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TRAINING REPORT ON

NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


TRAINING TAKEN FROM (June, 15, 2011 to July, 29, 2011)

SUBMITTED BY

Guru Vashist
(Electronics and communication) (Vii semester)

(0830531011)

2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Any collateral activity cannot be truly finished without the help & enthusiasm of the supervisors involved. Additional technical assistance was provided by many individuals. I would like to thank the DRM employees who elaborated the technical details of the various technologies ongoing in their department. It has been a pleasure working with the DRM, Delhi.

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PREFACE
Engineering students gain theoretical knowledge only through books. Only theoretical knowledge is not sufficient for absolute mastery in any field. Theoretical knowledge in our books is not of much use without knowing its practical implementation. It has been experienced that theoretical knowledge is volatile in nature; however practical knowledge imparts solid foundation in our mind. We have covered in this report the history, latest developments in Railway EC interface as well as related fields. We have studied the various uses of EC in railways. We have also covered the RailNet, its objectives, various phases of implementation, utility of RailNet and various issues in RailNet. This report is in fact a summary of, what I have learnt and seen during my training in Railway Organization, Delhi. Succeeding report give details what I have learnt in Divisional Railway Manager (DRM) Office, Delhi. To accomplish this aspect I have complete my training from INDIAN RAILWAY in the field of NETWORK MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEM

Guru Vashist Final Year (0830531011) Electronics and communication

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Table of Contents Indian Railway (organizational structure) Signaling Data Logger Train Charting Passenger Reservation System IVRS Microwave Communication RailNet Optical Fiber Communication OFC Network at IR

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INDIAN RAILWAY
INTRODUCTION:Indian Railway is the state-owned railway company of India, which owns and operates most of the country's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India. India has one of the worlds largest railway networks in the world. Every day, 20 million people travel around the country in hundreds of trains running between various stations smoothly and safely. The formal inauguration ceremony of IR was performed on 16 th April 18 53 with the first passenger train steamed out of Howrah station destined for Hooghly, a distance of 36 km, on 15 th August, 1 85 4 .

Snapshots:It encompasses 6,909 stations over a total route length of more than 63,028 kilometers of route length and a track length of 111,600 km. It is one of the world's largest commercial or utility employers, with more than 1.6 million employees. It grossed revenue of 88,355 cr. and bagging a net income of 951 cr. in the financial year 2009-10 . It moves 2 million tons of freight & 2 0 million people daily across the county with the help of 200,000 (freight) wagons. 7,000 passenger trains across the country services 20 million people to their destinations. Vinay mittal is the current Chairman of Railway Board.

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Organizational Structure:IR is a department owned and controlled by the Government of India, the Ministry of Railways. IR is administered by the Railway Board, which has a financial commissioner, five members and a chairman.

IR is divided into zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952, and finally 16 in 2003. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of 67 divisions under 16 zones, presently operating in the country.

No Name Headquarters Divisions 1. Central Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur, Nagpur 2. East Central Hajipur Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur 3. East Coast Bhubaneswar Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Visakhapatnam

4. Eastern Kolkata Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda 5. North Central Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi. 6. North Eastern Gorakhpur Izzatnagar, Lucknow, Varanasi 7. North Western Jaipur, Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur 8. Northeast Frontier Guwahati Lumding, Rangia, Tinsukia Alipurduar, Katihar,

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9. Northern Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow, Moradabad 10. South Central Secunderabad Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded, Vijayawada 11. South East Central Bilaspur, CG Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur

12. South Eastern Kharagpur, Ranchi

Kolkata

Adra,

Chakradharpur,

13. South Western Hubli Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore 14. Southern Chennai Chennai, Madurai, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Thiruvanathapuram 15. West Central Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota 16. Western Mumbai MumbaiCentral, Vadodara, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar Palakkad,

Each of the 16 zones, is headed by a General Manager (GM ) who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). The divisional officers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the Station Masters who control individual stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations' administration.

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We've received the scheduled Summer Practical Training, as a part of our curriculum, from 17 May, 2010 16 June , 2010 under Divisional Railway Manager, Indian Railway, Delhi. We've studied about the following operational technologies in the IR 1. Data Logger/M I S 2. IV R S/ PR S/ UT S 3. Overhead/ OF C/ Quad -Cable communication 4. RailNet 5. Microwave Communication

Principles of Train working and need for signaling:All over the world Railway transportation is increasingly used, as this mode of Transport is more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than road transportation. Trains move on steel rail tracks and wheels of the railway vehicle are also flanged Steel Wheels. Hence least friction occurs at the point of contact between the tracks & wheels. Therefore trains carry more loads resulting in higher traffic capacity since trains move on specific tracks called rails, their path is to be fully guided and there is no arrangement of steering . Clear of obstruction as available with road transportation. So there is a need to provide control on the movement of trains in the form of Railway signals which indicate to the drivers to stop or move and also the speed at which they can pass a signal. Since the load carried by the trains and the speed which the trains can attain are high, they need more braking distance before coming to the stop from full speed. Without signal to be available on the route to constantly guide the driver accidents will take place due to collisions.

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There are basically two purposes achieved by railway Signaling: To safety receive and dispatch trains at a station. To control the movements of trains from one station to another after ensuring that the track on which this train will move to reach the next station is free from movement of another train either in the same or opposite direction. Apart from meeting the basic requirement of necessary safety in train operation, modern railway signaling plays an important role in determining the capacity of a section .The capacity decides the number of trains that can run on a single day. By proper signaling the capacity can be increased to a considerable extent without resorting to costlier alternatives.

The essential components of railway signaling: The fixed signals provided by the side of the railway track with indication in the form of colour lights are the actual authority to a driver to get in to the portion of the track beyond the signal. At stations the trains may be received on any one of the platform lines. To take the train to any specific track, points are provided. The purpose of the point on the track is to divert the train from one track to adjacent one. Hence the signal has to be connected to the points in an arrangement called interlocking. This Interlocking arrangement only ensures that a point is correctly set for the particular route or a track and the signal conveys this information to the driver. Trains run on dedicated line .A line consists of two rails running parallel to each other. This is also called Track.

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Types of Track: Indian railways use 4 gauges: Broad Gauge It is 1,676mm of 5'6 wide & operational in most parts of the country with 96,851 km of track length (86.8% of entire track length of all the gauges). Standard Gauge It is smaller than the above with 1,435mm width. Meter Gauge - It is, obviously, 1,000mm wide common in regions with less traffic, such as hilly areas. Narrow Gauge It is 610 mm wide. Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 75 to 160 km/h.

The track is represented in Signaling plans by a single line as shown below. In station yards there will be more than one track for receiving and dispatching trains. Points are provided to divert the running trains from one track to another. The points have movable switches which can be operated electrically by a point machine.

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A point can be single-ended point or double-ended point depending on whether the movable switches are provided at one end or two ends of the point, The two switch rails of the point are rigidly connected together by a cross bar so that they can be moved from one position to the other position together by the point machine. If the position of the switches is such that the train is moved on to the main line as shown above, then the point is said to be in its normal (N) position. If the switch rails are moved to the other position as shown below so that the train is diverted to the loop line, then the point is said to be in its REVERSE (R) position.

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In both the above cases, when one switch rail is closed with its stock rail, the other switch is open. In either case, the opening shall be 41/2. Between the closed switch and its stock rail not

more than 1/8 gap, is permitted. The centre to centre distance between the adjacent tracks (between main line to the adjacent loop line or between one loop line and other adjacent loop line) shall not be less than 140. Where cross-over pints are provided between adjacent tracks, this distance gets reduced. At the place where it is less than 14, one track may foul the other track. At this point a fouling Bar (A cement lab of about 5 length with inscription FOULING MARK is provided. When a train drawn on a track, it should stand clear of the FOULING MARK as otherwise, the train may foul the movement of train on the adjacent track, thereby causing a side-collision.

Clearance of track:
Since a train cannot be received on the portion of track where another train is standing on same portion of the track, the signal before it is cleared for the movement of a train has to ensure the track clearance. There are equipments used in Railway signaling to achieve the above safety condition.

Types of Signals:
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Signal:Signal is a medium to convey a particular pre-determined meaning in non-verbal form.

Multiple Aspects Color Light Signal (MACLS):Multiple means more than 2 indications .They may have 3 or 4 different aspects or Indications to be given to the driver. These signals have longer range of visibility and Improved reliability.

Data Loggers/Train Monitoring Systems:Train Monitoring System monitors the movements of trains within the control section from remote control room and graphically simulates online Status of the multiple stations (Digitized Yard Layouts with Train Movements) in LCD Monitors. More than one Station yard Layout can be viewed in each Monitor depending on the size of the Yard. The IR uses D at a logger, De lphi developed by Efftronics Pvt. Ltd., Vijayawada Kota Division uses services of Data loggers since 98. Technically speaking, a data logger is any device that can be used to store data. This includes many data acquisition devices such as plug-in boards or serial communication systems which use a computer as a real time data recording system.

However, most instrument manufacturers consider a data logger a standalone device that can read various types of electrical signals and store the data in internal memory for later download to a computer.

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Figure: - Classification of CLS The advantage of data loggers is that they can operate independently of a computer, unlike many other types of data acquisition devices. Contemplating over the fact that 98% of accidents happen due to incorrect signal perception, data logger serves as a boon to thwart such fallacies. Data loggers are available in various shapes and sizes. The range includes simple economical single channel fixed function loggers to more powerful programmable devices capable of handling hundreds of inputs. Data logging is now a standard technique within railway signaling engineering for both safety and performance management purposes. Data logging facilitates the past analysis of any event. Also improving upon the reaction time of any event. Data loggers

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facilitates the continuous monitoring of track, trains etc.

Features: Online Graphical Display of Status of all the Board Station yards for efficient control. Online Status of all auto sections for effective planning and monitoring of train movements. Online status of various assets like points, signals, Shunt signals, crank handles, Gates, Axle Counters, Route Relays and Knobs. Route Set Indication. Details of Train like Train No. / Name passing through a station. Details of train(s) in auto section.

Technical Details: Embedded system built on Motorola 68000 microprocessor.


LCD, LED and Keyboard user interface. Min 512 - Max 4096 upon isolated digital input @ 16 mSec sampling? 96 individually isolated analog input voltage/current channels @1 Sec. Nonvolatile data storage in flash ram and 8 serial ports for data network.

Network Management: Front end application software at central control place. Link status of all the data loggers in the network. Online status of digital/analog inputs. Data selective viewing.

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Online graphical mimic display of every station layout. Auto backup on exceeding configured size of data base.

Cost savings:The deployment is the most cost-effective data logging solution, from level crossing to major interlocking schemes. Key savings are offered from: Ease of installation Low maintenance Integration of UPS, modem, display and input cards At the most compact end, a 48 or 96 channel unit will monitor a level crossing. For larger installations up to 8 units can be connected together, enabling 3072 channels to be monitored simultaneously. All systems use the same common platform resulting in economies of production. Recorded data can be accessed using a standard web browser. For advanced remote analysis and diagnostic features (such as slow moving point alarms or SPAD investigations), a software plug-in has been developed for the Balfour Beatty Rail Asset View system. In addition, it has a touch screen LCD to allow maintenance technicians to access data directly on site. This removes the need for an inconvenient laptop computer or separate handheld terminal.

Reliability:Contained within the unit is a fully functional Uninterruptible Power Supply giving six hours of battery backup in the case of mains failure.

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Low power consumption means that no cooling fan is required, which in turn means there are no dust filters to clean or moving mechanical parts to fail. If maintenance is required, the entire unit can be removed simply by disconnecting the input leads and a mains plug.

Safety:The Delphi has been designed specifically to meet the stringent safety requirements of railway signaling applications. All digital and analog input channels are opto isolated to a minimum of 1kV.

DATALOGGER BASED COMPUTERISED TRAINCHARTING INTRODUCTION: All the stations on Nagda-Kota-Gangapurcity-Mathura route of Kota Division are equipped with data loggers. Data loggers are networked as per control sections. In Kota-Gangapurcity section 23 stations are provided with 25 data loggers. Since the information of the vital relays is available at Control Office i.e. Kota. It is possible to track a train and to chart the train movement automatically. The system is not only track the train but also predict the train movement for the next few hours, which is equivalent to the manual planning by the ATNL. Based on the train information & charting data various statistics can be generated in the form of reports which are time consuming & tedious if done manually.

Section Kota - Nagda Kota - Gangapurcity Gangapurcity - Mathura SETUP:NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

No of Data loggers 29 25 18

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Entire Rajdhani route of KOTA division (having 62 stations, 549 Kms) have been provided with Networked Data loggers.

All the Data loggers are connected through existing RE telecom cable in series to FEP. The FEP of the Data logger Network is connected to the Servers through a computer containing NM DL software with Train charting logics. (See Fig: 1-System Configuration) The client software is provided for viewing the chart / data. This client software by default is a passive client (which doesnt enable chart editing & manual entry) but on accessing into higher levels by issuing passwords it acts as an active client (which enables chart editing & manual entry provisions). Active Client maintained by ATNL who has the control over

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the train movements and is connected to the server through LAN. At any time, active Client can control the train movement charting. Active Client can feed the Train information as shown in Passive Client s to view the chart anywhere from the network; the chart available at this client is unchanged and cannot be modified. Any number of passive clients can view the train chart by connecting to the server.

System Configuration Automatic Tracking of Train:For tracking a train movement, basic concept of sequential operation of track circuit is monitored along with the position of points en-route. For this purpose all Exit/Entry routes are tabulated in terms of Geographical position of Track circuits & point position, station wise.

Whenever any T.C. is dropped it activates the route, which contains that track circuit. As the train moves, track circuits will drop sequentially & finally only one unique route will be selected. At this stage this train will be allotted train index automatically for further identification of the train. With the point position and the berthing track position it can be determined that what line / platform the train is received. Similarly when the train leaves the station, it will select the appropriate exit route. When this train touches the Home Signal track of next station it checks if prior to this AZTR of Block section in rear & the Advance Starter track of previous station were dropped. This is co-related the station-to-station train charting. Since the train index is carry forward in this process, it is therefore possible to plot the correct train.

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The train charting software facilitates the ATNL to enter the train No., and other train information such as Loco / Engine No., Drivers name, load, Guards name, vacuum, etc. This software also facilitates to edit the train charting whenever necessary. It allows making links if joints in auto mode. It allows charting manually even if automatic charting is partially or totally failed. For the convenience of ATNL two monitors are provided. One screen always shows the chart and another is used to open the manual-charting string grid or to pop-up other forms.

FE AT U R E S: Auto tracking of train on real time. Online Plotting of chart. Charting of train from starting to destination point. Alarm generation & tracking of any new train entered in the section automatically. Reporting of deviation from scheduled timings. Useful tools are available Link, Delink, Draw blocks & Line with UNDO, Comments on Graph, Highlighting train, Searching train etc. User can select maximum 14hrs chart (7hrs of current chart + 7hrs of prediction). Transparent Control system. Anyone can monitor control chart in control office on LAN.

Advantage through Data logger based Train charting:Controller can devote more time on planning. Plotting is on Real time. No human involvement to plot the train so more accurate. Online loop occupancy position.

LIMITATIONS

OF

AUTOMATIC

TRAIN

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CHARTING SYSTEM: Networking communication media should work perfectly to maintain on-line status. All the stations of the control section should be equipped with Data logger. Train controllers should have basic computer knowledge. Continuous track circuiting required.

COMPUTERIZED PASSENGER RESERVATION SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION: The IR carries about 5.5 lakh passengers in Reservation reserved accommodation every day. The computerized Passenger Reservation System (PRS) facilitates booking and Cancelling of tickets from any of the 4000Terminals (i.e. PRS booking windows) all over the country. These tickets can be booked or cancelled for journeys commencing in any party of India and ending in any other part ,with travels times as long as 72 hour and distances up to several thousands kilometer. There are mainly 5 servers in INDIA. These are New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai & sikandrabad.

EQUIPMENTS:
The equipment used in PRS are -Modem Multiplexing Equipment End terminal. MODEM Modem are used for communication various computer or between Computer & terminals over ordinary or leased (dedicated) telephone lines.

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We can use modems to log on to micro, mini, main frame computer for line processing. We can use them to connect two remote computers for data. How does modem work? The word modem in feed is words modulate & demodulator. derived from the

Computer communicates in digital languages while telephone lines communicate in analog language. So an intermediater required which can communicate both these language. Modem transmits information between computer bits by one stream. To represent a bit (or group of bits), modem modulates the characteristics of the wave that are carried by telephone lines. The rate at which the modem change these characteristics determines the transmission speed of data transmission .The rate of modem is called bound rate of modem. The bound rate of modem is bits per second. In advance modulation such as quadrature amplitude modulate 4 bits & transmitted it in each band. Thus the speed of the modem transmitting at 600 bands would be 2400 bps. The modems can transmit data Asynchronous & Synchronous. in two formats:

The analog modem switch at each location is connected to analog modems of the main as well as the stand by links. If the main links fails, the switch units at either end switch the user equipment at the stand by link. When the main links get restored, the analog modem
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switches the user equipment back to main link. Multiplexing Equipment:There are two type multiplexing equipments for each channel. The multiplexer used may be of 8-ports or 16-port .The data is get multiplexed at the rate of the 96KBps. The multiplexing is generally of analog type.

End Terminal:The end terminals of system is the station where the tickets to be Printed out. The terminal consists of a computer system with a dot matrix printer. The number of the total end terminal at the station can be increased or decreased according to the multiplexing used.

IVRS (Interactive voice response system)


INTRODUCTION: The system in which, the information available in the computer is retrieved by the user in the form of voice with the help of the interaction between telephone and computer is known as Interactive Voice Respond System (IVRS). With the help of this system information regarding public reservation; arrival /departure of train; fare can be delivered to user when and where it is asked through telephone. Each section control office is having a computer called DATA ENTRY COMPUTER along with dial up/lease line modem which is used for linking the computer of other control offices either directly or through server available at Church Gate . Each control office computer is identified as check / data entry point. Information regarding the running of the train can be registered or checked at every 15 minutes duration. At place where the information is to be retrieve through
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Telephone, and computer is linked with data entry computer called IVRS COMPUTER, which is connected to data entry computer by ETHERNET CARD. These computers read the information from data entry computer and then convert it to voice for user purpose.

HARDWARE
DATA ENTRY TERMINAL It is a personal computer of more than 166 MHz with 16 MB RAM; 2.1 GB Hard disk; 101 key keyboards; a mouse & a colour monitor. MODEM The data entry terminals are linked with lease line/ dialup modem of speed better than 33.6 KBPS. IVRS TERMINAL: It is Pentium 133 MHz P.C. with 24 port dialogic cards called IVRS card capable to respond on both pulse and tone. Out of 24 ports4 ports are used for voice and FAX on demand; 2 ports are used for railway PSTN lines; 2 ports are used for fare inquiry and rest 16 ports are used for train inquiry. SOFTWARE: There are three types of software. It is friendly user software, which is used to record the train schedule timing information in data files. This software is having following facilities, 1) The system is secured by 3 stages of password facility. 2) It is having the facility for data entry of running/schedule time. 3) Entry for expected arrival/ departure. 4) Addition and removal of data entry points.
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5) Addition and removal of train in the system. 6) Changes in the database for timetable; fare table etc. 7) This software is having a facility to generate the report of a) Status of running train as per According to train According to control office As per a specific interval b) Information of train, when the train is late more than specific hours. c) Summary of any train running over the month. d) It also shows the train graph. (8) It restricts the entry of train after a specific period i.e. the file is deleted for a train after 2 hours of its arrival; and deletes the files which are 48 hours old and restructure/reorganize the files. COMMUNICATION SOFTWARE:This software works on the principle of packet switching in which each train file is developed in the form of packet along with destination address. In IVRS system Mumbai Central computer acts as HUB and it will dial or connect through lease line after a specific interval to the data entry computers of different control offices and exchange the files with them. When a pop file is generated after every 15 minutes in data entry computer, then file is transferred to its queue directory. When HUB computer is connected to data entry computer, HUB searches the files from queue directory and then down load in its receive directory and similarly the queue directory files available in HUB will be received and stored by data entry computer. By this way the queue directory files are exchanged and updated. The communication software is also having the facility for CRC check (cyclic redundancy check) and receives check. So in case of line failure or modem faulty, when the file could not be
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exchanged, then HUB try to establish the link and if is not able to exchange, then it will create alarm; and show link break The important facilities of communication software: 1) Auto dialing facility for origination of transmission of information or data. 2) Having facility of auto pickup of file from remote queue directory. 3) Facility of auto transfer of own file to remote/required place. 4) Facility of transfer of file as per priority decided by HUB. 5) It has facility to support WAN and is capable of interfacing with any type of communication system like Internet, VHF; UHF, leased line. 6) Facility of monitoring of trans. and receive file. 7) It is provided with the list of transmitted files and remaining files.

OLTRIS SOFTWARE:The main aim of the system is to provide ON LINE TRAIN RUNNING INFORMATION like termination of the train before schedule; changed the route of the train; accident of train; abnormal delay/late of the train and so on. So the software is developed to support all the abnormal activity. This software is having the following facilities: It is having the facility to interact with both pulse and tone users. It is having a facility of FAX on demand, for that separate terminal is provided.

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. It is supporting and selects more than one language. According to traffic, ports can be increased or decreased. It is having the facility of mailbox. It is having the facility of according the calls on each port and gives a report of no. of calls in 24 hours and the calls in a specific period. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit electrical energy to Trams trolley, buses or trains at a distance from the energy supply point. In this article the generic term overhead line is used Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires situated over rail tracks, raised to a high electrical potential by connection to feeder stations at regular intervals. The feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid

Microwave Communication
Introduction:The objective of microwave communication systems is to transmit information from one place to another without interruption, and clear reproduction at the receiver. Fig. indicates how this is achieved in its simplest form. Above 100 MHz the waves travel in straight lines and can therefore be narrowly focused. Concentrating all the energy into a small beam using a parabolic antenna (like the satellite TV dish) gives a much higher signal to noise ratio, but the transmitting and receiving antennas must be accurately aligned with each other. Before the advent of fiber optics, these microwaves formed the heart of the long distance telephone transmission system. In its simplest form the microwave link can be one hop, consisting of one pair of antennas spaced as little as one or two kilometers apart, or can be a backbone, including multiple hops, spanning several thousand kilometers. A single hop is typically 30 to 60 km in relatively flat regions for frequencies in the 2 to 8 GHz bands. When antennas are

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placed between mountain peaks, a very long hop length can be achieved. Hop distances in excess of 200 km are in existence. The "line-of-sight" nature of microwaves has some very attractive advantages over cable systems. Line of sight is a term which is only partially correct when describing microwave paths. Atmospheric conditions and certain effects modify the propagation of microwaves so that even if the designer can see from point A to point B (true line of sight), it may not be possible to place antennas at those two points and achieve a satisfactory communication performance. In order to overcome the problems of line-of-sight and power amplification of weak signals, microwave systems use repeaters at intervals of about 25 to 30 km in between the transmitting receiving stations.

The first repeater is placed in line-of-sight of the transmitting

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station and the last repeater is placed in line-of-sight of the receiving station. Two consecutive repeaters are also placed in line-of-sight of each other. The data signals are received, amplified, and re-transmitted by each of these stations. Microwave Transmitter and Receiver Below figure shows block diagram of microwave link transmitter and receiver section

The voice, video, or data channels are combined by a technique known as multiplexing to produce a BB signal. This signal is frequency modulated to an IF and then up converted (heterodyned) to the RF for transmission through the atmosphere. The reverse process occurs at the receiver. The microwave transmission frequencies are within the approximate range 2 to 24 GHz. The frequency bands used for digital microwave radio are recommended by the CCIR. Each recommendation clearly defines the frequency range, the number of channels that can be used within that range, the channel spacing the bit rate and the polarization possibilities.

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RAILNET
The Indian Railways is Asias largest and the world's second largest rail network. Adopting e-Governance, Indian Railways have established a 'Corporate Wide Information System' (CWIS) called RAILNET, abbreviated as RN henceforth. It provides smooth flow of information on demand for administrative purposes, which would enable taking quicker and better decisions. Realizing the important role that information plays in customer services and in railways operations, IR had embarked on its computerization program. IR developed a dedicated skeletal communication network, as a basic requirement for train operation. After the early introduction of basic computer applications e.g. Pay rolls, Inventory Control and Operating Statistics, Railways went for deployment of computers for productivity improvement through building up operational databases.

Some special systems use in railway:Passenger Reservation System (PRS) CONCERT (Country- wide Network of Computerized Enhanced Reservation & Ticketing) , Indian Railways fully automated PRS software, is a complex online distributed transaction application based on client server architecture interconnecting the regional computing system into a National PRS grid. The salient features of CONCERT software include allowing passenger from anywhere to do a booking for a journey in any train in any class from anywhere to anywhere; handling reservation, modifications cancellation/refunds.

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e -Ticketing CRIS (Centre for Railway Information System) has successfully developed the Internet ticketing solution launched by IRCTC (Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation). The effort involved interfacing the IRCTC front end with backend PRS Alpha servers, writing procedures for search and queries at the backend, ticket printing on existing clients and accounting software. U T S (Unreserved Ticket System) UTS is the complete solution for computerized unreserved ticketing from dedicated counter terminals and replaces manual Printed Card Tickets/Excess Fare Tickets/Blank Paper Tickets. In future, ticketing from handheld terminals smart card, automatic vending machines, etc. is also envisaged. IV R S (Interactive Voice Response System) IVRS is a telephonic enquiry system which information such as Passenger Name Record (PNR) enquiry, Train Arrival/Departure information enquiry through NTES, and Berth availability position in any train, in multiple languages. NTES (National Train Enquiry System) NTES provides arrival / departure as well as current status information about any passenger train in the entire Indian Railways. NTES is parallel to PRS. The servers are located at five metros i .e. Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Secunderabad and all are interconnected. Entries are made regarding running of train every half an hour at various locations including divisional headquarter all over the Indian Railways.

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NTES is used by IVRS and other web enabled services and mobile services for providing train information to the public. RAILNET MIS:For running any business organization, the efficiency of the MIS is very important. Indian Railways have many areas, where use of IT is going to have a telling effect. Some of these are listed down: Rail Budget Compilation System (RBCS):CRIS has developed RBCS for collecting budgetary inputs from the different zones and production units of the Indian Railways. The system facilitates capturing of data, building of database, analysis of demands and pruning of the estimates for inclusion in the Railway Budget. Besides MIS reports, the system enable printing of budget documents in bilingual, Hindi and English. This system is implemented at 88 locations spread over Zonal Railways and Production Units apart from Railway Board.

Comprehensive (CPPS):-

Payroll

Processing

System

CPPS is a comprehensive bilingual package generating monthly s alary bills including Incentive Bonus Calculation and Labor Accounting modules and pay slips in Hindi. Vigilance Software System (VSS):VSS is designed especially for the requirements of Vigilance Department of Indian Railways and has been implemented in all the Vigilance Departments of Indian Railway Zonal Headquarters. VSS maintains information about vigilance

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cases/complaints includes various reports, forwarding letters generated by Vigilance Department and keeps track of Receipt. Material Management Information System for P-Way material:This package is designed especially for the requirements of Civil Engineering department of Indian Railways and helps the users in accounting' stores for P-Way materials. Special emphasis has been given to scrap disposal.

Comprehensive Accounting & Transaction System (CATS): CATS have been designed with common database to address functionalities for both personnel and Finance Departments. CATS contain two major modules Financial Accounting System (FAS) and Payroll System (PS).

ORGANIZATION:First Rail-Net was established between RAILWAY BOARD, 9 Zones, and 6 production units in phase 1. Then extended to 6 new zones, 5 centralized training institutes, research and development and standard organizations, Metropolitan transport project in phase 2. The divisional offices, Zonal training institutes will be connected to rail net in phase 3 and finally to station, yards, shads etc. RN comprises of 1. Intra net Intra-net is an internal network of Indian railway allowing the railway officers and staff to communicate on this digitized

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network. 2. Inter-net Internet allows user to get into a global communication method and global pool of knowledge, advertisement and entertainment through www (World Wide Web) in a secured manner. TOOLS:E-Mail EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) WWW FTP (File Transfer Protocol) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) OBJECTIVES:RailNet is used to provide following services : Creation of Web pages. E-mail. Electronic transfer of data used for monitoring and coordination purpose. Voice-over IP. Video-conferencing Web-based application software development Web surfing (Browser usage for internet and intranet). HARDWARE COMPONENTS:Compaq Servers. CISCO Routers, Switches & Hubs Structured cabling using UTP-Cat 5 cabling (10 MBPS) (Maximum distance permissible 100 meters between ) SOFTWARE COMPONENTS:MS Windows NT Server
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Operating system for server MS Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Operating system for workstations Internet Information Server 3.0 Cisco Works with SNMPC Provides safety to railway information. HOW DOES RAILNET WORK? RailNet is similar to internet. All the computers and communication cables that make up the thousands of smaller networks at various railway offices are connected together to form the RailNet. It follows a simple rule, TCP/IP. Here packet switching, where a computer message is broken into small packets, is used. Each packet consists of a destination address, a source address and packet identity and user data. A packet can travel through any path on the network. Different servers of railways are connected to each other via its own microwave stations to form a nationwide network of Indian Railways. Four wires are coming from microwave station and they are terminated on the lease line modem. This modem is connected to router through a cable. Router is connected to the switch. Switch is an interface between server and router. Various hubs can be connected in a cascade to increase the no. of terminations. This is a star topology. Hubs along with computers within the distance of 50 meter are terminated on the switch. In this manner all the computers in the LAN can share the data and can access the internet through server.

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Router also provides the facility of Dial up Networking. It can accommodate 8 dial tone modems which provide internet facility on distant computers

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RAILNET NETWORK COMPONENTS


A. SERVER A network is a multiuser system because more than one person at a time can send requests to a machine. A shared machine together with the software programs, which handles requests and distributes the network resources such as data files and printer time both the machine and its software are jointly referred as the server. Server has following characteristics: Hardware including motherboard of the server is entirely different from a normal P.C. It can be used with two processors of 500MHz. It contains 3 hard disks having capacity of 9GB.These are connected to the Motherboard through RAD controller card. A server should be able to implement security for its data. It contains Microsoft Back Office Server 4.01 software which comprises following programs: Microsoft NT. Microsoft BackOffice. Site Management Server. Proxy Software. Service Network Administrator Exchange Server. B. ROUTER A router translates information from one network to another; it is similar to a super intelligent bridge. Routers select the best path to route a message, based on the destination address and origin. The router can direct traffic to prevent headon collisions, and is smart enough to know when to direct traffic along back roads and shortcuts. Routers know the addresses of computers, bridges, and other routers on each side of the

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network. Routers can even "listen" to the entire network to determine which sections are busiest; they can then redirect data around those sections until they clear up. Routers can:Direct signal traffic efficiently. Route messages between any two protocols. Route messages between linear bus, star, and star-wired ring topologies. Route messages across fiber optics, coaxial, and twisted pair cabling. C. SWITCH The switch is used to interconnect the Nodes. But it is more complex and versatile, and also there is no division of bandwidth among the nodes. They are active device with following points:10Mbps, 100 Mbps, single-speed, or dual speed operation. Congestion control, which means that the switch should have enough buffers to take care of the traffic peaks. Segmentation of local network Speed up the local network. They are of 8, 16 or 48 ports active terminal. D.FIREWALL It is security purpose software, which is used to secure the server contents, so the outside user could not temper the information. The user can read the information but cannot write anything. E. HUB It is active junction box, which is used to connect the nodes and
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all the servers using any type of cable (UTP, Coaxial etc). It contains a division of network bandwidth. The important parameters to be considered whole selecting are: Support for dual-speed operations. Number and types of ports, UTP and BNC. Auto switching. Support a built-in segment switch. Ease of configuration. It can have a capacity of 8, 16 or 24 nodes and the maximum distance between Hub and nodes is 100 Mt. If distance is more, then additional HUB must be used (but not more than 3).

Speeding the communication with Optical Fibers


Today's general demands to railway administrations all over the world are: improved traffic regularity, more frequent departures and, Shorter travelling times.

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In order to meet above demands it is paramount to expand the existing transmission capacity for telecommunication and to implement more flexible signal Interlocking systems. The telecommunication network has to operate with more subscribers as well as to carry a number of new services, such as automatic train numbering, electronic reporting and passenger information, freight control and voice channels to radio base stations for mobile radio communication . The old relay based signal interlocking systems for line block interlocking have to be replaced by cheaper and more flexible fully electronic systems for the control of signals, points and other safety measures along the track. Communication Media:The communication links making up the data network may be over a combination of any of the following media:OFC, Digital MW, IP Radio links, VSAT, Analog MW, Twisted pair copper, for last mile connectivity. Wherever feasible wireless LAN (Wi-Fi, WiMax) as per latest international standards may also be adopted. Railways Private Network is built up by utilizing bandwidth from Railways own Railtel Corporation of India (RCIL) or leasing bandwidth from BSNL or other service providers. Network Speeds: The earlier networks were non-IP based and worked at speeds of 9.6 Kbps. Gradually some of the non-IP based network speeds were upgraded to 64 Kbps. Generally higher speeds are not adopted in non-IP networks.

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Presently networks are mostly IP based and operate at speeds of 2 Mbps at the core and distribution levels and 64 kbps at the access level. Speeds of n x 64 Kbps may be used at important access points depending on the network traffic. Similarly at the core level n x 2 Mbps may also be adopted. In a centralized system as in FOIS, the core level comprises the communication links between CRIS (Centre for Railway Information System)/ Rly.Board and zonal Headquarters. Distribution level comprises the communication links between zonal Headquarters, and divisions and access level is made up of links connecting the division to the activity centers. In a distributed system as in PRS, the computers at the 5 metro cities are connected in a mesh topology and form the core network. The network connecting the 5 locations to other zonal headquarters and divisional headquarters forms the distribution layer and the connections from the zonal/divisional headquarters to the other locations forms the access network.

Network Security:The main aspects of security are: Data sent by the sender should be received only by the intended receiver. This is achieved through encryption at various levels. Encryption can be built in at application level as well as network level. The various data encryption standards are IP sec. DES, 3 DES, AES, private/public key etc. Optical fiber Telecommunication for Railway Utility A modern telecommunication network for railway utility must be able to handle the emerging of advanced remote control centers, digital telephone exchanges, train radio systems and the extensive development of central and local data systems. Therefore, it is recommended to apply digital PCM
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transmission equipment, using optical fibers as transmission media. The advantages of this kind of telecommunication networks are the low establishing costs compared to its enormous capacity. For ex., an 8 or 12 fiber cable is able to handle all to- day known railway transmission requirements and even more. Furthermore, the transmission network is immune to electromagnetic disturbances in connection with electric railway traffic. In optical fiber telecommunication systems, primarily monomode fibers are used today, providing an extremely high bandwidth (>300GHz x km) and a very low attenuation (0.2 dB/km). We'll give a brief introduction to optical fibers here. An optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a waveguide, or light pipe, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

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The structure of a typical single-mode fiber. 1. Core: 8m diameter 2. Cladding: 125m dia. 3. Buffer: 250m dia. 4. Jacket: 400m dia. Optical Fiber Communication Network at IR IR Vision is to tap revenue generation potential in the telecom and IT sector, using the 64,000-km long 'right of way' for laying optic fibers, signaling towers and other infrastructure assets that Indian Railways owns. OFCs are laid down along the track. This will be done in collaboration between the Railtel Corporation and private sector companies in a transparent framework.

Use of Technology in IR
The advantages of using OFCs over conventional copper cables include:

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Free from EMI and RFI making it especially useful in electrified areas. Supports low bit-error rate digital communication.

Very high traffic carrying capacity and hence potential for leasing excess capacity to other users and providing other services. Negligible cross-talk between channels. Insufficient commercial value of bits of cable and hence less prone to theft. Multiple joints do not significantly degrade BER and therefore speech quality. IR has commissioned their first optical fiber communication system, in the busy suburban area of Mumbai over a distance of 60 km connecting 30 suburban stations during 1989. This was followed by installation of another 900 km fiber in connection with railway electrification projects.

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JOINTING AND TERMINATION OF OPTIC FIBRE CABLE


Techniques for jointing of optic fibre cable:(a) Mechanical Splice This aligns the axis of the two fibers to be joined and physically hold them together. (b) Fusion Splicing This is done by applying localized heating (i.e. by electric arc or flame) at the interface between the butted, pre-aligned fibre end, causing them to soften and fuse together. Following steps are involved for jointing of the cable:Preparation of cable for jointing Stripping/cutting the cable Preparation of cable and joint closure for splicing Stripping and cleaving of fibers Sealing of joint closure and Placing joint in pit.

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