You are on page 1of 56

Document number Applicable for Drafted by CDMA Network Planning Department

Product name Product version Document version

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

Prepared by Reviewed by Reviewed by Approved by

Zeng Shuhui

Date Date Date Date

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All rights reserved

Revision Record
Descriptions Nov. 7, 2003 Dec. 3, 2004 Revision version V1.00 V1.01 First draft completed Revision completed Author Zeng Shuhui Tan Zhiwei

Table of Contents

Overview of EV-DO Network Architecture.............................................................................2


Overview of Network Architecture.............................................................................................2 Interface Definition ...................................................................................................................3 A12 Interface (AN-AN - AAA)............................................................................................3 A13 Interface (AN - AN).....................................................................................................3

Connection Layer Protocol .....................................................................................................4


Connection Layer Protocol Structure........................................................................................4 Operations of Connection Layer Protocols................................................................................6

Air Link Management Protocol ...............................................................................................7


3. 1Access Mode......................................................................................................................9 Persistence Detection......................................................................................................11 Reverse Link Silence Detection ......................................................................................11 Access Probe Structure ..................................................................................................12

Access Probe.....................................................................................................12 Access Rrobe Sequence ..................................................................................13 Probe Backoff ...................................................................................................13 Probe Sequence Backoff ..................................................................................14 Initialization Status ................................................................................................................14 Idle State .................................................................................................................................15
Registration and Location Report............................................................................................15 UATI Request Message...................................................................................................16 Route Update Message...................................................................................................16 Idle State Protocol...................................................................................................................17 Inactive State...................................................................................................................19 Sleep State......................................................................................................................19 Monitor State...................................................................................................................20

Monitor Sstate of AT...........................................................................................20 Forward Link Control Channel...........................................................................20 AT is transited to sleep state.............................................................................21
Connected Setup State....................................................................................................21

Normal Setup.....................................................................................................21 Fast Setup..........................................................................................................23


Suspended Mode ...........................................................................................................23 Pilot Channel Monitor in Idle State..................................................................................24

Connected State.....................................................................................................................25 Session Configuration Negotiation .....................................................................................26


IS-856 Session Layer..............................................................................................................27 Session Configuration Negotiation .........................................................................................28 PPP Connection......................................................................................................................29 Session Maintenance..............................................................................................................31 Keep-alive Function................................................................................................................32

Traffic Channel Resource Allocation ...................................................................................33 Chapter 6 Scheduling ...........................................................................................................36


Overview of Fair Scheduling Algorithm ..................................................................................36

Handoff ...................................................................................................................................37
Overview of Forward Link Handoff .........................................................................................37 Pilot Set ..........................................................................................................................37 Pilot Drop Timer Maintenance.........................................................................................38 Active Set Management...................................................................................................40

Adding or Dropping a PN to or from an Active Set............................................40 Conditions for Dropping and Adding a Pilot from/to the Active set....................41
Candidate Set Management ...........................................................................................41 Neighbor Cell Management ............................................................................................42

AGE Counter .....................................................................................................43


Virtual Soft Handoff.........................................................................................................43 Overview of Reverse Link Handoff .........................................................................................44 Handoff between 1xEV-DO and 1x2000.................................................................................45

Power Control ........................................................................................................................45


Open Loop Power Control.......................................................................................................46 Closed Loop Power Control....................................................................................................46 Outer Loop Power Control ..............................................................................................47 Inner Loop Power Control ...............................................................................................48 RPC Channel and DRCLock Channel.............................................................................48

Load Control...........................................................................................................................49
Rate Control ...........................................................................................................................50 RateLimit Message..........................................................................................................50 Reverse Activity Bit (RAB)...............................................................................................50 Overload Control ....................................................................................................................50 CSM5500 Algorithm ----Sector Load Estimation..............................................................50 Io/No Measurement.........................................................................................................51

List of Figures

Reference model of EVDO architecture (Revision 0)...........................................................2 Packet Data Mobility Architecture.........................................................................................3 Connection layer protocols ...................................................................................................5 Relations between protocols at connection layer.................................................................7 State transition of access terminal .......................................................................................8 State transition of access network .......................................................................................8 Access probe structure ........................................................................................................12 Access probe sequence ......................................................................................................13 State transition of initialization state protocol ..................................................................15 UATI request message .........................................................................................................16 State transition of AT............................................................................................................18 State transition of AN............................................................................................................18 Slot structure of control channel..........................................................................................19 Slotted mode cycle ...............................................................................................................20 Normal setup...........................................................................................................................22 Fast setup................................................................................................................................23 State transition of AT.............................................................................................................26 State transition of AN.............................................................................................................26 IS856 session layer.................................................................................................................27 Session configuration negotiation ......................................................................................29 Establishing PPP connection ...............................................................................................30 State transition of AT ............................................................................................................30 State transition of AN.............................................................................................................31 Dynamic Pilot Threshold Varying with Signal Quality of the Active Set........................39 Adding a Pilot to the Active Set...........................................................................................40 Flow of a Virtual Soft Handoff..............................................................................................44 Closed loop PC of 1xEV-DO system.....................................................................................47 TDM of reverse pilot channel and RRI channel ..................................................................47 Forward channel slot structure and RPC and DRCLock time-division multiplexing......49

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing Key words: Call flow and interface signaling Abstract: This document details EV-DO call processing flow and introduces EVDO system structure and interface signaling. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations AN AT DRC MAC RA RLP RPC RRI UATI Access Network Access Terminal Data Rate Control Medium Access Control Reverse Activity Radio Link Protocol Reverse Power Control Reverse Rate Indicator Unicast Access Termination Identifier

List of References: 1. 2. 3. 4. CDMA2000 High-speed Data Packet Air Interface Specifications (Qualcomm) RF Engineering Guideline for 1xEV-DOSystem A.S0008-0_v3.0 C.S0024-0_v4.0 (Lucent)

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page i of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Overview of EV-DO Network Architecture


Overview of Network Architecture
shows reference model of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network architecture. Compared with CDMA2000 1x, CDMA2000 1x EV-DO adds A12 interface and A13 interface and other interfaces are the same as that of CDMA2000 1x.

Figure 1-1

Reference model of EVDO architecture (Revision 0)

For details, see the following table: Interface AT AN HRPD terminal Providing the connection of data between terminal and Packet Switched Data Network (PSDN) Providing subscriber authentication Providing packet data capsule control Providing packet data Providing service authentication and charging Descriptions

AN AAA PCF PDSN AAA

The following table shows the change of network element (NE) names from 1X to 1xEVDO:
CDMA2000 1X Term
Dec. 3, 2004

CDMA1xEV-DO Term
All rights reserved Page 2 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

BSC (Base Station Controller) BTS (Base Transceiver Station) MS (Mobile Station)

AN (Access Network) AP (Access Point) AT (Access Terminal)

Correspondingly, the change of Packet Data Mobility Architecture in the CDMA1xEV-DO is as shown in :

Figure 1-2

Packet Data Mobility Architecture

Regard the Abis interface between BASE STATION and BSC as internal one and no more descriptions are provided here.

Interface Definition
EV-DO adds A12 interface and A13 interface and other interfaces are the same as that of CDMA2000 1X. For details, see the following descriptions:

A12 Interface (AN-AN - AAA)


A12 is the interface between AN and AN -AAA and implements the following functions:

Perform AN-level access authentication to AT. Return MN ID for the terminal passing authentication used for link establishment of A8/A9 and A10/A11.

A13 Interface (AN - AN)


A13 is the interface between AN and AN and used for singling exchange in the case of inter-AN handoff and message exchange between AT and PDSN from source AN to destination AN. The information from destination AN to source AN includes:
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 3 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

UATI of user Security layer capsule Sector ID

The information from source AN to destination AN includes:

Mobile Network (MN) ID Configuration parameters at session layer PDSN address PAN ID

Connection Layer Protocol


Connection Layer Protocol Structure
The protocols at connection layer establish and maintain AT-AN air link channel and the operations are important for calling processing flow. Connection layer implements the following functions related to call processing:

Manage initial network acquisition Manage connection open and closure Manage the communications in case that connection is open and

closed

Maintain the AT approximate location under each connected state Manage the AT-AN radio link. Perform the monitoring in case that connection is open and closed Arrange and encapsulate the transmission data received from session layer based on priority and send them to security layer.

Decapsulate the data received from security layer and send them to session layer.

According to IS-856 protocol stack structure, the connection layer includes seven protocols, as shown in :

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 4 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 2-1

Connection layer protocols

The seven protocols at connection layer are detailed below: Air Link Management Protocol

The protocol remains the whole connected state between access terminal and access network. The protocol can be located in any one of three protocols, corresponding to whether access terminal acquires network (initialization state), access terminal acquires network but connection closes (idle state) or access network is connected (connected state). The protocol activates one of three protocols (initialization state protocol, idle state protocol and connected state protocol) to be current state. Initialization State Protocol The protocol implements actions related to access network acquisition. Idle State Protocol The protocol implements actions related to access terminal of network acquisition but no open-connection, including the following: Support effective paging through Route Update Protocol, originate a connection and remain access terminal power, and trace approximate location of access terminal. Connected State Protocol The protocol implements actions related to access terminal with open-connection. They manage radio link between access terminal and access network (process the handoff through Route Update Protocol) and a process through which originates a closed connection. Route Update Protocol The protocol implements the actions tracing access terminal location and remaining radio link between access terminal and access network. The protocol monitors pilots. Overhead Message Protocol The protocol broadcasts necessary parameters on control channel. The protocols at connection layer and other layers share the parameters. In addition, the protocol
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 5 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

monitors necessary messages for remaining connection layer function. Packet Consolidation Protocol According to packet assignment priority and functions of target transmission channel, the protocol combines and arranges the packets based on priority for transmission.

Operations of Connection Layer Protocols


The operations of 1x EV-DO defined by connection layer protocol set include: Initialization state, connected state and idle state. Each state defines the modes of AT for access and conversion. shows the relations between protocols at connection layer. The arrow between protocols indicates that source end sends a command to destination end. Air link management protocol and its sub-interfaces and overhead management protocol are control protocols. Packet consolidation protocol implements the received or sent data. AN implements overhead message protocol but AT and AN implement other protocols together. AT-AN maintains closed or open connection. For details, see the following: Closed Connection: AT does not allocate any special air link resource. Implement AT-AN communication on access channel and control channel. Open Connection: Forward traffic channel, reverse power control channel and reverse traffic channel are assigned for AT. Implement AT-AN communication on the assigned channels and control channels.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 6 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 2-2Relations

between protocols at connection layer

Air Link Management Protocol


Air link management protocol controls the whole connection between AT and AN. The protocol can be located any one of the following three protocols and reflects correspondingly whether AT acquires system: Initialization State Initialization state protocol the state and implements actions related to access network acquisition. Idle State AT acquires a network but the connection is closed, that is, the protocol is of idle state. The protocol implements actions related to access terminal of network acquisition but no open-connection, including the following: Support effective paging through Route Update Protocol, originate a connection and remain access terminal power and trace approximate location of access terminal. Connected State The protocol implements actions related to access terminal with open-connection.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 7 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

They manage radio link between access terminal and access network (process the handoff through Route Update Protocol) and the process through which originates a closed connection. Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2 shows the state transitions of access terminal and access network respectively. The indications returned from the protocols activated by default air link management protocol originate the state transitions.

Figure 3-1

State transition of access terminal

Figure 3-2

State transition of access network

shows effective connection layer and MAC layer protocols under the three states:
Table 3-1 Effective protocols of each air link management protocol state

Initialization state Overhead message protocol


Dec. 3, 2004

Idle state Overhead message protocol


All rights reserved

Connected state Overhead message protocol


Page 8 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Initialization protocol

state

Idle state protocol Route update protocol and Control channel MAC protocol Access channel MAC protocol Forward channel protocol8 Reverse channel protocol9 traffic MAC traffic MAC

Connected protocol

state

Control channel MAC protocol7

Route update protocol and Control channel MAC protocol Forward channel protocol Reverse channel protocol traffic MAC traffic MAC

3. 1Access Mode
Air link management protocol controls the access of initial AT to BASE STATION. Before sending data to BASE STATION, AT does not know the distance to the closest BASE STATION. Therefore, AT must access a network. If AT starts to access a network, access mode is activated immediately and AT determines the minimum transmit power used by BASE STATION to avoid unnecessary RF interference. AT sends access probe of power increment to complete the access. When AT sends an access probe and receives an ACK from BASE STATION, stop sending access probe. Transmit power of initial access probe is the function of signal strength received by AT. If the signal received by AT is strong, it indicates that AT is close to BASE STATION and corresponding access probe power is less. If AT receives an ACK from BASE STATION, AT sends a message through the last access probe power. A series of message parameters control the generation and sending of access probe. The messages are generated by AN through overhead message protocol and sent to AT. 1 lists some message parameters related to access probe.
Table 3-2 Transmission parameters related to access probe

Parameter

Range

Default value

Descriptions

AccessParametersMessage
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 9 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

CapsuleLengthMax

215 frames 0255slots

2 frames 64slots

The maxi. frames of access channel capsule The duration of access period in the broadcast slot Negative nominal power used by AT in the openloop power estimate The correction factor used for initial AT transmission on access channel during open loop power estimation Power increment of continuous probe Max. probes of an access probe sequence Preamble length of access probe

AccessCycleDuration

OpenLoopAdjust

0255dB

85

ProbeInitialAdjust

-1615 (unit: 0.5dB)

PowerStep

015 (unit:0.5dB) 115

ProbeNumStep

PreambleLength

17 frames

2 frames

InitialConfigurationAttributeMessage ProbeSequencedMax 115 3 Max. access probe sequences allowed in one access attempt Used for AT to determine the time waiting for probe ACK in one access probe sequence Used to
Page 10 of 57

ProbeBackoff

115

ProbeSequenceBackoff
Dec. 3, 2004

115
All rights reserved

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

determine AT waiting time before access probe sequence is generated. SectorParametersMessage ReverseLinkSilencePeriod 03 0 The period of reverse link silence. N corresponds to n 64PNchips ReverseLinkSilenceDuratio n 03 0 The duration that AT fails to transmit the data on reverse link

Persistence Detection
To avoid access channel congestion, AT must perform persistence detection based on AT class before starting access probe sequence. The persistence detection decreases the arrival probability of AT access probe. According to the continuous vector obtained from class and access parameter message, AT calculates a continuous value p and compares the value to random number x(0<x<1) distributed equally:

If x<p, the detection succeeds and start access probe sequence. If x>p and p0, AT repeats silence duration detection and persistence

detection starting from next access channel period.

If x>p, and p=0, AT returns TransmissionFailure and complete the

access.

If multiple persistence detections fail, allow AT to start access probe

sequence after over 4/p times of failed detections.

Reverse Link Silence Detection


The duration of reverse link silence defined starting from T is interval of ReverseLinkSilenceDuration frame. Where, T refers to system time of CDMA with the unit of
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 11 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

frame and satisfies the equation: T mod (20482ReverselinksilencPeriod-1)=0. BASE STATION detects noise floor level (used for load estimation of reverse link) of reverse link and all the ATs stop being transmitted within the interval. The access probe cannot be overlaid during revere link silence duration. If access probe transmission of reverse traffic channel packet is overlaid with that of reverse link silence duration, AT should not transmit access probe on reverse traffic data channel. AT determines reverse link silence period and duration based on sector parameter message. The definition of silence duration detection: If access probe transmission is not overlaid with that of reverse link silence at the beginning of access channel period, allow AT to transmit access probe. Otherwise, AT waits for next access channel period satisfied the requirements.

Access Probe Structure


Access Probe shows access probe structure:

Figure 3-3

Access probe structure

Single access probe is composed of preamble and data capsule. Tin the access probe, the pilot is enabled first and functions as preamble. Probe data is enabled after PreambleLength frames and is up to CapsuleLengthMax16 slots. Transmit the access probe at the rate of 9.6kbps. Transmit the pilot signal of reverse link at high power in the preamble. The power of pilot signal at data transmission of access probe decreases and the sum of data channel power and pilot channel power is the transmit
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 12 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

power of pilot channel during the preamble. Access Rrobe Sequence Execute persistence detection (also for probe sequence), and then AT transmits access probe. Transmit the access sequence probe at ascending power and stop transmitting access probe only one of the following is satisfied:

AT receives an ACK based on access probe Because the protocol receives a deactivation command, stop transmitting access probes. The transmitted probes are up to max. sequence number of each sequence.

Figure 3-4

Access probe sequence

Probe Backoff Time probebackoff exists between continuous probes in one access probe sequence, as shown in . Calculate Tp based on ProbeBackoff of overhead message. Inter-probe Tp must be more than the time that AT receives an ACK from BASE STATION before sending next probe when BASE STATION receives and identifies probe. To calculate Tp, AT generates a pseudo random y. Obtain the Tp value through the following calculation: Tp=(yAccessCycleDuration)+Probetimeout) Where,
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 13 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

y is the integral number distributed equally with [0,ProbeBackoff] Probetimeout=128slots, defined by IS856 and enable BASE STATION to provide

sufficient time for responding on access probe. If former probe completes a probe starting at Tp slot and any part is overlaid with reverse link silence, AT re-generates y value and calculate Tp again.

Probe Sequence Backoff AT generates a random number K distributed equally within (0,ProbeSequenceBackoff) and waits for Ts(=(kAccessCycleDuration)+Sequencetimeout) slots when the last access probe of former sequence completes before repeating access probe sequence. Where, Sequencetimeout is 128 slots, as shown in .

Initialization Status
The information about serving access network is unavailable under initialization status. In this case, AT selects a serving access network and synchronizes with the time. Initialization status protocol provides the process and message required by AT to acquire serving network. When AT powers on, network performs redirection and AT user need to open or return to session state after the suspension for a long time, air management protocol activates initialization state. Initialization protocol operates the following four sub-states at AT:

Inactive State Wait for Activate command Network Determination State AT operates access network Pilot Acquisition State AT acquires forward pilot channel Synchronization State AT synchronizes with control channel period. Receive Sync message and synchronize with system time. The synchronization message shows that the AT version range, PN of BASE STATION sector and network system time compatible with BASE STATION.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 14 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

shows the protocol states and events originated by state transition:

Figure 4-1

State transition of initialization state protocol

Idle State
AT goes into idle state under the idle state protocol control after AN acquisition. At that time, AT is of closed-connection state and special air interface resource is not assigned to AT. Connect AT with AN through access channel and control channel. After entering into AN serving area, AT must perform a registration.

Registration and Location Report


In the 1xEV-DO, trace AT through two registration methods based on the following:: UATI request message Route update message

Route update protocol processes all the above messages. AT sends location information to BASE STATION for AN correct paging. Each AT is assigned for a unique UATI address after registration. Similar to IP address, the address transmits correctly packet data. When AT performs initial registration after initialization state, AT sends UATI request message on reverse access channel to obtain UATI address. shows the registration flow:
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 15 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 5-1

UATI request message

UATI Request Message


UATI request message sent by AT must include information of UATI address. In this case, AN can originate a correct paging to AT. After receiving UATI request message, AN returns an ACK message. When AT sends initial UATI request message after initialization state, AN does not assign an identifier to AT. To provide address, AT replaces UATI address with RATI. If AN confirms the RATI, assign a UATI to AT through subnet where AT is located. Address management protocol at IS856 session layer implements UATI assignment. UATI, address value with 128bits, is composed of UATI104 and UATI024. UATI104 transmits the data between PDSN and BASE STATION sector and the smallest 8bits is BASE STATION color code. UATI104 is sent to AT through sector parameter message but UATI024 through UATI request message.

Route Update Message


In idle state, AT sends route update message based on the following:

AT sends a route update message to AN when moving to another subnet. Subnet can restrict the coverage range. The color code sent on control channel identifies the subnet or current serving AT.

If r value is more than the value provided by RouteUpdateRadius of sector parameter message, AT sends a route update message. If (xL,yL) is longitude/latitude of sector that AT sends last route update message, and (Xc,Yc) is longitude/latitude
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 16 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

of

sector

that

provides

coverage

area

for

AT,

value

is:

AT also sends a route update message before the traffic channel assignment.

Idle State Protocol


Idle state protocol provides the process and messages used for AT and AN when a network is acquired at AT but connection is closed. Idle state protocol is locate one of the following four sub-states:

Inactive State Sleep State AT can close partial sub-systems to save the power. AT does not monitor forward channel and AN is not allowed to transmit unicast packets to AT.

Wait for active state

Monitor State AT monitors control channel, intercepts paging channel and updates the parameters received from overhead protocol. AN can send unicast packet to AT.

Connection Setup State

Set up a connection between AT and AN.

Figure 5-2 and Figure 5-3 show protocol states of AT and AN and time layout originating state transition respectively.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 17 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 5-2

State transition of AT

Figure 5-3

State transition of AN

To support the four sub-states, operation modes of access terminal are shown below:

Continuous Operation: Monitor continuously control channel. Suspended mode Operation: AT monitors continuously control channel for some time and perform the operation in slotted mode. The suspended mode abides by the operations under air link management protocol state and allows for fast connection originated by network.

Slotted Mode: AT only monitors the selected slots.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 18 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Inactive State
When protocol is in inactive state, wait for Activate command.

Sleep State
When AT is in sleep state, stop monitoring control channel and close partial processing resources to reduce power consumption and prolong the battery life. When AN is in sleep state, prohibit sending unicast packet to AT. The slot structure of forward link shows that control channel and traffic channel are transmitted cross-connectedly. Transit control channel with the length of 13.33ms duration each 426.67ms, as shown in :

Figure 5-4 Slot

structure of control channel

AT and AN must immediately transit from Sleep State to Monitor State to send/receive the synchronization capsules sent in the control channel cycle C that satisfies the equation (C+R)mod NIDPSleep=0. Where, C refers to the number of control channel cycle starting from system time and R is obtained based on UATI value and PreferredControlCycleEnabled of access terminal. NIDPSleep is the number of control channel cycle constituting a sleep cycle, and is set to 5.12s by the protocol (see ).

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 19 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 5-5

Slotted mode cycle

Monitor State
When AT is in monitor state, monitor continuously control channel. When AN is in monitor state, send unicast packet to AT. Monitor Sstate of AT When AT is in monitor state, select a CDMA channel from channel list of sector parameter message. If the channels are not listed, AT uses the channel being monitored. If AT selects a new CDMA channel (different from current monitored channel), AT modulates to the channel for monitoring overhead message. If AT requires open connection, or responds on paging, or receives Traffic Channel Assignment (TCA) message sent through fast setup, AT sends connection request message to enter into the connected setup state. Forward Link Control Channel When AT is in monitor state, monitor unicast and broadcast message of control channel. The control channel message is transmitted at the rate of 76.8kbps (MAC Index=2) or 38.4kbps (MAC Index=3). AN can transmit synchronization capsule (special slot) and asynchronization capsule through control channel. The messages sent through forward control channel and requiring AT ACK or request origination include: UATIAssignment TrafficChannelAssignment.

The broadcast messages sent through forward control channel include:


Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 20 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

QuickConfig Message: Notifying AT some important parameters, such as, color code and forward traffic channel MACIndex.

SyncMessage: Serving BASE STATION and network information, including, matched version of AT and BASE STATION, PN phase of sector and network system time.

SectorParameter: Providing neighbor cell information, available channel list, zone time offset and latitude and longitude.

AccessParameters: Used for the parameters of AN. ReverseLinkRateLimit Message: Max. reverse rate used by AT Redirect Message: Redirecting AT to another 1xEV-DO carrier wave or IS2000 system.

AT is transited to sleep state When the following conditions are satisfied, AT is transited to sleep state:

AT receives at least one control channel sync sleep capsule within current control channel cycle and confirms that sector parameter message is the latest.

When AT is in monitor state, receive AccessChannelMAC.TxEnded identification of each AccessChannelMAC.TxStarted.

AT is not notified to be suspended state.

Connected Setup State


AT and AN performs normal connection setup in the connected setup state and support the following:

Normal setup: AT originates ConnectionRequest message to responds on PageMessage, and it indicates that AT originates connection request.

Fast setup: AN originates TrafficChannelAssignment message(triggered by the last route update message and AT is not required to send ConnectionRequest Message). Fast setup does not requires the paging between AN and AT and signaling exchange of connection request message to save connected setup time.

Normal Setup Normal setup always runs when AT is initiative. When AT wants to start a session, or AT requires paging response, establish a normal setup.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 21 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Paging is the message for communication when AN and AT are in idle state and used when the data sent to AT is available in the AN. To ensure that AT receives paging message, or AT requests for traffic channel access, AT requires a registration or reports the location through route update message. AT is assigned a UATI address through any way. In addition, when AT uses RouteUpdate and ConnectionRequest (UATI) to request for traffic channel setup, UATI value must be included. RouteUpdate and ConnectionRequest are bundled in access channel MAC layer packet and shows the message exchange:

Figure 5-6 Normal

setup

When AT is in idle state, AN sends paging message through BASE STATION to AT and identifies AT to request for connection setup. AT sends RouteUpdate and ConnectionRequest to responds on the paging. RouteUpdate includes PN phase, pilot strength, and deactivation counter state of each pilot in active set and candidate set. After receiving connection request, AN must assign traffic channel to AT. When BASE STATION sends ACK to AN, it indicates that AT responds on traffic channel assignment. And then, AN sends TCA message (including DRC and channel message) to AT. TCA message includes DRC cover, length, channel gain, and RAB. After AT receives TCA message, MAC layer of AT obtains Reverse Traffic Channel (RTC). When MAC layer responds on the obtained RTC, AT starts to transmit data through assigned RTC and power is identification value of forward PRC.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 22 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Fast Setup Fast setup always runs when AN is initiative and used to re-establish traffic channel connection for user. When the data to be sent to AT is available in the AN, fast setup saves the requirements for Paging/ConnectionRequest exchange. In addition, when AT is in suspended mode, fast setup is very useful. AN supports fast setup optionally but AT must support fast setup. Except the Paging message, ConnectionRequest of idle state protocol and RouteUpdate of route update protocol,, fast setup flow is the same as that of normal setup, as shown in :

Figure 5-7 Fast

setup

To perform fast setup, AN must obtain appropriate location estimation information of AT. If AT is in suspended state, AN obtains the location information of AT through RouteUpdate message sent by AT. According to the RouteUpdate message received from AT, AN sends TCA message to trigger fast setup. When AT is in suspended state, monitor continuously control channel to avoid the delay of connection process that AT opens AN origination in the sleep state.

Suspended Mode
In the open connection state, AN closes and AT goes into suspended mode. When closed connection is required, AT sends a ConnectionClose message to AN, and then releases traffic channel resources. At that time, AT can go into suspended mode. In the suspended mode, AT monitors continuously control channel for some time. If no operations are performed within specified time, AT goes into sleep state. Connection Close
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 23 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

message identifies the time for AT stays in suspended mode before entering to slotted mode. If AN wants to send data to AT in the suspended mode, AN sends a TrafficChannelAssignment Message instead of Page message to AT.

Pilot Channel Monitor in Idle State


Besides the control channel message, AT monitors pilot signal strength and compares the strength to pilot strength of other sectors to obtain the best cell and the highest data transmission rate. When AT monitors pilot strength of pilot set in the Neighborlist overhead message and finds a better pilot, perform the handoff. If the selected pilot signal strength is less than the minimum signal strength of AN, AT fails to access the network.. AT monitors all pilot signal strengths of RF environment and classifies them into the following:

Active set: Pilot set related to the sector of current serving access terminal (specified by pilot PN offset and pilot CDMA channel). When the connection starts, assign the sector pilot set of forward traffic channel, reverse traffic channel and reverse PC channel for AT. In the idle state, active set has only a pilot.

Candidate set: The set of pilots excluded in active set but received by AN at enough strength (specified by pilot PN offset and pilot CDMA channel). The strength indicates that the sectors are good candidate ones included by active set.

Neighbor set: The set of candidate pilots excluded in above two sets but may included in active set (specified by pilot PN offset and pilot CDMA channel)

Remaining set: The pilot set of channel assignment, except the pilots included the above three sets.

The pilots obtained from Neighborlist message (abide by route update protocol) belong to any classification of above four pilot sets. When AT goes into idle state, receive Neighborlist message to obtain neighbor sector information. The messages show neighbor cell pilot channel and the PN offsets and CDMA channel number. AT measures pilot strength to obtain the best cell. AT often is multi-path environment, and actual pilot signal strength is integrated by multiple multi-paths. To obtain valid multi-path component, Neighborlist message should include search window information. Search window sets the number of chips as unit. For the pilots in active set and candidate set, AT specifies the search window size through SearchWindowActive. For
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 24 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

each pilot of neighbor set and remaining set, specify the search window size through SearchWindowSize and SearchWindowRemaining respectively. The search window ranges from 0 to 15. 0-- 4chips window size, 15----452chips window size

The length is related to cell radius and time assignment for multi-path search. If a sector with a larger coverage uses a small search window, the search fails. In the idle state, the pilot corresponding to sector of serving AT is a unique pilot. AT monitors all the signal strengths of the same frequency in RF environment and performs the following:

If the Eb/No level of any pilot signal in either candidate set is greater than the pilot signal in the active set for one second by the value specified by the PilotCompare parameter, and idle state handoff is performed. The pilot with highest Eb/No value replaces original active set pilot and serves for AT. Original active set pilots go into one of other sets based on current Eb/No.

To ensure that pilots in active set or candidate set can provide reliable service for AT, AT compares the pilots to PilotDropThreshold. If signal strength of pilot is less than the value, start a drop timer for the pilot. If the pilot strength is more than PilotDropThreshold during the drop timer, stop the timer. Otherwise, timer times out and the pilot removes out of current pilot set. If drop timer of pilot in idle state active set times out, it indicates that network drop occurs to AT.

Connected State
The system establishes open connection between AN and AT and goes into connected state through normal setup or fast setup during the idle state. When the connection starts, connected state protocol provides the process and message used by AT and AN. The protocol is located one of the following sub-states:

Inactive state: The protocol waits for Activate command. Open connection state: AT can send application services to AN through reverse traffic channel and AN can send application services to AT through forward traffic channel and control channel.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 25 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Closed connection state: The state is only related to AN. AN expects the resources to be released securely.

Figuure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 shows state transition of AT and AN respectively:

Figure 6-1 State

transition of AT

Figure 6-2 State

transition of AN

Session Configuration Negotiation


After traffic channel and UATI are assigned for AT, perform a configuration negation process to start a session between AT and AN. Implement the following:

Assign successfully UATI address and traffic channel to AT. Negotiate successfully session configuration.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 26 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Establish PPP connection between AT and AN and user records are created and saved in PDSN.

AT and AN can open and close a connection for multiple times during a session. After you close a connection between AT and AN, release the connection. When AT goes into sleep state of idle state protocol because of deactivation, close the connection. At that time, the session is in dormant mode. Although AT releases traffic channel, PPP connection still is remained.

IS-856 Session Layer


Session layer includes protocols used to negotiate the session between AT and AN. Session is sharing state between AT and AN, including the following information:

Unicast broadcast address UATI assigned to AT A series of protocols used for the communication between AT and AN on the air link Configuration settings of protocols (such as authentication key, connection layer and MAC layer protocol parameters)

Location estimation of current access terminal

IS856 session layer includes the following protocols, as shown in :

Figure 7-1 IS856

session layer

Session Management Protocol: Provide the methods to control activation and deactivation of address management protocol and session configuration protocol and provide keep-active mechanism.

Address Management Protocol: Manage UATI assignment and maintain AT address.

Session Configuration Protocol: Provide the negotiation methods and protocols used during the session and negotiate configuration parameters for the protocols. Perform the parameter
Dec. 3, 2004

negotiation

and

configuration

through

the

exchange

of

All rights reserved

Page 27 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

ConfigurationRequest and ConfigurationResponse between AT and AN.

Session Configuration Negotiation


Session configuration protocol supports the negations originated by AT and AN. For the negotiations originated by AT, set the parameters of the system to default values between AT and AN. For the negotiations originated by AN, AT and AN perform the configuration process specified by each negotiation specification.

To trace negotiation parameters, the specification provides meachnism of SessionConfigurationToken set by AN. When AT accesses to a new sector, AT returns a token. If the return value is mismatched with that of sector, start re-negotiation process. Reset the AT token after the re-negotiation. The configuration parameter values can be changed through configuration negotiation by exchanging ConfigurationRequest and ConfigurationResponse between AT and BASE STATION. The negotiation procedures take place on the traffic channel and can take place at the beginning of a session or any other times, as long as the AT is assigned to a traffic channel. The negotiation starts by sending a ConfigurationRequest message. AN can start a configuration negotiation and a ConfigurationStart message is originated. After AT receives the message, send a ConfigurationRequest message to start the configuration negotiation. Negotiation is done on a per-protocol basis, so there can be as many ConfigurationRequest and ConfigurationResponse messages exchanged between AT and AN as there are protocols used. When the negotiation is done, a ConfigurationComplete message is sent. shows the configuration negotiation procedure:

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 28 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 7-2 Session

configuration negotiation

PPP Connection
Once a configuration has been negotiated, a Point-to-Point Protocol (PTP) connection must be established between AT and PDSN and packet data can be transmitted. Before PPP connection is established, ensure that AT authentication succeeds. The PPP connection is shown in :

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 29 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 7-3 Establishing

PPP connection

After a traffic channel is established and the session configuration negotiated, the AT will then send a XonRequest message to AN to trigger the authentication. This message is generated by the flow control protocol which is a Sub-component of Default Packet Application Protocol of the IS-856 Application Layer. The Flow Control Protocol provides procedures and messages required by Default Packet Application Protocol to perform over the air packet data flow. The Flow Control Protocol has two states:

Close state, in which radio link protocol (RLP) packets cannot be received or sent. Open state, in which RLP packets can be received or sent.

The state transition of flow control protocol is shown in :

Figure 7-4

State transition of AT

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 30 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 7-5

State transition of AN

When the AN receives XonRequest message, its Flow Control Protocol transitions form the closed state to the open state. The session between AT and AN will remain in the open state until a XoffRequest message is received from the AT. At this time, flow control protocol transitions to the closed state. When AN receives a XonRequest message but no authentication is performed, start authentication flow after sending XonResponse message. Once successfully authenticated, the user and PDSN create a PPP connection between them. This PPP session normally remains up until it is terminated by the AT user.

Session Maintenance
There are several call processing functions that are required to maintain an open session between AT and AN. These processing functions are listed below. Only the first function is discussed in this session. All the other processing functions are discussed in other sections. In this case, a brief description of the function is given with a section reference where a detailed discussion of the processing function is given.

Keep-Alive function: The AT and AN periodically exchanges KeepAliveRequest and KeepAliveResponse messages to ensure that the session is still open.

Sleep/Active function: The activity of AT is continually monitored. If the AT is inactive for a period, the AT goes into a sleep mode.

Scheduling: Process to maximize the overall sector throughput, by allocating forward link slot to those ATs reporting the best RD conditions.

Rate control: To control reverse link interference, the RAB is broadcast to all the ATs in the sector RF environment, instructing the ATs either to increase or decrease its transmitted data rate.

Handoff: The ATs estimate the strength of forward channel transmitted by each
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 31 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

sector in its neighbor cell. The AT identifies the sector having the strongest measured pilot cannel by transmitting a data rate control (DRC) value. If the sector stronger than current serving cell is detected, the AN permits AT to be handed off to the sector.

Power control: Because in 1xEV-DO the base always transmits at full power, power control is only required on the reverse link. The purpose of reverse link power control (RPC) is to determine the lowest power required to maintain a desired FER for each user so that the sector capacity is maximized.

Overload control: In addition to power control, it is essential to protect against reverse link overload. The design of forward link prediction must have certain margin for interference effect. Reverse link overload control algorithms are in place to

protect the system against performance degradation due to increased reverse link interference. Reverse link overload control not only helps to maximize the reverse link throughput, but also helps to maximize the forward link throughput. This done by ensuring the integrity of the reverse link MAC channel (DRC channel and ACK channel). The interference on the DRC channel may present missed-opportunities from handling off ATs to better serving sector, and base station cannot receive correctly reliable feedback from DRC channel and scheduling algorithm fails to send and schedule normally forward link data packets. The failure to properly receive the ACK channel may result in unnecessary transmission and retransmission of packet data on the forward link to waste forward link capacity.

Keep-alive Function
During periods of AT inactivity, the AT and AN will be triggered to exchange KeepAliveRequest and KeepAliveResponse messages between AT and AN to ensure that the session is still open and can remain open. The KeepAliveRequest message may be transmitted from either the AT or AN. The exchange of these messages is typically transmitted with asynchronous capsules over the access and control channels because the most likely need for this message exchange will occur during dormancy. If the traffic channel is still not be released, the message exchange may occur over the forward and reverse traffic channels. When the message is transmitted, the sender waits for a KeepAliveResponse message. If a response is not received within a specified time for multiple times, a release session
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 32 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

command is issued, causing the session manager protocol to close the session. In the time specified by KeepAliveTimer parameter, even though no data stream is transmitted, the system still keeps a session open. The KeepAliveTimer parameter ranges from 0 to 65535, calibrated in minutes where 65535 minutes equals 1092.25 hours or 45.5 days. The IS-856 standards define the default value of 3240 minutes, or 54 hours. A zero value for this timer disables the keep alive function. If no AT activity is detected for KeepAliveTimer period, the session will close down.

Traffic Channel Resource Allocation


When the AT receives TrafficAssignment message, and its MAC layer returns an RTCacquired indication, an open connection state exists between the AT and AN. In multiple carrier systems, if the carrier of assigned traffic channel (RTC) is not on the carrier that the AT is currently monitoring, the TrafficAssignment message will identify the carrier of the assigned traffic channel. The carrier is identified by its channel record that identifies the channel number and band class. The parameters in the TrafficAssignment message include: Sector parameter serving for AT Target sector parameters used for AT to originate handoff

The parameters for the current RTC are (for details, see Table 8-1):

Frame Offset: Indicates the start time that AT transmits reverse traffic channel.

DRC Length: Indicates the number of slots per frame that the AT may transmit over its DRC channel

DRC Channel Gain: Indicates the ratio of DRC channel power gain to reverse traffic pilot channel gain for currently assign traffic channel

Ack Channel Gain: Indicates the ratio of ACK channel power gain to reverse traffic pilot channel gain for currently assign traffic channel.

The parameters for each RTC handoff candidate included in the TrafficAssignment message are:

MAC Index: Walsh code assignment for reverse traffic channel usage on the handoff RTC candidate

DRC Cover: Indicates the DRCWalsh code identifying the handoff RTC candidate sector.

RAB Offset: Identifies the slots which sectors start to send new reverse
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 33 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

activity bit.

RAB Length: Identifies the number of the slots which AT should use when sending Reverse Traffic Channel activity bit.
Table 8-1 Descriptions

of parameters in TrafficChannelAssignment message Meaning To minimize processing delay at the base station, use the frame offset. Data transmission from any AT within the base station coverage can only begin at the start of the slot assigned by the FrameOffset value The DRC length specifies the number of repetitions of the DRC information transmitted within each frame. DRC is transmitted at 600/DRCLength per second Remarks The frame offset value is randomly assigned to each AT. As a result, RTC traffic from different ATs will arriave at the base station at different times.

Domain name Frame Offset

Length (bit) 4

DRC Length

Increasing the DRC length increases DRC channel processing gain, enabling transmission of DRC channel data at less power. At lower power levels, less interference is introduced in the reverse link environment, resulting in increased capacity and affecting forward link throughput. The slower the DRC channel information, the less responsive the base station is to changing AT RF environment conditions. This includes missed opportunities for faster data rates when the RF environment conditions improve, and retransmission when the RF environment conditions worsen.

DRC Channel Gain

The DRC channel gain parameter indicates the ratio of the power gain of DRC channel (when it is
All rights reserved Page 34 of 57

Dec. 3, 2004

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

transmitted) to the power gain of the reveres pilot channel ACK Channel Gain 6 The ACK channel gain parameter indicates the ratio of power gain of ACK channel to the power gain of reverse traffic pilot There are 64 MAC indices which are defined in the standards that identify 64 Walsh codes, where MAC indices 5 through 63 are used to assign reverse link user data traffic channels. The DRC cover identifies the DRC coverage index related to sector Range: -3dB to +6dB, in the units of 0.5dB.

MAC Index

Each active user (nondormant) is assigned a unique MAC index. Therefore, 58 users is the maximum number of active users per sector/carrier allowed by IS-856 standard AT monitors the C/I level of all the pilots PNs and estimates the data rate that can be supported by the pilot PN having the highest C/I level and the information is transmitted over DRC channel. DRC Cover of DRC channel points to the sector with the best forward channel quality thought by the AT. RAB is transmitted over the RA channel, and is distinguished with a MAC index 4 cove. Each neighbor sector should be set to have as different RAB offset. The settings of different offsets enable a sector to decrease uplink data rate. The offset permits neighbor sectors to reevaluate its effect on the RF interference environment xmitslot
Page 35 of 57

DRC Cover

RAB Offset

Indicates the start time that sectors corresponding to the pilot in AT active set transmit reverse activity bit. Range: 0 to 7

RAB Length
Dec. 3, 2004

RAB length specifies the slot


All rights reserved

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

number of transmission. Range: [0,3],

RAB

=RABOffsetRABLength/8

Corresponding slot number: [8,64]

Chapter 6 Scheduling
In the 1xEV-DO system, forward link traffic channel adopts time-division mode and serves for one user within special slot. To maximize the forward capacity of system, 1xEVDO system adopts scheduling algorithm and confirms the user service-oriented within a slot. Additionally, AT C/I is also an important factor to determine data rate. The scheduling algorithm based on DRC report serves for AT with better RF environment by priority and enable the data to be transmitted at higher rate. For the AT with worse RF environment, the service is delayed until RF environment gets better. For the multi-user scheduling, the AT with better RF environment and fairness between users should be considered. AT data transmission rate request reflects comprehensive C/I value of AT environment. Scheduling algorithm (Fair algorithm) provided by Qualcomm considers AT data rate request by priority and interval to the time that service is obtained. Compared with system with the principle of first-arrive-first-served, the system with scheduling algorithm has higher capacity.

Overview of Fair Scheduling Algorithm


The basic concept of Fair algorithm is as follows: Keep the data throughput Tk and DRC request rate DRCk within the latest time for each user in active state. Compare to the DRCk/Tk of all active user in current sectors and select the AT with the highest value for service. Calculate Tk as follows:

Where, ,tc is average time constant and is set to 1024 currently, that is, 1.7067s. Sk[n] is throughput assigned currently. For example, 16 slots are assigned to transmit 1024bit, Sk[n] is set to 1024, and other slots are set to 0. When the sum of all user request transmission data is more than air interface capability, data throughput of each user is directly proportional to serving rate of request in RF
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 36 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

environment. It is fair to each user. Because radio environment features random fading and DRC changes dramatically, the system provides service for each user with the best DRC to facilitate improving the system throughput.

Handoff
Overview of Forward Link Handoff
Forward link handoff in 1xEV-DO is directed by the AT when it determines that a particular sector can provide better service, in the way of faster data rate, than its current serving sector. Upon monitoring pilot signal strength from the better serving sector, the AT calculates the highest data rate that can be supported from the sector. Then the AT identifies this rate in its transmitted data rate control (DRC) channel, which it directs to the sector. However, before doing this, the AT must be certain that its target sector has the air resources to serve the AT, and that the sector can be quickly tapped into the ATs forward link data stream to avoid unnecessary delay. To provide this certainty, the AT must continuously monitor the pilot signal strength from all of its neighboring sectors, and choose the corresponding sector of the pilot that is strong enough to be potential candidates for handoff. The AN finally allocates service channels and air interface resources to the target sector to implement the handoff.

Pilot Set
In the idle state, the AT tracks signal strength of the current sector pilot and neighboring pilots and classify them into the following sets:

Active Set: refer to the set of pilots associated with the sectors that currently serve the AT. This set is designated by the PN offset of pilots and CDMA pilot channels and allocates forward traffic channels, reverse traffic channels and reverse power control channels to the AT when the connection is enabled. In the idle state, there is only one pilot in this set.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 37 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Candidate Set: pilot signals that are not in the Active Set, but are received by the AT with sufficient strength to indicate that they are good candidates for inclusion in the Active Set. This set is designated by the PN offset of pilots and CDMA pilot channels.

Neighbor Set: all possible pilots that are not in either one of the two previous sets, but are possibly potential candidates for inclusion in the Active Set. This set is designated by the PN offset of pilots and CDMA pilot channels.

Remaining Set: all possible pilots on the currently assigned channel, excluding the pilots that are in any of the three previous sets.

Although four pilot sets are maintained by the AT, only the Active Set is maintained by the AN and the AT Active Set is updated through the TrafficChannelAssignment message. While in the idle state, the only pilot in the Active Set is that associated to the control channel that the AT is currently monitoring. However, as stated in the previous section, while in the open connection active state, the AT continuously monitors the pilot strength from all of its neighboring sectors and selects potential candidates for handoff. These handoff candidate cells in these active sets including their PN offsets are transferred to the AN in a RouteUpdate message. After the AN allocates the resources to the sector identified by the AT, the sector pilot PN offset enters the active set maintained by the AN and subsequently, the ATs active set is updated via a TrafficChannelAssignment message. After that, the AT is free to direct its DRC channel to execute a handoff.

Pilot Drop Timer Maintenance


The AT maintains one drop timer for each pilot. After allocating traffic channels, the AT enables a static or dynamic drop timer based on DynamicThresholds to ensure pilots in the pilot set remain current with RF environment conditions. When the DynamicThresholds is set to 0, the AT enables one pilot drop timer for each pilot whose strength is lower than the PilotDrop. After the time specified by the pilot drop timer, the timer reaches its terminal count. If the pilot strength increases above the PilotDrop value before the timer reaches its terminal count, the PN remains in its present pilot set and the timer is reset and disabled. If the timer reaches its terminal count before the pilot strength could increase above the PilotDrop value, the pilot PN is removed from its present pilot set. If DynamicThresholds is set to 1, process pilots in the candidate set in the same way as when DynamicThresholds is set to 0. However, apart from PilotDrop, PilotThreshold and PilotCompar, the following four parameters should be also adopted to determine the change of pilots in the active set:

PilotAdd: refer to signal threshold. If the pilot strength in non active set
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 38 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

is higher than this threshold, the AT requests the AN to add the PN offset of this pilot to the active set through RouteUpdate message.

Softslope: used to determine dynamic soft handoff threshold. Addintercept: used to determine the PilotAdd threshold of dynamic soft handoff. Dropintercept: used to determine the PilotDrop threshold of dynamic soft handoff.

When the dynamic pilot drop timer is adopted, adjust PilotAdd and PilotDrop thresholds dynamically based on the aggregate signal strength of the all the pilots in active set. The following figure shows the dynamic pilot drop threshold (Eb/No) depends on the quality of the active set (PSi)

Figure 10-1

Dynamic Pilot Threshold Varying with Signal Quality of the Active Set

The AT sorts the pilots in the active set in order of increasing signal strengths, namely, PS1<PS2<.<PSA. The pilot drop timer is then started whenever the pilot strength (PSi) satisfies the following inequality:

If the inequality is not satisfied before terminal count is reached, the timer is reset and disabled and the pilot remains in its current set. If the timer terminal count is reached first, the pilot is removed from its current set.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 39 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Active Set Management


The maximum number of pilots in the AT active set is six and specific principles for active set maintenance are different in different protocols. Adding or Dropping a PN to or from an Active Set When a pilot is to be added to or dropped from the active set, the AT reports the change of radio link state to corresponding sector through RouteUpdate message. The RouteUpdate message contains pilot offset, pilot strength, and the drop timer status for every pilot in the active set and candidate set. Doing so is helpful to reasonably adjust the active set. The signaling exchange is required when a pilot is added to or dropped from the active set. The following figure shows the message exchanged when the AT, currently being served on Sector 1, request to add a pilot associated with Sector 2 to its active set.

Figure 10-2

Adding a Pilot to the Active Set

If the AT, which is served by Sector 1, wants to add the pilot for Sector 2 to its active set, it relay its RouteUpdate message to Sector 1 and then to the AN. The AN then is required to allocate a traffic channel to Sector 2 to handle the AT data flow in the event that the AT directs its DRC to Sector 2. If a traffic channel is available and allocated, Sector 2 responses properly to the AN. If the RouteUpdate message was to drop the PN from the active set, the AN would have requested Sector 2 to de-allocate the traffic channel. After receiving the acknowledgement of the traffic channel allocation or de-allocation, the AN will include or remove the pilot offset associated with Sector 2 from its active set and relay a TCA message through Sector 1 to the AT. This message should properly show the inclusion or removal of the pilot associated with Sector 2 as requested in the RouteUpdate message. The AT will then replace contents in its current active set with pilots in the TCA message and respond back the Traffic ChannelComplete message.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 40 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Conditions for Dropping and Adding a Pilot from/to the Active set The following conditions cause a pilot to be dropped from the active set:

The pilot signal strength of the active set member drops below the PilotDrop threshold, initiating drop timer, and does not recover above the PilotDrop threshold before the drop timer reaches its terminal count.

A pilot is added to the active, increasing the number of pilots beyond its maximum of six. The pilot having the lowest signal strength will be dropped from the active set.

If DynamicThresholds is set to 0, a pilot will be added to the active set when either of the following occurs:

The pilot strength in the neighbor set or remaining set is greater than the threshold set by the PilotAdd parameter.

The pilot strength in the candidate set is greater than the value set by the PilotCompare above an active set pilot.

If DynamicThresholds is set to 1, a pilot will be added to the active set when any one of the following occurs:

The pilot strength in the neighbor set or remaining set satisfies the following inequality:

Where, AS stands for the active set.

The pilot strength in the candidate set satisfies the following inequality:

Candidate Set Management


The candidate can include six pilots at most. Pilots in the neighbor set or remaining set can be added to the candidate when their strength is greater than PilotAdd threshold. In addition, pilots in the active set can be also removed to the candidate set under certain conditions.
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 41 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

When DynamicThresholds is set to 0 and the pilot strength in the active set drops below the PilotDrop threshold, the drop timer is initiated. The pilot is dropped from the active set and added to the candidate set if its signal strength does not recover above the PilotDrop threshold before the drop timer reaches its terminal count.

When DynamicThresholds is set to 1 and the pilot strength in the active set drops below the PilotDrop threshold, the drop timer is initiated. The pilot is dropped from the active set and added to the candidate set if its signal strength subsequently recovers above the PilotDrop threshold, but the following inequality is still satisfied throughout the drop timer count period.

Drop pilots from the candidate set when any one of the following occurs:

The pilot strength increases enough to be added to the active set. The pilot strength decreases enough to be dropped from the candidate set. A pilot is added to the candidate set, increasing the number of pilots beyond its maximum of six. The pilot having the lowest signal strength is dropped from the set.

Neighbor Cell Management


The maximum number of pilots that may be included in the neighbor set is 20. When the AT enters the open connection state, the NeighborList message received on the forward traffic channel includes message about the neighbor set. The message includes serving sector neighbor; their pilots and CDMA channel number, pilot search window size, and search window offset. When the AT requires updating neighbor cells, send NeighborList message. Four pilot sets vary with the mobility of the AT. Conditions for the PN offsets to be moved back into the neighbor set are:

When DynamicThresholds is set to 1, pilots will be deleted from the active set because the pilot drop timer reaches its terminal count.

The pilot drop timer of a pilot in the candidate set times out. The pilot in the remaining set is listed in a newly received neighborList message.

Conditions for deleting a pilot from the neighbor set are as follows:
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 42 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Pilots in the remaining set are added to the active set or candidate set. The AGE counter of a pilot in the neighbor set exceeds NeighborMaxAge and newly added pilots increase pilots in the neighbor set beyond 20.

AGE Counter The AT maintains one AGE counter for every pilot in the neighbor set, namely, stay time of pilots in the neighbor set. The initial value of the AGE counter depends on the set to which the pilot belongs before it is added to the neighbor set.

For the pilot from the active set or candidate set, its AGE counter is set to 0. For the pilot from the remaining set, its AGE counter is set to NeighborMaxAge. When the AT initializes the neighbor set, set the AGE counter for every pilot in this set to NeighborMaxAge.

The AT will set AGE counter based on the above rules whenever it receives new NeighborList message.

Virtual Soft Handoff


In 1xEV-DO, even though the AT is monitoring all active set pilots, on the forward link, it only selects the sector with strongest signal in the active set as its serving sector. The AT specifies a transmit sector with DRC mask which is used to specify the required transmission rate. The sector with strongest signal strength changes with the mobility of the AT. Because when the AT selects a new sector by pointing its DRC to the new sector, air and data connection resources are already allocated for the handoff, the type of handoff that occurs is called a virtual soft handoff. Figure 10-3 shows a virtual soft handoff.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 43 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 10-3

Flow of a Virtual Soft Handoff

When the AT directs its DRC to sector 1, sector 1 sends a forward data request to the AN and then the AN transfers packet data. When the AT directs its DRC to sector 2, sector 2 sends a forward data request to the AN and subsequently sends forward stop indicator, identifying the last frame that was transmitted. Upon receiving the forward data request from sector 2, the AN sends a Flush command to sector 1, and transfers packet data to sector 2.

Overview of Reverse Link Handoff


In 1xEV-DO, soft and softer handoff only applies to the reverse link and has been stated in the previous section. During the softer handoff, power control bits of legs are combined in the BTS. The same data packets received by the AT from soft handoff legs are discarded by the RLP in the application layer and then the RLP executes frame selection on the reverse link. When an AT is in soft handoff, all the reverse link legs will send frames to the RLP. When the RLP receives multiple copies of the same frame, the RLP selects a frame that successfully passes the CRC. Other copies of that frame are discarded. In dormant state, the AT supports inter-AN handoff of the same PDSN. In this case, session information is exchanged through A13 interface and new UATI is assigned to the AT by the target AN.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 44 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Handoff between 1xEV-DO and 1x2000


A hybrid AT is capable of transmitting and receiving data in both 1xEV-DO and 1x2000 systems and making voice calls in 1x2000. The frequency change between these two systems is performed by the hybrid AT. There is no network involvement at all. In fact, the network is not aware of any switch. For example, a hybrid AT is in the middle of transmitting data on the 1xEV-DO system. When the AT receives a page from the 1x2000 system for a voice call, the AT will switch to the 1x2000 system to receive the voice call if the user chooses to do so. But the 1xEV-DO system does not know that the AT had left the 1xEV-DO system and gone to the 1x2000 system for a voice call, because the AT does not send any indication back to the 1xEV-DO system. The 1xEV-DO system will finally determine that the reverse link is lost or that the Dormant Timer has expired; then the 1xEV-DO system would release the connection. The 1x2000 system does not know that the AT has just broken a connection with the 1xEV-DO system for this voice call. The hybrid AT is able to receive a 1x2000 Page message when it is on the 1xEV-DO system. The AT will wake up in its designated 1x2000 slot to monitor the 1x2000 paging channel. If the AT is on the 1xEV-DO traffic channel, the AT may send a null DRC to indicate that it does not want to receive any data from the 1xEV-DO system while it is monitoring the 1x2000 paging channel. If there is no page message for the AT on the 1x2000 system, the AT will come back to the 1xEV-DO system to resume its data connection by pointing a non-null DRC to some sector. If there is a page message for the AT, the AT will stay in the 1x2000 system to continue call setup procedures.

Power Control
In the EVDO protocol, forward link adopts time-division multiplexing mode and transmitted at full power. Power control is unavailable. Reverse link adopts code-division mode similar to that of 1x2000 system. Therefore,
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 45 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

power control of 1xEV-DO is designated for reverse link and decreases the interference and increases the capacity. Two algorithms used to control the transmit power of AT are as follows: Open loop power control Closed loop power control

Open Loop Power Control


According to total signal power received by AT, open loop power control (PC) determines transmit power of AT. When AT is not in soft handoff state, the received power of AT is directly related to the distance between AT to Base Station. If the signal is strong, AT is close to base station or a good RF path is available between AT and BASE STATION.. At that time, AT can transmit the data at less power but still obtain good PER. If you decrease output power of AT, the interference to other users in the area caused by AT also decreases. Open loop is useful for initial connection setup and large path loss caused by shadow fading. Open loop PC will result in over-compensation. Therefore, open loop PC is relative slow but closed loop PC is faster to correct insufficient open loop PC and ensure the stable running of system. In the 1xEV-DO system, initial average power of revere link pilot channel is equal to that of the last access probe.

Closed Loop Power Control


Closed loop PC is composed of inner loop and outer loop. Outer loop PC of reverse link aims to keep the reliability of reverse traffic channel. Adjust continuously Power Control Threshold (PCT) of reverse inner loop PC to obtain satisfactory FER on the reverse link.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 46 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 11-1 Closed

loop PC of 1xEV-DO system

Outer Loop Power Control


AT transmits the data on reverse Data channel and reports transmission rate to BASE STATION through RRI channel. RRI and pilot channel are of time-division multiplexing. The data transmission at full power ensures effective and reliable transmission of RRI and can be demodulated correctly by BASE STATION. When the data is transmitted, BASE STATION corresponding to active set receives the data and decodes each data frame.

Figure 11-2 TDM

of reverse pilot channel and RRI channel

According to the data received from AT, each BASE STATION of active set judges the quality of each data frame. Outer loop PC algorithm judges received frame quality (good frame/bad frame) to obtain PCT to be adjusted, as shown in Figure 11-1. When RRI sets transmission rate not to 0 and BASE STATION cannot confirm whether the received frame is good one, the algorithm rejects bad frame when received frame can be demodulated correctly, the algorithm confirms that the received frame is good one. Although RRI data is transmitted at full power, RRI symbol is demodulated by mistake by BASE STATION and the probability for bad frame judgment is little in the case that no data is transmitted. At that time, the RRI symbol demodulated by mistake enables BASE STATION to try to confirm the quality of a frame. When reverse link is in soft handoff state, received frame quality frame of a sector may be different from that of other sector reports in active set. According to received frame quality of each sector report, outer loop PC algorithm calculates minimum PCT adjustment value. The value is used in all the sectors of soft handoff active set and used by reverse inner loop PC algorithm to obtain target FER of reverse link.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 47 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Inner Loop Power Control


Reverse inner loop PC algorithm determines the target FER receivable for reverse link based on PCT and sends 0 (increment) or 1 (decrement) bit to AT through forward RPC. If received quality is better than target value, send 1 bit to RPC and enable AT to decrease the transmit power. If received quality is worse than target value, send 0 bit to RPC and enable AT to increase the transmit power. AT adjustment power step is 1dB or 0.5dB. If softer handoff is originated, different sectors of a BASE STATION transmit the same RPC. In each slot including power control bit, AT should provide diversity consolidation of the same RPC and obtain at most one PC bit of each slot from the same RPC. If all the RPC bits are 0, AT should increase output power. If any one RPC bit is 1, AT should decrease the output power.

RPC Channel and DRCLock Channel


RPC channel and DRCLock channel are of time-division multiplexing and they are transmitted on the same MAC channel. If AT sends DRC request, BASE STATION notifies AT through DRCLock channel whether DRC signal id demodulated and received correctly. If sector DRCLock bit directed to DRC and received by AT is 0, AT stops DRC directing to the sector. Whatever DRCLock channel is transmitted, RPC channel must be transmitted. DRCLockPeriod specifies the interval between two continuous DRCLock bits transmitted on forward MAC channel. Because RPC and DRCLock channels are of time-division multiplexing on MAC channel, and data rate of RPC is set to 600*(1-1/DRCLockPeriod)bps. Each RPC symbol must be sent four times within a slot in the burst mode of 64chips. A burst is transmitted before and after the pilot burst close to each slot, as shown in :

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 48 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Figure 11-3 Forward

channel slot structure and RPC and DRCLock time-division multiplexing

Load Control
A load redundancy factor is designated in reverse link budget. When CDMA load of a sector is up the maximum capacity, the coverage is minimized. At that time, noise level is high and AT cannot obtain satisfactory signal quality through enough power and the system performance degrades dramatically. If QoS does not decrease, load factor included in link budget can process the interference fluctuation. Add interface factor to link budget to estimate performance degradation. Additionally, the overload control of system provides detection mode of performance degradation caused by interference. According to EVDO protocol, forward link transmits the data of users through timedivision multiplexing mode, at the max. transmit power of sector. Therefore, the load control refers to reverse load control. Because reverse load control algorithm receives completely reverse MAC channel (DRC sub-channel and ACK sub-channel), reverse load control can increase revere link capacity and affect forward link capacity. If DRC channel receives interference, you cannot judge better sector and BASE STATION cannot reliable feedback of DRC channel. Additionally, dispatching algorithm cannot dispatch and transmit normally forward link data packets. Similarly, error feedback information of ACK channel results in unnecessary retransmission of forward data and wastes forward link capacity. Therefore, reverse load control is vital to increase reverse throughput. Load control includes rate control and overload control.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 49 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

Rate Control
EVDO protocol provides the methods to implement reverse rate control through the following: RAB RateLimit message

RateLimit Message
BroadcastReverseRateLimit message and UnicastReverseRateLimit message of AT include RateLimit message. Where, BroadcastReverseRateLimit is used by AN to control the transmission rate of all AT reverse links under the sector and UnicastReverseRateLimit is used by AN to control transmission rate of AT reverse link.

Reverse Activity Bit (RAB)


DO system allows AT to increase/decrease the rate based on RAB value. RAB is transmitted with the cycle of slot and provides faster rate control mechanism than BroadcastReverseRateLimit message. The system performs the following: 1. 2. 3. Send conversion probability of rates and reverse max. restriction value to AT. Check whether the system is overload based on reverse received total power. Set the RAB. (1overload and 0no overload)

AT demodulates the RA. If overload is available, decrease the rate based on conversion probability. If overload is unavailable, increase the rate based on relevant conversion probability and the max. rate is restricted by RateLimit value.

Overload Control
You can restrict the max. users to obtain reverse overload control but the operation belongs to slow control. Current reverse load control sets RA value. According to RSSI increment of the system and estimation on sector load by CSM5500, compare the value to corresponding threshold value and set RA value.

CSM5500 Algorithm ----Sector Load Estimation


CSM5500 checks the data rate (based on RRI channel identification) of each packet transmission performed by all ATS of active set within latest 16 slots, including the packets
Dec. 3, 2004 All rights reserved Page 50 of 57

Introduction to EV-DO Call Processing

For internal open

that cannot be received correctly by sector (receive correctly RRI). CSM5500 provides the estimation for sector load and calculates Ya of each sector:

Where, f(DataRate) is the ratio of total power received from AT to pilot power. Ecp/Io is the ratio of average power of sector pilot channel chips to total received power spectrum density. CSM5500 judges the load of each sector. If Ya> preset threshold value, set RAB to 1. Otherwise, set RAB to 0. Send the RAB value through MAC channel within continuous RABLength slots. The start slot is specified by RABOffset. After AT receives RA value, combine with rate transition probability to adjust the rate.

Io/No Measurement
BASE STATION measures directly Io/No (total received power spectrum density/noise power spectrum density, represented by Z1 and Z2) received by main/diversity antenna of each sector within each slot. Adopt a 24-slots IIR filters (40ms) to obtain average value Z1ave and Z2ave of Z1 and Z2. If max(Z1ave,Z2ave)> setting threshold value, set RAB to 1. Otherwise, set RAB to 0. Send the RAB value through MAC channel within continuous RABLength slots. The start slot is specified by RABOffset. After AT receives RA value, combine with rate transition probability to adjust the rate.

Dec. 3, 2004

All rights reserved

Page 51 of 57