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Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

CONTENTS

Japan’s Support for Education …………………………………………3

Why Support Education? ……………………………………………………4

Global Efforts to Support Education …………………………………5

Japan’s International Cooperation Policies in Education and Their Features ……………………………………………6

Japan’s Major Assistance in the World [Basic education] …………8

Japan’s Assistance : Case Studies …………………………………10

Basic education

Ensuring access to education ………………………………………… 10 …………………………………………10

Improving the quality of education…………………………………… 13 ……………………………………13

Improving the management of education ………………………… 16 …………………………16

Education in post-conflict and post-disaster situations / Education for human security ………………………………………… 18 …………………………………………18

Promoting multi-sectoral approach ………………………………… 20 …………………………………20

Partnering for the progress……………………………………………… 21 ………………………………………………21

Higher education/Technical education

H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n Higher education ……………………………………………………………22

Technical/Vocational education and training ……………………24

Assistance for international students ……………………………… 26 ………………………………26

In Kenya(photo : Kazuhito Hattori for JICA) Cover Picture Lontan primary school students in Myanmar (photo : Kenshiro Imamura for JICA)

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2

Japan’s Support for Education

More than 100 million children are still out of school, and about 60%

of them are girls. Approximately 800 million adults are illiterate,

and two-thirds of them are women. In order to address these challenges,

the global community has been working together to provide all people

- children, youth and adults - with opportunities for basic education*

under the “Education for All (EFA)” movement since 1990.

For decades, the Government of Japan has extended its official

development assistance (ODA), with a particular emphasis on sup-

porting “nation-building” and “human resources development.” As a

cornerstone of nation-building and human resources development,

education is one of the priority areas of Japan’s ODA. At the G8

Genoa Summit in 2001, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi made an

appeal to the world leaders on the vital importance of education in

development, introducing a Japanese story about the “Spirit of One

Hundred Sacks of Rice.”**

In 2002, the Government of Japan announced the “Basic Education

for Growth Initiative (BEGIN)” at the G8 Kananaskis Summit, and has

actively contributed to the international efforts in achieving “Education

for All.” Japan has also actively supported higher and technical edu-

cation in developing countries, which is imperative to foster skilled

human resources needed for social and economic development and

enable developing countries to thrive in an accelerating global market

and knowledge-based society.

The universal aim is to enable all people in the world to enjoy

greater opportunities for education with good quality. Japan is com-

mitted to continue to provide support for education, responding to

the diverse needs of education sector in the developing countries.

*

Basic education comprises education for acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills required by the people to sustain their daily lives and education that meet their basic learning needs. The scope of basic education varies with individual countries and cultures but it generally covers primary, lower-secondary, pre-primary, and non-formal (youth and adult literacy education, etc) education.

**

“Spirit of One Hundred Sacks of Rice” The prosperity of a country, the growth of cities—everything depends on people. Build schools and develop people of ability.” (From the play “One Hundred Sacks of Rice” by Yuzo Yamamoto) In the early Meiji period, Nagaoka Domain, suffering from severe poverty, received a relief package of hundred sacks or about six tons of rice from a neighboring province. One of the Domain’s chief executives, Torasaburo Kobayashi, suggested the rice should be used to generate funds to build a new school, since it would be all gone within several days if it was distributed to local communities. As a result, quality human resources were developed at the school. The “Spirit of the One Hundred Sacks of Rice,” a guiding principle from this episode, emphasizes that investment in education is most important for nation-building.

In Myanmar(photo : Kenshiro Imamura for JICA)

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Why Support Education?

Global Efforts To

Aiming at poverty reduction

One-fifth of the world’s population lives on less than $1 a day. It is a momentous task of the international community to realize a world without poverty and inequality. It is well recognized that education is vital for making such a world a reality. However, a sig- nificant number of children in the developing world still do not have any access to schooling, with many of them needing to work to support their families. Children without education tend to remain in poverty. Children from ethnic minorities, socially vulnerable background and rural areas are particularly disadvantaged in their access to education. By acquiring basic knowl- edge and skills, poor and vulnerable children and adults can participate more actively in political, social, and economic activities. They will be able to have more options in their lives and more likely to find their way out of poverty.

Promoting human security and empowerment

Education also plays a pivotal role in promoting “human security.” “Human security” is a perspective that places the focus not on states but on individuals, and ensures “protection” against any threat to human existence and livelihoods. It also con- tributes to fostering a society in which people can live with dignity. The realization of “human security” requires “empowerment” of individuals, in addition to protecting their lives, health and livelihoods. “Empowerment” means that each individual is endowed with rights, ability, and choices on economic, social, legal, and political issues, and is capable of overcoming var- ious inequalities. Education is a first step toward such empowerment.

Developing human resources for socio-economic development

Investment in education is important for raising personal income and developing human resources needed for socio-economic development. In Japan, education played a critical role in achieving post-war economic development. Equal opportunity in education was promoted for all people in Japan, contributing to the country’s economic development and its sustained economic growth with the reduction of poverty and social disparities. Education is also an important tool for tackling various development challenges including such issues as public health and the modernization of agriculture.

Keeping up with the global economy and the knowledge- based society

At the end of the 20th century, the globalization of the economy has further accel- erated, and information and telecommunications technologies (ICTs) have dramatically progressed. It is crucially important that developing countries develop human resources needed for such knowledge-based society, positively using economic opportunities created in market economies, instead of being left behind in growing glob- al economy. At the same time, various global issues we face, such as environmental issues, cannot be tackled without the coordinated actions of all global community members, whether they are developed or developing, based on their knowledge and expe- rience. Higher education and research institutions play a pivotal role in accumulating such knowledge and experience and sharing them with one another on a global scale to address challenges common to all humankind.

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InIn NigerNiger (photo(photo :: AkioAkio IizukaIizuka forfor JICA)JICA)

Basic Education in the World   (Number of out-of-school children and adult literacy rate)

Central Asia� Adult Literacy rate� � 100% 99% B G Number of out-of-school children (thousands)
Central Asia�
Adult Literacy rate�
100%
99%
B
G
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:169 Girls:222
Central and �
Eastern Europe�
Arab States�
Adult Literacy rate�
Adult Literacy rate�
99%
96%
73%
51%
B
G
B
G
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:1,245 Girls:1,443
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:2.992 Girls:4.450
Sub-Saharan Africa�
South and West Asia�
Adult Literacy rate�
Adult Literacy rate�
East Asia/the Pacific�
� 70% 54% B G Number of out-of-school children (thousands) Boys:18,301 Girls:21,990
70%
54%
B
G
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:18,301 Girls:21,990
� Adult Literacy rate� 71% 45% � 95% 88% B G Number of out-of-school children
Adult Literacy rate�
71%
45%
95%
88%
B
G
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:13,518 Girls:22,289
B
G
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:6.159 Girls:5.835
Latin America� and the Caribbean� Adult Literacy rate� � 90% 88% B G Number of
Latin America�
and the Caribbean�
Adult Literacy rate�
90%
88%
B
G
Number of out-of-school
children
(thousands)
Boys:1,300 Girls:1,168

The Ratio of Out-of-School Children

by Region

Latin America and the Caribbean 2.4% Central and � North America and Western Europe 2.3%
Latin America and the Caribbean 2.4%
Central and �
North America and Western Europe 2.3%
Eastern Europe �
2.6%
Central Asia 0.4%
Arab States 7.2%
Sub-Saharan �
Total�
Africa 38.9%
East Asia and �
the Pacific 11.6%
103�
(million people)�
South and �
West Asia 34.6%
Source: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005

Support Education

Education for All

More than 100 million children of primary-school age are still out of school and about 60% of those children are girls. Also, about 800 million adults were illiterate and two thirds of them are women. At the World Conference on Education for All held in Thailand in 1990, the world leaders reaffirmed their commitment to ensure that every person, whether children or youths or adults, should be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs. In 2000, 10 years after the World Con- ference on Education for All, the World Education Forum was held in Dakar, Senegal, which adopted the “Dakar Framework for Action - Education for All: Meeting our Col- lective Commitments.” The Dakar Framework document committed governments to achieving goals that include universal quality primary education by 2015.

Dakar Framework for Action-Education for All 1 Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and
Dakar Framework for Action-Education for All
1 Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and
disadvantaged children.
2 Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to eth-
nic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
3 Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learn-
ing and life skills programmes.
4 Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access
to basic and continuing education for all adults.
5 Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in edu-
cation by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good
quality.
6 Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable
learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.

Achieving goals

The United Nations Millennium Summit held in September 2000 adopted the Millennium Declaration, leading to the establishment of Millennium Development

Goals (MDGs), aiming at poverty reduction. Two education-related goals - (i) Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling by 2015 (goal 2); and (ii) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015(goal 3) – are incorporated in MDGs, important targets that international society must work together to achieve. In 2002, the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (FTI) was launched as a global partnership to ensure accelerated progress toward the goal of universal primary education by 2015. The low-income countries that demonstrate serious commitment to achieve this goal through the formulation of Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) and a sound national education plan can receive support from the FTI. With regard to higher education, UNESCO convened a World Conference on Higher Education in 1998. The conference reaffirmed the important role of higher edu- cation in contributing to development, and discussed many issues including the need to expand higher education opportunities for women, modernize higher education insti- tutions and share knowledge across borders. While these policies have been globally adopted, “Sector-Wide Approaches (SWAps)” are being introduced in many developing countries, to comprehensively address various issues faced by the education sector of each country. This approach is a method of working that brings together development partners to support the national education plans developed with the ownership of developing countries themselves.

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5

Japan Education Forum

Japan Education Forum Japan’s International Cooperation Policies in Education and Their Features

Japan’s International Cooperation Policies in Education and Their Features

Japan’s own experience and its development cooperation policies in education

Education is considered as one of the most critical factors that facilitated Japan’s modernization and rapid economic growth in the post-war period, which was called a “miracle.” Even in the Edo period (1603-1867), there was a wide diffusion of popular learning places such as “terakoya,” where children of the common people learned reading, writing and practical skills needed in daily life. This traditional education system in the Edo period served as a foundation of a modern education system, which was subsequently introduced and developed by the Meiji goverment during a relatively short period of time. However, it was not an easy process to introduce and establish such modern education systems at the beginning of the Meiji period (late 19th Century). For example, local communities were not necessarily the supporters of this newly introduced education system and complained about the financial burden that they had to bear. In some local areas, there were uprisings by people against schools and new education system, sometimes even leading to cases of schools being burnt down. It took about 40 years for Japan to achieve universal primary education after the introduction of a modern education system. In the post-war period, Japan worked hard to review its education system, train teachers and rebuild school facilities destroyed during the war. The development of the education system became the foundation of Japan’s present socio-economic development. The 100-year history of Japan’s experience in education can be shared with developing countries today and be positively utilized for their development and reconstruction. Based on its own experience, Japan actively supports education in developing countries. In line with the ODA Charter and the Medi- um-Term Policy on ODA, both of which form the policy basis of Japanese development cooperation, Japan places priority on education as an important sector to be supported. Japan announced “Basic Education for Growth Initiative” (BEGIN) at the Kananaskis Summit in 2002, identifying Japan’s strategy to support basic education in developing countries, giving due con- sideration to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All Dakar Framework for Action, both adopted in 2000. Japan also announced that over 250 billion yen in assistance for edu- cation would be provided for low-income countries over the five years starting in 2002. By the end of 2003, Japan has already provided assistance of approximately 105.1 billion yen through grant aid, tech- nical cooperation as well as contribution to international organizations such as UNICEF and UNESCO.

BEGIN:Basic Education for Growth Initiative ■Basic philosophies ● Emphasis on a commitment by the governments
BEGIN:Basic Education for Growth Initiative
■Basic philosophies
● Emphasis on a commitment by the governments of devel-
oping countries and support of ownership
● Recognition of cultural diversity and promotion of mutual
understanding
● Assistance based on collaboration and cooperation with
the international community
● Promotion of community involvement and the utilization of
local resources
Assistance for improving quality of education
● Assistance for science and mathematics education
● Assistance for teacher training
● Assistance for improvement of school administration and
operation
Improvement of management of education
● Enhancement of support for formulation of education policies
and education development plans
● Assistance for improvement of educational administration sys-
tem
● Linkages with other development sectors
● Utilization of Japan’s experience in education
■New efforts by Japan
■Priority areas
Assistance for ensuring access to education
● Construction of school buildings and related facilities serving
various needs
● Assistance for elimination of gender disparities (girls’ edu-
cation)
● Assistance for non-formal education (promotion of literacy
education)
● Active utilization of information and communication tech-
nology (ICT)
1. Utilization of in-service teachers and establishment of
cooperation bases
2. Promotion of wide-ranging collaboration with international
frameworks
● Support to UNESCO
● Support to UNICEF
● Consideration on World Bank’s Fast Track Initiative
● Participation in the Association for the Development of
Education in Africa (ADEA)
3. Support for education for post-conflict nation-building
(Full text : www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/education3.html)
6
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InInIn MongoliaMongoliaMongolia (photo(photo(photo ::: KenshiroKenshiroKenshiro ImamuraImamuraImamura forforfor JICA)JICA)JICA)
Japan's ODA in Education (hundred million Yen)� (number of people)� 4,000 307.22 344.17 500 Yen
Japan's ODA in Education
(hundred million Yen)�
(number of people)�
4,000
307.22
344.17
500
Yen Loan (ODA )�
275.04
3,500
Grant Aid
3,000
400
124.95
2,500
143.58
300
2,000
Trainees accepted
63.47
1,500
200
194.51
183.54
169.76
150.57
148.89
1,000
134.54
100
JOCVs dispatched
500
0
Experts dispatched
0
1
2
2
2
2
2
9
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
1
2
3
4
(Year)�

In 2002, the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, where Japan proposed making the 10-year period starting in 2005 the “United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNESD). UNESD was adopted at the UN General Assembly and has officially been launched since January 2005. Japan has been actively pro- moting the implementation of UNESD and has been supporting a Prime Mover Project in the Asia Cooperation Dialogue of Japan / Enviromental Education. Japan also established the trust fund for UNESD for UNESCO, the leading agency of UNESD.

Features of Japan’s assistance in education

Japan has been promoting international cooperation in basic education based on BEGIN. In support of developing countries’ own efforts to achieve Education for All, Japan’s assistance places pri- ority on “ensuring equal access to education,” “improving the quality of education” and “improving the management of education.” The education sector in developing countries faces a number of challenges, including shortage of trained teachers, lack of textbooks and learning materials, insufficient number of school facilities, social environment that are not conducive to learning, and poor education management. Japan seeks to identify key issues concerning the education sector in each developing country and to pursue a comprehensive approach for tackling these issues in line with the partner countries’ own strate- gies for education development. In addition, in cooperation with the international community, Japan actively provides assistance in education in the post-conflict and post-disaster situations such as the reconstruction of school build- ings and the provision of textbooks and school supplies in cooperation with UNICEF and NGOs in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the tsunami-disaster areas. While strengthening its support for basic education, Japan also actively supports technical and high- er education in developing countries, in order to enhance their capacities to thrive in the global econ- omy. Such supports include making technical education suitable to the needs of local industries and strengthening their cooperation with local industry circles, as well as carrying out vocational training combined with the provision of micro-credit for women to support their self-reliance. In the field of high- er education, Japan assists both quantitative and qualitative improvement of the higher education insti- tutions. Japan also supports the cross-border networking of higher education institutions. Without developing countries’ self-help efforts, the assistance in education cannot work effectively or their results will not be sustained on a long-term basis. Therefore, Japan respects developing countries’ ownership and supports their self-help efforts. For this purpose, Japan places priority on capacity building to optimize assistance from Japan and to pursue their self-sustaining develop- ment. Many aid organizations in the world are involved in assistance on education for developing countries. Japan implements its educational assistance in cooperation with various partners such as NGOs, international organizations and other donor countries, based on comparative advantages and expertise of each agency, in order to maximize the results of the assistance. At the grass roots level, Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers have been providing assistance on educational development in many developing countries. 226 Japanese in-service teachers have been dispatched as volunteer teachers to various developing countries over the four years. Moreover, in cooperation with Japanese universities and NGOs, “the cooperation base system” was estab-

lished to systematize their knowledge and technical know-how in global cooperation in education. The Japan Education Forum, jointly hosted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of

Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has been held every year since 2003, providing

opportunities to share such knowledge and technical know-how with the international community.

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7

Japan’s Major Assistance in the World [Basic education]

Afghanistanフガニスタン�

パキパキPakistanスタン�

Bangladeshングラデシュ�

教育支援教育支援

-Back-to-School Campaign

Emergency (UNICEF)

広域広域の貧困基礎教育支援の貧困基礎教育支援

-Project for Construction of Basic Education Facilities (phase I)

Grant Aid

-Punjab Literacy Promotion Project

-Balochistan Middle Level Education Project

Technical Cooperation

Yen Loan

-Strengthening Primary Teacher Training on

Science and Mathematics Project

Technical Cooperation

-Project for Support to Intensive District Approach to -Strengthening of Non-Formal Education Project Technical
-Project for Support to Intensive District Approach to
-Strengthening of Non-Formal Education Project
Technical Cooperation
ネNepalパールール�
Education for All
Grant Aid
-Strengthening Teacher Education Program (STEP)
Technical Cooperation
-The Community-based Alternative Schooling
-The-The Community-basedCommunity-based Alternative Schooling
-Project on Support for Expansion and Improvement of Literacy Education
Technical Cooperation
-Project for Improvement of Primary Education Through
Second Primary Education Development Programme
Project Project (CASP) (CASP)
Technical Cooperation
-Primary School Construction Project in Nangarhar Province
NGO
(PEDP II)
Grant Aid
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Support
-Project-Project forfor ConstructionConstruction ofof PrimarPrimary Schools in Support
Grant Aid
ヨIraqルダン�
of of Education Education for for All All
Grant Aid
モMongoliaンゴル�
Yen Loan
Grant Aid
Yen loan (ODA)
-Community -Community-Community Learning LearLearning Centres Centres to to Help Help Grass-roots Grass-rootsass-roots Community, CommunityCommunity,
-Project for Reconstruction of Primary Education
Iraq (UNICEF)
-Strengthening the Planning Capacity for In-serve
-Strengthening the Planning Capacity for In-serve
Especially Especially Womenomen Women and andand other otherother Disadvantaged DisadvDisadvantaged Groups, Groups, to to Regain Regain
Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation
-Project for Strengthening Primary and Secondary Education
Emergency (UNICEF)
Teacher Training
Teacher Training
Technical Cooperation
Human Security / Dignity and to Enhance their Capacity for
HumanHuman SecuritySecurity // DignityDignity andand toto EnhanceEnhance theirtheir CapacityCapacity forfor
-School Rehabilitation Project
Emergency (UN-HABITAT)
*2
-Teachinghing MethodsMethods ImproImprovement Project towards
-Teaching Methods Improvement Project towards
Emergency
PersonalPersonal Personal && & SocialSocial Social DevelopmentDevelopment Development
Human (UNICEF)
Children'sen's DevelopmentDevelopment
Children's Development
Technical Cooperation
Human
イYemenエメン�
-Project for Development of Primary School Facilities,
-Project for Development of Primary School Facilities,
Phase Phase II II
Grant Aid
NGO
-Project小中学校建設計画小中学校建設計画for -Project for Construction�of Construction of School School Facilities Facilities for for Basic Basic Education, Education, phase phase I I and and II II
Grant Aid
-Rehabilitation -Rehabilitation of of Boarding Boarding Schools Schools and and Provision Provision of of
-Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls’ Education (BRIDGE) Programam inin Taiz Governorate
-Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls’ Education (BRIDGE) Program in Taiz Governorate
Iraq
Technical Cooperation
Refresher Refresher Trainingaining Training CourseCourse Course forfor for HeadmastersHeadmasters Headmasters andand and Teachers Teachers
in in the the Dzud Dzud (natural (natural disaster disaster affecting affecting livestock livestock caused caused
ボスボスSerbiaニアand・ヘMontenegroルツェゴビナ�
by severe winter conditions) –affected Gobi Desert
by severe winter conditions) –affected Gobi Desert
Provinces Provinces
-Reactivation -Reactivationation of ofof Quality QualityQuality Primary PrimarPrimary Education Education in in Kosovo Kosovo
Human (UNICEF)
Human (UNICEF)
-Supply of Mimeograph to Promote School Educational
-Supply-Supply ofof MimeogMimeograph to Promote School Educational
-School -School Rehabilitation Rehabilitation in in Kosovo Kosovo
Human (UNDP)
Activities Activities
*3
WFP : World Food Programme
NGO
-School -School Buses Buses for for Minority Minority Students Students
Human (UNMIK/UNOPS)
*1*1
-Reconstruction-Reconstruction -Reconstruction ofof of thethe the ElementarElementary Elementary School School “Pandelli “Pandelli Sotiri” Sotiri” in in Oblic Oblic
NGO
ボスボスBosnia-Herzegovinaニア・ヘルツェゴビナ�
-Project for Construction of Basic Schools
Grant Aid
ホMexicoンジュラス�
Algeria
ラLaosオス�
Urban Zone of Chiapas State, TheThe UnitedUnited MeMexican States
Urban Zone of Chiapas State, The United Mexican States
-Earthquak-Earthquake-Affectede-Affected EducationEducation SectorSector ReconstructionReconstruction ProjectProject
Yen Loan
-Project -Project for for Construction Construction of of Primary Primary Schools Schools
Grant Aid
ホHondurasンジュラス�
Morocco
-Project-Project -Project forfor for ImproImproving Improving Science Science and and Mathematics Mathematics Teacher Teacher Training Training
Technical Cooperation
-Project for the Improvement of Teaching Method in
-Rural Secondary Education Expansion Project
Yen Loan
-Girl’ss EducationEducation andand CommunityCommunity DevelopmentDevelopment forfor Awareness Raising and Prevention of Girl Trafficking
-Girl’s Education and Community Development for Awareness Raising and Prevention of Girl Trafficking
Human (UNICEF)
Mathematics, phase II
Technical Cooperation
Vietnamベトナム�
ホDominicanンジュラス�Republic
-Project -Project for for Strengthening Strengthening Cluster-based Cluster-based Teacher Teacher Training Training and and School School Management Management
-Project for the Improvement of the Quality of Teaching in
Technical Cooperation
Mathematics in the Dominican Republic
Technical Cooperation
-Project for Improvement of Facilities of Primary Schools in Northern Mountain Region,
-Project for Improvement of Facilities of Primary Schools in Northern Mountain Region,
Phase II
Phase II
Grant Aid
ニNicaraguaカラグア�
パVietnam/Cambodiaプアニューギーギニア�
-Project-Project -Project forfor for ConstructionConstruction Construction ofof of PrimarPrimary Primary Schools’ Schools’ Facilities Facilities
-Support for Urban Youth at Risk: “House for Youth”
Human (UN-HABITAT)
*2
-Project for the Improvementvement onon MathematicsMathematics Teaching in
-Project for the Improvement on Mathematics Teaching in
フPhilippinesィリピン�
PrimarPrimary Education
Primary Education
Technical Cooperation
-Project -Project for for Improvement Improvement of of Educational Educational Facilities Facilities
Grant Aid
ブBurkinaルキルキナ・フFasoァソ�
ホColombiaンジュラス�
-Thirdd -Third ElementarElementary Elementary Education Education Project Project
Yen Loan
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools, phase III
Grant Aid
-Secondaryy EducationEducation DevelopmentDevelopment andand ImproImprovementvement ProjectProject
-Secondary Education Development and Improvement Project
Yen Loan
Natural Science
Natural Science
Technical Cooperation
Sierra Leone
スSriリラLankaンカ�
パSolomonプアニューギーギIslandsニア�
ホElンSalvadorジュラス�
-Children and Youth Development Project in Kambia District
Technical Cooperation
-Improving School Management to Enhance Quality of
Education with Special Reference to Science and Mathematics
-Project-Project forfor RehabilitationRehabilitation ofof ScSchoolshools inin ProProvincesvinces AffectedAffected bbyy EthnicEthnic ConflictConflict
Human (UNDP)
-Project for the Improvementvement onon MathematicsMathematics Teaching in
-Project for the Improvement on Mathematics Teaching in
Guinea
Technical Cooperation
PrimarPrimary Education
Primary Education
Technical Cooperation
パPapuaプアニュNewーギーギGuineaニア�
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in the City of Conakry
Grant Aid
モルモルMaldivesジブ�
-Project-Project forfor EnhancingEnhancing QualityQuality inin TTeachingeaching throughthrough TVTV ProgProgramram (EQUITV)
ホGuatemalaンジュラス�
Technical Cooperation
Mali
-Project-Project forfor ReconstructionReconstruction ofof thethe ThirThirdd PrimarPrimaryy ScSchoolhoolhool ininin MaleMaleMale
Grant Aid
東EastチモTimorールール�
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools
Grant Aid
ジDjiboutiプティ�
-Project-Project -Project forfor for ReconstructionReconstruction Reconstruction ofof of PrimarPrimary Primary Schools Schools and and Junior Junior High High Schools Schools
Grant Aid
Senegal
-Project for Strengthening Basic Education
(Construction of Primary and Secondary School)
- 100 Schools Project: Improving the Quality of Primary Education
- 100 Schools Project: ImproImproving the Quality of Primary Education
Human (UNICEF)
-Education System Improvement Program
Grant Aid
Technical Cooperation
Cambodia
-Project for Improvement of Educational Equipments for
レUgandaソト�
エEthiopiaチオピア�
Elementary Schools
Grant Aid
Grant Aid
-Secondary Science and Mathematics
-Community-based Basic Education Improvement Project
-Community-based-Community-based BasicBasic EducationEducation ImproImprovementvement ProjectProject
Technical Cooperation
-Project for Construction of Classrooms for Elementary Schools
Grant Aid
Teachers' Project (SESEMAT)
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Phnom Penh
-Project for Improving Science and Mathematics Education
Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation
-The -The Project Project on on Increasing Increasing Access AccessAccess to toto Quality QualityQuality Basic BasicBasic Education EducationEducation throughthrough through DevelopingDeveloping Developing ScSchool School
-Project to Construct a School Building at Sansam Kosal Primary School, Phnom Penh City
NGO
Mauritania
レLesothoソト�
MappingMapping Mapping andand and StrStrengthening Strengthening Microplanning Microplanning in in Oromia Oromia Region Region
Technical Cooperation
-Non-Formal Basic Education and Vocational Skill Training for Children and Youth at Risk
Human (UNESCO)
Bolivia
-Project for Construction of Primary and Secondary Schools in
-Project for Consolidation of Educational Television and Radio Recording Studios,
-Project for Consolidation of Educational Television and Radio Recording Studios,
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools
Grant Aid
Nouakchott and Nouadhibou
phase phase I I and and II II
Grant Aid
Grant Aid
イイIndonesiaンンドネドネドネドネシシアア��
South Africa
(Child Centered Teaching Project)
Technical Cooperation
Ghana
ケKenyaニア�
-Regional Educational Development and Improvement Program
Human (UNICEF)
-Project for Construction of Primary and Junior
Peru
-Capacity Development in Educational Planning Project
-Project to Support the Operationalisation of the
-Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE), phase II
Technical Cooperation
Myanmar
Secondary Schools in Limpopo Province
Grant Aid
Technical Cooperation
Tanzania
INSET Policy
Technical Cooperation
-Project for Construction of Primary and Junior
Secondary Schools in Eastern Cape Province,
-Strengthening Child-centered Approach (SCCA)
Technical Cooperation
Networks of Canas and Suyo
Technical Cooperation
-Project for Development of School Facilities for Dar Es Salaam Primary Schools
Grant Aid
phase II
Grant Aid
Benin
Chile
Human (UNICEF)
Zambia
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools
Grant Aid
-Basic Education and HIV/AIDS and Life Skill for Out of School Children
-Support to Primary Education in Drought Prone and Pastoralist Areas
Human (WFP)
*3
-Project on Improvement of Mathematics Education

Niger

-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Dosso and Tahoua

Regions

Grant Aid

-Project on Support to the Improvement of School Management

through Community Participation (School for All)

Nigeria

Technical Cooperation

-Project for Construction of Additional Classrooms for

Primary Schools

8

Grant Aid

-Project for Construction of Basic Schools in

Lusaka, phase II

Angola

Grant Aid

-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in

Luanda Province

Grant Aid

Cameroon

-Project for Construction of Primary Schools,

phase III

Grant Aid

Madagascar

-Project for Construction of Primary Schools, phase II

Malawi

Grant Aid

-Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education in Malawi (SMASSE-Malawi)

-Project for Improvement of Domasi College of Education

Technical Cooperation

Grant Aid

Mozambique

-Project for the Quality Improvement of Primary School Education

-Project for Reconstruction of the Xai-Xai Primary Teacher Training Center

Emergency Grant Aid United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Projects International Reconstruction Fund for Iraq

*1 UNMIK : United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNOPS : United Nations Office for Project Services *2 UN-HABITAT : United Nations Human Settlements Programme

*4 UNCRD : United Nations Centre for Regional Development

Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation

-Project for Improvement of Life of Women in Marginalized Communities in

-Project for Improvementvement ofof LifeLife ofof Women in Marginalizedginalized CommunitiesCommunities inin

-Project-Project -Project forfor for RehabilitationRehabilitation Rehabilitation ofof of BasicBasic Basic EducationEducation Education FacilitiesFacilities Facilities inin in ManaguaManagua Managua

Grant Aid Grant Aid
Grant Aid
Grant Aid

-In -In service service Teacher Teacher Education Education and and Trainingaining Training inin in MathematicsMathematics Mathematics andand and

-Project-Project forfor thethe ImproImprovementvementvement ofofof TTeachingeachinghing MethodMethodMethod ininin MathematicsMathematicsMathematics

Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation

-The Project for Strengthening of Educational Management in the Rural Education

Technical Cooperation � Indonesia/India/Fiji/Uzbekistan - School Earthquake Safety Project Human (UNCRD) *4 9
Technical Cooperation
Indonesia/India/Fiji/Uzbekistan
- School Earthquake Safety Project
Human (UNCRD)
*4
9
Grant Aid

Japan's Assistace - Case Studies Basic education

Ensuring access to education In order to improve school enrollments in developing countries, it is
Ensuring access to education
In order to improve school enrollments in developing
countries, it is important not only to construct and rehabilitate
schools but also to raise awareness of parents and community
people about the value of educating their children. Many low-
income families are often discouraged to send their children to
school, because they cannot bear the cost of schooling or
they need their children to work.
Japan provides assistance to increase educational oppor-
tunities to all children, through hardware assistance such as
construction of classrooms as well as software assistance
such as raising awareness of parents and community people and
ensuring their participation in school management. Japan
seeks to promote community participation in school con-
struction wherever possible, which ensures their “owner-
ship” of the school and active participation in school mainte-
nance and management.
In many developing countries, enrolments of disadvan-
taged children such as girls, children from poor families and eth-
nic minorities are particularly low, while disparity between
urban and rural areas is also prominent. Thus, it is also
important to make special efforts to address such disparities.
Girls account for 60% of out-of-school children in the world.
Japan seeks to provide educational environments that are
safe and conducive for girls, through such measures including
providing separate bathrooms for boys and girls when con-
structing school buildings.
In rural areas where construction of school facilities and
deployment of teachers face a particular challenge, assis-
tance for distance learning via television and radio is being
pursued. Non-formal education* is an effective way to pro-
vide basic education to children and adults who never had a
chance to attend school or dropped out from schools. Japan
supports literacy education by promoting community learning
centers - a kind of “Terakoya,” which were the civilian-run
schools found throughout Japan in the Edo period (1603-
1867). Thus, Japan also contributes to “The United Nations
Literacy Decade” starting in 2003.
*Non-formal education refers to the organized educational activities which take place outside
of the formal education system. Non-formal education includes literacy education for
adults and youths, alternative education for out-of-school children, and health education among
others.

Nepal

Nepal

Grant Aid

Towards the realization of “Education for All”

In Nepal, the “Basic and Primary Education Program-II (BPEP-II)” was implemented during the period of 1999 - 2004, aiming at greater access, quality improvement and strengthening educational management capacity in primary education. With the introduction of the program, the country’s net primary enrollment ratio increased from 70% in 1999 to 84% in 2004. However, both quality and coverage of education still remain as great challenges. Due to a serious shortage of classrooms, many schools have no choice but to accept a limited number of stu- dents, suspend classes in the rainy season and conduct class sessions outdoors. The Nepali

Government developed a new education pro- gram, “Education for All 2004-2009,” in order to further expand and improve primary education. The “Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Support of Education for All” has been conducted since October 2003, to support the construction of classrooms and education resource centers in 15 selected districts, which were selected based on needs, poverty levels and access to schools. The Government of Japan provided financial and material resources needed for the school construction, while the actual construction work was carried out with the active participation of local people.

t i o n o f l o c a l p e o p l

Children in a Japan-assisted primary school in Nepal

Morocco

Morocco

Yen Loan(ODA)

Greater access to secondary education in rural areas

Morocco’s efforts to expand and improve basic education led to the great improvement of the country’s enrollment ratio in primary education from 53% in 1990 to 90% in 2001. However, infrastructure development for secondary education

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has failed to keep up with the sharp increase in the

number of primary school graduates, thereby constraining the national secondary school enrollment ratio to 63%. Particularly, a shortage of secondary schools in remote rural areas is a serious issue, where their enrollment ratio is only

42%.

Another challenge is a low enrollment of female children in remote rural areas that was 33% compared with 79% in urban areas, in

2001. In response to this challenge, one of the pri-

orities of the educational sector in Morocco is to construct secondary schools in each municipality in rural areas, so as to increase enrollement in sec- ondary education. Japan provided 8.9 billion yen to Morocco

through the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) to finance the “Rural Sec- ondary Education Expansion Project.” The pro- ject consists of constructing additional 101 sec- ondary schools as well as providing necessary equipment and library facilities for these schools in the rural areas of five regions. Moreover, the project will contribute to strengthening the management capacity of the Education/Human Resources Development District Academy, which is the implementing agency of the project. It is expected that the project will propagate secondary education in the poor rural areas and help reduce disparities in access to education between urban and rural areas as well as between male and female children.

Students learning at a newly built secondary school (©JBIC)

[Basic education]

Niger

Niger

Technical Cooperation

School for All, School by All

Niger is among the poorest countries in the world. According to the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), the country’s gross enrollment ratio in primary education was 40% in 2001, close to being the lowest in the world. Niger sets the goal of increasing the gross enrollment ratio in primary education to 91% by 2013 in its “10-year education development plan.” Among many factors causing the low enrollment rate, the two biggest reasons are the serious shortage of classrooms and the parents’ low level of trust in local school management, which makes parents reluctant to send their chil- dren to school despite their desire to educate their children. In dealing with the shortage of classrooms, development partners such as the World Bank and other donors, including Japan, are assisting Niger to construct about 20,000 classrooms. To date, Japan provided 2,315 million yen as grant aid for constructing additional 144 schools. As for the reluctance of parents to send their children to school, it is necessary to raise their awareness about education and encourage their

participation in school manage- ment. To this end, the goverment is promoting the establishment of school management commit- tees (COGES) comprising of teachers, parents and community representatives. JICA has supported a “School for All” project since January 2004 with the aim to provide a management model for COGES and to enhance the capacity of local education administrators to

support COGES activities. The ultimate aim of the project is to make community members play

a central role in school manage-

ment. In several districts, the community members have already planned and implemented action programs to make their local schools better, which has contributed to improved learning envi- ronments as well as increased educational opportunities for children.

as well as increased educational opportunities for children. Election of school management committee members Furthermore,

Election of school management committee members

Furthermore, the project has begun to have significant impact at the national level. For instance, the study manual developed for the project has been utilized as the basis of Niger’s offi- cial study manual.

Yemen

Yemen

Technical Cooperation

Promoting community-based girls’ education

Yemen has one of the largest gender disparity in basic education, according to the UNDP’s Human Development Report 2004. While the country’s overall net enrollment ratio in primary education is 67%, the ratio for female is only 47%. Likewise, while the overall adult literacy rate is 49%, the rate for female remains as low as

28%.

The Government of Yemen developed a 10- year national strategy, “Basic Education Devel-

opment Strategy” in 2002, aiming at providing children with greater opportunities for basic edu- cation, with particular emphasis on eliminating gender disparity. However, since the decentralization process

in public administration has been introduced only

recently, the country faces a number of chal- lenges including the low level of planning capaci- ty of local education administrators, insufficient management capacity of school administrators

insufficient management capacity of school administrators Girls ’ class in Taiz Governorate and low level of

Girlsclass in Taiz Governorate

and low level of community involvement in educa- tion development. JICA has been supporting “Broadening Regional Initiatives for Developing Girls’ Educa- tion (BRIDGE) Program in Taiz Governorate” from June 2005 to November 2008. The project is expected to establish a model for effective local administration system in education that can pro- mote girls’ education initiated by schools and communities, through the activities jointly con- ducted by local education administrators, school administrators and community members.

Critical importance of girls’ education

About 60 % of the world’s out-of- school children are girls, exemplifying how serious the gender disparity is in education. Evidence shows that when mothers are literate and educated, they become knowledgeable about health care practices, thus preventing them from becoming ill during pregnancy and childbirth, which in turn reduces child mortality rates. It also contributes to reducing maternal mortality rates and lowering fertility rate. Education provides girls and women with greater opportunities for work, help them participate in the socio-economic activities and enable them to make deci- sions for themselves.

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Vietnam

Vietnam

JICA Partnership Program

Literacy education for ethnic minorities

Partnership Program Literacy education for ethnic minorities In Vietnam, efforts have been made to provide non-formal

In Vietnam, efforts have been made to provide non-formal education opportunities for those who never had a chance to receive formal educa- tion for various reasons, though Community Learning Centers (CLCs), run and managed by community people. The CLCs have been in oper- ation since 1997 in Vietnam, with support from the National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan (NFUAJ) and UNESCO Bangkok office. However, the eight provinces in the northern mountainous region (Son la, Lao Cai, etc.) with var- ious socio-economic difficulties have been facing a particular challenge in establishing such CLCs by themselves, which made the establishment of

model CLCs in these provinces an urgent task. Under these circumstances, JICA, in cooperation with NFUAJ, supported a “Project for Promotion of Community Learning Centers in the Northern Mountainous Region” from October 2003 to June 2005. The main aim of the project was to establish a model CLC in each of the eight target- ed province, to provide non-formal education for local villagers, particularly adult illiterates and primary school drop-outs. The project contributed to improving the standard of living of the people in the targeted communities and spreading CLCs in the region.

Girls at a Community Learning Center

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Technical Cooperation

“Terakoya” supports post-war nation building

“Terakoya” (“temple hut” in Japanese) refers to the voluntarily run institutions found throughout Japan in the Edo period (1603-1867). In the early 19th century, the total number of these schools mainly set up at local temples was said to be as many as 15,000. They provided literacy and basic education to the children of common people. It is believed that the Terakoya facilitated the rapid development of the Japan’s modern educa- tional system in the subsequent century. Today, these Terakoya-type schools support literacy programs in many parts of the world. The National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan (NFUAJ) started the World Terakoya Movement at the time of the launch of the Inter- national Literacy Year in 1990. Since then, the Ter- akoya schools have been introduced in 43 countries in the world, promoting community based literacy programs with support from Japan. Long-time civil war and the heavy bombing

operations in Afghanistan devastated the coun- try’s education systems, resulting in the two- thirds of the population being illiterate. JICA and NFUAJ have been supporting a “Strengthening of Non-formal Education Project” (March 2004March 2007), for the purpose of supporting Community Learning Centers (CLCs) based on the Terakoya approach. In the project, three CLCs were established in Kabul, to serve as a model for non-formal education institution in the country. The centers provide literacy programs for com- munity members, who have started learning how to read and write eagerly. Recognizing the importance of community members’ active partici- pation in the management of the centers, the project also provides

training for elders as well as male and female community leaders. Moreover, the Terakoya- based centers serve as local libraries and meeting places for the communities. Vocational training classes such as sewing classes are also being provided in the centers, in order to meet the needs of the local people, who are striving to make their living.

of the local people, who are striving to make their living. Non-formal education workshop E t

Non-formal education workshop

Ethiopia

Ethiopia Grant Aid

Promoting decentralized distance learning

Grant Aid Promoting decentralized distance learning Broadcast equipment practice 12 Education in Ethiopia faces

Broadcast equipment practice

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12

Education in Ethiopia faces many challenges including a shortage of teachers and textbooks, low net enrollment ratio in primary education, and large disparity between urban and rural areas. Under these circumstances, distant learning is considered as one of the effective ways to provide children with wider opportunities for basic educa- tion and to reduce regional disparity . Although Ethiopia is a multi-lingual country, the distant learning programs had been broad- cast only in English until the “Education Sector Development Program” was introduced in 1996. The program set out a new policy direction that pri- mary education should be provided in each local language in line with the country’s decentralization policy. Subsequently, distant learning programs

need to be made according to the specific curric- ula developed by different local education departments and broadcast in respective local languages. Japan supported the “Project for Consolida- tion of Educational Television and Radio Recording Studios” and provided broadcast equipment at eight radio stations and two TV stations. Also, Japanese experts on radio/TV education pro- grams have been dispatched to support the pro- gram. Thus, the project has been contributing to the establishment of a decentralized national distance learning system, through the provision of both “hardware” and “software” assistance.

[Basic education]

Improving the quality of education Many developing countries face the challenge of improving the quality
Improving the quality of education
Many developing countries face the challenge of improving
the quality of education in addition to increasing access to
education. The contents of education are often not relevant to the
needs and social background of pupils. Many children who
complete primary education still have problems in basic litera-
cy and numerical skills. Also, a large number of pupils repeat
grades or dropout of schools before completing primary
schooling.
Low quality education is caused by multiple factors,
including a lack of trained teachers, their low level of motivation
and teaching skills, a lack of textbooks and learning materials,
and irrelevant curriculum. Among these factors, the quality of
teachers has the biggest impact on improving the quality of edu-
cation. Therefore, Japan provides support to establish a
model system for teacher training and promote such a model
system nationwide, particularly in science and math. Such
assistance is expected to improve teachers’ capacity to manage
class work and to enhance students’ learning outcomes.
Japan also supports the development and distribution of
textbooks and teaching guides for teachers. Moreover, in
order to address the issue of teacher shortage and their lack of
qualification, Japan works to provide assistance to teacher
training institutions.

Kenya

Kenya

Technical Cooperation

Promoting students-centered teaching and learning

The Government of Kenya has set a goal to achieve industrialization by 2020. Accordingly, the government faced an urgent need to improve science and math education at primary and sec- ondary levels, to develop human resources needed to support such industrialization. It is in this context that Japan assisted a project for “Strengthening Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE)” for five years from 1998, providing in-service training in sci- ence and math in nine selected districts. The phase II of the project is being conducted from July

Teaching students the joy of learning

Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCVs) provide voluntary services at the grassroots level in over 120 different occupational fields in about 70 countries. Of all the opera- tions of JOCVs, the activities in the field of education and culture account for 45 %. In particular, a number of requests come from many developing countries to dispatch JOCVs as science and math teachers. Many developing countries face a serious shortage of teachers in rural areas. In addition, teacher training sys- tem is often not well established and many teachers lack opportunities, for instance, to carry out science experi- ments in laboratories. This results in poor quality of science and math educa- tion in many developing countries. JOCV science and math teachers are expected to help make local students interested in science and math subjects, while providing support for curriculum development and advice to local teach- ers. Since 2001, the “Special In-service Teacher Participation Scheme” has been introduced to encourage in-service teachers of Japanese public schools to participate in JOCV activities, while their occupational positions are guaran- teed during their volunteer activities.

Secondary students conducting science practices

2003 to June 2006. With discussion and exchange of ideas between Japanese and Kenyan experts, the project has adopted a unique approach of encouraging teachers to conduct innovative lessons utilizing science experiments and practices. This method of lesson innovation is called the ASEI (Activity, Student, Experiment, Improvisation) approach, aiming at making teaching and learning more student-centered. The project has also successfully introduced the PDSI (Plan, Do, See, Improve) method, which encourages teachers to con-

stantly fine-tune their curricula according to the stu- dents’ learning achievements and educational needs. Kenya’s experience and achievements have gained great attention from neighboring coun- tries in Africa, and a regional cooperation net- work in education called “SMASSE-WECSA” was established in 2002. Currently, more than 30 African countries participate in the SMASSE- WECSA, to conduct training and establish regional network on ASEI and PDSI approaches. The SMASSE-WECSA is recognized as one of the most important projects in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and also plays a central role in science and math working group of the Association for the Development of Educa- tion in Africa (ADEA).

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Honduras

Honduras

Technical Cooperation

Improving teaching skills in mathematics

Various reports from UNESCO and other orga- nizations suggest that, although the average net enrollment ratio in primary education is above 90% in the Central and South American region, basic education in the region still face many challenges . These challenges include high repe- tition and dropout rates, large disparities between regions, social classes and races. The Government of Honduras has set a goal that all boys and girls of school age receive and com- plete six-year primary education by 2015. How- ever, the reality is still far from the target goal, with the completion rate in 2000 being 31.6% due to high repetition and dropout rates. Japan has been dispatching Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCVs) to support textbook development and other activities in Honduras since 1989. These JOCVs include Japanese public school teachers who leave school tem- porarily for volunteer activities. Owing to the high reputation of JOCV’s activities, the Government of Honduras requested Japan to

activities, the Government of Honduras requested Japan to The newly developed teachers ’ manuals and self-

The newly developed teachersmanuals and self- study workbooks

support teacher training programs in mathematics. In response to this request, JICA started an “Improvement of Teaching Methods in Mathe- matics” project in 2003, in order to improve teachers’ capacities in teaching math. Under the project, teachers’ manuals and self-study workbooks for students in all six grades of primary school has been developed, while teacher training programs are being con- ducted using the newly developed manuals and the workbooks. In 2005, the workbook has been introduced nationally as a government autho- rized textbook for primary schools. The success achieved in this project has attracted much interest from other donor countries and organizations, which has led to enhanced cooperation with these organizations. One such example is the financial support from Sweden and Canada for the distribution of the teachers’ manuals and students’ workbooks developed under the above JICA-supported project nationwide, within the framework of the Fast Track Initiative

(FTI). The project has also had a positive impact on education in neighboring countries. The project became one of the subjects discussed at the Central America Education Ministerial Meeting held in 2003. It was decided that the project achievements would be introduced in other countries in Central America through a launch of a regional cooperation network. In this way, more than 15-year cooperation in math education by JOCVs in Honduras are now about to bear fruit in the region.

JOCVs in Honduras are now about to bear fruit in the region. Exhibition of learning materials

Exhibition of learning materials

The Education for All (EFA)-Fast Track Initiative (FTI)

In 2002, the Fast Track Initiative was launched as a global partnership of donors and low-income countries to ensure accelerated progress towards the universal primary education by 2015, stated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Dakar Framework for Action. The low-income countries that need

external support to achieve the goal and develop Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) and a sound national education plan can receive support from the FTI. As of September 2005, sixteen low-income countries were endorsed by the initiative. Japan has given aid to 14 of the 16 coun- tries. In FY2004, Japan’s aid in basic edu- cation to these countries has doubled.

A JOCV in a teacher training session

[Basic education]

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Technical Cooperation/Grant Aid

Introducing child-friendly teaching method

Bangladesh has been promoting compulsory primary education since 1990, aiming at achieving universal primary education. As a result, the gross enrollment ratio in primary education improved from 76% in 1991 to 96% in 1996. However, one-third of the enrolled students still leave school before completion. In order to address this challenge, the Government of Bangladesh in cooperation with development partners initiated the Primary Education Develop- ment Program-(PEDP-) from 1998 and PEDP-from 2004. In 2002, the Government of Japan provided 252 million yen in grant to UNICEF to support the “Project for Support to Intensive District Approach to Education for All (IDEAL)” within the framework of PEDP-. The grant supported the pro- vision of educational materials and teachers training manuals in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning at classroom level. In addition, field-level cooperation has been promoted between Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCVs) and UNICEF’s IDEAL project. For example, the students’ workbooks in math, which were developed in cooperation with JOCVs, have been introduced in classroom activities by UNICEF.

Since 2004, JICA has been supporting a “Project for Strengthening Primary Teacher Training on Science and Mathematics” under the framework of PEDP-, focusing on the improve- ment of in-service teachers training (INSET) with particular emphasis on strengthening teachers’ practical skills in classrooms.

In 2005, Japan provided another 243 million yen in grant to UNICEF for the purpose of strengthen- ing community-based school management and providing educational opportunities for socially vulnerable children such as children from low- income families, ethnic minorities and children with disabilities.

families, ethnic minorities and children with disabilities. Teachers learning enthusiastically at a training session

Teachers learning enthusiastically at a training session

Malawi

Malawi

Grant Aid

Training secondary school teachers

In Malawi, free primary education was intro- duced in 1994, resulting in a dramatic increase in enrollment. The expansion of primary education has led to the increased demand for secondary edu- cation. However, the number of school facilities and qualified teachers in secondary education are far below a level that can meet the growing demand. In many cases, primary school teachers are hired as substitute secondary school teachers. Consequently, 65% of the teachers currently

teaching at secondary schools do not have teaching certificates for secondary education, making it difficult to pursue regular curriculum in many secondary schools. Accordingly, training of additional secondary teachers including female teachers became an urgent task. Domasi College of Education, the largest teacher’s college in Malawi, has a serious shortage of educational facilities and materials needed to train secondary school teachers since it was initially established as a primary teachers’ college.

Against this background, Japan provided a grant aid for “the Project for Improvement of Domasi College of Education” in July 2004, to upgrade the school facilities and provide the needed equip- ment. It is expected that 480 qualified secondary school teachers including 120 female teachers will be trained each year, contributing to the improved quality of secondary education and increased female students’ enrollment.

quality of secondary education and increased female students’ enrollment. Students at Domasi College of Education 14

Students at Domasi College of Education

14 15
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15
Improving the management of education Improving the management of education is essential to increase access
Improving the management of education
Improving the management of education is essential to
increase access to education, improve the quality, reduce
disparities in education, and maintain the positive results
generated by such efforts. To this end, it is important to build
capacities of education policy makers and service providers to
implement educational reforms effectively, understand and
analyze the situation of education accurately, and develop
policies based on such analysis.
Japan provides support to develop education policies and
plans in developing countries while helping them effectively
coordinate various activities carried out by different development
partners. In many countries, education management are
being decentralized from central to the local level, closer to
where actual teaching and learning take place. Japan actively
supports capacity building of local education administrators and
school administrators. Japan’s assistance include data man-
agement and education analysis as well as decentralized
education planning.

Indonesia

Indonesia

Technical Cooperation

Community-oriented school management

Indonesia, which has been moving towards universal primary education, currently places top priority on providing compulsory secondary edu- cation. In response to such priority, JICA has been extending various supports to establish and expand a model system for secondary education since 1999, with the central focus on community participatory school management. Under the JICA-supported “Regional Educa- tional Development and Improvement Program”

Phase and , education and school commit- tees have been established to formulate local education development plans, comprising repre- sentatives of parents and community people. In addition, awareness raising activities for communities, teacher training and improvement of school facilities have been carried out, in support of the establishment of community participatory education administration. In order to expand the model system to the

other provinces, the “Regional Educational Development and Improvement Program” are being implemented since September 2004, with

particular emphasis on strengthening the capaci- ty of local education administrators. The pro- gram is expected to be completed in September

2008.

The pro- gram is expected to be completed in September 2008. Students using science and math

Students using science and math learning materials

Students in a sewing class

[Basic education]

Vietnam

Vietnam

Technical Cooperation

Supporting education planning

Vietnam attaches top priority to education sector development in its national development program. The Government of Vietnam formulated the “Strategic Program for Education Develop-

ment 2001-2010” in 2001, setting the goals of achieving a 99% net enrollment ratio in primary education, increasing education spending per child, quantitative and qualitative improvement of

per child, quantitative and qualitative improvement of teacher supplies, and expanding and improving school

teacher supplies, and expanding and improving school facilities. However, lack of detailed action plans to implement such strategy and lack of mechanism to coordinate development partners had been a problem. Moreover, there was an urgent need to strengthen the capacities of local education departments, which have responsibilities for teacher recruitment and school construction. Against this background, JICA conducted a “Support Program on Primary Education Devel- opment” from July 2001 to March 2004, to strengthen planning capacities of education administrators at provincial level to support the formulation of national education development plan, and to incorporate it in provincial education plans. JICA also helped strengthen Vietnam’s capacity to coordinate the activities of different development partners working in the education sector in Vietnam.

Education planning workshop

Technical Cooperation Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Institutionalizing teacher training

In Afghanistan, progress made in post-conflict nation building processes led to a dramatic increase in school enrollment. Efforts have also been made to improve the quality of education. For instance, a new curriculum is planned to be introduced at primary level, while the new textbooks have already been developed. However, most of the in-service teachers have barely had any opportunity to study in teacher training programs, due to the country’s pro- longed civil war. Consequently, it is said that approximately 80% of the primary school teachers are not qualified to perform their duties properly. JICA is supporting “Strengthening Teacher Training Project” from June 2005 to June 2007, to produce teachers’ manuals and teacher training manuals for the new curriculum as well as implement in-service training (INSET) using these manuals. The project is expected to con- tribute to improving teachers’ teaching skills and capacities. Also recommendations are planned to be made on the provision of teachers’ qualification and the development mid- to long-term strategy for teacher training.

and the development mid- to long-term strategy for teacher training. Workshop on teachers ’ manual production

Workshop on teachersmanual production

16 17
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Education in post-conflict and post-disaster situations / Education for human security Conflicts and natural disasters
Education in post-conflict and post-disaster situations /
Education for human security
Conflicts and natural disasters result in the devastation of
education systems and become major barriers to children’s
future. At the stage of emergency relief, efforts need to be
made to send children back to schools as quick as possible, in
addition to protecting life and restoring health and sanitation. At
the stage of reconstruction, rehabilitation of affected school
facilities, training of teachers, curriculum development and
reconstruction of education systems should be promoted,
laying the foundation for post-emergency nation-building.
Also, vocational and skill training is important to support
employment for those who lost their jobs and to foster skilled
workforce.
In the process of recovery to development, education
plays a critical role in fostering much needed human
resources. Also, education can promote mutual understanding
between one another, serving as an important first step for
achieving ethnic collaboration and peace.
Conflict and disaster leave a large wound in many chil-
dren’s minds. Rebuilding school facilities and restoring a safe
environment for children to go to school and setting a goal of
learning will provide them with hope for the future. Thus,
psychosocial care for children is important in post-conflict
and post-disaster assistance.
Education also plays a pivotal role in promoting human
security and empowerment, that is to say, provide protection
against all threats to human existence and livelihoods as well as
empower all people to pursue living with dignity.

Afghanistan / Iraq

Afghanistan, Iraq

Emergency Grant Aid・International Reconstruction Fund for Iraq

Educating children - the future of the country

In Afghanistan, due to the prolonged conflict, education system was devastated and many people were deprived of opportunities for education, girls and women in particular. Under the Taliban regime, education and employment of women were banned. Enrollment ratio in primary education was 38% for boys and only 3% for girls in 1999. After the establishment of the Interim Govern- ment in 2001, UNICEF conducted “Back-to- School” campaign with the support from Japan to enable 1.78 million children to start school in the new school year of March 2002. Under the campaign, more than seven million textbooks, 18,000 blackboards, learning materials kits for children and teachers were provided. Moreover, teachers were trained and school buildings and facilities were rehabilitated. Of the total budget of US$19 million, Government of

Japan financed US$11 million with grant aid. As a result of the campaign, enrollment ratio in pri- mary education increased to 67% for boys and 40 % for girls in 2003. In Iraq, three wars and more than 10 years of economic sanctions devastated the country’s education system, which once enjoyed a reputation for being the best in the Middle East. Japan pro- vided US$ 42 million in aid to support UNICEF’s “Back-to-School” program in Iraq, providing learning materials to six million students, reha- bilitating approximately 150 primary schools and providing teacher training. Japan also provided approximately 652 mil- lion yen for UN-HABITAT (the United Nations Human Settlements Programme) to support the rehabilitation of 200 primary and secondary schools that were completely devastated in three

cities in southen Iraq, assisting the early resumption of these schools. These rehabilitation programs are also expected to create new employment opportunities for local communities.

create new employment opportunities for local communities. Female students learning at a temporary classroom

Female students learning at a temporary classroom (Afghanistan) (©UNICEF)

Indonesia

Indonesia

Contribution to UNICEF(Emergency Assistance)

Psychosocial care for children

Three weeks after a massive tsunami devastated a dozen Indian Ocean countries, the Government of Japan provided emergency relief aid of US$ 70 mil- lion to UNICEF’s emergency operations, of which US$ 25 million was utilized to support Indonesia. This contribution from Japan accounted for about half of the resources requested by UNICEF Tsunami Children’s Emergency Appeal. The tsunami-affected children who lost their families and sources of income suffer from serious physical and psychological damage. UNICEF has focused on assistance to help such children return to their normal lives as quickly as possible. UNICEF provides tents to support the re-opening of schools while opening Children’s Centers that provide affected children with psychosocial support.

In Indonesia, temporary classrooms using large tents for 430,000 students were provided through Japan’s relief aid. Also, recreation kits for psychosocial care of 107,000 children, as well as “school-in-a-box” kits containing basic educational supplies for approximately 110,000 children were provided through Japan’s aid. As a result of such prompt assistance, more than 90% of the primary school students came back to schools for their re-opening ceremonies in January 26, 2005, about one month after the tsunami devastation.

26, 2005, about one month after the tsunami devastation. Children with schoolbags provided (©UNICEF) A f

Children with schoolbags provided (©UNICEF)

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Grant Aid

Rebuilding higher education

The Government of Afghanistan has set a plan to rebuild the country’s higher education system in line with the country’s “Rebuilding of Education Development Policy,” developed with support from UNESCO. The country’s prolonged civil war destroyed the buildings and facilities of most higher education institutions while laboratory equipment belonging to these institutions had been looted. Also, the payment of salaries for the staffers is often delayed due to tight budget for higher education, making it difficult to hire new instructors with high academic standards. The Government of Japan provided 416 million yen as grant to procure practice and laboratory

equipment for the University of Kabul’s Schools of Science and Engineering, Agriculture, Veterinary and Medicine and the Kabul University of Education. Furthermore, as public-private cooperation, five women’s universities in Japan have been working together to jointly accept more than 10 female Afghan lecturers every year for training. Also, academic partnership agreement has been signed between the School of Agriculture of the University of Kabul and a Japanese university, assigning several Afghan lecturers to be trained in Japan.

assigning several Afghan lecturers to be trained in Japan. Science class at University of Kabul Algeria

Science class at University of Kabul

Algeria

Algeria

Yen Loan(ODA)

Rebuilding schools devastated by earthquake

The Northern Algeria Earthquake in May 2003 caused a serious damage across the region, leaving a total of 2,300 dead, 11,500 injured and 1.8 million houses damaged. School facilities were also heavily damaged, which forced many of these schools to resort to continue classes by using makeshift school buildings, the damaged school buildings with quick repairs, or classrooms in the neighboring schools in case of complete collapse of school buildings. A long distance commuting by stu- dents caused by such temporary measures led to deterioration in the education environment.

Moreover, a serious shortage of classrooms and educational equipment caused by the earth- quake have forced many primary schools to go back into operating on a double-shift system that the Algerian government plans to abolish by

2008.

Japan provided Yen loan of approxi- mately 2.9 billion yen throgh JBIC for the “Earthquake–affected Education Sector Recon- struction Project.” The loan will finance civil work for rebuilding 26 primary schools, as well as four junior and six senior high schools that were most heavily damaged by the earthquake, together

with education equipment for these schools. These new schools are all resistant to earth- quakes.

These new schools are all resistant to earth- quakes. Students and a rehablitated school building Cambodia

Students and a rehablitated school building

Cambodia / Vietnam

Cambodia, Vietnam

Trust Fund for Human Security

Support for urban youth at risk: “House for Youth”

Japan took the initiative to establish the Trust Fund for Human Security in the United Nations in 1999, to help secure people’s lives, livelihood

Nations in 1999, to help secure people’s lives, livelihood Children in a life skill class (©UNESCO)

Children in a life skill class (©UNESCO)

and dignity in the world. The fund has been utilized to support a number of projects including recon- struction of education systems in post-conflict situations and education of children and youth at risk. In Cambodia and Vietnam, many youth have migrated from poverty stricken rural area to urban areas searching for better lives. However, most of them have few or no opportunities for education and jobs and the number of youth living on the street is increasing. They are at high risk of exploitation, physical abuse, prostitution and human trafficking. Against this background, Japan provided approximately US$360,000 of the Human Securi- ty Fund for “Support Urban Youth at Risk: House for Youth” project, carried out by UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlements Programme). The project provided street youths with opportunities for basic education and vocational training, while various awareness raising activities about drug abuse and HIV/AIDS as well as psycho-social

care programs were carried out. In addition, capacity development seminars for social orienta- tion were conducted. The Trust Fund for Human Security also financed approximately US$610,000 for “Non- formal Basic Education and Vocational Skill Training for Children and Youth at Risk” project in Cambodia, which was implemented by UNESCO Cambodia office in cooperation with five local NGOs. The project targeted about 3,000 children in difficult circumstances aged five to twenty four including orphans, school dropouts and street children, and provided them with opportunities for literacy and math classes, capacity building in problem-solving and life skills. Also, vocational training programs such as cosmetology, poultry, sewing and electric product maintenance were conducted to help these children and youth to pursue self-reliance and reintegration in the society. In addition, the project supported them to go back to formal schooling system whereever possible.

18 19
18
19
Promoting multi-sectoral approach Health and education are closely intertwined with each other. Healthy life promotes
Promoting multi-sectoral approach
Health and education are closely intertwined with each
other. Healthy life promotes effective learning, while obtaining
knowledge about health and sanitation through education
contributes to improved health conditions of students. Provision
of adequate safe water and sanitation facilities, health educa-
tion and de-worming activities in schools can improve the
health and sanitation status of children, while school feeding and
awareness raisng about nutrition contributes to improved
nutrition.
In the post-war period, Japan promoted school-based
health programs in addition to developing basic health infras-
tructures, training of quality health workers and promoting
Maternal and Childhealth Handbooks. These measures con-
tributed to the dramatic improvements in public health in a
short time, including reduction of child mortality rate.
Health and sanitation education in schools are particularly
effective in controlling infectious diseases prevalent in devel-
oping countries, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and
guinea worms. Educating children about the positive health
behavior such as washing hands and using safe drinking
water greatly benefits the overall promotion of basic public
health.

Laos

Laos

Technical Cooperation

Strong linkage between health status and learning achievement

Recognizing the close linkage between health status of children and their learning achieve- ments, the Government of Laos formulated the “National School Health Policy” in 2005. The government established school health promotion committees at central, provincial and district levels, aiming at strengthening the cooperation between schools and communities to enhance children’s health and life skills, create healthy learning environment, and provide health services and nutrition as well as conduct disease control and prevention measures. JICA conducted a “Project for Strengthening Health Service for Children” from 2002. The project activities included the implementation of sanitation campaigns using songs by a popular Lao singer and picture story shows, human resources

development activities and pilot projects for parasite control in cooperation with the project in Thailand. In the course of the project, the development of the coun- try’s national school health policy had gathered momentum and the actual for- mulation of the plan has been assisted by JICA. Recently, JICA dispatched experts in school health to support the policy implementation and to strengthen the capacities of school health promotion committees, as well as to enhance the capacities of school principals and teachers for ensuring the sustainability of the activities.

teachers for ensuring the sustainability of the activities. Children at a sanitation campaign event School Feeding

Children at a sanitation campaign event

School Feeding Program(WFP)

Support for School Feeding Programs [World Food Programme (WFP)]

Supporting children’s learning by school feeding programs

20
20

In countries with serious food security situa- tion, many children from poor families suffer from hunger. Hunger deprives children from concentration and motivation to learn. Also, serious malnutrition is an obstacle to children’s physical and intellectual development. Japan has been actively supporting World Food Program’s school feeding program, through regular resources and food assistance programs earmarked for selected countries. School meals provide much-needed nutrition for children from poor families, boost enrollment, promote regular attendance and enhance stu- dents’ learning abilities. In Angola, Japan used the Trust Fund for Human Security to provide about 120 million yen through WFP for the school feeding activities in the two states, which were suffering from low school enrollments resulted from poverty for over three years since the end of civil war. At the targeted

schools, HIV/AIDS awareness program are also being conducted, which is expected to contribute to the enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention. In Myanmar, Japan has been supporting buckwheat cultivation as an alternative crop for poppy in Kokang Special Ward located in a far remote area of Myanmar where ethnic minorities reside. Japan assisted the development and pro- duction of “buckwheat cookies” for the local market, which were used in school lunches by WFP, in view of the rich nutrients in buckwheat. Some reports suggest that school enrollment improved in the targeted area, thanks to school lunches containing buckwheat cookies. Thus, the assistance in agriculture starting as part of the poppy-derived opium eradication activity, has now contributed to improving health and education for children in Myanmar.

to improving health and education for children in Myanmar. Children waiting on line for school meals

Children waiting on line for school meals

Partnering for the progress Maximizing the impact of education assistance requires wide partnership with partner
Partnering for the progress
Maximizing the impact of education assistance requires
wide partnership with partner governments, citizens, interna-
tional organizations, other donor countries, non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) and the private sector.
Japan seeks to provide assistance in education in line with
national education sector plans developed by partner countries.
Japan also actively cooperates and coordinates with other
development partners to promote the efficient implementation
of its cooperation activities.
To foster collaboration with international organisations
working in educaton sector such as UNESCO and UNICEF, Japan
provides various trust funds and general contribution to these
organizations.
Partnership with NGOs is an important strategy. Japan
assists local and international NGOs that are active in education
development through “Grant Assistance for Grassroots and
Human Security,” and Japanese NGOs with “Grant Assistance
for Japanese NGOs.”

Supporting UNESCO’s efforts for “Education for All” (EFA)

UNESCO plays a leading role in promoting the realization of EFA Dakar Framework for Action adopted at the World Education Forum (Dakar, Senegal in April 2000). Since 2000, Japan has supported UNESCO’s various EFA activities through the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for Capacity-Building for Human Resources. The total amount of Japan’s assistance for UNESCO’s EFA related activities through this trust fund amounted to more than US$13 million to date. The project supported with the trust fund includes; Strength- ening National Capacities in Educational Plan- ning and Management for the Implementation of Education for All in Pakistan; In-service Training of Basic Education Teachers in Yemen; Human Resources and Institutional Development in the Nigerien Educational System; Strengthening the EFA Coalition and Emerging Partnerships in Viet- nam; and Literacy and Non-formal Educa- tion Development in Afghanistan (LAND Afghan) . Also, Japan assists EFA activities in Asia and the Pacific region carried out by UNESCO Bangkok office through the Trust Fund for the Education for All Programme that was established in 2002. The major activities include: 1) expansion and improvement of pre-school and non-formal edu- cation; 2) expansion and improvement of formal education; 3) support to develop national EFA action plan; 4) establishment of global network; and 5) evaluation activities.

Mongolia

Mongolia

Grant Assistance for Grassroots and Human Security

Providing poor children with early childhood education

Many poor families in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, live in the 10th ward in the Songi- nokhairkhan district, located on the north side of the capital city. In recent years, due to heavy snow and drought, poor farmers in rural areas have migrated to the city, leading to the drastic increase in residential population in the ward. The Child Development Center established in 1999 with participation of local community is the only kindergarten in the ward that provides pre- school education for 50 local children, most of whom come from the lowest-income families. Though it has received an increasing number of applications for admission, the center is too small to accept more than 50 pre-school chil- dren due to the limited facilities. Few children without pre-school experience

can keep up with classwork in primary school, and many dropout from school. To support children who have no opportunity for preschool educa- tion, the center conducts a visiting school tour to each low-income family’s Gel (a Mongolian tradi- tional tent house). However, such an alternative school is difficult to pursue in an efficient manner. Against this background, Japan provided grant assistance for grassroots human security of approximately 5.44 million yen for “The Project for Extension of the Child Development Center in Songinokhairkhan District of Ulaanbaatar City,” in order to expand the center. The newly expanded center can accept more applicants for admission, providing pre-school education for the increased number of local poor children.

education for the increased number of local poor children. Children at the child development center Working

Children at the child development center

Working with Japanese NGOs The Japan NGO Network for Education (JNNE) was established in January
Working with Japanese NGOs
The Japan NGO Network for Education
(JNNE) was established in January 2001 to
build networks among Japanese NGOs
working in the field of education. The major
aims of JNNE are to give policy recommen-
dations to governments and international
organizations, conduct research activities
on educational cooperation, conduct vari-
ous awareness raising activities such as
through seminars, and strengthen the
capacities of NGOs.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has meet-
ings with JNNE regularly to exchange
information and opinions on cooperation
policies and strategies in education assis-
tance.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs assists a
number of development and humanitarian
projects undertaken by Japanese NGOs
through the “Grant Assistance for Japanese
NGO Project.” The Grant was established
in 2002, by merging Grant Assistance for
Grassroots Projects and the Grant
Assistance for Supporting NGO Emergency
Activities.
This new grant scheme partially covers
the expenses for NGO personnel and con-
ducting meetings, supporting the smooth
and effective operations of NGOs activities.
In FY 2004, the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs provided 1.04 billion yen to 72 pro-
jects in 32 countries carried out by 46
Japanese NGOs under this grant. The pro-
jects supported by the grant include the
“Project to Construct a School Building at
Sansam Kosal Primary School” in Phnom
Penh, Cambodia, by Japan Team of Young
Human Power (JHP).
21

[Higher education/Technical education]

Higher education In the age of accelerated globalization of economy, the critical role of higher
Higher education
In the age of accelerated globalization of economy, the
critical role of higher education has received renewed recog-
nition. Higher education institutions in developing countries are
required to change positively in this new global environment.
For instance, higher education institutions are expected to
develop human resources needed for knowledge-based society,
serve a society as a whole, promote the culture of lifelong
learning and strengthen networks with industry circles.
Japan supports the expansion and improvement of higher
education in developing countries, through improving the
contents of learning and methods of teaching, upgrading
facilities, reducing disparities and improving school manage-
ment, particularly in such fields as engineering, agriculture
and business administration. Moreover, in response to the
recent trend of globalization in university education, Japan
promotes global education and research networks, dispatches
teachers from Japanese universities, exchanges teachers
between Japanese universities and those in partner countries
and carries out distant learning by optimizing information
and communications technology.

Indonesia

Indonesia

Grant Aid/Technical Cooperation

Training technicians in electronics/telecommunications engineering

technicians in electronics/telecommunications engineering The Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya won the 2001 NHK

The Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya won the 2001 NHK Robot Contest (in the category of university).

Indonesia has started establishing polytechnic institutes (technical college) for training quality middle-level technicians since the early 1980s, in line with the country’s national policy on industrial development. Japan assisted the establishment of the Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya in 1986 with grant aid. Technical cooperation has also been provided to support the “Project for Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya” from 1987 to 1994, aiming at devel- oping teaching materials in electronics engineering and information engineering, training instructors and improving school management. In order to disseminate the experiences gained at the institute, the Third Country Training Program* for teachers of higher education institu- tions in other countries in Asia was launched in

1993. Since 1999, a new project on “Strengthen- ing of Polytechnic Education in Electric-related Technology” was launched, aiming at creating a four-year teacher training course in electric- related fields (electricity, electronics, telecom- munications and information) and a three-year course in information technology. In FY 2001 and 2002, grant aid was again utilized for the construction of school facilities and the procurement of educational and laborato- ry equipment. Today, the third country training has been extended to cover Africa, and the Asia- Africa cooperation in the related fields is underway.

* Training implemented by JICA, aiming at enabling a developing country to transfer the skills it has acquired through technical cooperation provided by Japan to other developing countries.

22
22

Laos

Laos

Technical Cooperation

countries. 22 Laos L a o s Technical Cooperation According to a survey, about 80% of

According to a survey, about 80% of new graduates from the faculty were employed within six months, while about 80% of the 100 organizations and firms that responded to the survey indicated that they would be keen to employ the faculty graduates.

Training future leaders in the global market economy

Laos has been making a steady transition to the market economy system since 1986. In order to facilitate such transition, the National University of Laos was established in June 1995, which has the first ever faculty of economics and business management in the country. JICA conducted a project for “the Faculty of Economics and Business Management, National University of Laos” since September 2002, to support this new faculty. The project activities included the develop- ment of curriculum, textbooks and syllabus to boost the academic standard of the faculty as well as the improvement of school management including student and library management. In addition, faculty members have been sent to uni- versities in Japan to study at master and doctoral degree programs, in order to strengthen their research capacities. As part of the project, lecturers and researchers of Kobe University were temporarily dis- patched to the faculty while distant learning pro- grams were also provided from Japan.

Students learning at a Faculty of Economics and Business Management, National University of Laos

[Higher education/Technical education]

China

China

Yen Loan(ODA)

Cooperation between Japanese and Chinese universities

With the prevalence of primary and secondary education whose enrolment ratio reached 98% in 2003, China has set its next goal of increasing the enrollment ratio in higher education such as universities and graduate schools. Although 17% enrolment ratio in higher education was achieved in 2003, it still remains low compared to 51% in Japan and 38% in Thailand. “The Inland Human Resources Development Project” was started in 2001, to improve both quantitative and qualitative aspects of higher education in the inland region that is far behind other regions in terms of level of development. The support is expected to contribute to boosting local economies, promoting a market economy system and developing quality human resources in the field of environmental protection in the inland

region. Yen loan was provided for the project to upgrade school facilities and equipment, train lecturers and administrators from the Chinese targeted universities in Japan and carry out joint research projects between Japanese and Chinese uni- versities. The project’s activities cover 167 universities in 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous areas in the inland region. Since the start of the project, 695 university staffs had already visit- ed Japan by May 2005. The project has been contributing to promoting mutual understanding between the two countries and pur- suing their joint activities to tackle

various global issues, while the advanced know- how and academic resources of the Japanese universities are expected to be optimized for the greater good.

are expected to be optimized for the greater good. Human resources development workshop in Xian (©JBIC)

Human resources development workshop in Xian (©JBIC)

ASEAN

ASEAN

Technical Cooperation

Engineering network between Japan and ASEAN

ASEAN University Network / Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development (AUN/SEED-Net) is a network for cooperation in education and research, consisting of 19 univer-

in education and research, consisting of 19 univer- Seminar participants sities from 10 ASEAN member countries

Seminar participants

sities from 10 ASEAN member countries and 11 support universities in Japan. The project is being carried out from 2001 to 2006, with the purpose of establishing the network itself and improving the research and education capacity of the participating 19 ASEAN universities in the field of engineering, through the cooperation with Japanese universities. The main activities of the project are the creation of a network of researchers and teachers of higher education institutions specializing in engi- neering education in the ASEAN region, the provi- sion of support to pursue advanced studies (Masters in ASEAN and PhDs in both ASEAN and

Japan), as well as research support and organiza- tion of academic workshops and seminars. This cooperation network was first proposed at the 1997 Japan-ASEAN Summit Meeting. It was based on the idea that in order to overcome the economic crisis experienced by the ASEAN countries, a new network of institutions specializ- ing in engineering education should be created.

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23
Technical / Vocational education and training Technical and vocational education and training play an important
Technical / Vocational education and training
Technical and vocational education and training play an
important role not only in increasing one’s income but also
developing human resources needed for socio-economic
development. A quality work force attracts foreign invest-
ment that promotes diversification and sophistication of local
industries, strengthening their competitiveness in a global
market. Technical and vocational education and training also
help increase employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for
youth, leading to stability and self-help development of
developing countries.
Japan has been providing assistance for upgrading voca-
tional training institutes and equipment, supporting technical
training, giving necessary advice to such institutes and helping
improve school management, developing carriculum suitable for
market needs, training instructors, and enhancing partner-
ship with local industrial circles. These vocational training
institutes are further developed and used as the regional centers
to accept trainees from neighboring countries and promote
South-South cooperation. Recently, Japan supports the
income generating activities of these institutes helping them
operate on a sustainable basis.

Senegal

Senegal

Grant Aid/Technical Cooperation

South-South cooperation in vocational training

The Japan-Senegal Vocational Training Cen- ter was established with grant from Japan in 1984, in line with Senegal’s national policy to achieve industrialization by moving towards the economic structure based on light industry from the one relying on primary products. Technical cooperation to train middle-level technicians has been provided to the centre, and the one for advanced-level technicians has also started since 1999. In addition, the center has been accepting trainees from neighboring countries since 1992. The center, which enjoys a great reputation for being the best vocational training center in Senegal is now recognized as one of the three best vocational training centers in Francophone

Africa. As an aftercare program for the technical cooperation, training materials for four depart- ments of the center - electronics, industrial elec- tronics, electronics engineering and automobile mechanics - were provided from July 2002 to December 2003, in addition to the acceptance of trainees in Japan and dispatch of Japanese short-term experts to the center. These efforts have contributed to the center’s high placement rate of approximately 80% in 2004. The director of the center is keen to continue to accept trainees from neighboring countries, saying that “Senegal is a country with the spirit of welcoming guests and we are confident that we can promote South-South Cooperation.”

Precision machinery practice with a Japanese expert

Precision machinery practice with a Japanese expert Uzbekistan U z b e k i s t

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Yen Loan(ODA)

Transferring the practical know-how of Japanese agricultural high schools

the practical know-how of Japanese agricultural high schools Agricultural practice using a tractor (©JBIC) In

Agricultural practice using a tractor (©JBIC)

In Uzbekistan, which is in transi- tional period from socialist economy to a market economy, the agricul- tural sector is one of the most important industries, accounting for 40% of employment and 30% of the GDP. Thus, the develop- ment of agriculture sector and the improvement of agriculture- related education are two of the most important tasks that the government has to address. Uzbekistan has been pursuing education reform that includes the introduction of compulsory senior secondary education. As part of the reform, the govern- ment has been trying to expand

and improve vocational education particularly in the field of agriculture. To support such efforts of Uzbekistan, Japan provided a Yen loan of 6.3 billion yen through JBIC, for the “Senior Secondary Education Pro- ject.” The loan supported the country’s 50 agri- cultural schools through the provision of educational materials such as science laboratory equipment and tractors. Training courses for school principals and senior administrators in charge of school management were also conducted both in Japan and Uzbekistan. In Japan,the trainees from Uzbekistan learned know-how in school management, crop cultivation, dairy husbandry/veterinary and food processing. In particular, training such as dairy production and civil engineering machine operation utilizing the advanced technology impressed many trainees.

[Higher education/Technical education]

Uganda

Uganda

Technical Cooperation

A School generating income and fostering entrepreneurs

In Uganda, a shortage of skilled workers caused by the country’s prolonged civil war was a huge obstacle to the country’s industrial and economic development. In responding to such needs, JICA supported “Nakawa Vocational Training Institute Project” in the capital Kampala from May 1997 to May 2004. Major objectives of the project were to develop

a training system at the Nakawa Vocational

Training Insitute, establish and carry out voca- tional training courses, improve instructors’ teaching capacities, and establish committees to promote cooperation with local industry. The institute has also started conducting income generating business utilizing school facilities, in order to generate a part of its running cost. The project also supports entrepreneur- fostering training at the institute, in cooperation with a “Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Develop- ment Project” carried out by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In order to extend the institute’s training

Machinery practice at the Nakawa Vocational Training Institute

capacity acquired under the project, support has been provided to conduct in-service training to the instructors from other vocational schools in

Uganda as well as neighboring countries in Southeast Africa, which is expected to contribute to improving their teaching capacities.

to contribute to improving their teaching capacities. Vietnam V i e t n a m Technical

Vietnam

Vietnam

Technical Cooperation

Professional attitudes and skills meeting local industrial needs

In Vietnam, many foreign-capitalized firms

have started business operations and industrial- ization has been accelerated. Under such cir- cumstances, the country faces an urgent need

to improve the level of skilled laborers. “Project for

Strengthening Training Capability for Technical

Workers in Hanoi Industrial College” has been carried out since 2000, to develop and conduct training courses to nurture machine technicians at the Hanoi Industrial College, one of the leading schools in northern Vietnam. In addition to the regular training courses, the

college has started providing short-term training programs for employees of local factories as well as taking manufacturing orders from private firms. Through these activities, the project greatly enhanced the school’s capacity to understand the local business needs and develop its training programs according to such needs, further facili- tating the good and trustworthy relationships with the local industry. The students who completed the training course supported by the project have acquired not only specialized technical expertise but also proper working attitude and ethics as well as high motivation to manufacture quality products. Accordingly, they are enjoying a high reputation among local industry circles including local Japanese-affiliated firms.

Turnery practice

24 25
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25
Assistance for international students In the globally inter-linked economy and society, the exchange of international
Assistance for international students
In the globally inter-linked economy and society, the
exchange of international students contributes to building
close human networks and promoting mutual understanding and
friendly relationships between Japan and foreign countries.
Also, it is considered a part of “intellectual international
cooperation” to upgrade the levels of education and academic
research work both in Japan and in foreign countries, and
support quality human resources development in developing
countries.
As a member of the global community, Japan seeks to
provide young people overseas who are expected to play
leadership roles in the future, with a greater opportunity to
study and research in Japan.
Based on “Plan to Accept 100,000 Foreign Students”,
Japan has advanced various policies to increase the number of
foreign students studying in Japan, including planned devel-
opment of systems to accept Japanese government scholarship
students, support for privately financed foreign students, and
enhancement of education and research guidance given to
foreign students.
The goal of accepting 100,000 students was achieved in
May 2003, and the total number of accepted foreign students
reached about 117,000 in 2004.
Since 1999. the “Project for Human Resource Development
Scholarship” has been carried out, to support the nation
building efforts of developing countries. The project is imple-
mented jointly with Japan and the government of developing
countries, which work together to identify the field of studies,
recruit and select students. In 2004, 243 foreign students
were accepted by higher education institutes in Japan
through this project.

Number of foreign students studying in Japan

(number of students)� 117,302 120,000 109,508 100,000 Total number� Privately financed foreign students�
(number of students)�
117,302
120,000
109,508
100,000
Total number�
Privately financed foreign students�
Japanese government scholarship students�
Foreign government sponsored students
95,550
105,592
98,135
78,812
80,000
85,024
64,011
68,270
55,755
60,000
53,787
53,847
52,405
52,921
51,047
51,298
48,561
45,066
53,640
41,347
45,577
45,439
40,000
44,783
45,245
43,573
41,804
31,251
41,273
41,390
38,775
25,643
35,360
22,154
18,631
25,852
20,000
15,009
20,549
10,428 12,410
17,701
9,804
9,173
9,746
8,051
8,250
8,323
8,774
8,930
9,009
7,483
14,659
6,408
6,880
7,371
11,733
4,961
5,219
5,699
9,267
4,118
4,465
2,082
3,077
3,458
2,345
2,502
0
798
774
895
995
976
934
1,026
1,072
1,058
1,214
1,330
1,231
1,297
1,524
1,585
1,542
1,441
1,369
1,517
1,627
1,906
863
1983
1984
1985
1986 1987
1988
1989 1990 1991
1992
1993
1994 1995
1996
1997 1998
1999
2000
2001 2002
2003
2004 (year)

The Japanese government scholarship student system

The Japanese government scholarship stu- dent system is comprised of seven programs provided for the following types of students :

Research students, Trainee teachers, Scholar- ship students of Young Leader's Program(YLP), Undergraduate, Japanese studies/Japanese culture studies students, College of technology students and Senshu-gakko (Special training college) stu- dents.

China � 1,810� Thailand� 622� Indonesia� 600� Vietnam� 530� Bangladesh� 440� The
China �
1,810�
Thailand�
622�
Indonesia�
600�
Vietnam�
530�
Bangladesh�
440�
The Philippines�
315�
Malaysia�
255�
Mongolia�
240�
Brazil�
220�
Cambodia�
151
0
500
1000
1500
2000

number of students (FY2004)

[Higher education/Technical education]

International Student Loan

For enhancing human resouces capacities to develop and implement economic and develop- ment policies as well as to advance industrializa- tion, Japan has provided a total of 59.1 billion yen in loans to three countries : Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia.

 

Science and Technology Manpower Development Project

Indonesia

Professional Human Resources Development Project ()

Professional Human Resources Development Project ()

Thailand

Japan-Thailand Technical Transfer Project

 

Higher Education Loan Fund Project ()

Malaysia

Look East Policy Project

Higher Education Loan Fund Project ()

Malaysia

Malaysia

Yen Loan(ODA)

Studying abroad efficiently with mutual acknowledgement of degree credits

efficiently with mutual acknowledgement of degree credits Students in a practice session (©JBIC) Malaysia has set

Students in a practice session (©JBIC)

Malaysia has set itself the goal of becoming a developed country by 2020. To achieve this goal, the country has placed priority on further expanding and improving higher education insti- tutions as well as fostering human resources development in the field of scientific research through the promotion of overseas education. The “Higher Education Loan Fund Project II

(HELP-II),” a project that supports Malaysian stu- dents who wish to study abroad, has been implemented with an ODA loan provided through OECF (Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund), following the project I (HELP-I) that started in

1992.

The study under HELP I consists of 2-year preparatory study in an educational institution in Malaysia and 4-year undergraduate study in Japanese universities after their entrance exami- nation.

In the phase II, a “twinning” program was introduced at undergraduate level. In the “twining” program, a part of university education is provided in Malaysia, and these credits earned are acknowledged by Japanese universities letting Malaysian students transfered to the 2nd year. Thus, “twining” system contributes to making the period of their stay shorter and reducing the cost accordingly. With great cooperation and understanding from Japanese universities, the project has been supporting Malaysian students’ study at universities of science and technology in Japan in a sustainable manner. In the five-year period starting from 2001, approximately 300 Malaysian students have been transferred to Japanese universities by using the twining program and their academic performance has been receiving a high reputa- tion.

Website for development assistance in education

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/category/education/index.html

UNESCO(EFA)

www.unesco.org/education/index.shtml

BEGIN(Basic Education for Growth Initiative)

World Bank worldbank.org/education/

www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/education3.html

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology www.mext.go.jp/english/index.htm

UNICEF

www.unicef.org/

Japn International Cooperation Agency www.jica.go.jp/english/

Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) www.adeanet.org/

Japan Bank For International Cooperation www.jbic.go.jp/english/index.php

26 27
26
27
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Economic Cooperation Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Economic Cooperation Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Economic Cooperation Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Economic Cooperation Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan

Economic Cooperation Bureau

of Foreign Affairs of Japan Economic Cooperation Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan Tel
of Foreign Affairs of Japan Economic Cooperation Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan Tel

2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan Tel +81-3-3580-3311

www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda

Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan Tel +81-3-3580-3311 www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda November, 2005
Bureau 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan Tel +81-3-3580-3311 www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda November, 2005

November, 2005