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Biomedical Engineering

an Introduction

1. Integrated Engineering focuses on Interdisciplinary Emerging Technologies


Nanotechnology
Civil Electrical Mechanical

Achmad Rizal BioSPIN (Biomedical Signal Processing & Instrumentation ) Institut Teknologi Telkom

Mechatronics

Computer Software Chemical

Biomedical
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2. Definition of Biomedical Engineering* (1)


Biomedical engineering is a discipline that advances knowledge in engineering, biology, medicine, and improves human health trough cross-disciplinary that integrate crossengineering sciences with the biology sciences and clinical practices. It includes: - the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of living system through innovative and substantive application experimental and analytical techniques based on engineering sciences - the development of new devices, algorithms, processes and system that advances biology and medicine and improves medical practice and healthcare delivery
* Whitaker foundation
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2. Definition of Biomedical Engineering* (2)


Biomedical Engineering (BME) =
Multidisciplinary field, that applies engineering & scientific methods & technology, to Solve Problems in Biology & Medicine To process medical information To assist medical procedures To improve the quality of life through improving Community Health Care (*)Soegijardjo Soegijoko, BME-ITB (*)Soegijardjo Soegijoko, BMEARL- EL4703 - Instrumentasi Biomedis ARL4

3. Some majors areas


Biomaterials Biomechanics Biosensors

More specific
Biotransport Rehabilitation engineering Cellular engineering Clinical engineering Biostatistics Bioinformatics

Medical imaging Molecular imaging Nanotechnology Telemedicine Tissue engineering Biosystem


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ARL- EL4703 - Instrumentasi Biomedis ARL-

4. Medical Procedures
1.Data/information Collection 2. Data processing & analysis 3. Diagnosis 4. Therapy 5. Test (More symptom ?) - Further actions/ Follow up
Start 1 Data Collection 2 Process & Analysis 3 Diagnosis t Yes (symp tom) 4 Therapy 1, 5 Test No Stop

5. Medical Information
Text (alphanumeric data), e.g. patient data Physiological Signal (bio-signals) e.g.: ECG, EMG, (bioEEG signals Medical Images & biometrics:
Static images, e.g.: X-ray images; fingerprint, iris XDynamic images, e.g.: visual image of heart pumping action, lung respiratory action

Sound & voice, e.g.: heart sound, voice of physician & patient Combination of the above mentioned information

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ARL- EL4703 - Instrumentasi Biomedis ARL-

6. Bioinstrumentation (1)
Apply fundamental measurement sciences to biomedical instrumentation for measuring physiological variables that may originate molecular, cellular or systemic process
May described by mechanical, electrical, chemical, optical or other event uses sensor and/or transducer sensor must be designed so that/to - minimized disturbance to measured variable and environment - comply with the requirement of the living system - maximize the SNR, achieve accuracy and repeatability Measured signal is usually fed into a signal processing algorithm for further conditioning and analysis
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6. Bioinstrumentations in Dentistry (2)

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6. Other Medical Instruments (3)

6. Biomedical Instrumentation (4)

USG

Hearing Aid Stethoscope


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7. Biomaterial (1)
Application of engineering materials to the production of medical/biological/diagnostic product - design and development of new material often to ne replace failing biological organs/limbs Designing new materials that body will not reject. The material must be : - non toxic, noncarcicogenic, chemically inert, stable noncarcicogenic, and mechanically strong enough to withstand the mecha repeated forces of a life time
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7. Biomaterials in Dentistry (2)

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7. Biomaterial (3)
Knee Joint Prosthesis
Surgical operation: implant
SS316L, Ti alloy or Co-Cr alloy

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Artificial Heart*
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*How stuffwork.com

8. Medical Imaging (1)


Fiberoptic Endoscope
Fundus camera

PET

To guide the surgery precisely

USG

X-Ray
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8. Some biomedical imaging equipments (3)


High Field MRI

9. Biosignal/Biopotensial (1)
Analysis biological data to uncover the nature of underlying physiological phenomena
Signal processing Time series analysis Origins of signal variability Transform and statistical techniques Analysis of chaotic behavior of signal / fractal analysis
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Ultrasound

CAT Scan

Open MRI

Mobile MRI X-ray for Mammography


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PET Scanner

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9. Biosignal Processing (2)

9. Biosignal Processing (3)


Biomedical Signal Examples :

Arterial Blood Pressure


1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 0 0

EEG

8 0 0 7 0 0 6 0 0

6 t (s e c .)

1 0

1 2

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Electrocardiogram (ECG)

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10. Biomechanics (1)


Study of composition, properties and interaction of biological tissues (such as bone, muscle, etc) and fluid (such as blood, inter/intracelluler fluid, etc) inter/intracelluler
Study of motion, material deformation, flow within the body and devices, transport of chemical constituent across biological and syntetic media Development of artificial heart, replacement heart valves, artificial organs, patient assistance devices, ergonomic design all fall within of realm of biomechanics biomechanics include both fluid mechanics and solid mechanic at molecular, cellular, macroscopic organ or system level
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10. Biomechanic (2)

Motorized Wheel Chair


Remember Christopher Reeve?

Gait Analysis

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Gait analysis
observational studies sequential photographs video recording dynamic electromyography force transducers, foot switches, electrogoniometers, spotting systems electrogoniometers, specialized transducers: physical variable electrical signal digital signal. computer technology, to analyze data obtained from different sources; record & display digital signals as dependent variables of time on a graph with a common time axis. 3D studies
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11. Clinical Engineering


Application of technology in healthcare
Clinical engineers typically work in hospital to assist doctors/nurses with their medical technology needs Managing diagnostic and laboratory equipment in hospital, interface different equipment with each other and/or with computer Determine equipment needs Search for and specify optimal equipment Train healthcare workers on equipment Perform maintenance and safety inspection
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12. Cellular Engineering


Design of quantitative biochemical & biophysical techniques and procedure for study & manipulation of cell function , such as
Cell metabolism Inter & intra cellular signalling & regulation Biomolecular uptake & secretion Cellular migration, adhesion, proliferation

13. Rehabilitation Engineering


A new growing area in BME Expand capabilities and improves the quality of life individuals with physical impairment
Design or modify new/old equipment for an individual, or a group of individual with specific disability

Closely related to biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology Example : stem cell tech, cloning tech
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14. Where do Biomedical Engineering Work In industry


In industry
Design of new biomedical equipment, performnace testing for new or proposed equipment, service engineer, etc

15. BME Society


American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineer (IEEE) in Medicine and Biology society International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) SMBE Australia (Society for Medical & Biomedical (Society Engineering) Engineering) BES (Biomedical Engineering Singapore) (Biomedical Singapore) IBES (Indonesian Biomedical Engineering Society) (Indonesian Society) since 2002.
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In government positions
Product testing and safety, establishing safety standard for biomedical biomedical equipment dan system

In hospital
Provide advice on selection and use of biomedical equipment, supervise on medical device performance testing and maintenace

In research institutions
Supervise laboratories and equipment, participate in or direct research research activities with other researcher with such backgrounds such as engineering, medicine, nurse, biology etc

In academia
Academic research, training next generation biomedical/other engineer engineer
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References
www.howstuffworks.com EMBS magazine Soegijardjo S, Lecture on BME, ITB Whitaker Foundation Edwin L. Dove, Medical Image Processing Lecture Notes, UIOWA Proceeding BME Day 2007 Webster, Medical Instrumentation
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