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DC Superconductor Cables for Long Distance Transmission

Fall EEI Transmission, Distribution, & Metering Conference October 12 14 O t b 12-14, 2009 Kansas City, KS

Todays Key Energy Challenge: Carrying 100s of Gigawatts of Green Power to Market

Many Issues Multiple Sources Multiple Destinations Cost Allocation Siting T Transmission A i i Across Interconnections Losses The challenge of moving renewable power long distances needs another option

Superconductor Electricity Pipeline

The Superconductor Electricity Pipeline combines: Conventional underground pipeline construction With two power system technologies: Superconductor cables Reduced voltage multi-terminal DC power transmission The result: A high capacity electric transmission pipeline that is:
Underground and easy to site Highly ffi i t Hi hl efficient Offers greater security than other technologies Provides for multiple power on- and off-ramps on off ramps

Superconductors Change the Game: 150X Increase in Power Capacity of Wires

Superconductors are the high efficiency optical fibers of power


Superconductor Advantages with DC Power

When carrying DC current, superconductors themselves are perfectly lossless
Regardless of length Regardless of power rating

No power limitations based on current-based losses Allows lower voltage higher current transmission voltage, Allows underground construction

Superconductors open the door for a true p p underground transmission system

High Voltage AC and Long Distance Transmission

Power Transfer Capabilities of Old and New Technologies
Superconductor Electricity Pipeline

765 kV Overhead Lines

Analytical Development of Loadability characteristics for EHV and UHV Transmission Lines, Dunlop, R., Gutman, R., and Marchenko, P., IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.PAS-98, No.2 March/April 1979

and Long Haul Overhead Lines Generate Heat and Waste Energy
5GW of Renewable Energy Transmission T i i
16% 14%

% Loss (Est.) ses

12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 100 200 300 400

765kV Overhead Lines

Superconductor Electricity Pipeline

500 600 700 800 900 1000

Note: 765kV overhead line losses based on a variety of two and three 2400MVA SIL line designs using 4-, 6-, and 8-conductor bundles Losses for Superconductor Electricity Pipeline based on 2% DC converter losses and 35 kW/mile refrigeration losses.

New Right of Way Solution

Comparison of Transmission Alternatives

SUITABLE TRANSMISSION SOLUTIONS Overhead Solutions Underground Solutions MultiPoint-to- terminal VSC Point HVDC HVDC AC MultiPoint-to- terminal Multi-Terminal Superconductor VSC Point Pipeline HVDC HVDC AC

TRANSMISSION LINE POWER AND DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS Low P L Power (<1GW) r Short Sh rt (<100 mile) lines mil ) lin Low Power (<1GW) Moderate (100-400 mile) lines Low Power (<1GW) Long (>400 mile) lines Moderate Power (1-5GW) Short (<100 mile) lines Moderate Power (1-5GW) Moderate (100-400 mile) lines Moderate Power (1-5GW) Long (>400 mile) lines High Power (>5GW) Short (<100 mile) lines High Power (>5GW) Moderate (100-400 mile) lines High Power (>5GW) Long (>400 mile) lines

Fit of DC superconductor cables for underground, long distance, high power, multi-terminal transmission p g g g p

Superconductor Electricity Pipelines are uniquely suited for underground, long distance, high power transmission

Superconductor Electricity Pipeline: National Loop Concept

Superconductor Electricity Pipeline AC/DC Converter Stations

10,000MW in a 3 Foot Gas Pipe

DC Superconductor Cable
Courtesy of Electric Power Research Institute


An SC-DC Cable


Superconductor Electricity Pipelines

Installation similar to natural gas pipelines


Rights of Way Already Exist for Superconductor Electricity Pipelines


Advantages of Superconductor Pipelines

Underground construction with minimum right of way requirement Simplified cost allocation due to precise controllability of DC terminals Highest power capacity Highest efficiency (lowest power losses) of any transmission technology Ideal for very long distances Capable of transferring power across the three U.S. interconnections Able to accept power from multiple distributed sources, and precisely deliver power to multiple distributed destinations Minimizes interaction with existing AC grid, reducing costs and increasing operational flexibility Superconductor Electricity Pipelines are uniquely and ideally suited to move renewable energy to distant load centers

Comparison of a 1,000-Mile, 5 GW Run

Metric Power Loss(1) Pe erformance Storm/Security Risk Precise Control for Efficient Markets Cost Allocation Method Requires Rebuild of Underlying Grid Black Start Capability Permanent Right of Way Siting g Aesthetics A th ti Electromagnetic Field New Land Required Efficiency Savings Per Year(2) Cost CO2 Emission Savings Per Year(2) Cost Per Mile(3) DC Superconductor Cable 3% Low Yes Simple No Yes 3 ft. Positive P iti None No $230 million 3 million tons $8 million for 5 GW pipe $13 million fully redundant 765KV Transmission Lines Varies with design Higher No Complex Yes No 400-600 ft. Negative N ti Yes Yes n/a n/a $9-10 million minimum

(1) Cooling and converter stations for DC cable; line and substation losses for 765 kV. (2) Based on generation cost of $0.065 per kW-hr and a 100% load factor. (3) $13 million per mile cable cost based on fully redundant system. 765 kV cost does not include rebuild of underlying grid.


Superconductor Electricity Pipelines: Lots of Power, Out of Sight and Out of Harms Way