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Dual Darboux Frame of a Timelike Ruled Surface and Darboux Approach to Mannheim
Offsets of Timelike Ruled Surfaces

Mehmet nder
1
, H. Hseyin Uurlu
2
1
Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Mathematics, Muradiye,
Manisa, Turkey. E-mail: mehmet.onder@bayar.edu.tr
2
Gazi University, Faculty of Education, Department of Secondary Education Science and
Mathematics Teaching, Mathematics Teaching Program, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract
In this paper, we give the dual geodesic trihedron(dual Darboux frame) of a timelike ruled
surface. Then, we study Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled surfaces in dual Lorentzian space.
By the aid of the E. Study Mapping, we consider the timelike ruled surfaces as dual
hyperbolic unit spherical curves and define the Mannheim offsets of the timelike ruled
surfaces by means of dual Darboux frame. We obtain the relationships between the invariants
of Mannheim timelike offset surfaces. Furthermore, we give the conditions for these surface
offset to be developable.

AMS: 53A25, 53C40, 53C50.
Keywords: Timelike ruled surface; Mannheim offset; dual Darboux frame; dual hyperbolic
angle.

1. Introduction
In the surface theory it is well-known that a surface is said to be ruled if it is generated
by a continuously moving of a straight line in the space. Ruled surfaces are one of the
simplest objects in geometric modeling that explains why these surfaces are one of the most
fascinating topics of the surface theory and also used in many areas of science such as
Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD), mathematical physics, moving geometry,
kinematics for modeling the problems and model-based manufacturing of mechanical
products. For example, the building materials such as wood are straight and they can be
considered as straight lines. The result is that if engineers are planning to construct something
with curvature, they can use a ruled surface since all the lines are straight.
An offset surface is offset a specified distance from the original along the parent surface's
normal. Offsetting of curves and surfaces is one of the most important geometric operations in
CAD/CAM due to its immediate applications in geometric modeling, NC machining, and
robot navigation. Especially, the offsets of the ruled surfaces have an important role in
(CAGD)[14,17]. In , Ravani and Ku defined and given a generalization of the theory of
Bertrand curve for Bertrand trajectory ruled surfaces on the line geometry. By considering the
E. Study mapping, Kk and Grsoy have studied the integral invariants of closed Bertrand
trajectory ruled surfaces in dual space. They have given some characterizations of Bertrand
offsets of trajectory ruled surfaces in terms of integral invariants (such as the angle of pitch
and the pitch) of closed trajectory ruled surfaces and obtained the relationship between the
area of projections of spherical images of Bertrand offsets of trajectory ruled surfaces and
their integral invariants.
Recently, a new offset of ruled surfaces has been defined by Orbay and et. al. They
have called this new surface offset as Mannheim offset and shown that every developable
ruled surface have a Mannheim offset if and only if an equation should be satisfied between
the geodesic curvature and the arc-length of spherical indicatrix of the reference surface. The
corresponding characterizations of Mannheim offsets of ruled surfaces in Minkowski 3-space
have been given in [10,13]. Furthermore, in  we have studied Mannheim offsets of ruled
2
surfaces in dual space with Blaschke approach. We have given the characterizations of
Mannheim offsets of ruled surfaces in terms of integral invariants of closed trajectory ruled
surfaces and obtained the relationship between the area of projections of spherical images of
Mannheim offsets of trajectory ruled surfaces and their integral invariants. Moreover, we have
studied the Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled surfaces in dual Lorentzian space by
considering the Blaschke frame.
In this paper, we define the dual geodesic trihedron(dual Darboux frame) of a timelike
ruled surface and give the real and dual curvatures of this surface. Then, we examine the
Mannheim offsets of the timelike ruled surfaces in view of their dual Darboux frame. Using
the dual representations of the timelike ruled surfaces, we give some theorems and new results
which characterize the developable Mannheim timelike surface offsets.

2. Preliminaries
Let
3
1
IR be a 3-dimensional Minkowski space over the field of real numbers IR with the
Lorentzian inner product , given by
1 1 2 2 3 3
, a a a b a b a b = + +

,
where
1 2 3
( , , ) a a a a =

and
3
1 2 3
( , , ) b b b b IR =

. A vector
1 2 3
( , , ) a a a a =

of
3
1
IR is said to be
timelike if , 0 a a <

, spacelike if , 0 a a >

or 0 a =

and
0 a

## . Similarly, an arbitrary curve ( ) s in

3
1
IR can locally be spacelike, timelike or null
(lightlike), if all of its velocity vectors ( ) s are spacelike, timelike or null (lightlike),
respectively. The norm of a vector a

is defined by , a a a =

. Now, let
1 2 3
( , , ) a a a a =

and
1 2 3
( , , ) b b b b =

be two vectors in
3
1
IR , then the Lorentzian cross product
of a

and b

is given by
2 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 1 2
( , , ). a b a b a b a b a b a b a b =

By using this definition it can be easily shown that , det( , , ) a b c a b c =

.
The sets of the unit timelike and spacelike vectors are called hyperbolic unit sphere and
Lorentzian unit sphere, respectively, and denoted by
{ }
2 3
0 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 H a a a a E a a = = =

and

{ }
2 3
1 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 S a a a a E a a = = =

respectively(See ).
A surface in the Minkowski 3-space
3
1
IR is called a timelike surface if the induced metric
on the surface is a Lorentz metric and is called a spacelike surface if the induced metric on the
surface is a positive denite Riemannian metric, i.e., the normal vector on the spacelike
(timelike) surface is a timelike (spacelike) vector.

3. Dual Numbers and Dual Lorentzian Vectors
Let
{ }
( , ) : , D IR IR a a a a a IR

= = = be the set of the pairs ( , ) a a

. For ( , ) a a a

= ,
( , ) b b b D

## = the following operations are defined on D:

Equality: , a b a b a b

= = =
Addition: ( , ) a b a b a b

+ + +
3
Multiplication: ( , ) ab ab ab a b

+
The element (0,1) D = satisfies the relationships
0 ,
2
0 = , 1 1 = = (1)
Let consider the element a D of the form ( , 0) a a = . Then the mapping
: , ( , 0) f D IR f a a = is a isomorphism. So, we can write ( , 0) a a = . By the multiplication
rule we have that

( , )
( , 0) (0, )
( , 0) (0,1)( , 0)
a a a
a a
a a
a a

=
= +
= +
= +

Then a a a

= + is called dual number and is called dual unit. Thus the set of dual
numbers is given by

{ }
2
: , , 0 D a a a a a IR

= = + = (2)
The set D forms a commutative group under addition. The associative laws hold for
multiplication. Dual numbers are distributive and form a ring over the real number eld.
Dual function of dual number presents a mapping of a dual numbers space on itself.
Properties of dual functions were thoroughly investigated by Dimentberg. He derived the
general expression for dual analytic (differentiable) function as follows
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x f x x f x x f x

= + = + , (3)
where ( ) f x is derivative of ( ) f x and , x x IR

## . This definition allows us to write the dual

forms of some well-known functions as follows

cosh( ) cosh( ) cosh( ) sinh( ),
sinh( ) sinh( ) sinh( ) cosh( ),
, ( 0).
2
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x
x x x x x
x

= + = +

= + = +

= + = + >

(4)
Let
3
D D D D = be the set of all triples of dual numbers, i.e.,
{ }
3
1 2 3
( , , ) : , 1, 2, 3
i
D a a a a a D i = = = , (5)
Then the set
3
D is called dual space. The elements of
3
D are called dual vectors. Similar to
the dual numbers, a dual vector a may be expressed in the form ( , ) a a a a a

= + =

, where
a

and a

## are the vectors of

3
IR . Then for any vectors a a a

= +

and b b b

= +

of
3
D , the
scalar product and the vector product are defined by
( )
, , , , a b a b a b a b

= + +

, (6)
and
( )
*
a b a b a b a b

= + +

, (7)
respectively, where , a b

and a b

## are the inner product and the vector product of the

vectors a

and a

in
3
IR , respectively.
The norm of a dual vector a is given by
,
, ( 0)
a a
a a a
a

= +

. (8)
4
A dual vector a with norm 1 0 + is called dual unit vector. The set of dual unit vectors is
given by
{ }
2 3
1 2 3
( , , ) : , 1 0 S a a a a D a a = = = +

, (9)
and called dual unit sphere[2,4].
The Lorentzian inner product of two dual vectors a a a

= +

,
* 3
b b b = +

is defined
by
( )
*
, , , , , a b a b a b a b

= + +

where , a b

## is the Lorentzian inner product of the vectors a

and b

in the Minkowski 3-
space
3
1
. IR Then a dual vector a a a

= +

is said to be timelike if a

is timelike, spacelike if
a

is spacelike or 0 a =

## is lightlike (null) and 0 a

.
The set of all dual Lorentzian vectors is called dual Lorentzian space and it is denoted by
3
1
:

D
{ }
3 3
1 1
: , a a a a a IR

= = +

D

.
The Lorentzian cross product of dual vectors a and
3
1
b

is defined by
*
( ) , a b a b a b a b

= + +

where a b

## is the Lorentzian cross product in

3
1
IR .
Let a a a

= +

3
1

D . Then a
~
is said to be dual unit timelike(resp. spacelike) vector if
the vectors a

and a

## satisfy the following equations:

, 1 ( . , 1), , 0. a a resp a a a a

## < >= < >= < > =

(10)
The set of all unit dual timelike vectors is called the dual hyperbolic unit sphere, and is
denoted by
2
0
H

,
{ }
2 3
0 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 0 H a a a a D a a = = = +

(11)
Similarly, the set of all unit dual spacelike vectors is called the dual Lorentzian unit sphere,
and is denoted by
2
1
S

,
{ }
2 3
1 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 0 S a a a a D a a = = = +

. (12)
(For details see ) .

Definition 3.1. i) Dual Hyperbolic angle: Let x and y be dual timelike vectors in
3
1
ID . Then
the dual angle between x and y is defined by , cosh x y x y < >= . The dual number

## = + is called the dual hyperbolic angle.

ii) Dual Lorentzian timelike angle: Let x be a dual spacelike vector and y be a dual
timelike vector in
3
1
ID . Then the angle between x and y is defined by
, sinh x y x y < >= . The dual number

## = + is called the dual Lorentzian timelike

angle.

4. Dual Representation and Dual Darboux Frame of a Timelike Ruled Surface
In the Minkowski 3-space
3
1
IR , an oriented timelike line L is determined by a point
p L and a unit timelike vector a

## . Then, one can define a p a

=

which is called moment
vector. The value of a

does not depend on the point p , because any other point q in L can
5
be given by q p a = +

and then a p a q a

= =

. Reciprocally, when such a pair ( , ) a a

is
given, one recovers the timelike line L as
{ }
3
( ) : , , L a a a a a E IR

= +

, written in
parametric equations. The vectors a

and a

## are not independent of one another and they

satisfy the following relationships
, 1, , 0 a a a a

= =

(13)
The components ,
i i
a a

(1 3) i of the vectors a

and a

## are called the normalized Plucker

coordinates of the timelike line L . From (10), (11) and (13) we see that the dual timelike unit
vector a a a

= +

corresponds to timelike line L . This correspondence is known as E. Study
Mapping: There exists a one-to-one correspondence between the timelike vectors of dual
hyperbolic unit sphere
2
0
H

## and the directed timelike lines of the Minkowski space

3
1
IR .
By the aid of this correspondence, the properties of the spatial motion of a timelike line can be
derived. Hence, the geometry of timelike ruled surface is represented by the geometry of dual
hyperbolic curves lying on the dual hyperbolic unit sphere
2
0
H

.
In , Veldkamp given the dual representation and dual geodesic trihedron of a ruled
surface. Now, we use the similar procedure for a timelike ruled surface and introduce the dual
Darboux frame of a timelike ruled surface.
Let now ( ) k

## be a dual hyperbolic curve represented by the dual timelike unit vector

( ) ( ) ( ) e u e u e u

= +

. The real unit vector e

## draws a curve on the real hyperbolic unit sphere

2
0
H and is called the (real) indicatrix of ( ) k

## . We suppose throughout that it is not a single

point. We take the parameter u as the arc-length parameter s of the real indicatrix and denote
the differentiation with respect to s by primes. Then we have , 1 e e =

. The vector e t =

is
the unit vector parallel to the tangent of the indicatrix. The equation ( ) ( ) ( ) e s p s e s

=

has
infinity of solutions for the function ( ) p s

. If we take ( )
o
p s

## as a solution, the set of all

solutions is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
p s p s s e s = +

, where is a real scalar function of s .
Therefore we have , ,
o
p e p e = +

. By taking ,
o o
p e = =

we see that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o o
p s s e s c s + =

is the unique solution for ( ) p s

with , 0 c e =

. Then, the given dual
curve ( ) k

## corresponding to the timelike ruled surface

( ) ( )
e
c s ve s = +

(14)
may be represented by
( ) e s e c e = +

(15)
where
, 1 e e =

, , 1 e e =

, , 0 c e =

.
and c

## is the direction vector of the striction curve. Then we have

1 det( , , ) 1 e c e t = =

(16)
where det( , , ) c e t =

which characterizes the developable timelike surface, i.e, the timelike
surface is developable if and only if 0 = . Then, the dual arc-length s of the dual curve ( ) k

is given by

0 0 0
( ) (1 )
s s s
s e u du du s du = = =

(17)
From (17) we have 1 s = . Therefore, the dual unit tangent to the dual curve ( ) e s is given
by
6
( )
1
de e e
t t c t
ds s

= = = = +

(18)
Introducing the dual unit vector g e t g c g = = +

## we have the dual frame

{ } , , e t g

which is known as dual geodesic trihedron or dual Darboux frame of
e
(or ( ) e ). Also, it is
well known that the real orthonormal frame { } , , e t g

is called the geodesic trihedron of the
indicatrix ( ) e s

## with the derivations

, , e t t e g g t = = + =

(19)
where is called the conical curvature[6,18].
Lot now consider the derivations of vectors of dual geodesic trihedron and find the dual
Darboux formulae of a timelike ruled surface.
From (18) we have , 1 0 t t = +

. By using this equality and considering that g e t =

,
we have
, 0,
dt dg dt
t e
ds ds ds
= =

. (20)
For the derivative of t

let write

dt
e t g
ds
= + +

(21)
where , , are the dual functions of dual arc-length s . The first equation of (20) gives
that =0. Thus from the second equation of (20) we have

dg
t
ds
=

. (22)
Finally, from (22) and the equality t g e =

, we obtain

dt
e g
ds
= +

. (23)
Then from (18), (22) and (23) we have the following theorem

Theorem 4.1. The derivatives of the vectors of dual frame { } , , e t g

## of a timelike ruled surface

are obtained as follows
, ,
de dt dg
t e g t
ds ds ds
= = + =

(24)
and called dual Darboux formulae of timelike ruled surface e (or
e
). Then the dual Darboux
vector of the trihedron is d e g =

.

Let now give the invariants of the surface. Since 1 s = , it follows from (22) that
(1 ) g t =

(25)
On the other hand using that g g c g = +

, from (18) we have

( )
( ) ( )
( )
g t c g c t
t c t c g
t c g

= +
= +
= +

(26)
Therefore, from (25) and (26) we obtain
(1 ) ( ) t t c g = +

(27)
which gives us
7
(1 ) = + (28)
where , c e =

. Then from (28) we have
( ) = + + (29)
Moreover, since c

as well as e

is perpendicular to t

## , for the real scalar we may write

c e t =

. Then
det( , , ) , , c e t c e t t t = = = =

.
Hence ( ) e c e e t g = =

and c e g = +

.
The functions ( ), ( ) s s and ( ) s are the invariants of the timelike ruled surface
e
.
They determine the timelike ruled surface uniquely up to its position in the space. For
example, if 0 = = we have c

## is constant. It means that the timelike ruled surface

e
is a
timelike cone.

4.1. Elements of Curvature of a Dual Hyperbolic Curve
The dual radius of curvature of dual hyperbolic curve(timelike ruled surface) ( ) e s is can
be calculated analogous to common Lorentzian differential geometry of curves as follows

3
2
2
2
1
1
de
ds
R
de d e
ds ds

= =

(30)
The unit vector
o
d

## with the same sense as the Darboux vector d e g =

is given by

2 2
1
1 1
o
d e g

(31)
It is clear that
o
d

is timelike (or spacelike) if 1 > (or 1 < ). Then, the dual angle between
o
d

## and e satisfies the followings

2 2
2 2
1
cosh , sinh , 1.
1 1
1
sinh , cosh , 1.
1 1
if
if

= = >

= = <

(32)
where is the dual spherical radius of curvature. Hence

sinh , 1,
cosh , 1.
if
R
if

>

<

and
coth , 1,
tanh , 1.
if
if

>

=

<

5. Darboux Approach to Mannheim Offsets of Timelike Ruled Surfaces
Let
e
be a timelike ruled surface generated by dual timelike unit vector e and
1
e
be a
ruled surface generated by dual unit vector
1
e and let
{ } ( ), ( ), ( ) e s t s g s

and
{ }
1 1 1 1 1 1
( ), ( ), ( ) e s t s g s

## denote the dual Darboux frames of

e
and
1
e
, respectively. Then
e

and
1
e
are called Mannheim surface offsets, if

1 1
( ) ( ) g s t s =

(33)
8
holds, where s and
1
s are the dual arc-lengths of
e
and
1
e
, respectively. By this definition,
it is seen that the Mannheim offset of
e
is also a timelike ruled surface, but the generator of
this surface can be timelike or spacelike. In this study, we consider the Mannheim offset
surface with timelike ruling. If one considers the second situation, ruling is spacelike, and
uses the Definition 3.1 (ii) similar results can be found.
Let now
e
and
1
e
be timelike ruled surfaces with timelike rulings and form a Mannheim
surface offset. Then the relation between the trihedrons of the ruled surfaces
e
and
1
e
can
be given as follows

1
1
1
cosh sinh 0
0 0 1
sinh cosh 0
e e
t t
g g

| |
| | | |
|
| |
=
|
| |
| |
|
\ \
\

(34)
where

= + , ( , )

## is the dual hyperbolic angle between the dual timelike

generators e and
1
e of Mannheim timelike ruled surfaces
e
and
1
e
. The angle is called
the offset angle which is the angle between the rulings e

and
1
e

, and

## is called the offset

distance which is measured from the striction point c

of
e
to striction point
1
c

of
1
e
. And
from (37) we write
1
c c t

= +

. Then,

## = + is called dual hyperbolic offset angle of

the Mannheim timelike ruled surfaces
e
and
1
e
. If 0 = , then the Mannheim timelike
surface offsets are said to be oriented offsets.

Now, we give some theorems and results characterizing Mannheim timelike surface
offsets. When we write
e
and
1
e
, we mean timelike ruled surfaces with timelike ruling and
for short we dont write the Lorentzian characters of the surfaces hereinafter.

Theorem 5.1. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. The offset angle and the
offset distance

are given by

0
,
s
s c du c

= + = +

(35)
respectively, where c and c

## are real constants.

Proof. Suppose that
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim offset. Then from (34) we have

1
cosh sinh e e t = +

(36)
By differentiating (36) with respect to s we have

1
sinh 1 cosh 1 sinh
de d d
e t g
ds ds ds

| | | |
= + + + +
| |
\ \

(37)
Since
1
de
ds

d
ds

## = . Then for the dual

constant c c c

= + we write

d ds
s c
s s c c

=
= +
+ = + +

and from (17) we have
9

0
,
s
s c du c

= + = +

,
where c and c

## are real constants.

From (35), the following corollary can be given.

Corollary 5.1. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
e
is developable if and
only if constant c

= = .

Theorem 5.2. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then there is the following
differential relationship between the dual arc-length parameters of
e
and
1
e

1
sinh
ds
ds
= . (38)
Proof. Suppose that
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim offset. Then, from Theorem 5.1 we have

1
1
1 1
sinh
de ds
t g
ds ds
= =

(39)
From (33) we have
1
t g =

## . Then (39) gives us

1
sinh 1
ds
ds
= (40)
and from (40) we get (38).

Corollary 5.2. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then there are the following
relationships between the real arc-length parameters of
e
and
1
e

1 1 1
2
sinh , cosh ( ) sinh
ds dsds ds ds
ds ds

= = + + (41)
Proof. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then by Theorem 5.2, (38) holds. By
considering (4), the real and dual parts of (38) are

1 1 1
2
sinh , cosh ( ) sinh
ds dsds ds ds
ds ds

= = + + . (42)

In Corollary 5.1, we give the relationship between the offset distance

and developable
timelike ruled surface
e
. Now we give the condition for
1
e
to be developable according to

.
From (17) we have

1 1 1
, ds ds ds ds

= = . (43)
Then writing (43) in (42) and using (41) we get

1
coth

| |
= +
|
\

and give the following corollaries:

Corollary 5.3. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
10

1
coth

| |
= +
|
\
(44)
holds.

Corollary 5.4. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
1
e
is developable if and
only if tanh

= holds.

Theorem 5.3. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. There exists the following
relationship between the invariants of the surfaces and offset angle , offset distance

,

( )
1
1
( ) coth

= + . (45)
Proof. Let the striction lines of
e
and
1
e
be ( ) c s and
1 1
( ) c s , respectively, and let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then, from the Mannheim condition we can write

1
c c t

= +

. (46)
Differentiating (46) with respect to
1
s we have

1
1 1
dc dc d ds
e t g
ds ds ds ds

| |
= + + +
|
\

. (47)
We know that
1 1 1 1
/ , dc ds e =

. Then from (34) and (47) we obtain

1
1
cosh / , sinh / , cosh sinh
d ds
dc ds e dc ds t
ds ds

| |
= + +
|
\

(48)
Since / , dc ds e =

and / , 0 dc ds t =

## , from (48) we write

1
1
cosh cosh sinh
d ds
ds ds

| |
= +
|
\
(49)
Furthermore, from (35) and (41) we have

d
ds

= ,
1
1
sinh
ds
ds
= (50)
respectively. Substituting (50) in (49) we obtain

( )
1
1
( ) coth

= + .

Then we give the following corollary.

Corollary 5.5. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
e
is developable if and
only if
1
coth

= holds.

Theorem 5.4. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the relationship between
the invariants of the surfaces and offset angle , offset distance

is given by

1
1
( coth )

= . (51)
11
Proof. We know that
1 1 1 1 1
det( / , , ) dc ds e t =

. Then from (34) and (47) we obtain
1
1
1
det , cosh sinh ,
det , , cosh det , , sinh det( , , ) sinh det( , , ) cosh
ds dc
e t g e t g
ds ds
ds dc dc
e g t g e t g t e g
ds ds ds

= + + +
= + + +
| |
+
|
\
| | | | (
| |
(
\ \

(52)
Since

det( , , ) det( , , ) , 1,
det , , , 0, det , , , ,
t e g e t g e t g
dc dc dc dc
e g t t g e
ds ds ds ds

= = =

| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ \

by using the first equality of (41) from (52) we have (51).

By Corollary 5.1, from (51) we have the following corollary.

Corollary 5.6. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset and let
e
be a developable
ruled surface. Then, the Mannheim offset
1
e
is developable if and only if constant

= = .

Moreover, comparing (44) and (51) we have the following corollary.

Corollary 5.7. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the offset distance is
given by
coth
1 coth

=
+
.

By Corollary 5.1, we know that
e
is developable if and only if constant c

= = . Let
now assume that
e
is developable and

## is a non-zero constant. Then by Corollary 5.7 we

obtain

(1 coth )
coth

+
= (53)
Thus we have the following corollary.

Corollary 5.8. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset with non-zero constant offset
distance

. Then
e
is developable if and only if tanh = .

Theorem 5.5. If
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset, then the relationship between
the conical curvature
1
of
1
e
and offset angle is given by

1
coth = . (54)
Proof. From (19) and (34) we have

1 1 1
1
1
,
(sinh cosh ),
cosh
g t
d
e t g
ds
ds
ds

=
= +
=

(55)
12
From the first equality of (41) and (55) we have
1
coth = .

Theorem 5.6. If the surfaces
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset, then the dual
conical curvature
1
of
1
e
is obtained as

( )
2
1
1
coth 2( ) coth (1 coth )

= + + + . (56)
Proof. From (29), (45), (51) and (55) by direct calculation we have (56).

Corollary 5.9. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then, the surface
e
is
developable if and only if
1
is given by
1
2( )
coth 1

| |
= +
|
\
.

Theorem 5.7. If the surfaces
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset, then the dual
curvature of
1
e
is given by

( )
2
2
1
cosh sinh
sinh ( ) coth (1 coth ) R

= + + (57)
Proof. From (56) we have

( )
2 2
1
cosh
1 cos ech ( ) coth (1 coth )

= + + + .
Then from (30) we have

( )
2
2
1
2
1
1 cosh sinh
sinh ( ) coth (1 coth )
1
R

= = + +

.

Corollary 5.10. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the surface
e
is
developable if and only if
2
1
sinh 1 cosh R

| |
= +
|
\
holds.

Theorem 5.8. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset and let
1
1 > . Then, the dual
1
e
is given by

( )
3
2
1
sinh
cos cosh ( ) coth (1 coth )

= + + (58)
Proof. From (32) we have
1 1
sinh R = . Then by (4) and (57) we get

( )
2
2
1 1 1
cosh sinh
sinh sinh , cosh ( ) coth (1 coth )

= = + + (59)
By using the trigonometric relationship
2 2
1 1
cosh sinh 1 = , from the first equality of (59)
we have

1
cosh cosh = . (60)
Then by writing (60) in the second equality of (59) we obtain
13

( )
2
2
1
sinh
( ) coth (1 coth )

= + + (61)
Thus by the aid of the extension
1 1 1 1
cosh cosh sinh

## = + , from (59)-(61) we have (58).

From (60) we have the following corollary.

Corollary 5.11. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the offset angle is
equal to the real spherical radius of curvature
1
, i.e.,
1
= .

And from (61) we have the following.

Corollary 5.12. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
e
is developable if
and only if
1
sinh 2
2

= .

If we assume that
1
1 < , then we have equalities for a timelike ruled surface whose
Darboux vector is spacelike and the obtained equalities will be analogue to given ones in
Theorem 5.8, Corollary 5.11 and Corollary 5.12.

6. Conclusions
The dual geodesic trihedron(dual Darboux frame) of a timelike ruled surface is introduced.
Then the characterizations of Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled surfaces are given in view
of dual Darboux frame and new relations between the invariants of Mannheim timelike
surface offsets are obtained. The results of the paper are new characterizations of Mannheim
timelike surface offsets and also give the relationships for Mannheim timelike surface offsets
to be developable according to offset angle and offset distance.

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