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PROFILE OF SUDAN

Sudan is the largest country in Africa by land area, with


rich natural resources and an estimated population of 42 million
in 2010. It borders nine different countries and has a coast
line of 500 miles on the Red Sea. Sudan has many different
peoples, languages and cultures. Numerically no one group
dominates, but in practice there is considerable inequality
between a center, dominated by people from Khartoum and the
North, particularly the villages along the Nile, and a far
larger periphery.
Sudan's 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement opened an
unprecedented window of opportunity to turn the devastation of
years of war, displacement, and underdevelopment into a new era
of peace and prosperity. It directly addressed the key causes of
the conflict, and laid out the parties' vision and commitment to
accelerating development.
The main provisions of the CPA include:
O The creation of a semi-autonomous region of Southern Sudan,
within an overall federal structure, that also includes
substantial transfers of powers from national to state level.
O emocratic elections nationwide in 2009, based on a new
census and electoral roll.
O A referendum in the South in 2011, on whether the region
should retain its semi-autonomous status, or progress to full
independence.
O The establishment of a Government of National Unity for the
country as a whole, and a Government of Southern Sudan.
O A wealth sharing protocol, building on the emergence of oil
as a major source of revenue.
O Two multi-donor trust funds, one for southern Sudan, and
one for other areas of the country affected by the conflict, to
finance reconstruction and development activities.
Implementation of the CPA has been uneven after initial
progress in setting up the Government of National Unity, the
Government of Southern Sudan and the national and state
assemblies. However overall, progress continues to be made,
albeit at a much slower pace than was originally hoped.
Contrastingly, continuing conflict in the West of Sudan
(arfur) has threatened stability and development for all of
Sudan.
Flag Description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors
and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the
meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies
the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light,
and love, black represents Sudan itself (in Arabic 'Sudan' means
black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and
prosperity.
A.FRAMEWORK OF SOCIETY
ilitary regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have
dominated national politics since independence from the UK in
1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during
most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were
rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of
largely non-uslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil
war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war
and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million
people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than
two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks
gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords.
The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in
January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years
followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The
referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming
support for independence. A separate conflict, which broke out
in the western region of arfur in 2003, has displaced nearly
two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000
deaths. The UN took command of the arfur peacekeeping operation
from the African Union in ecember 2007. Peacekeeping troops
have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become
increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to
eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from
neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed
conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government
support have chronically obstructed the provision of
humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
.POPULATION
Sudan's population is one of the most diverse on the
African continent. Within two distinct major cultures--Arab and
black African--there are hundreds of ethnic and tribal
subdivisions and language groups, which make effective
collaboration among them a major political challenge.
The northern states cover most of the Sudan and include
most of the urban centers. ost of the 30 million Sudanese who
live in this region are Arabic-speaking uslims, though the
majority also uses a non-Arabic mother tongue. Among these are
several distinct tribal groups: the Kababish of northern
Kordofan, a camel-raising people; the Ja'alin and Shaigiyya
groups of settled tribes along the rivers; the semi-nomadic
Baggara of Kordofan and arfur; the Hamitic Beja in the Red Sea
area and Nubians of the northern Nile areas, some of whom have
been resettled on the Atbara River; and the Nuba of southern
Kordofan and Fur in the western reaches of the country.
The southern region has a population of around 8 million
and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. Except for a 10-
year hiatus, southern Sudan has been embroiled in conflict,
resulting in major destruction and displacement since
independence. The conflict has severely affected the population
of the South, resulting in over 2 million deaths and more than 4
million people displaced between 1983 and 2005. The Southern
Sudanese practice mainly indigenous traditional beliefs,
although Christian missionaries have converted some. The South
also contains many tribal groups and many more languages than
are used in the north. The inka, whose population is estimated
at more than 1 million, is the largest of the many black African
tribes in Sudan. The Shilluk and the Nuer are among the Nilotic
tribes. The Azande, Bor, and Jo Luo are Sudanic tribes in the
west, and the Acholi and Lotuhu live in the extreme south,
extending into Uganda.
According to new census results released as of July 2011,
Sudan's population including the population of South Sudan has
reached an estimated forty five million forty seven thousand
five hundred two (45,047,502). As a consequence of the high
natural rate of increase, the population is predominantly young
with more than two-fifths less than fifteen years of age. Birth,
death and infant mortality rates are high. Their life expectancy
is relatively low by world standards about fifty eight years.
When it comes to their health, the degree of risk is very high
and the major infectious diseases are as follows:
Food or waterborne diseases - bacterial and protozoal
diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever.
'ector borne diseases - malaria, dengue fever, African
trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
Water contact disease - schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
in this country. It poses a negligible risk with extremely rare
cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with
birds.
AIS is a growing problem in Sudan, particularly in the
south, near the borders with Uganda and the emocratic Republic
of the Congo. Khartoum also has a high infection rate, due in
part to emigration from the south. The spread of the disease has
been exacerbated by uninformed health care workers transmitting
it through syringes and infected blood. The government currently
has no policy for dealing with the problem.
C.PER CAPITA INCOME
The GP per capita growth in Sudan was last reported at
1.88% in 2010, according to a World Bank report released in
2011. Annual percentage growth rate of GP per capita is based
on constant local currency. GP per capita is gross domestic
product divided by midyear population. GP at purchaser's prices
is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the
economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not
included in the value of the products. It is calculated without
making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for
depletion and degradation of natural resources. This page
includes a historical data chart, news and forecast for GP per
capita growth annual % in Sudan. Sudan's economy is one of the
fastest growing in the world. Since 1999, the country is taking
advantage of vast oil reserves receiving large inflows of
foreign direct investment. Yet, in spite of abundance of natural
resources (gold, silver, chrome, asbestos, manganese, gypsum,
mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt,
granite, nickel, tin) agriculture remains an important sector of
the economy as it employs 80% of the work force and contributes
a third of GP. ore importantly, years of civil wars, lack of
infrastructure, and a reliance on subsistence agriculture has
made the majority of Sudanese's to live below the poverty line.
D.LITERACY RATE

The educational system in Sudan provides primary, secondary
and higher secondary schools. Higher education is available at
the University of Khartoum and several other universities
including Jmdurman Islamic University which trains uslim
clerics and scholars, and Ahfad University for women. Between
1990 and 1995, the number of Universities in the Sudan more than
doubled - the result of government efforts to expand
opportunities for higher education. English, formerly the medium
of instruction in the country's Universities and secondary
schools, has now been largely replaced by Arabic. The South
Sudan which is ravaged by decades of civil war remains the most
educationally deprived region of the country. The rate of
literacy in Sudan, although showing improvement since
independence are still relatively low when compared with the
rest of the world. It is about three-fifths of those 15 years
and older are literate.
E.UMAN INDEX RATE
GENDER EQUALITY AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Family
Women in Sudan have a very low level of legal protection in
relation to family matters. According to available statistics,
early marriage appears to be widespread. In accordance with
Islamic Sharia law, polygamy is legal in Sudan as is
repudiation. ivorce proceedings discriminate against women in
that wives have the right to file for divorce but have a much
more difficult time obtaining one. oreover, women almost never
exercise this right because initiating divorce is considered a
dreadful disgrace for their families. By law, parental authority
is granted solely to fathers. In the event of divorce, young
children usually remain with their mothers, but custody
automatically reverts to fathers when sons reach the age of 6
years and daughters reach 8 years. Sudan follows Islamic law,
which provides for detailed and complex calculations of
inheritance shares. Women may inherit from their fathers,
mothers, husbands or children and, under certain conditions,
from other family members. However, their share is generally
smaller than that to which men are entitled. A widow who has no
child inherits one-quarter of her husband's assets; the share is
reduced to one-eighth if they are children. This is commonly
justified by the argument that women have no financial
responsibility towards their husbands and children. Inheritance
laws have a negative effect on the ability to widows to exercise
their legal ownership rights.
Ownership Rights
Women in Sudan have virtually no legal right to ownership.
They are restricted from having access to land, even in the form
of tenancy. Their access to property other than land is equally
restricted in that although women can possess assets, it is
virtually impossible for them to manage such assets freely.
According to Sharia law, women must always defer to their
husbands or male guardians in administering their assets. Widows
cannot even manage inherited assets; they must transfer the
administration to sons or other male family members. Similarly,
women have no access to bank loans; access to all forms of
credit is reserved only for men.
Civil Liberties:
Women in Sudan face a wide range of restriction to their
civil liberties. In fact, the government recently reduced
women's freedom of movement even further by mandating that women
and men must form two queues while waiting at public offices. Jn
public buses, women must stand separately in the back. After
marriage, women are expected to remain at home to care for their
children. Public opinion generally condemns mothers who leave
their children at home in order to work outside the home.
The government also restricts women's freedom of dress. In
the country's capital Khartoum, the restrictions became even
more severe in 1991 when the government imposed the wearing of
opaque clothes from head to feet. These restrictions are a stark
contrast to the 1960s, a period during which women typically
wore veils in villages but felt free to adopt western styles of
dress in larger towns and cities.
F.EMPLOYMENT
The legislated minimum wage was enforced by the inistry of
Labor, which maintained field offices in most major cities.
Employers generally respected the minimum wage. Workers who were
denied the minimum wage could file a grievance with the local
inistry of Labor field office, which then was required to
investigate and take appropriate action if there was a violation
of the law. The inistry of Finance agreed to raise the minimum
wage from $26 (6,881 S) to $28 (7,410 S) per month; however,
it remained an insufficient amount to provide a decent standard
of living for a worker and family and the increase was not
applied to all workers' wages. There were reports during the
year that some workers were not paid their regular wages. The
workweek was limited by law to an 8-hour day, with a day of rest
on Friday, which generally was respected.
Although the laws prescribe health and safety standards,
working conditions generally were poor, and enforcement by the
inistry of Labor was minimal. The law does not address the
right of workers to remove themselves from dangerous work
situations without loss of employment. Legal foreign workers had
the same labor rights as domestic workers. Illegal workers had
no such protections and as a result, typically worked for lower
wages in worse conditions than legal workers. Southern IPs
generally occupied the lowest paying occupations and were
subject to economic exploitation in rural and urban industries
and activities. In 2010, additional steps are being taken to
strengthen job opportunities but until progress is made, the
Sudan unemployment rate is high at 13.73%.
G.INFLATION RATE
The Inflation GP deflator in Sudan was last reported at
17.61 in 2010, according to a World Bank report released in
2011. Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GP
implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy
as a whole. The GP implicit deflator is the ratio of GP in
current local currency to GP in constant local currency.
Sudan's economy is one of the fastest growing in the world.
Since 1999, the country is taking advantage of vast oil reserves
receiving large inflows of foreign direct investment. Yet, in
spite of abundance of natural resources (gold, silver, chrome,
asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium,
copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel, tin) agriculture
remains an important sector of the economy as it employs 80% of
the work force and contributes a third of GP. ore importantly,
years of civil wars, lack of infrastructure, and a reliance on
subsistence agriculture has made the majority of Sudanese's to
live below the poverty line. In determining the future inflation
rate, experts believe that 2011 will end at 8.98% and by 2016;
the rate should be around 6%.

.DETS
Sudan's external debt stood at roughly US$36.8 billion at
the end of 2010, of which US$30.8 billion is in arrears.
Bilateral creditors account for 68 percent of obligations, split
roughly equally between Paris Club and non-Paris Club bilateral.
ultilaterals comprise 15 percent of the total, including
US$1.45 billion to the World Bank and US$1.54 billion to the
IF. Private creditors account for US$5.9 billion. The debt
burden continues to be a significant development constraint, as
arrears to the World Bank and other development partners prevent
normalized relations and constrain access to concessional
financing. Thus, a solution to the debt problem can improve
prospects for growth and poverty reduction.
ECONOMIC PROLEMS
A.ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ISSUES
ECONOMY
Sudan's primary resources are:
1.Agricultural products that includes cotton, groundnuts
(peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane,
cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes,
sesame.
a.Livestock raising, pursued throughout Sudan except in
the extremely dry areas of the north and the tsetse-fly-infested
area in the far south, was almost entirely in the traditional
sector. Because livestock raising provided employment for so
many people, modernization proposals have been based on
improving existing practices and marketing for export, rather
than moving toward the modern ranching that requires few
workers.
b.Fishing was largely carried out by the traditional
sector for subsistence. An unknown number of small operators
also used the country's major reservoirs in the more populated
central region and the rivers to catch fish for sale locally and
in nearby larger urban centers. The few modern fishing ventures,
mainly on Lake Nubia and in the Red Sea, were small.
c.The forestry subsector comprised both traditional
gatherers of firewood and producers of charcoal--the main
sources of fuel for homes and some industry in urban areas--and
a modern timber and sawmilling industry, the latter government
owned.
2.Industrial product that includes Jil, cotton ginning,
textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes,
petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, and
automobile/light truck assembly. The exports commodity includes
Jil and Petroleum products, cotton, sesame, livestock,
groundnuts, gum Arabic and sugar.
Jil was Sudan's main export, with production increasing
dramatically. With rising oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was
booming, with a growth rate of about nine percent in 2007.
Sustained growth was expected the next year in 2008 due to not
only increasing oil production, but also to the boost of
hydroelectricity provided by the erowe am. The independence of
oil-rich South Sudan, however, placed most major oilfields out
of the Sudanese government's direct control. Agriculture
production remains Sudan's most-important sector, employing
eighty percent of the workforce and contributing thirty-nine
percent of GP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible
to drought. Instability, adverse weather and weak world-
agricultural prices ensures that much of the population will
remain at or below the poverty line for years.
Jf the total 11.92 billion labor force in Sudan, according
to CIA reports, the agricultural sector is accountable for about
80% of the employment. Cotton is the chief export commodity of
the nation and an integral contributor to the economy. Sudan is
also the third largest producer of sesame in the world, after
India and China. The nation also produces large volumes of wheat
and sorghum, but these are basically cultivated for domestic
consumption. espite having a dynamic agricultural economy, the
sector's contribution to the economy has not increased
substantially because of problems related to transportation and
irrigation.
Infrastructural problems also extend to Sudan's industry
sector. espite having bountiful mineral resources, exploration
in Sudan has been limited. The industry sector, however, exports
small volumes of chromium, mica and asbestos. Employing only 7%
of the labor force, Sudan industries managed to have a positive
growth rate of 2.1% in 2009, according to CIA estimates.
Petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, textiles and automobile
assembly are some of the key industries in Sudan's economic
structure.
In Sudan's service sector, the key contributors are
restaurants and hotels, commerce services, transport and
communications, and finance and insurance. The sector's
contribution to Sudan's GP over the last few years, despite
employing only about 10-15% of the workforce, has been
substantial. In 2010, the Sudanese service sector accounted for
an astounding 38.9% of the nation's GP, according to the CIA
World Factbook.
Financial Sector
Sudan has a small, undeveloped financial system, which is
largely governed by Islamic monetary principles, including the
prohibition to charge. Sudan's banking sector comprises of
either fully or partially private-owned banks. The Sudanese
financial sector suffers from weak lending practices,
supervision and regulation. Besides, a majority of the
population is not associated with the formal banking sector due
to limited access to credit, which also hinders Sudanese
businesses. Sudan has a small capital market, which primarily
trades in bank shares, on the nation's Khartoum Stock Exchange.
.POLITICAL ISSUES
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Jmar al-Bashir, current President of Sudan Jfficially, the
politics of Sudan takes place, in the framework of a federal
presidential representative democratic republic, where the
President of Sudan is Head of State, Head of Government and
Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party
system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and
in the two chambers, the National Assembly (lower) and the
Council of States (upper), of the bicameral National
Legislature. The judiciary is independent and obtained by the
Constitutional Court.
Elections
National elections took place from April 11-15, 2010. The
elections were largely peaceful. However, there were widespread
irregularities reported during the polling and counting periods,
as well as serious restrictions on political space in both north
and south leading up to and during the elections. The NCP and
SPL won the overwhelming majority of the electoral races, and
incumbent presidents were elected for the Government of Sudan
and the semi-autonomous Government of Southern Sudan.
Jn January 15, 2011 the week-long Southern Sudan referendum
concluded, and official results were announced on February 7,
2011. ore than 3.85 million people, or 97.58% of registered
voters, participated with 98.83% voting for secession according
to the final results. uring the February 7, 2011 announcement
ceremony, the Government of Sudan thanked the international
community and issued the following statement: "In accordance
with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Constitution of
2005, we accept the referendum result, and we renew our
commitment to building constructive relations with the new state
in the South." Jn the same day, President Barack Jbama
congratulated the people of Southern Sudan, and announced the
United States' intent to formally recognize Southern Sudan as a
sovereign, independent state in July 2011. In a separate
statement on February 7, 2011, Secretary of State Hillary
Clinton congratulated all of Sudan, and signaled the United
States would initiate the process of withdrawing Sudan's state
sponsor of terrorism designation.
While significant progress has been made since 2005, and
completion of the referendum is a major achievement, several
post-referendum issues--including citizenship, security, debt,
oil management, wealth sharing, and currency--remained
unresolved as of April 2011. The parties continue to work
through these issues, and the United States remains actively
engaged through its support of the African Union High Level
Implementation Panel and its chairman, President Thabo beki.
The status of Abyei also remained unresolved as of April
2011. Although the boundaries of Abyei were defined through
arbitration in The Hague in July 2009, and both sides have
accepted the arbitration decision, issues persist and the Abyei
boundary has not been demarcated. In August 2009, in conjunction
with discussions facilitated by the United States, the two CPA
parties signed an agreement charting a path forward on 10 points
critical to implementation of the CPA. The parties continue to
work through issues related to CPA implementation.
Popular consultations in Blue Nile are underway, citizen
hearings have been completed, and technical hearings should
begin in April 2011. The process in Southern Kordofan remains on
hold until state-level elections scheduled for ay are
concluded; voter registration for the ay elections was
completed in February 2011. In arch 2011, Princeton N. Lyman
became U.S. Special Envoy for Sudan, replacing J. Scott Gration.
:manitarian Sit:ation
Sudan continues to cope with the countrywide effects of
conflict, displacement, and insecurity. uring more than 20
years of conflict between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan
People's Liberation ovement/Army, violence, famine, and disease
killed more than 2 million people, forced an estimated 600,000
people to seek refuge in neighboring countries, and displaced
approximately 4 million others within Sudan, creating the
world's largest population of internally displaced people. Since
the 2005 signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which
officially ended the North-South conflict, the UN estimates that
nearly 2 million displaced people have returned to Southern
Sudan and the Three Areas of Southern Kordofan, Blue Nile, and
Abyei. As of September 2009, the UN estimated that Lord's
Resistance Army related violence had displaced approximately
85,000 people in Southern Sudan, including more than 18,000
refugees from the emocratic Republic of the Congo and the
Central African Republic. In addition, inter-ethnic conflict in
Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Lakes states has killed more than 2,000
people and displaced approximately 250,000 individuals since
January 2009.
The U.S. Government is the leading international donor to
Sudan and has contributed more than $8 billion in humanitarian,
development, peacekeeping, and reconstruction assistance for the
people in Sudan and eastern Chad since 2005, including more than
$2 billion in FY 2009 alone. The U.S. ission in Sudan has
declared disasters due to the complex emergency on an annual
basis since 1987. Jn Jctober 1, 2009, President Jbama renewed
the Sudan complex emergency disaster declaration for FY 2010.
The U.S. Government continues to lead the international effort
to support implementation of the CPA, while providing for the
humanitarian needs of conflict-affected populations throughout
the country. U.S. Government humanitarian assistance to Sudan
includes food aid, provision of health care, water, sanitation,
and hygiene, as well as programs for nutrition, agriculture,
protection, and economic recovery.
C.SOCIO/CULTURAL ISSUES
Stat:s of Child Labor Practices and Minim:m Age for Employment
The Constitution provides that the Government protect
children from exploitation; however, the Government did not
enforce the provisions and child labor was a serious problem.
Although the legal minimum age for workers was 18 years, the law
was not enforced in practice. Children as young as 11 or 12
years of age worked in a number of factories, particularly
outside the capital, including the factories at Um Ruwaba that
produced edible oils. In addition, severe poverty has produced
widespread child labor in the informal economy. For example,
children are commonly seen washing dishes or cleaning tables at
restaurants, and collecting money for mini-bus drivers. In rural
areas, children traditionally assisted their families with
agricultural work from a very young age.
In arch, the Government ratified ILJ Convention 182 on the
Worst Forms of Child Labor and ILJ Convention 138 on the inimum
Age for Admission to Employment; however, the Government has not
taken any action to investigate abuses or protect child workers.
There were credible reports that children were taken as slave
and forcibly conscripted. Child labor existed in SPL/SPLA-held
areas, particularly in the agricultural sectors. Child labor in
such areas was exacerbated by lack of schools, extreme poverty,
and the lack of an effective legal minimum age for workers.
Trafficking in Persons
Although the law does not prohibit specifically trafficking
in persons, the Constitution specifically prohibits slavery and
forced labor; however, slavery, forced labor, and trafficking in
persons persisted, particularly affecting women and children.
There continued to be credible reports that government and
government supported militias abducted women and children for
their use as domestic servants, forced labor, or sex slaves; the
majority of abductees were taken to the government-controlled
part of the country.
Libyans have been implicated in the purchase of Sudanese
slaves, particularly women and children who were captured by
government troops. There were also reports of Sudanese boys
being trafficked to Qatar as camel jockeys, and to Saudi Arabia
to work as domestic servants and menial laborers. There are
credible reports that intertribal abductions of women and
children continued in the south; abductees were absorbed into
tribes or kept as domestic servants or sex slaves. There were
continuing unconfirmed reports that the SPLA forcibly recruited
Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda for service in their
forces.
uring the past 15 years, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
kidnapped between 3,000 and 10,000 Ugandan children, took them
to the southern part of the country, and forced them to become
sex slaves or soldiers. In arch 2002, the Government signed an
agreement to stop supporting the LRA and permit Ugandan army
access in the south to pursue the LRA; the agreement remained in
force during the year. The LRA continued to operate in the south
and to hold a large number of child abductees during the year.
But Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for
the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant
efforts to do so; while the government took some steps to
identify, demobilize, and reintegrate child soldiers during the
reporting period, combating human trafficking through law
enforcement, protection, or prevention measures was not a
priority.
Darf:r: Gendered Violence and Rape as a Weapon of Genocide
Rape was used and still is as a weapon of genocide in
arfur. It is used in three main ways as a weapon.
1. To impregnate women so that they have children that are
not fully 'black' (assists in ending the black race).
2. To ostracize (to exclude from a group by common consent)
so that they don't get married and therefore don't reproduce.
3. To damage the reproductive organs of a woman so that she
can't reproduce in the future.
"Attacks on women are characterized by extreme physical
abuse. Women who attempt to escape or resist attack are beaten,
tortured or killed. Some women have reported having their
fingernails pulled out as a form of torture or their legs broken
so that they are not capable of escaping. Rape has particularly
severe health consequences in arfur where an estimated 89% of
women have undergone female circumcision and/or infibulations.
Furthermore, rape exposes women to an increased risk of HI'/AIS
and other sexually transmitted diseases."
D.TECNOLOGICAL ISSUES
Another difficulty is the lack of basic infrastructure. In
addition to the dearth of paved roads outside Juba, the capital,
there is no airport that meets international civil aviation
standards, and river channels have not yet been made navigable.
Progress is being made on increasing electricity generation
capacity, but blackouts are frequent and businesses make much
use of generators
The World Bank Group has played an important role in
Sudan's development since 2005, and is deepening its engagement
in South Sudan as it prepares for independence. With last week's
mapathon and ongoing efforts to map the region, the Bank is
providing Southern Sudanese diaspora a chance to participate in
the development of South Sudan from afar, using modern
technology.
According to Fareed Zein, a researcher who built Sudan 'ote
onitor, a mapping platform that tracked votes during last
January's referendum for independence. With technology, they're
able to leapfrog all the years that they lost.

ENVIRONMENT ISSUES
Environment and Energy for S:stainable Development
Sudan faces critical environmental issues, including severe
land degradation, deforestation, desertification and Inadequate
supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by
excessive hunting; soil erosion; periodic drought and other
impacts of climate change that threaten the prospects of lasting
peace and sustainable development. According to the United
Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) 2007, `Sudan Post-
Conflict Environmental Assessment' Report clear linkages exist
between environmental problems and the ongoing conflict in
arfur, as well as other historical and current conflicts in
Sudan.
Competition over oil and gas reserves, Nile waters and
timber, as well as land use issues related to agricultural land,
is important causative factors in the instigation and
perpetuation of conflict in Sudan. Confrontations over rangeland
and rain-fed agricultural land in the drier parts of the country
are a particularly striking manifestation of the connection
between natural resource scarcity and violent conflict.
In an attempt to join the international community's
endeavors to address environmental issues, Sudan has ratified
the Global Environmental Conventions in line with the global
environmental objectives agreed upon at the UN Conference on
Environment and evelopment, Rio de Janeiro, in 1992, and
related international instruments. In doing so, the country
became a party to the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity
(UNCB) in 1995; a party to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992; and in November
1995, was the 16th Party to ratify the United Nations Convention
on Combating esertification (UNCC).
Jver the past few years, and with the support of the Global
Environment Facility (GEF), UNP had assisted the Government of
Sudan to prepare its National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan
and identify its country specific priorities in relation to
Biodiversity Conservation.
In addition to helping the Government to prepare its Second
National Communication on Climate Change, UNP is currently
supporting the Higher Council for Environment and Natural
Resources to finalize the preparation of Sudan's National
Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change and a National
Implantation Plan to phase out Persistent Jrganic Pollutants
(PJPs). Both documents were endorsed by the Council of
inisters, approved by the Government of Sudan, and submitted to
the appropriate global environment secretariat.
UNP is also assisting national and international partners
to formulate a strategic environmental framework for the
management of Tran's boundary waters and environmental
challenges in the Nile River Basin.
SOLUTIONS
Overview
Sudan has been at war with itself for almost its entire
post-colonial history, starting in 1956. In 2011, a mostly
peaceful process that would split north and south into separate
countries was imperiled by fighting over a border region claimed
by both.
The struggle played out against a backdrop of increased oil
production and a politics dominated by distrust. Nearly all of
its major ethnic and religious groups have fought one another,
and there are dozens of armed groups across the country.
Sudan has been ruled since 1989 by r. Bashir, who seized
power in a bloodless coup backed by Islamists. He assumed the
presidency in 1993. r. Bashir has been vilified in the West and
blamed over the years for cozying up to Jsama bin Laden, abusing
human rights and unleashing death squads in arfur, the war-
racked region of western Sudan. In 2010, he was charged by the
International Criminal Court with crimes against humanity.
The southern Sudanese have fought for independence for
decades, and in January 2011, nearly 99 percent of the region's
voters approved a split from northern Sudan in an
internationally backed referendum. The referendum marked the end
to the nearly one-million-square-mile experiment called Sudan,
which for many troubled decades served as a bridge between the
Arab and African world.
World ank
The Bank opened a country office in Khartoum in 2005 and
another office for Juba in 2006 to facilitate implementation of
TF-South. Staffing levels in both locations reflect program
needs. A 2008 Interim Strategy Note sets out the Bank's plans
to assist Sudan up to ecember 2009, and also describes the
process for eventual IA financial re-engagement. The ISN notes
that a peaceful and modern Sudan requires tackle three
interrelated challenges:
(i) Improving governance.
(ii) Increasing access to basic services.
(iii) Ensuring sustainable, diversified, and pro-poor
growth, with primary attention to war-affected and marginalized
areas.

To this end:
O Nationally, the Bank will focus on stabilizing peace,
including through analytical work and policy dialogue regarding
key provisions of the CPA.
O In the South, the main focus will continue to be on helping
to build a competent, responsive and stable government,
including by decentralizing service delivery to local level.
O In arfur, the Bank will work with partners, as security
allows, to assess development and recovery needs and to prepare
programs to be implemented in the event of peace.
The Government of National Unity is in the process of
starting the preparation of an Interim Poverty Reduction
Strategy Paper. The World Bank is preparing a road map for IA
re-engagement to Sudan over the medium to longer term that
considers various post-referendum scenarios. Following the
outcome of the referendum, the Bank will prepare an appropriate
strategy to support long term economic development. The
referendum on the self determination of the South is planned for
January 2011.
The nation-in-waiting faces daunting challenges, including
lack of basic capacity to undertake core functions of the state
as well as low human capital. In addition, its economy not
diversified, with about 98 percent of the economy is based on
oil. In both the North and South, oil is the most important
source of revenue.
In line with this, a proposal was made by World Bank for
continues development in Sudan:
1.A diversification strategy is needed urgently in order to
help move away from a mono-product economy towards opportunities
presented by agriculture. This mean that simply have to do a
strong diagnosis of what the issues are, for example irrigation;
access to land, finance, technology and seeds; and feeder roads
that enable farmers to move their products to the market.
2.The government must then ensure that growth is not only
robust enough to generate the millions of jobs desperately
needed, but most importantly that it is inclusive, broad and
shared.
3.The government holds the responsibility of ensuring even
distribution through policies that can help identify new sources
of opportunity for private sector investments.
With challenges abound, Southern Sudan's inister of
Finance avid eng told the World Bank 'ice President during her
most recent visit to Juba that considerable progress has been
made since the Comprehensive Peace Accord was signed in 2005,
though a lot remains to be done.
Beyond economic development, cementing the foundation of
cooperation between North and South Sudan is crucial in
resolving other issues. In the coming months, key issues will
require swift and careful solutions. These include settling the
overall border demarcation; resolving the status of Abyei as
part of the North or South; and working out currency, debt
burden and oil-sharing arrangements.
At the end of 2010, the trust fund for Southern Sudan managed
by the World Bank on behalf of 14 donors had spent $400 million
of a total $545 million, providing safe drinking water and
medical supplies to 250,000 and 2.5 million people,
respectively; delivering textbooks to 1.7 million students;
ushering in a new currency; funding the first all-inclusive
census since 1956; rehabilitating roads; and increasing food
production. The availability of the World Bank to work for
greater progress going forward, including helping Southern Sudan
invest more of its own funds in basic services.


Highlights of results achieved include the following
through the help of World Bank in cooperation of ulti onor
Trust Funds:
1.Expanding Access to Basic Services (Education, Health,
Water and Electricity)
Education - ore boys and girls have improved access to
education and more teachers are being trained. Student grades
have improved due to a better study environment.
Health - ore people have access to health experts and medical
supplies. The community has greater access to health services
now that clinics have extended hours.
Water - ore people have access to clean and safe water.
Solar electrification is reaching more rural places/people,
improving access to basic services.
2.Rehabilitating Infrastructure
Transport network and capacity- Improved functioning of the
transport network and enhanced capacity of the transport
institutions.

3.Promoting Rural and Private Sector evelopment
Private Sector evelopment - The ongoing TF-N icrofinance-
Private Sector evelopment project is encouraging the role of
the private sector by improving access to finance and promotion
of private investment.
Rural evelopment and Poverty Alleviation - Several TF-N
projects are targeting rural development and poverty alleviation
in a number of Northern states, including the Livestock
Production and arketing Pilot Project; the Gum Arabic project;
and components of the Abyei, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile
projects.
Income earning skills - ore people are acquiring productive and
income earning skills.
4.Institutional evelopment and Capacity Building
Institutional development and capacity building is being
enhanced. omestic training of 862 staff at federal and state
level on a range of topics that included project design,
formulation of feasibility studies, procurement and financial
management, and monitoring and evaluation was supported by TAF
Community development is on the rise. A strong social capital
within communities at states and localities levels is critical
to foster projects' performance and sustainability particularly
at the local level.
Technical Studies - TF-N supported studies have informed
policy decisions and formulation of strategies in key sectors.
5.Economic Policy and Information
Accomplishment of Two CPA Pillars - The introduction of a new
currency and the population census, two key milestone provisions
of the CPA, were successfully completed.
espite the progress made, Southern Sudan remains a
challenging environment in which to implement development
programs. Add to that the capacity gaps that still need to be
filled in the Southern Sudanese government, and a set of human
development indicators that lag far behind acceptable standards,
and it is clear that the path post Referendum will not be a bed
of roses, whatever future the citizens of Southern Sudan vote
for.




REFERENCES:
O CIA World Factbook - as of July 12, 2011
O http://go.worldbank.org/IT5'GGW920
O http://go.worldbank.org/JQTEYUTG50
O http://go.worldbank.org/AR197FGF50
O http://go.worldbank.org/7TI4L80
O The New Encyclopedia Britannica 'olume II 2010
O www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sudan_women.htm.
O http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2011/car07181
1a.htm
O http://www.sudantribune.com/Sudan-faces-difficult-
economic,31899.
O http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/sudan/