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G.R. No. L-19190 PEOPLE vs.

VENANCIO CONCEPCION By telegrams and a letter of confirmation to the manager of the Aparri branch of the Philippine National Bank, Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, between April 10, 1919, and May 7, 1919, authorized an extension of credit in favor of "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." in the amount of P300,000. Pursuant to this authorization, credit aggregating P300,000, was granted the firm of "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C.," the only security required consisting of six demand notes. Venancio Concepcion, as President of the Philippine National Bank and as member of the board of directors of this bank, was charged in the Court of First Instance of Cagayan with a violation of section 35 of Act No. 2747 prohibition to grant loans to any of the members of the board of directors of the bank nor to agents of the branch banks.". He was found guilty by the Honorable Enrique V. Filamor, Judge of First Instance, and was sentenced to imprisonment for one year and six months, to pay a fine of P3,000, with subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency, and the costs. Counsel for the defense argue that the documents of record do not prove that authority to make a loan was given, but only show the concession of a credit. In this statement of fact, counsel is correct, for the exhibits in question speak of a "credito" (credit) and not of a " prestamo" (loan). The "credit" of an individual means his ability to borrow money by virtue of the confidence or trust reposed by a lender that he will pay what he may promise. (Donnell vs. Jones [1848], 13 Ala., 490; Bouvier's Law Dictionary.) A "loan" means the delivery by one party and the receipt by the other party of a given sum of money, upon an agreement, express or implied, to repay the sum loaned, with or without interest. (Payne vs. Gardiner [1864], 29 N. Y., 146, 167.) The concession of a "credit" necessarily involves the granting of "loans" up to the limit of the amount fixed in the "credit," Counsel argue that while section 35 of Act No. 2747 prohibits the granting of a "loan," it does not prohibit what is commonly known as a "discount." Discounts are favored by bankers because of their liquid nature, growing, as they do, out of an actual, live, transaction. Demand notes signed by the firm "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." were not discount paper but were mere evidences of indebtedness, because (1) interest was not deducted from the face of the notes, but was paid when the notes fell due; and (2) they were single-name and not double-name paper. Counsel argue that a loan to the partnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." was not an "indirect loan." In this connection, it should be recalled that the wife of the defendant held one-half of the capital of this partnership. the purpose of the Legislature is plainly to erect a wall of safety against temptation for a director of the bank. The prohibition against indirect loans is a recognition of the familiar maxim that no man may serve two masters that where personal interest clashes with fidelity to duty the latter almost always suffers. If, therefore, it is shown that the husband is financially interested in the success or failure of his wife's business venture, a loan to partnership of which the wife of a director is a member, falls within the prohibition. That it was the intention of the Legislature to prohibit exactly such an occurrence is shown by the acknowledged fact that in this instance the defendant was tempted to mingle his personal and family affairs with his official duties, and to permit the loan P300,000 to a partnership of no established reputation and without asking for collateral security. Act, provides a punishment for any person who shall violate any of the provisions of the Act. When the corporation itself is forbidden to do an act, the prohibition extends to the board of directors, and to each director separately and individually. Defense of good faith - Under the statute which the defendant has violated, criminal intent is not necessarily material. The doing of the inhibited act, inhibited on account of public policy and public interest,

By telegrams and a letter of confirmation to the manager of the Aparri branch of the Philippine National Bank, Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, authorized an extension of credit in favor of "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." in the constitutes the crime. And, in this instance, as previously demonstrated, the acts of the President of the Philippine National Bank do not fall within the purview of the rulings of the Insular Auditor, even conceding that such rulings have controlling effect.

Banks and Banking, section 125, says: It is fraud for directors to secure by means of their trust, and advantage not common to the other stockholders. The law will not allow private profit from a trust, and will not listen to any proof of honest intent. Judgment affirmed. Republic v. Bagtas, 6 SCRA 262 (1962) Bagtas borrowed three bulls from the Bureau of Animal Industry for a period of one year with breeding charge at 10% of book value. After one year, the contract was renewed only for one bull but Bagtas did not return the two, one of which died because of gunshot wound during the Huk raid. He contends that the Sahiniwal bull was accidentally killed during a raid by the Huk and therefore death was due to force majeure. The appellant contends that the contract was commodatum and that, for that reason, as the appellee retained ownership or title to the bull it should suffer its loss due to force majeure. ISSUE: Is Bagtas liable for the loss of the bull? Supreme Court held that Bagtas was liable for the loss of the bull even though it was caused by a fortuitous event. A contract of commodatum is essentially gratuitous.1 If the breeding fee be considered a compensation, then the contract would be a lease of the bull. Under article 1671 of the Civil Code the lessee would be subject to the responsibilities of a possessor in bad faith, because she had continued possession of the bull after the expiry of the contract. And even if the contract be commodatum, still the appellant is liable, because article 1942 of the Civil Code provides that a bailee in a contract of commodatum . . . is liable for loss of the things, even if it should be through a fortuitous event: (2) If he keeps it longer than the period stipulated . . . (3) If the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value, unless there is a stipulation exempting the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event; Evidence of bad faith - The original period of the loan was from 8 May 1948 to 7 May 1949. The loan of one bull was renewed for another period of one year to end on 8 May 1950. But the appellant kept and used the bull until November 1953 when during a Huk raid it was killed by stray bullets. As the appellant already had returned the two bulls to the appellee, the estate of the late defendant is only liable for the sum of P859.63, the value of the bull which has not been returned to the appellee, because it was killed while in the custody of the administratrix of his estate. settlement of the estate of the deceased Jose V. Bagtas having been instituted in the Court of First Instance of Rizal (Q-200), the money judgment rendered in favor of the appellee cannot be enforced by means of a writ of execution but must be presented to the probate court for payment by the appellant, the administratrix appointed by the court. ACCORDINGLY, the writ of execution appealed from is set aside.

G.R. No. L-46240 MARGARITA QUINTOS and ANGEL A. ANSALDO, vs. BECK, The plaintiff brought this action to compel the defendant to return her certain furniture which she lent him for his use. The defendant was a tenant of the plaintiff and as such occupied the latter's house. upon the novation of the contract of lease between the plaintiff and the defendant, the former gratuitously granted to the latter the use of the furniture described subject to the condition that the defendant would return them to the plaintiff upon the latter's demand. The plaintiff sold the property to Maria Lopez and Rosario Lopez whom notified defendant the need for him to vacate the premises. plaintiff required the defendant to return all the furniture transferred to him. The plaintiff refused to get the furniture in view of the fact that the defendant had declined to make delivery of all of them. before vacating the house, the defendant deposited with the Sheriff all the furniture belonging to the plaintiff and they are now on deposit in the warehouse in the custody of the sheriff. Trial court decided they violated the contract by not calling for all the furniture when the defendant placed them at their disposal. ISSUE: whether the defendant complied with his obligation to return the furniture upon the plaintiff's demand; whether the latter is bound to bear the deposit fees thereof, and whether she is entitled to the costs of litigation. RULING: The contract entered into between the parties is one of commadatum, because under it the plaintiff gratuitously granted the use of the furniture to the defendant, reserving for herself the ownership thereof; by this contract the defendant bound himself to return the furniture to the plaintiff, upon the latters demand. The defendant did not comply with this obligation when he merely placed them at the disposal of the plaintiff, retaining for his benefit the three gas heaters and the four eletric lamps. the defendant had voluntarily undertaken to return all the furniture to the plaintiff, upon the latter's demand, the Court could not legally compel her to bear the expenses occasioned by the deposit of the furniture at the defendant's behest. The latter, as bailee, was not entitled to place the furniture on deposit; nor was the plaintiff under a duty to accept the offer to return the furniture, because the defendant wanted to retain the three gas heaters and the four electric lamps. The appealed judgment is modified and the defendant is ordered to return and deliver to the plaintiff, all furnitures.