Dual Darboux Frame of a Timelike Ruled Surface and Darboux Approach to Mannheim
Offsets of Timelike Ruled Surfaces
Mehmet nder
1
, H. Hseyin Uurlu
2
1
Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Mathematics, Muradiye,
Manisa, Turkey. Email: mehmet.onder@bayar.edu.tr
2
Gazi University, Faculty of Education, Department of Secondary Education Science and
Mathematics Teaching, Mathematics Teaching Program, Ankara, Turkey.
Abstract
In this paper, we give the dual geodesic trihedron(dual Darboux frame) of a timelike ruled
surface. Then, we study Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled surfaces in dual Lorentzian space.
By the aid of the E. Study Mapping, we consider the timelike ruled surfaces as dual
hyperbolic unit spherical curves and define the Mannheim offsets of the timelike ruled
surfaces by means of dual Darboux frame. We obtain the relationships between the invariants
of Mannheim timelike offset surfaces. Furthermore, we give the conditions for these surface
offset to be developable.
AMS: 53A25, 53C40, 53C50.
Keywords: Timelike ruled surface; Mannheim offset; dual Darboux frame; dual hyperbolic
angle.
1. Introduction
In the surface theory it is wellknown that a surface is said to be ruled if it is generated
by a continuously moving of a straight line in the space. Ruled surfaces are one of the
simplest objects in geometric modeling that explains why these surfaces are one of the most
fascinating topics of the surface theory and also used in many areas of science such as
Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD), mathematical physics, moving geometry,
kinematics for modeling the problems and modelbased manufacturing of mechanical
products. For example, the building materials such as wood are straight and they can be
considered as straight lines. The result is that if engineers are planning to construct something
with curvature, they can use a ruled surface since all the lines are straight[9].
An offset surface is offset a specified distance from the original along the parent surface's
normal. Offsetting of curves and surfaces is one of the most important geometric operations in
CAD/CAM due to its immediate applications in geometric modeling, NC machining, and
robot navigation[5]. Especially, the offsets of the ruled surfaces have an important role in
(CAGD)[14,17]. In [16], Ravani and Ku defined and given a generalization of the theory of
Bertrand curve for Bertrand trajectory ruled surfaces on the line geometry. By considering the
E. Study mapping, Kk and Grsoy have studied the integral invariants of closed Bertrand
trajectory ruled surfaces in dual space[7]. They have given some characterizations of Bertrand
offsets of trajectory ruled surfaces in terms of integral invariants (such as the angle of pitch
and the pitch) of closed trajectory ruled surfaces and obtained the relationship between the
area of projections of spherical images of Bertrand offsets of trajectory ruled surfaces and
their integral invariants.
Recently, a new offset of ruled surfaces has been defined by Orbay and et. al[9]. They
have called this new surface offset as Mannheim offset and shown that every developable
ruled surface have a Mannheim offset if and only if an equation should be satisfied between
the geodesic curvature and the arclength of spherical indicatrix of the reference surface. The
corresponding characterizations of Mannheim offsets of ruled surfaces in Minkowski 3space
have been given in [10,13]. Furthermore, in [11] we have studied Mannheim offsets of ruled
2
surfaces in dual space with Blaschke approach. We have given the characterizations of
Mannheim offsets of ruled surfaces in terms of integral invariants of closed trajectory ruled
surfaces and obtained the relationship between the area of projections of spherical images of
Mannheim offsets of trajectory ruled surfaces and their integral invariants. Moreover, we have
studied the Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled surfaces in dual Lorentzian space by
considering the Blaschke frame[12].
In this paper, we define the dual geodesic trihedron(dual Darboux frame) of a timelike
ruled surface and give the real and dual curvatures of this surface. Then, we examine the
Mannheim offsets of the timelike ruled surfaces in view of their dual Darboux frame. Using
the dual representations of the timelike ruled surfaces, we give some theorems and new results
which characterize the developable Mannheim timelike surface offsets.
2. Preliminaries
Let
3
1
IR be a 3dimensional Minkowski space over the field of real numbers IR with the
Lorentzian inner product , given by
1 1 2 2 3 3
, a a a b a b a b = + +
,
where
1 2 3
( , , ) a a a a =
and
3
1 2 3
( , , ) b b b b IR =
. A vector
1 2 3
( , , ) a a a a =
of
3
1
IR is said to be
timelike if , 0 a a <
, spacelike if , 0 a a >
or 0 a =
is defined by , a a a =
. Now, let
1 2 3
( , , ) a a a a =
and
1 2 3
( , , ) b b b b =
be two vectors in
3
1
IR , then the Lorentzian cross product
of a
and b
is given by
2 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 1 2
( , , ). a b a b a b a b a b a b a b =
By using this definition it can be easily shown that , det( , , ) a b c a b c =
[19].
The sets of the unit timelike and spacelike vectors are called hyperbolic unit sphere and
Lorentzian unit sphere, respectively, and denoted by
{ }
2 3
0 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 H a a a a E a a = = =
and
{ }
2 3
1 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 S a a a a E a a = = =
respectively(See [17]).
A surface in the Minkowski 3space
3
1
IR is called a timelike surface if the induced metric
on the surface is a Lorentz metric and is called a spacelike surface if the induced metric on the
surface is a positive denite Riemannian metric, i.e., the normal vector on the spacelike
(timelike) surface is a timelike (spacelike) vector[1].
3. Dual Numbers and Dual Lorentzian Vectors
Let
{ }
( , ) : , D IR IR a a a a a IR
= = = be the set of the pairs ( , ) a a
. For ( , ) a a a
= ,
( , ) b b b D
=
= +
= +
= +
Then a a a
= + is called dual number and is called dual unit. Thus the set of dual
numbers is given by
{ }
2
: , , 0 D a a a a a IR
= = + = (2)
The set D forms a commutative group under addition. The associative laws hold for
multiplication. Dual numbers are distributive and form a ring over the real number eld[4].
Dual function of dual number presents a mapping of a dual numbers space on itself.
Properties of dual functions were thoroughly investigated by Dimentberg[3]. He derived the
general expression for dual analytic (differentiable) function as follows
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x f x x f x x f x
= + = + , (3)
where ( ) f x is derivative of ( ) f x and , x x IR
= + = +
= + = +
= + = + >
(4)
Let
3
D D D D = be the set of all triples of dual numbers, i.e.,
{ }
3
1 2 3
( , , ) : , 1, 2, 3
i
D a a a a a D i = = = , (5)
Then the set
3
D is called dual space. The elements of
3
D are called dual vectors. Similar to
the dual numbers, a dual vector a may be expressed in the form ( , ) a a a a a
= + =
, where
a
and a
of
3
D , the
scalar product and the vector product are defined by
( )
, , , , a b a b a b a b
= + +
, (6)
and
( )
*
a b a b a b a b
= + +
, (7)
respectively, where , a b
and a b
and a
in
3
IR , respectively.
The norm of a dual vector a is given by
,
, ( 0)
a a
a a a
a
= +
. (8)
4
A dual vector a with norm 1 0 + is called dual unit vector. The set of dual unit vectors is
given by
{ }
2 3
1 2 3
( , , ) : , 1 0 S a a a a D a a = = = +
, (9)
and called dual unit sphere[2,4].
The Lorentzian inner product of two dual vectors a a a
= +
,
* 3
b b b = +
is defined
by
( )
*
, , , , , a b a b a b a b
= + +
where , a b
and b
in the Minkowski 3
space
3
1
. IR Then a dual vector a a a
= +
is said to be timelike if a
is timelike, spacelike if
a
is spacelike or 0 a =
[17].
The set of all dual Lorentzian vectors is called dual Lorentzian space and it is denoted by
3
1
:
D
{ }
3 3
1 1
: , a a a a a IR
= = +
D
.
The Lorentzian cross product of dual vectors a and
3
1
b
is defined by
*
( ) , a b a b a b a b
= + +
where a b
3
1
D . Then a
~
is said to be dual unit timelike(resp. spacelike) vector if
the vectors a
and a
,
{ }
2 3
0 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 0 H a a a a D a a = = = +
(11)
Similarly, the set of all unit dual spacelike vectors is called the dual Lorentzian unit sphere,
and is denoted by
2
1
S
,
{ }
2 3
1 1 2 3 1
( , , ) : , 1 0 S a a a a D a a = = = +
. (12)
(For details see [17]) .
Definition 3.1. i) Dual Hyperbolic angle: Let x and y be dual timelike vectors in
3
1
ID . Then
the dual angle between x and y is defined by , cosh x y x y < >= . The dual number
=
which is called moment
vector. The value of a
does not depend on the point p , because any other point q in L can
5
be given by q p a = +
and then a p a q a
= =
. Reciprocally, when such a pair ( , ) a a
is
given, one recovers the timelike line L as
{ }
3
( ) : , , L a a a a a E IR
= +
, written in
parametric equations. The vectors a
and a
= =
(13)
The components ,
i i
a a
(1 3) i of the vectors a
and a
.
In [20], Veldkamp given the dual representation and dual geodesic trihedron of a ruled
surface. Now, we use the similar procedure for a timelike ruled surface and introduce the dual
Darboux frame of a timelike ruled surface.
Let now ( ) k
is
the unit vector parallel to the tangent of the indicatrix. The equation ( ) ( ) ( ) e s p s e s
=
has
infinity of solutions for the function ( ) p s
. If we take ( )
o
p s
with , 0 c e =
. Then, the given dual
curve ( ) k
(16)
where det( , , ) c e t =
which characterizes the developable timelike surface, i.e, the timelike
surface is developable if and only if 0 = . Then, the dual arclength s of the dual curve ( ) k
is given by
0 0 0
( ) (1 )
s s s
s e u du du s du = = =
(17)
From (17) we have 1 s = . Therefore, the dual unit tangent to the dual curve ( ) e s is given
by
6
( )
1
de e e
t t c t
ds s
= = = = +
(18)
Introducing the dual unit vector g e t g c g = = +
which is known as dual geodesic trihedron or dual Darboux frame of
e
(or ( ) e ). Also, it is
well known that the real orthonormal frame { } , , e t g
is called the geodesic trihedron of the
indicatrix ( ) e s
,
we have
, 0,
dt dg dt
t e
ds ds ds
= =
. (20)
For the derivative of t
let write
dt
e t g
ds
= + +
(21)
where , , are the dual functions of dual arclength s . The first equation of (20) gives
that =0. Thus from the second equation of (20) we have
dg
t
ds
=
. (22)
Finally, from (22) and the equality t g e =
, we obtain
dt
e g
ds
= +
. (23)
Then from (18), (22) and (23) we have the following theorem
Theorem 4.1. The derivatives of the vectors of dual frame { } , , e t g
(24)
and called dual Darboux formulae of timelike ruled surface e (or
e
). Then the dual Darboux
vector of the trihedron is d e g =
.
Let now give the invariants of the surface. Since 1 s = , it follows from (22) that
(1 ) g t =
(25)
On the other hand using that g g c g = +
, from (18) we have
( )
( ) ( )
( )
g t c g c t
t c t c g
t c g
= +
= +
= +
(26)
Therefore, from (25) and (26) we obtain
(1 ) ( ) t t c g = +
(27)
which gives us
7
(1 ) = + (28)
where , c e =
. Then from (28) we have
( ) = + + (29)
Moreover, since c
as well as e
is perpendicular to t
. Then
det( , , ) , , c e t c e t t t = = = =
.
Hence ( ) e c e e t g = =
and c e g = +
.
The functions ( ), ( ) s s and ( ) s are the invariants of the timelike ruled surface
e
.
They determine the timelike ruled surface uniquely up to its position in the space. For
example, if 0 = = we have c
= =
(30)
The unit vector
o
d
is given by
2 2
1
1 1
o
d e g
(31)
It is clear that
o
d
is timelike (or spacelike) if 1 > (or 1 < ). Then, the dual angle between
o
d
= = >
= = <
(32)
where is the dual spherical radius of curvature. Hence
sinh , 1,
cosh , 1.
if
R
if
>
<
and
coth , 1,
tanh , 1.
if
if
>
=
<
5. Darboux Approach to Mannheim Offsets of Timelike Ruled Surfaces
Let
e
be a timelike ruled surface generated by dual timelike unit vector e and
1
e
be a
ruled surface generated by dual unit vector
1
e and let
{ } ( ), ( ), ( ) e s t s g s
and
{ }
1 1 1 1 1 1
( ), ( ), ( ) e s t s g s
= + , ( , )
and
1
e
, and
of
e
to striction point
1
c
of
1
e
. And
from (37) we write
1
c c t
= +
. Then,
are given by
0
,
s
s c du c
= + = +
(35)
respectively, where c and c
(37)
Since
1
de
ds
=
= +
+ = + +
and from (17) we have
9
0
,
s
s c du c
= + = +
,
where c and c
(39)
From (33) we have
1
t g =
= = + + (41)
Proof. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then by Theorem 5.2, (38) holds. By
considering (4), the real and dual parts of (38) are
1 1 1
2
sinh , cosh ( ) sinh
ds dsds ds ds
ds ds
= = + + . (42)
In Corollary 5.1, we give the relationship between the offset distance
and developable
timelike ruled surface
e
. Now we give the condition for
1
e
to be developable according to
.
From (17) we have
1 1 1
, ds ds ds ds
= = . (43)
Then writing (43) in (42) and using (41) we get
1
coth
 
= +

\
and give the following corollaries:
Corollary 5.3. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
10
1
coth
 
= +

\
(44)
holds.
Corollary 5.4. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
1
e
is developable if and
only if tanh
= holds.
Theorem 5.3. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. There exists the following
relationship between the invariants of the surfaces and offset angle , offset distance
,
( )
1
1
( ) coth
= + . (45)
Proof. Let the striction lines of
e
and
1
e
be ( ) c s and
1 1
( ) c s , respectively, and let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then, from the Mannheim condition we can write
1
c c t
= +
. (46)
Differentiating (46) with respect to
1
s we have
1
1 1
dc dc d ds
e t g
ds ds ds ds
 
= + + +

\
. (47)
We know that
1 1 1 1
/ , dc ds e =
. Then from (34) and (47) we obtain
1
1
cosh / , sinh / , cosh sinh
d ds
dc ds e dc ds t
ds ds
 
= + +

\
(48)
Since / , dc ds e =
and / , 0 dc ds t =
 
= +

\
(49)
Furthermore, from (35) and (41) we have
d
ds
= ,
1
1
sinh
ds
ds
= (50)
respectively. Substituting (50) in (49) we obtain
( )
1
1
( ) coth
= + .
Then we give the following corollary.
Corollary 5.5. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then
e
is developable if and
only if
1
coth
= holds.
Theorem 5.4. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the relationship between
the invariants of the surfaces and offset angle , offset distance
is given by
1
1
( coth )
= . (51)
11
Proof. We know that
1 1 1 1 1
det( / , , ) dc ds e t =
. Then from (34) and (47) we obtain
1
1
1
det , cosh sinh ,
det , , cosh det , , sinh det( , , ) sinh det( , , ) cosh
ds dc
e t g e t g
ds ds
ds dc dc
e g t g e t g t e g
ds ds ds
= + + +
= + + +
 
+

\
    (
 
(
\ \
(52)
Since
det( , , ) det( , , ) , 1,
det , , , 0, det , , , ,
t e g e t g e t g
dc dc dc dc
e g t t g e
ds ds ds ds
= = =
   
= = = =
 
\ \
by using the first equality of (41) from (52) we have (51).
By Corollary 5.1, from (51) we have the following corollary.
Corollary 5.6. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset and let
e
be a developable
ruled surface. Then, the Mannheim offset
1
e
is developable if and only if constant
= = .
Moreover, comparing (44) and (51) we have the following corollary.
Corollary 5.7. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the offset distance is
given by
coth
1 coth
=
+
.
By Corollary 5.1, we know that
e
is developable if and only if constant c
= = . Let
now assume that
e
is developable and
+
= (53)
Thus we have the following corollary.
Corollary 5.8. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset with nonzero constant offset
distance
. Then
e
is developable if and only if tanh = .
Theorem 5.5. If
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset, then the relationship between
the conical curvature
1
of
1
e
and offset angle is given by
1
coth = . (54)
Proof. From (19) and (34) we have
1 1 1
1
1
,
(sinh cosh ),
cosh
g t
d
e t g
ds
ds
ds
=
= +
=
(55)
12
From the first equality of (41) and (55) we have
1
coth = .
Theorem 5.6. If the surfaces
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset, then the dual
conical curvature
1
of
1
e
is obtained as
( )
2
1
1
coth 2( ) coth (1 coth )
= + + + . (56)
Proof. From (29), (45), (51) and (55) by direct calculation we have (56).
Corollary 5.9. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then, the surface
e
is
developable if and only if
1
is given by
1
2( )
coth 1
 
= +

\
.
Theorem 5.7. If the surfaces
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset, then the dual
curvature of
1
e
is given by
( )
2
2
1
cosh sinh
sinh ( ) coth (1 coth ) R
= + + (57)
Proof. From (56) we have
( )
2 2
1
cosh
1 cos ech ( ) coth (1 coth )
= + + + .
Then from (30) we have
( )
2
2
1
2
1
1 cosh sinh
sinh ( ) coth (1 coth )
1
R
= = + +
.
Corollary 5.10. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset. Then the surface
e
is
developable if and only if
2
1
sinh 1 cosh R
 
= +

\
holds.
Theorem 5.8. Let
e
and
1
e
form a Mannheim surface offset and let
1
1 > . Then, the dual
spherical radius of curvature of
1
e
is given by
( )
3
2
1
sinh
cos cosh ( ) coth (1 coth )
= + + (58)
Proof. From (32) we have
1 1
sinh R = . Then by (4) and (57) we get
( )
2
2
1 1 1
cosh sinh
sinh sinh , cosh ( ) coth (1 coth )
= = + + (59)
By using the trigonometric relationship
2 2
1 1
cosh sinh 1 = , from the first equality of (59)
we have
1
cosh cosh = . (60)
Then by writing (60) in the second equality of (59) we obtain
13
( )
2
2
1
sinh
( ) coth (1 coth )
= + + (61)
Thus by the aid of the extension
1 1 1 1
cosh cosh sinh
= .
If we assume that
1
1 < , then we have equalities for a timelike ruled surface whose
Darboux vector is spacelike and the obtained equalities will be analogue to given ones in
Theorem 5.8, Corollary 5.11 and Corollary 5.12.
6. Conclusions
The dual geodesic trihedron(dual Darboux frame) of a timelike ruled surface is introduced.
Then the characterizations of Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled surfaces are given in view
of dual Darboux frame and new relations between the invariants of Mannheim timelike
surface offsets are obtained. The results of the paper are new characterizations of Mannheim
timelike surface offsets and also give the relationships for Mannheim timelike surface offsets
to be developable according to offset angle and offset distance.
References
[1] AbdelAll N. H., AbdelBaky R. A., Hamdoon F. M., Ruled surfaces with timelike rulings,
App. Math. and Comp., 147 (2004) 241253.
[2] Blaschke, W., Differential Geometrie and Geometrischke Grundlagen ven Einsteins
Relativitasttheorie Dover, New York, (1945).
[3] Dimentberg, F. M., The Screw Calculus and its Applications in Mechanics, (Izdat. Nauka,
Moscow, USSR, 1965) English translation: AD680993, Clearinghouse for Federal and
Scientific Technical Information.
[4] Hacsaliholu. H. H., Hareket Geometrisi ve Kuaterniyonlar Teorisi, Gazi niversitesi
FenEdb. Fakltesi, (1983).
[5] Hoschek, J., Lasser, D., Fundamentals of computer aided geometric design, Wellesley,
MA:AK Peters, (1993).
[6] Karger, A., Novak, J., Space Kinematics and Lie Groups, STNL Publishers of Technical
Lit., Prague, Czechoslovakia (1978).
[7] Kucuk, A., Gursoy O., On the invariants of Bertrand trajectory surface offsets, App.
Math. and Comp., 151 (2004) 763773.
[8] ONeill, B., SemiRiemannian Geometry with Applications to Relativity, Academic Press,
London, (1983).
[9] Orbay, K., Kasap, E., Aydemir, I, Mannheim Offsets of Ruled Surfaces, Mathematical
Problems in Engineering, Volume 2009, Article ID 160917.
14
[10] nder, M., Uurlu, H.H., On the Developable of Mannheim offsets of timelike ruled
surfaces in Minkowski 3space, arXiv:0906.2077v5 [math.DG].
[11] nder, M., Uurlu, H.H., Some Results and Characterizations for Mannheim Offsets of
the Ruled Surfaces, arXiv:1005.2570v3 [math.DG].
[12] nder, M., Uurlu, H.H., Mannheim Offsets of the Timelike Ruled Surfaces with
Spacelike Ruligns in Dual Lorentzian Space, arXiv:1007.2041v2 [math.DG].
arXiv:1005.2570v3 [math.DG].
[13] nder, M., Uurlu, H.H., Kazaz, M., Mannheim offsets of spacelike ruled surfaces in
Minkowski 3space, arXiv:0906.4660v3 [math.DG].
[14] Papaioannou, S.G., Kiritsis, D., An application of Bertrand curves and surfaces to
CAD/CAM, Computer Aided Design, 17 (8) (1985) 348352.
[15] Pottmann, H., L, W., Ravani, B., Rational ruled surfaces and their offsets, Graphical
Models and Image Processing, 58 (6) (1996) 544552.
[16] Ravani, B., Ku, T. S., Bertrand Offsets of ruled and developable surfaces, Comp. Aided
Geom. Design, 23 (2) (1991) 145152.
[17] Uurlu, H.H., alkan, A,. The Study Mapping for Directed Spacelike and Timelike
Lines in Minkowski 3Space
3
1
IR , Mathematical and Computational Applications, 1 (2)
(1996) 142148.
[18] Ugurlu, H. H., Onder, M., Instantaneous Rotation vectors of Skew Timelike Ruled
Surfaces in Minkowski 3space, VI. Geometry Symposium, 0104 July 2008, Bursa,
Turkey.
[19] Ugurlu, H. H., The relations among instantaneous velocities of trihedrons depending on
a spacelike ruled surface, Hadronic Journal, 22, (1999) 145155.
[20] Veldkamp, G.R., On the use of dual numbers, vectors and matrices in instantaneous
spatial kinematics, Mechanism and Machine Theory, II (1976) 141156.
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.