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Purpose of Brake System 1. Slow or stop the motion of the vehicle. 2. Hold the vehicle while park on an inclined General Classification Service Brakes These brakes are intended to reduce the speed of a car or bring to a standstill.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Hydraulic Brakes Air Brakes Electrical Brakes Mechanical Brakes

Parking Brakes This is intended to prevent the vehicle from rolling while parked or stop.

Retaders Brakes This is a device which prevents the vehicle from over speeding downhill.


A. FUNDAMENTALS OF BRAKE SYSTEM Principle of Friction Friction between the brake drum and brake lining slows the rotation of the wheels. Friction between tires and the road surface slows the motion of the vehicle. Friction varies according to the pressure applied between the sliding surfaces, the roughness of the surfaces, and the materials of which the surfaces are made. 1. Friction varies with the load applied between the sliding surfaces. 2. Friction varies with the type of material. 3. Friction at rest is greater than the friction of motion.

1 Principle of Hydraulic

The modern automobile uses hydraulic brake as a stopping medium. A special fluid (hydraulic fluid), confined in steel tubing lines, is used to transmit both motion and pressure from the brake pedal to the wheels.

1. Air is compressible. There is no pressure on piston in A. In B, notice how pressure forced piston down.

2. Liquid cannot be compressed. Notice that when the pressure is applied to piston in B, it does not compress the liquid.

3. Liquid can transmit motion. Pressure is applied in left cylinder forcing liquid to other cylinder causing movement of the cylinder

4. Liquid is used to transmit force.

5. Liquid is used to increase force

Pascals Principles When pressure is exerted on a confined liquid, it is transmitted undiminished. Gauges register the same amount of pressure.

Principles of hydraulic Jacks This equipment shows how hydraulic fluid increases force.

B. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF H.B.S. Master Cylinder This is used to pump out hydraulic brake fluid to the wheel brake assembly. Pipes and hoses This is used to transport fluid from the master cylinder to the wheel brake assembly. Wheel brake assembly This is used to convert fluid pressure into mechanical force to produce brakes. Pedal assembly It is a linkage that absorbs foot pressure and transmits it to the master cylinder piston.

C. TYPES OF BRAKING ARRANGEMENT This indicates how the master cylinder is connected to wheel brake assemblies. This determines also the type of master cylinder used in the system.

1. Single Braking System This system uses a single master cylinder to control both the front and rear wheel brake assemblies.

2. Dual Split Front and Rear This system uses a double piston master cylinder. The primary piston controls the rear and the secondary controls the front brake assemblies.

3. Dual Split Diagonal This system uses a double piston master cylinder. The primary piston controls the front right and rear left, while the secondary controls the front left and the rear right brake assemblies.

D. OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM When the master cylinder operates it sends fluid via tubes to the wheel brake assembly, the wheel cylinder pistons and links push the brake shoes outward to contact with the drum. As the shoes cannot revolve, they will stop the drum and the wheel. The kinetic energy in the moving car is converted into heat by the brakes


A. COMPONENTS AND THE FUNCTIONS OF MASTER CYLINDER Master Cylinder It is used to pump brake fluid to the wheel brake assembly via tubes and hoses.

Components 1. Reservoir It is used to restore brake fluid. It has a cap that is vented to allow atmospheric pressure to act on the surface of the liquid to prevent vacuum.

2. Cylinder body It is provided with smooth inner wall. This contains piston assembly and has two ports, the compensating and the inlet ports. The compensating port which is ahead supplies fluid to the pump out to the wheel brakes assembly. The inlet port allows fluid to lubricate the piston and to prevent vacuum. 3. Piston assembly It is made of aluminum and is placed inside the cylinder body. It presses the primary cup which prevents internal leakage. The piston has small bleeder holes around the piston head. The secondary cup piston at the push rod side prevents fluid from leaving the cylinder. 4. Check valve It is seated at the end of the cylinder body. It is a two-way valve design used to keep the static pressure inside the hydraulic system. 5. Return spring It is found inside the cylinder body and is used to push back the piston to its original position after brakes has been applied. 6. Stop plate and snap ring It prevents the piston assembly from coming out of the cylinder body. 7. Push rod It applies pressure to the piston and is attached to the brake pedal linkage. 8. Rubber boot It prevents external impurities to get inside the master cylinder body. B. OPERATION OF MASTER CYLINDER Released position The piston is position against the stop plate. Compensating port is open; static pressure is present inside the hydraulic brake system. Brake shoe return springs pull the shoe free of the brake drum.

Application Position The brake pedal has forced the push rod towards the master cylinder. This is forcing the piston deeper into the master cylinder. Primary cup seals off compensating port. Fluid flows through inlet port to lubricate the piston. Pressure is created inside the cylinder and forces the check valve inner rubber to open and permit fluid to flow out of the master cylinder body to the fluid lines to the wheel brake assembly. Release - Start Pedal force is removed. Push rod pressure is also removed, check valve impedes the sudden return of fluid to the master cylinder. Fluid flows through bleeder ports at the piston head, as the fluid flows they bend the lips of the primary cup, and lips move away from the cylinder ahead of the piston. The flow of the fluid through the bleeder holes also prevent the possible entry of air by keeping the cylinder filled at all times. Pumping is the repeated application of pedal force in quick movements.

Release - Finish Pressure inside the master cylinder drops as the pedal force is removed. The returning fluid forces the check valve rubber flap to close. The check valve is pushed off its seat, and fluid flows into the master cylinder. As the piston against the stop plate, the primary cup uncovers the compensating port, and fluid returns to the reservoir. When the piston return spring pressure is again greater than the pressure of the returning fluid, the check valve seats, and will maintain the desired static pressure inside the system.

C. SERVICING OF MASTER CYLINDER Disassembly 1. Remove the fluid reservoir tank. a. Loosen the stopper ring at the bottom of the reservoir tank. 2. Remove the snap ring. a. Remove the boot. b. Push piston No. 1 into the cylinder. c. Remove the snap ring with the piston pushed in 3. Remove the piston a. Remove the stop bolt with the piston pushed in. i. Push piston No. 1 into the cylinder. b. Remove the pistons No. 1 and No. 2 and return springs No. 1 and No. 2. i. Tap the cylinder tightly. 4. Remove the check valve. a. Remove the valve cap. b. Remove the check valve and valve spring. 5. Clean the removed parts. a. Clean the parts in brake fluid.

Inspection of Tandem Master Cylinder 1. Inspect the cylinder. a. Inspect for cracks or damage. b. Inspect the inside face for spot wear, damage or rust. 2. Inspect the piston assembly. a. Inspect the piston for spot wear, damage or rust. b. Inspect the piston cup for wear or damage. c. Inspect the spring for damage, deformation or rust. 3. Inspect the boot. a. Inspect for damage or deformation. 4. Inspect the check valve. a. Inspect for damage or deformation. b. Inspect the spring for damage, deformation or rust. 5. Cleaning of Parts. a. Clean all parts with brake fluid. Safety: Do not use the petroleum base fluid like gasoline, diesel and kerosene. b. After cleaning the parts, dry them with compress air

6. Reassembly of Master Cylinder. a. Replace parts with new ones whenever specified to do so. b. Piston cups position always facing the fluid. c. Sequence of parts must be noted especially when working on a tandem master cylinder. 7. Bench Bleeding. a. To ensure that the master cylinder compensates at both ports. b. This is to remove air present inside the master cylinder. c. While pumping the piston observe if bubbles appear. 8. Installation. a. Observe the proper torque of nuts. 9. Testing. a. Start engine and pump the brake pedal, adjust engine speed with accelerator. b. Observe the foot pressure if it is increasing.


Drum Brake Assembly It is an external expanding brakes that convert fluid pressure from the master cylinder to a mechanical force to produce braking action. Its principal components are the brake drum, backing plate, brake shoes and tensioning devices. Parts of a Drum Brake and their Functions 1. Brake drum It is the rotating element of the assembly, bolted to the wheel hub between the hub and the wheel. This completely surrounds the brake shoe assembly and comes very close to the backing plate. The outer rim of the drum is cast to the steel center section. The braking area is smooth, round and parallel to the shoe surface. 2. Backing plate It is round, steel disc bolted to the spindle steering knuckle at the front and bolted to the axle housing at the rear. This serve as a foundation where the wheel cylinder assembly and brake shoe assembly are fastened. It is rigid and cannot move in any direction. 3. Wheel cylinder It is used to transmit the master cylinder pressure to the brake shoes, force them against the drum. It is made of cast iron housing and contain two aluminum pistons, two rubber cups, spring expander, two push rods and two rubber boots, drilled holes for brake lines connection for the bleeder plug.

4. Brake shoe These are stamped steel that contain the lining either riveted or bonded to it. The primary shoe faces the front of the car. The secondary shoe faces the rear of the car. The ends of these shoes are fastened to an anchor. 5. Brake lining It is made of asbestos with some special compounds added to it to increase the frictional coefficient of the material. 6. Return springs These are used to pull the shoes away from the drum and restore the normal gap which is present when the brake is released. 7. Brake shoe adjuster It is used to maintain the clearance between the brake shoes and the lining and drum. Common shoe adjusters are the star wheel adjuster, cam adjuster and the ratchet type. 8. Shoe hold down mechanism It holds the brake shoe assembly to the backing plate. It is also maintain the alignment of the shoe to the backing plate. Operation of Drum Brake Assembly When the master cylinder forces fluid into the wheel here cylinder, the two pistons move apart. Push rod pushes pistons to move outward, they force the shoes against the drum thus the lining contacts the drum. Friction between the lining and the drum slows down the rotation of the drum.

Types of Brake Shoe Arrangements Brake shoe arrangement refers to the method of attaching the brake shoes to the backing plate. Some arrangements uses servo action where in one shoe helps the other shoe to apply the other shoe, as well as a self-energizing using the frictional force to increase shoe to drum clearance.

Servo-self Energizing Brakes The primary shoe starts to move with the drum, applies pressure to secondary shoe. Double-anchor Brakes Each shoe is fastened to a separate anchor. Shoe to drum alignment is secured by rotating eccentric shaped and/or pins.

Single-Anchor, Self-Centering Brake Shoe ends, where they butt against anchor, are free to move up and down and automatically align with the drum. Primary shoe is self-energizing, the secondary is not. Double Anchor, Double Cylinder Brake The free end of each shoe is actuated toward the direction of drum rotation, both are self-energizing

Servicing of Drum Brake Disassembly 1. Remove the brake drum. a. If the drum is difficult to remove, perform the following operation first. i. Turn the brake adjuster to contact the brake shoe. ii. Screw bolts into two threaded holes on the drum to raise the drum from its mount. 2. Remove the front brake shoe. a. Remove the tension spring. b. Remove the shoe hold down spring and pin c. Remove the brake shoe. i. Do not get oil or grease on the shoe. 3. Remove each tension spring. a. Remove the tension spring for anchor. b. Remove the tension spring and parking brake shoe strut from the rear brake shoe. 4. Remove the rear brake shoe. a. Remove the shoe hold down spring and pin. b. Remove the tension spring for the automatic adjuster. c. Remove the support pin from the parking brake lever. d. Remove the parking brake cable from the parking brake shoe lever. e. Remove the following parts from the brake shoe. i. C-washer ii. Parking brake shoe lever iii. Automatic adjustment lever

Reassembly 1. Reassemble the brake a. Pay attention to the following points: i. Ensure the proper position, direction and installing sequence of parts. ii. Do not get oil or grease on the brake shoe or on the inner surface of the brake drum.

iii. Apply a thin coat of the specified grease to the threads of the parking brake shoe strut and to the hole on the support piece. iv. Apply a thin coat of the specified grease to the backing plate-to-shoe contacting surface (A). v. Apply a thin coat of the specified grease to the wheel cylinder and to the anchor-to-shoe contacting surface (B). vi. Replace the C-washer with a new one. vii. Check the auto adjuster operation by moving the parking brake shoe lever. viii. Ensure the smooth movement of the assembled parts. 2. Adjust the brake shoe clearance. a. Follow the procedure described in "Adjustment of Brake Shoe Clearance".

Drum Break inspection 1. Inspect the brake drum. a. Inspect for damage, excessive, or spot wear on the inner surface. 2. Inspect the brake shoe. a. Inspect the shoe for damage and the lining for excessive or spot wear. 3. Inspect the springs. a. Inspect for damage or deformation. 4. Inspect the brake automatic adjuster. a. Inspect the tooth fave of the parking brake shoe strut set and the bolt for wear, damage or improper movement. 5. Inspect the backing plate. a. Inspect for damage. b. Inspect the shoe contacting surface (A) for wear or damage. 6. Inspect the wheel cylinder. a. Inspect for fluid leaks


An anti-lock brake system, abbreviated ABS, uses wheel speed sensors, a computer (ECM), and a modulator unit to prevent loss of tire adhesion during hard braking. If a tire locks up and skids on the road surface, braking distance can increase and steering control can be lost. In a panic stop situation, the driver will often press down hard on the brake pedal to try to avoid a collision. This will normally send too much hydraulic pressure to the wheel cylinder, locking the wheels and tires on vehicles without ABS. The tires will begin to squeal as they slide over the road surface. When the tires skid, they actually loose their friction with the road surface. This can increase stopping distance and reduce vehicle control in some situations.

On dry pavement, good drivers only apply enough pedal pressure to almost reach tire skid. They will release pedal pressure slightly when the squeal of tire skid is heard or felt. On slick pavement (water, snow, or ice on road surface), good drivers might pump the brake pedal manually to reduce skidding and stopping distance. This is the principle of anti-lock brakes. For maximum stopping power, you want the tires to almost, but not quite, skid. When the tire skids, its friction with the road surface drops and stopping distance increases, which could cause an accident. The anti-lock brake system improves driver and passenger safety by reducing stopping distances and increasing directional stability under panic stop conditions. In this example, one side of the road is very slippery and the other side is dry. This poses a problem if a panic stop is required. Without ABS, the car would tend to skid to the right because of higher tire adhesion on the right. With ABS, the car would still travel straight ahead with hard braking. The brake units would be cycled to prevent tire skid and a loss of control. Also note that the car can be steered while braking with ABS.