii was changed. A state of material law was declared and continued with successive modifications until Oct. 24th, 1944. With the outbreak of the war, fears that any part of Hawaiis population, particularly those of Japanese ancestry, would be disloyal in a crisis, were found to be entirely without bases. Federal agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, disclaimed any evidence of sabotage on the part of any of the people of Hawaii on Dec. 7th, 1941, or during the moths that followed. Hawaii felt the full impact of the war and responded with conspicuous patriotism, both in the armed forces and in civilian life.

Between the end of World War II and the attainment of statehood, Hawaii underwent great changes. The most marked ones were: 1. the rapid growth of tourist industry, with correlative increases in hotels, resort areas and employment services; 2. emergence of vocal leadership, financial, professional and political, among citizens of Asian ancestry; 3. development of subsidiary industries in agriculture and manufacturing; 4. influx of mainland capital;
5. concentration of population on the Oahu, with corresponding loss of population

on the other islands; 6. growth of the Democratic Party, thus creating in Hawaii a two-party system; 7. rapid increase in apartment buildings, previously unknown in Hawaii; 8. development of extensive new housing areas, particularly on Oahu; 9. achievement of statehood. The path toward statehood had proved long and arduous. The first statehood bill introduced by a Hawaiian delegate into Congress came in 1919. In 1937 a joint Congressional committee visited Hawaii, reported favorably on the statehood proposal and recommended a plebiscite. Accordingly, a plebiscite was held in 1940, when Hawaiians voted more than 2 to 1 for statehood. The House of Representatives passed statehood bills in 1947, 1950 and 1953; the Senate in 1953 passed one only after adding Alaska to it, and the bill died. However, following authorization by Congress of statehood for Alaska in a separate measure in 1958, Hawaiian statehood was finally approved in 1959 by both the Senate (March 11th) and House (March 12th). The bill was signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on March 18th. In a plebiscite on June 27th Hawaiians overwhelmingly accepted statehood. The first state general election was held on July 28yh. Among those elected were: governor William Fong (republican), the last territorial governor; United States senators Hiram Leong Fong (republican),

Hawaii-Chinese lawyer, businessman and ex-territorial house speaker, and Oren E. Long (democrat), former territorial governor and senator; member of the United States House of Representatives, Daniel K. Inouye (democrat), war hero, lawyer, territorial legislator. The Democratic Party won control of the first state House of Representatives, while Republicans won control of the first state Senate. On Aug. 21st, 1959, President Eisenhower proclaimed Hawaii a state. Ten days later the first state legislature convened for its first session and began the work of organizing the government under the state constitution.

GOOD TO KNOW HONI its an ancient greeting that was almost lost in Hawaii. Lean forward and look into a persons eyes, a persons soul. Touch foreheads, touch noses, then inhale deeply, sharing the h, the breath of life. Little more than a century after the U.S. toppled the peaceable kingdom of Hawaii, sending its culture into a tailspin, honi thrives again as islanders rediscover their Polynesian heritage, using the wisdom and teaching of their elders. As their ancestors did for a thousand years, young Hawaiians stand on the Kahoolawe coast at sunset and chant. Once a training ground for native navigators, this remains wahi pana, a sacred place. Seized for use as a bombing range in 1941, the island became a focal point in the Hawaiians struggle to reclaim their culture. After years of protests Kahoolawe was returned to state control in 1994. Now its restoration is teaching a new generation to be kahu o ka ina stewards of the land. A molten eye burns at the center of Kilaueas Puu O crater in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The most active and accessible volcano on Earth, Kilauea has been erupting almost continuously since 1983, a fiery show that has destroyed homes, closed highways and enthralled more than a million park visitors each year.

WHAT DO THEY THINK OF HAWAII There they lie, the divine islands, forever shining in the sun, forever smiling out on the sparkling sea, with its soft mottlings of drifting cloud-shadows and vagrant catspaws of wind; forever inviting you, never repulsing you; and whosoever looks upon them once, will never more get the picture out of his memory till he die. Mark Twain It is a Sunday land. The land of indolence and dreams, where the air is drowsy and things tend to repose and peace, and to emancipation from the labor, and turmoil, and weariness, and anxiety of life. Mark Twain No alien land in all the world has any deep strong charm for me but that one, no other land could so longingly and so beseechingly haunt me, sleeping and waking, through half a lifetime, as that one has done For me its balmy airs are always blowing, its summer seas flashing in the sun; the pulsing of its surfbeat is in my ear; I can see its garlanded crags, its leaping cascades, its plumy palms drowsing by the shore Mark Twain It was tranced luxury to sit in the perfumed air and forget that there was any world but these enchanted islands. Mark Twain A growing warmth suffused the horizon, and soon the sun emerged and looked out over the cloud-waste, flinging bars of ruddy light across it, staining its folds and billow-caps with blushes It was the sublimest spectacle I ever witnessed, and I think the memory of it will remain with me always. Mark Twain

We gazed down upon a place of fire and earthquake. The tie-ribs of earth lay bare before us. It was a workshop of nature still cluttered with the raw beginnings of worldmaking. Jack London that peaceful land, that far-off home of profound repose, and soft indolence, and dreamy solitude, where life is one long slumberless Sabbath, the climate one long delicious summer day Mark Twain Strip off your clothes that are a nuisance in this mellow climate. Get in and wrestle with the sea; wing your heels with the skill and power that reside in you; bite the seas breakers, master them, and ride upon their backs as a king should. Jack London A sea of vegetation laved the landscape, pouring its green billows from wall to wall, dripping from the cliff lips in great vine masses, and flinging sprays of ferns and air plants into the multitudinous crevices. Jack London In what other land save this one is the commonest form of greeting not Good day, nor How dye do, but Love? That greeting is Aloha love, I love you, my love to you It is a positive affirmation of the warmth of ones own heart-giving. Jack London Never, even after all the times I have seen it, does this place fail to humble me, to make me marvel that the earth, the sky, and the sea can meet in such grandness. Silence, I believe, the silence of prayer, is the only manner in which a visitor can show his respect for such a gift. O. A. Bushnell Up, up, up rose the mountain wall, massive at its base where it knelt upon the earth, thin as the crest of a helmet where its head brushes against the clouds. Like a

warrior it was, offering homage to his lord, and like feathers upon his helmet and cape were the trees, the shrubs, the ferns, and the grasses adorning its sides. O. A. Bushnell The Hawaiian rain forest gives off a wilderness sense that everything is in precisely the right place and the right condition of existence, everything connected with everything else, exactly as it should be. Gavan Daws Sailors who have roamed the world still swear this is the most haunting and beautiful place in all the Seven Seas. Kiana Davenport A foray [to the coral reef] is like a visit to a neighboring planet: a mystery, a magic formation of tiny animals sculpting fantastic shapes. The reef is alive with purple, green, orange, black, yellow, pink, blue, red, spotted, striped, stingered, spined, squirting, and tentacled creatures. Andrea Pro You cannot take anything, including yourself, too seriously for very long in Hawaii [C]onditions in Hawaii are just too relaxing: the islands are lovely; the weather is superb; the music is gentle. Even the language is soothing: all the words sound like aaaahhhh. Dave Barry Relax by the fireplace with a planters punch and enjoy this special place. Look out across all of central Maui, to the ocean on each side, west to Lanai Island, and northwest to Molokai. All sunsets here are incomparable, no matter what the weather. Robert Weinkam Oh, for this pulsing, undulating, shimmering, sighing, breathing plasma of an ocean. For the miracle of warm water. For rideable waves and no wind. Thomas Farber

The shore is an ancient world, for as long as there has been this place of the meeting of land and water. Yet it is a world that keeps alive the sense of continuing creation and of the relentless drive of life. Rachel Carson There was the gaunt, hideous, desolate abyss, with its fiery cones, its rivers and surges of black lava and grey ash There never was a stranger contrast than between the hideous desolation of the crater below, and those blue and jeweled summits rising above the shifting clouds. Isabella L. Bird Men and women looked as easy, contented, and happy as if care never came near them. I never saw such healthy, bright complexions as among the women, or such sparkling smiles, or such a diffusion of feminine grace and graciousness anywhere. Isabella Bird Kauai though altogether different from Hawaii has an extreme beauty altogether its own, which wins ones love. Isabella L. Bird There was no place known on earth that even began to complete with these islands in their capacity to encourage natural life to develop freely and radically up to its own best potential. More than nine out of ten things that grew here, grew no where else on earth. James Michener This was the restless of the universe, the violence of birth, the cold tearing away of death; and yet how promising was this interplay of forces as an island struggled to be born, vanishing in agony, then soaring aloft in triumph. James Michener In daydreams I have its face: a bulbous head covered in silvery fur, with black buttonhook-shaped eyes, a snout on which springy nostrils open full like quotation marks,

tiny tab-shaped ears, a spray of cats whiskers, and many doughy chins. On land, it drags itself with excruciating effort, or ripple-gallops like a four-hundred-pound slug. But the water sets it free to swivel and race. Diane Ackerman There is, one knows not what sweet mystery about this sea, whose gently awful stirrinds seem to speak of some hidden soul beneath. Herman Melville [Honolulu] is the meeting place of East and West. The very new rubs shoulders with the immeasurably old. And if you have not found the romance you expected you have come upon something singularly intriguing. W. Somerset Maugham Honolulu boasts a fascinating blend of a multi-ethnic population and a lifestyle in which individually reigns supreme where muumuus and cutoffs, oxfords and bare feet, tuxedos and swimsuits intermingle in the restaurants and night clubs Long before first-time visitors to Hawaii flew over Diamond Head and Honolulu in a 747, they had been primed for pleasure. And for most people, there are no disappointments Robert Smith Bore off and made all sail for the Coast of China, and soon lost sight of these beautiful isles. The Inhabitants of which appeared to me to be the happiest people in the world. Indeed there was something in them so frank and chearfull that you could not help feeling prepossessed in their favor John Boit Everything grew freely and with an energy that was, I thought, startling. It was as if the plants wanted to take over and hide anything human that might have been. Marjorie Sinclair Islands are clothed by the sea. Around the Hawaiian archipelago, in sunny, tradewind weather, they flaunt their finery. John L. Culliney

It is pleasant, above all, to wander by the margin of the sea Along the brink, rock architecture and sea music please the senses, and in that tainted place the thought of the cleanness of the antiseptic ocean is welcome to the mind. Robert Louis Stevenson