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1xEV-DO Rev. A Networks 1xEV-DO Rev.

A Networks

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 1

Outline
The Place of EVDO in the 3G Family 1xEV-DO Physical Layer Forward Link Data Transmission during Established Connection Hybrid ARQ: Repeat-Request Protocol EV-DO Operation Fundamentals Channels and Layer-3 Messages Access Procedures An EV-DO Connection Access Terminals and Route Updates 1xEV-DO Network Architecture, Simple and Mobile IP Backhaul Considerations Key Performance Indicators Optimizing the Air Interface 1xEV-DO / 1xRTT Interoperability Standards Documents

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 2

Introduction: Introduction: How EVDO Fits In the 3G Family How EVDO Fits In the 3G Family

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 3

A Quick Survey of Wireless Data Technologies


US CDMA
1xEV-DV
5000 - 1200 DL 307 - 153 UL

ETSI/GSM
WCDMA HSDPA
12000 6000 kb/s

MISC/NEW
WI-MAX Flarion OFDM
1500 900 kb/s

1xEV-DO A
3100 800 DL 1800 600 UL

WCDMA 1
2000 - 800 kb/s

WCDMA 0 1xEV-DO 0
2400 600 DL 153.6 76 UL 384 250 kb/s

TD-SCDMA
In Development

EDGE
200 - 90 kb/s DL 45 kb/s UL

CELLULAR
IDEN IS-136 TDMA
19.2 19.2 kb/s 19.2 9.6 kb/s

1xRTT RC4
307.2 160 kb/s

GPRS
40 30 kb/s DL 15 kb/s UL

1xRTT RC3
153.6 80 kb/s

CDPD
19.2 4.8 kb/s discontinued

IS-95B
64 -32 kb/s

GSM HSCSD
32 19.2 kb/s

PAGING
Mobitex
9.6 4.8 kb/s obsolete

AMPS Cellular GSM CSD


9.6 4.8 kb/s 9.6 4.8 kb/s w/modem

IS-95
14.4 9.6 kb/s

This summary is a work-in-progress, tracking latest experiences and reports from all the high-tier (provider-network-oriented) 2G and 3G wireless data technologies Have actual experiences to share, latest announced details, or corrections to the above? Email to Scott@ScottBaxter.com. Thanks for your comments!
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 4

Channel Structure of 1xEV-DO vs. 1xRTT


CHANNEL STRUCTURE IS-95 and 1xRTT many simultaneous users, each with steady forward and reverse traffic channels transmissions arranged, requested, confirmed by layer-3 messages with some delay 1xEV-DO -- Very Different: Forward Link goes to one user at a time like TDMA! users are rapidly time-multiplexed, each receives fair share of available sector time instant preference given to user with ideal receiving conditions, to maximize average throughput transmissions arranged and requested via steady MAC-layer walsh streams very immediate!
10-2007

IS-95 AND 1xRTT


Many users simultaneous forward and reverse traffic channels
PILOT SYNC PAGING F-FCH1 F-FCH2 F-FCH3 F-SCH W0 W32 W1 W17 W25 W41 W3

BTS

F-FCH4 W53

ATs

1xEV-DO

AP

(Access Terminals)

(Access Point)

1xEV-DO Forward Link

AP

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 5

Power Management of 1xEV-DO vs. 1xRTT


IS-95: VARIABLE POWER

POWER MANAGEMENT IS-95 and 1xRTT: sectors adjust each users channel power to maintain a preset target FER 1xEV-DO IS-856: sectors always operate at maximum power sector output is timemultiplexed, with only one user served at any instant The transmission data rate is set to the maximum speed the user can receive at that moment
10-2007

TO MAINTAIN USER FER


Maximum Sector Transmit Power 8 7 6

power

5 4 2

5 3 User 1 PAGING SYNC PILOT

time

1xEV-DO: MAX POWER ALWAYS,


DATA RATE OPTIMIZED

power

time

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 6

1xEV-DO Physical Layer: 1xEV-DO Physical Layer: Channels in Time and Codes Channels in Time and Codes

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 7

1xEV-DO Transmission Timing


Forward Link

All members of the CDMA family - IS-95, IS-95B, 1xRTT, 1xEV-DO and 1xEV-DV transmit Frames One Cycle of PN Short Code IS-95, IS-95B, 1xRTT frames are usually 20 ms. long 1xEV-DO frames are 26-2/3 ms. long same length as the short PN code One 1xEV-DO Frame each 1xEV-DO frame is divided into 1/16ths, called slots The Slot is the basic timing unit of 1xEV-DO forward link transmission Each slot is directed toward somebody and holds a subpacket of information for them Some slots are used to carry the control channel for everyone to hear; most slots are intended for individual users or private groups Users dont own long continuing series of slots One Slot like in TDMA or GSM; instead, each slot or small string of slots is dynamically addressed to whoever needs it at the moment
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 8

Whats In a Forward Link Slot?


Slot 1024 chips Slot 1024 chips

PILOT

PILOT

MAC

MAC

MAC

SLOT

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA
400 chips

64

96

64

64

96

64

The main cargo in a slot is the DATA being sent to a user But all users need to get continuous timing and administrative information, even when all the slots are going to somebody else Twice in every slot there is regularly-scheduled burst of timing and administrative information for everyone to use MAC (Media Access Control) information such as power control bits a burst of pure Pilot allows new mobiles to acquire the cell and decide to use it keeps existing user mobiles exactly on sector time mobiles use it to decide which sector should send them their next forward link packet
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 9

What if theres No Data to Send?


Slot 1024 chips Slot 1024 chips

PILOT

PILOT

MAC

MAC

MAC

SLOT

empty
400 chips

empty
400 chips

empty
400 chips

MAC

empty
400 chips

64

96

64

64

96

64

Sometimes there may be no data waiting to be sent on a sectors forward link When theres no data to transmit on a slot, transmitting can be suspended during the data portions of that slot But---the MAC and PILOT must be transmitted!! New and existing mobiles on this sector and surrounding sectors need to monitor the relative strength of all the sectors and decide which one to use next, so they need the pilot Mobiles TRANSMITTING data to the sector on the reverse link need power control bits So MAC and PILOT are always transmitted, even in an empty slot
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 10

Forward Link Slots and Frames


Slot 1024 chips Slot 1024 chips

PILOT

PILOT

MAC

MAC

MAC

SLOT

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA
400 chips

64

96

64

64

96

64

Slot

FRAME
1 Frame = 16 slots 32k chips 26-2/3 ms

Two Half-Slots make a Slot 16 Slots make a frame

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 11

Forward Link Frames and Control Channel Cycles


A Control Channel Cycle is 16 frames (thats 426-2/3 ms, about 1/2 second) The first half of the first frame has all of its slots reserved for possible use carrying Control Channel packets The last half of the first frame, and all of the remaining 15 frames, have their slots available for ordinary use transmitting subpackets to users
Slot

FRAME
1 Frame = 16 slots 32k chips 26-2/3 ms

CONTROL CHANNEL

USER(S) DATA CHANNEL

16-FRAME
CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE
16 Frames 524k chips 426-2/3 ms

Thats a lot of slots! 16 x 16 = 256

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 12

Forward Link Frame and Slot Structure: Big Picture Summary


Slot 1024 chips Slot 1024 chips

PILOT

PILOT

MAC

MAC

MAC

SLOT

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA
400 chips

64

96

64

64

96

64

FRAME
1 Frame = 16 slots 32k chips 26-2/3 ms

CONTROL CHANNEL

USER(S) DATA CHANNEL

16-FRAME
CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE
16 Frames 524k chips 426-2/3 ms

Slots make Frames and Frames make Control Channel Cycles!


10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 13

Reverse Link Frame and Slot Structure: Big Picture Summary


Slot 1024 chips Slot 1024 chips

SLOT

DATA

1 Frame = 16 slots 32k chips 26-2/3 ms

FRAME
1 Subframe holds 1 Subpacket Subframe Subframe Subframe

Reverse Link frames are the same length as forward link frames The mobile does not include separate MAC and Pilot bursts Its MAC and pilot functions are carried inside its signal by simultaneous walsh codes There is no need for slots for dedicated control purposes since the mobile can transmit on the access channel whenever it needs
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 14

Rev. A Reverse Channel Sub-Frame Structure


RRI DATA CHANNEL DRC CHANNEL ACK DSC ACK DSC ACK DSC ACK DSC

AUXILIARY PILOT CHANNEL PILOT CHANNEL

1 Slot

1 Slot 1 Sub-Frame

1 Slot

1 Slot

The mobile transmits sub-packets occupying four reverse link slots, called a reverse link sub-frame. If multiple subpackets are required to deliver a packet, the additional subpackets are spaced in every third subframe until done
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 15

The 1xEV-DO Rev. 0 Channels


IN THE WORLD OF CODES
FORWARD CHANNELS
Sector has a Short PN Offset
W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity
just like IS-95

REVERSE CHANNELS
Long PN offset

ACCESS
MAC

Pilot W016 Data


W24

Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode

Access

64

DRCLock RPC

MAC

Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic

Pilot W016 RRI


Long PN offset

Public or Private

Access Point (AP)

MAC DRC

FORWARD
Walsh code

W0 W4 W1 W5 W816 W2 W6 W3 W7

Access Terminal (User Terminal)


Traffic Channel as used during a data session

These channels are NOT CONTINUOUS like IS-95 or 1xRTT! They are made up of SLOTS carrying data subpackets to individual users or control channel subpackets for everyone to monitor Regardless of who owns a SLOT, the slot also carries two small generic bursts containing PILOT and MAC information everyone can monitor
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 16

A TR IC FF

ACK Data

W48 W24

Walsh code

AP

Functions of Rev. 0 Forward Channels


FORWARD CHANNELS
Sector has a Short PN Offset
W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity W
64

Access terminals watch the Pilot to select the strongest sector and choose burst speeds The Reverse Activity Channel tells ATs If the reverse link loading is too high, requiring rate reduction Each AT with open connection has a MAC channel including DRCLock and RPC (Reverse Power Control) muxed using the same MAC index 5-63. The Control channel carries overhead messages for idle ATs but can also carry user traffic

DRCLock RPC

Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic

Access Point (AP)

MAC

MAC

Traffic channels carry user data to one user at a time

IN THE WORLD OF TIME


Forward Link Slot Structure (16 slots in a 26-2/3 ms. frame)
PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA
400 chips

64 96 64 Slot 1024 chips

64 96 64 Slot 1024 chips

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 17

Functions of Rev. 0 Reverse Channels


The Pilot is used as a preamble during access probes Data channel during access carries mobile requests Pilot during traffic channel allows synchronous detection and also carries the RRI channel RRI reverse rate indicator tells the AP the ATs desired rate for reverse link data channel DRC Data Rate Control channel asks a specific sector to transmit to the AT at a specific rate ACK channel allows AT to signal successful reception of a packet DATA channel during traffic carries the ATs traffic bits

REVERSE CHANNELS
Long PN offset

Access

ACCESS

Pilot W016 Data


W24

TRAFFIC
MAC DRC

Pilot W016 RRI


Long PN offset W0 W4 W1 W5 W816 W2 W6 W3 W7

Public or Private

Access Terminal (User Terminal)

ACK Data

W48 W24

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 18

EV-DO Rev. A Channels


IN THE WORLD OF CODES
FORWARD CHANNELS
Sector has a Short PN Offset
W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity
just like IS-95

REVERSE CHANNELS
Long PN offset

ACCESS
MAC

Pilot W016 Data


W24

Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode

Access

64

DRCLock RPC ARQ

MAC

Primary Pilot W016 Auxiliary Pilot W2832


Long PN offset

Public or Private

Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Walsh code

Access Point (AP)

MAC

RRI W416 DRC W816 DSC W1232 ACK W1232 Data


W12

Access Terminal (User Terminal)


Traffic Channel as used during a data session

A TR IC FF

FORWARD

Walsh code

The channels are not continuous like ordinary 1xRTT CDMA Notice the differences between the MAC channels and the Rev. 0 MAC channels these are the heart of the Rev. 0/A differences

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 19

AP

Functions of Rev. A Forward Channels


FORWARD CHANNELS
Sector has a Short PN Offset
W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity
just like IS-95

Access terminals watch the Pilot to select the strongest sector and choose burst speeds The Reverse Activity Channel tells ATs If the reverse link loading is too high, requiring rate reduction

64

DRCLock RPC ARQ

MAC

MAC

Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Walsh code

Access Point (AP)

Each connected AT has MAC channel: DRCLock indication if sector busy RPC (Reverse Power Control) ARQ to halt reverse link subpackets as soon as complete packet is recovered The Control channel carries overhead messages for idle ATs but can also carry user traffic
PILOT

Traffic channels carry user data to one user at a time


PILOT

Forward Link Slot Structure (16 slots in a 26-2/3 ms. frame)


MAC MAC MAC DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA
400 chips

64 96 64 Slot 1024 chips

64 96 64 Slot 1024 chips

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 20

Functions of Rev. A Reverse Channels


The Pilot is used as a preamble during access probes Data channel during access carries mobile requests Primary Pilot on traffic channel allows synchronous detection and also carries the RRI channel Auxiliary Pilot on traffic channel allows synchronous detection during high data rates RRI reverse rate indicator tells AP what rate is being sent by AT DRC Data Rate Control channel tells desired downlink speed DSC Data Source Control channel tells which sector will send burst ACK channel allows AT to signal successful reception of a packet DATA channel during traffic carries the ATs traffic bits

REVERSE CHANNELS
Long PN offset

ACCESS

Pilot W016 Data


W24

Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode

Access Public or Private

Primary Pilot W016 Auxiliary Pilot W2832


Long PN offset

MAC

RRI W416 DRC W816 DSC W1232 ACK W1232 Data


W12

Access Terminal (User Terminal)


Traffic Channel as used during a data session

A TR IC FF

Walsh code

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 21

AP

The Rev. 0 MAC Index


MACIndex MAC Channel Use 0 and 1 Not Used 2 Not Used 3 Not Used 4 RA Channel Available for RPC and DRCLock 5-63 Channel Transmissions Preamble Use Not Used 76.8 kbps CCH 38.4 kbps CCH Not Used Available for Forward Traffic Channel Transmissions

MACIndex Walsh Code Phase

MACIndex Walsh Code Phase

MACIndex Walsh Code Phase 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Each active user on a sector is assigned a unique 7-bit MAC index (64 MACs possible) Each data packet begins with a preamble, using the MAC index of the intended recipient Five values of MAC indices are reserved for multi-user packets packets intended for reception by a group for example, control channels mobiles may have individual MAC indices AND be simultaneously in various groups this trick keeps payload size low even for transmissions to groups
10-2007

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 22

MACIndex Walsh Code Phase 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Rev. A MAC Index Values and Their Uses

114 MAC indices are available for regular single-user packets 3 MAC indices are earmarked for control channel packets 5 MAC indices are reserved for mult-user packets 1 MAC index is reserved for broadcast packets, or single-users 4 MAC indices are not used due to conflicts with multiplexing patterns
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 23

Rev. A MAC Index and I/Q Channel Contents

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 24

Forward Link Data Transmission Forward Link Data Transmission During an Established Connection During an Established Connection

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 25

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready MP3, web page, or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT, accessing a favorite website. The requested page has just been received by the PDSN. The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a Data Ready message to let the AT know it has data waiting.

AP

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 26

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT, accessing a favorite website. The requested page has just been received by the PDSN. The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a Data Ready message to let the AT know it has data waiting. The AT quickly determines which of its active sectors is the strongest. On the ATs DRC channel it asks that sector to send it a packet at speed DRC Index 5. The mobiles choice, DRC Index 5, determines everything: The raw bit speed is 307.2 kb/s. The packet will have 2048 bits. There will be 4 subpackets (in slots 4 apart). The first subpacket will begin with a 128 chip preamble.

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 27

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content 2048 bits

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobiles requested DRC + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols
Interleaver

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 28

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content 2048 bits

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobiles requested DRC + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols
Interleaver

To guard against bursty errors in transmission, the symbols are completely stirred up in a block interleaver.

Block Interleaver

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 29

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content 2048 bits

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobiles requested DRC + + + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols
Interleaver

To guard against bursty errors in transmission, the symbols are completely stirred up in a block interleaver. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit.

Block Interleaver

Interleaved Symbols

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 30

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content 2048 bits

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobiles requested DRC + + + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols To guard against bursty errors in transmission, the symbols are completely stirred up in Block Interleaver a block interleaver. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit. The symbols are divided into the correct number of subpackets, which Interleaved Symbols will occupy the same number of transmission slots, spaced four apart. Its up to the AP to decide when it will start transmitting the stream, taking into account any other pending subpackets for other users, and proportional fairness.
Interleaver

Subpacket 2

Subpacket 3

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

Subpacket 1

Subpacket 4

EV-DO rev A - 31

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content 2048 bits

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder When the AP is ready, the first subpacket is actually + + + + + + D D D transmitted in a slot. + + + The first subpacket begins with + + + + D D D a preamble carrying the + users MAC index, so the Symbols user knows this is the start of its sequence of subpackets, and how Block Interleaver many subpackets are in the sequence.. The user keeps collecting subpackets until either: 1) it has been able to reverse-turbo decode the Interleaved Symbols packet contents early, or 2) the whole schedule of subpackets has been transmitted.
Interleaver

Subpackets

1
SLOTS

4
EV-DO rev A - 32

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

Hybrid ARQ: Hybrid ARQ: Hybrid Repeat-Request Protocol Hybrid Repeat-Request Protocol

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 33

The Hybrid ARQ Process


CDMA2000 1xEV-DO
AP Access Point AT Access Terminal
Application layer Stream layer Session layer Connection layer Security layer MAC layer Physical layer HARQ protocol

CDMA2000 1xRTT
SYSTEM
Application layer LAC layer MAC layer Physical layer RLP Radio Link Protocol MAC layer Physical layer Application layer LAC layer RLP Radio Link Protocol

Application layer Stream layer Session layer Connection layer Security layer MAC layer Physical layer HARQ protocol

F-FCH R-FCH

F-TFC repeats R-ACK

In 1xRTT, retransmission protocols typically work at the link layer Radio Link Protocol (RLP) communicates using signaling packets lost data packets arent recognized and are discarded at the decoder This method is slow and wasteful!
10-2007

In 1xEV-DO, RLP functions are replicated at the physical layer HARQ Hybrid Repeat Request Protocol fast physical layer ACK bits Chase Combining of multiple repeats unneeded repeats pre-empted by positive ACK This method is fast and efficient!
EV-DO rev A - 34

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

The Hybrid ARQ Process


Each physical layer data packet is encoded into subpackets as long as the receiver does not send back an acknowledgment, the transmitter keeps sending more subpackets, up to the maximum of the current configuration The identity of the subpackets is known by the receiver, so it can combine the subpackets for better decoding each additional subpacket in essence contributes additional signal power to aid in the detection of its parent packet its hard to predict the exact power necessary for successful decoding in systems without HARQ the channel changes rapidly during transmission various estimation errors (noise, bias, etc.) exact needed SNR is stochastic, even on a static channel! In effect, HARQ sends progressively more energy until there is just enough and the packet is successfully decoded

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 35

Forward Link Multislot ARQ, Normal Termination


AP
User A Packet 0 Subpacket 0 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 0 1 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 0 2 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 0 3 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 1 0

F-Traffic

AT

R-DRC
1/2 Slot offset
pr e NA par K e pr e NA par K e
de co de co de co de co

R-ACK
One Slot

c de

id

c de

id

pr e NA par K e

c de

id

c de

id

NAK

NAK

NAK

AT selects sector, sends request for data AP starts sending next packet, one subpacket at a time After each subpacket, AT either NAKs or AKs on ACK channel In this example, AP transmits all 4 scheduled subpackets of packet #0 before the AT is finally able to decode correctly and send AK then the AP can begin packet #1, first subpacket
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 36

pr e NA par K e

de

de

de

de

AK!

Forward Link Multislot ARQ, Early Termination


AP
User A Packet 0 Subpacket 0 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 0 1 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 1 0 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 1 1 diff. diff. diff. user user user A 2 0

F-Traffic

AT

R-DRC
1/2 Slot offset
pr e NA par K e pr e NA par K e
de co de co de co de co

R-ACK
One Slot

c de

id

c de

id

pr e NA par K e

c de

id

c de

id

NAK

AK!

NAK

AT selects sector, sends request for data AP starts sending next packet, one subpacket at a time After each subpacket, AT either NAKs or AKs on ACK channel In this example, AT is able to successfully decode packet #0 after receiving only the first two subpackets AT sends ACK. AP now continues with first subpacket of packet #1
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 37

pr e NA par K e

de

de

de

de

AK!

Multiple ARQ Instances


bits
symbols

Data Packets

Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling

Packet 0
Subpackets

Forward Channel

Packet Subpacket

0 0

1. 0

2. 0

3. 0

0 1

1. 1

2. 1

3. 1

0 2

1. 2

2. 2

3. 2

0 3

1. 3

2. 3

3. 3

Traffic
One Slot

Definition: Number of ARQ Instances the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously sometimes also called the number of ARQ channels This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances may be for the same user (the most common situation) may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 38

Multiple ARQ Instances


bits
symbols

Data Packets

Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling

Packet 0
Subpackets

Packet 1
Subpackets

Forward Channel

Packet Subpacket

0 0

1. 0

2. 0

3. 0

0 1

1. 1

2. 1

3. 1

0 2

1. 2

2. 2

3. 2

0 3

1. 3

2. 3

3. 3

Traffic
One Slot

Definition: Number of ARQ Instances the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously sometimes also called the number of ARQ channels This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances may be for the same user (the most common situation) may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 39

Multiple ARQ Instances


bits
symbols

Data Packets

Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling

Packet 0
Subpackets

Packet 1
Subpackets

Packet 2
Subpackets

Forward Channel

Packet Subpacket

0 0

1. 0

2. 0

3. 0

0 1

1. 1

2. 1

3. 1

0 2

1. 2

2. 2

3. 2

0 3

1. 3

2. 3

3. 3

Traffic
One Slot

Definition: Number of ARQ Instances the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously sometimes also called the number of ARQ channels This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances may be for the same user (the most common situation) may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 40

Multiple ARQ Instances


bits
symbols

Data Packets

Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling

Packet 0
Subpackets

Packet 1
Subpackets

Packet 2
Subpackets

Packet 3
Subpackets

Forward Channel

Packet Subpacket

0 0

1. 0

2. 0

3. 0

0 1

1. 1

2. 1

3. 1

0 2

1. 2

2. 2

3. 2

0 3

1. 3

2. 3

3. 3

Traffic
One Slot

Definition: Number of ARQ Instances the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously sometimes also called the number of ARQ channels This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances may be for the same user (the most common situation) may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 41

Link Rates and Packet/Subpacket Formats


FORWARD LINK
DRC Index Slots 0x0 n/a 0x1 16 0x2 8 0x3 4 0x4 2 0x5 4 0x6 1 0x7 2 0x8 2 0x9 1 0xa 2 0xb 1 0xc 1 0xd 2 0xe 1 Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I lation Chips Bits kb/s db QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 +8.3 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 +11.3

REVERSE LINK
Payload Modu-Effective Rate kbps after: Code Rate (repetition) after Bits lation 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 128 B4 19.2 9.6 6.4 4.8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 256 B4 38 19.2 12.8 9.6 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 512 B4 76 38.4 25.6 19.2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1/5 768 B4 115 57.6 38.4 28.8 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1024 B4 153 76.8 51.2 38.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1536 Q4 230 115 76.8 57.6 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 2048 Q4 307 153 102.4 76.8 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 3072 Q2 461 230 153.6 115.2 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 4096 Q2 614 307 204.8 153.6 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 6144 Q4Q2 921 461 307 230.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 8192 Q4Q2 1228 614 409 307.2 2/3 1/3 2/9 1/5 12288 E4E2 1843 921 614 460.8 2/3 1/3 1/3 1/3

The 1xEV-DO Rev. A reverse link has seven available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev. 0 Modulation formats are hybrids defined in the standard The 1xEV-DO Rev. A forward has two available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev. 0.
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 42

Fundamentals of EV-DO Fundamentals of EV-DO Operation Operation

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 43

Sessions and Connections


A Session is a state shared by an Access Terminal and the network. Negotiated protocols and configurations are remembered by both sides as the basis for their communication. An access terminal must already have a session underway in order to communicate with the network The only exception is the setup communications made possible on the access channel for the purpose of initially setting up a session A Connection is a particular state of the air link in which the access terminal is assigned a forward traffic channel, reverse traffic channel, and associated MAC channels. During one ongoing session, the terminal and network may open and close their connection many times.

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 44

EV-DO Terminal Identifiers


In CDMA, mobiles are identified by the familiar IMSI and ESN. These are permanent quantities stored in the mobile. EV-DO terminals have hardware addresses which can be queried by the system, but connections are coordinated by the use of Access Terminal Identifiers (ATIs) There are four types of ATIs: 00 BATI Broadcast Access Terminal Identifier 01 MATI Multicast Access Terminal Identifier 02 UATI Unicast Access Terminal Identifier Requested by the mobile at session setup and assigned by the system. Updated when crossing various boundaries 03 RATI Random Access Terminal Identifier Used by the mobile during initial access From the view of the SLP protocol, ATIs simply define connection endpoints.

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 45

Channels and Layer-3 Messages Channels and Layer-3 Messages in 1xEV-DO Connection Processing in 1xEV-DO Connection Processing

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 46

Dissecting a Layer-3 Message


Most EV-DO basic packet flow and bursts are managed by layer-2 bursts Layer-3 messages are used to set up and control sessions, connections, location updating, and other higher-level tasks Messages include many fields of binary data The first byte of each message identifies message type: this allows the recipient to parse the contents To ensure no messages are missed, all 1xEV-DO messages bear serial numbers and important messages contain a bit requesting acknowledgment Messages not promptly acknowledged are retransmitted several times. If not acknowledged, the sender may release the call
EXAMPLE: TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGE
Field

Length (in bits)

8 MESSAGE ID MESSAGE SEQUENCE 8 CHANNEL INCLUDED 1 CHANNEL 0 or 24 FRAME OFFSET 4 DRC LENGTH 2 DRC CHANNEL GAIN 6 ACK CHANNEL GAIN 6 NUM PILOTS 4 NUMPILOTS occurrences of this block: PILOT PN 9 SOFTER HANDOFF 1 MAC INDEX 6 DRC COVER 3 RAB LENGTH 2 RAB OFFSET 3

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 47

Message Vocabulary: Acquisition & Idle States


Pilot Channel
No Messages Access Network (AN) Access Point (AP) Access Terminal (AN)

Pilot Channel
No Messages

Control Channel
ACAck Access Parameters Broadcast Reverse Rate Limit Connection Deny Data Ready Hardware ID Request Keep Alive Request Keep Alive Response Location Request Location Assignment Redirect Session Close Sync SectorParameters Page Quick Config Xoff Response Xon Response Traffic Channel Assignment UATI Assignment

Access Channel
Connection Request Data Ready ACK Hardware ID Response Keep Alive Request Keep Alive Response Location Complete Location Notification Route Update Session Close UATI Request UATI Complete Xoff Request Xon Request

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 48

Message Vocabulary: Connected State


Forward Traffic Channel
ANKey Complete Attribute Override Configuration Complete Configuration Request Configuration Response Configuration Start Connection Close Data Ready Hardware ID Request Keep Alive Request Keep Alive Response Key Request Location Assignment Location Request Nak Neighbor List Redirect Reset Reset ACK Reset Report RTC ACK Session Close Traffic Channel Assignment UATI Assignment Unicast Reverse Rate Limit Xoff Response Xon Response

Access Point (AP)

Reverse Traffic Channel


Access Terminal (AN)
ATKey Complete Attribute Override Response Configuration Complete Configuration Request Configuration Response Connection Close Data Ready ACK Fixed Mode Enable Fixed Mode X Off Hardware ID Response Keep Alive Request Keep Alive Response Key Response Location Complete Location Notification Nak Redirect Reset Reset ACK Route Update Session Close Traffic Channel Complete UATI Complete Xoff Request Xon Request

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 49

Sent on Channels ID Inst. CC Syn SS AC FTC ACAck 0x00 1 CC Access Parameters 0x01 1 CC ANKey Complete 0x02 1 FTC ATKey Complete 0x03 1 Attribute Override 0x05 1 FTC Attribute Override Response 0x06 1 Broadcast Reverse Rate Limit 0x01 1 CC Configuration Complete 0x00 1 FTC Configuration Request 0x50 24 FTC Configuration Response 0x51 24 FTC Configuration Start 0x01 1 FTC ConnectionClose 0x00 1 FTC ConnectionDeny 0x02 1 CC ConnectionRequest 0x01 1 AC DataReady 0x0b 1 CC FTC DataReadyACK 0x0c 1 AC Fixed Mode Enable 0x00 1 Fixed Mode X off 0x01 1 Hardware ID Request 0x03 2 CC FTC Hardware ID Response 0x04 1 AC Keep Alive Request 0x02 1 CC AC FTC Keep Alive Response 0x03 1 CC AC FTC Key Request 0x00 1 FTC Key Response 0x01 1 Location Assignment 0x05 1 CC FTC Location Complete 0x06 1 AC Location Request 0x03 1 CC FTC Location Notification 0x04 1 AC Nak 0x00 1 FTC Neighbor List 0x00 1 FTC Page 0x00 1 SS Quick Config 0x00 1 SS Redirect 0x00 1 CC FTC Reset 0x00 2 FTC Reset ACK 0x01 2 FTC Reset Report 0x03 1 FTC Route Update 0x00 1 AC RTCAck 0x00 1 FTC SectorParameters 0x01 1 CC SYN SS Session Close 0x01 1 CC AC FTC Sync '00' 1 CC SYN SS Traffic Channel Assignment 0x01 1 CC FTC Traffic Channel Complete 0x02 1 UATI Assignment 0x01 1 CC FTC UATI Complete 0x02 1 AC UATI Request 0x00 1 AC Unicast Reverse Rate Limit 0x02 1 FTC Xoff Request 0x09 1 AC Xoff Response 0x0a 1 CC FTC Xon Request 0x07 1 AC Xon Response 0x08 1 CC FTC

Message Name

RTC

RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC

RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC RTC

RTC RTC RTC RTC

RTC

RTC RTC

RTC RTC

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

SLP Best Effort Best Effort Reliable Reliable Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Reliable Reliable Reliable Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Rel, Best Eff Best Effort Best Effort Reliable Reliable Best Effort Rel, Best Eff Best Effort Rel, Best Eff Best Effort Reliable Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Reliable Rel, Best Eff Reliable Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Rel, Best Eff Reliable Best Effort Rel, Best Eff Best Effort Reliable Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort Best Effort

Addressing Unicast Broadcast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Broadcast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Broadcast Bcst, Unicst Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Broadcast Unicast Broadcast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast Unicast

Pri. 10 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 40 20 10 40 40 40 40 20 10 30 40 30 20 40 10 10 10 40 40 40 40 40

All the Messages of 1xEV-DO Rev. 0


In 1xEV-DO, most call processing events are driven by messages The MAC channels in both directions are used to carry messages or specific Walsh Masks to convey commands and selection options Messages have priority and delivery protocols Each message has a channel or channels on which it may be sent The structure of all the 1xEV-DO messages is defined in IS-856
EV-DO rev A - 50

Rev. A Layer-3 Messages Part 1

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 51

Rev. A Layer-3 Messages Part 2

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 52

EV-DO Rev. A Protocols and Subtypes

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 53

Access Procedures Access Procedures

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 54

Access Channel Transmission


The access channel is an uncoordinated, public channel where mobiles compete for the sectors attention despite risks of uncertain signal-to-noise ratio and even collision with transmissions of other users This situation is much like the access channel in IS-95 and CDMA2000, although transmissions are shorter A transmission by a mobile is called a probe, first sent at A power level calculated by the mobile from its receive power A time delayed by a randomly computed number of slots If a mobile does not hear an acknowledgment within a prescribed time, it knows the system did not hear its probe. A second probe is sent at an incrementally higher power, and only after waiting a randomly computed number of slots If unsuccessful, probing continues for as many probes and as many sequences of additional probes as parameters allow

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 55

Access Channel MAC Protocol

Probes allowed to start at intervals of AccessCycleDuration PreambleLength frames of pilot only on I channel, followed by CapsuleLengthMax frames of data on Q channel Probes shall avoid falling on ReverseLinkSilence Duration period, which occurs starting on ReverseLinkSilenceInterval times. Typical values RLSD, RLSI currently 0 on most systems ATI used is

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 56

Access Channel and Reverse Traffic Channel Long Code Masks


ACCESS CHANNEL LONG CODE MASK BIT MIACMAC
41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 Access Cycle Number

Permuted (Color Code | Sector ID)

REVERSE TRAFFIC CHANNEL LONG CODE MASK BIT MIRTCMAC


41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Permuted (ATILCM)

A sectors access channel is public. Its long code mask includes the sector ID and color code, as well as the Access Cycle Number. This ensures uniqueness so that the sector hears only mobiles intending to transmit to it, and not mobiles on other sectors During traffic channel operation, a mobile uses a long code mask unique to it long code offset is determined by the mobiles permuted ATI
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 57

Structure of an Access Probe

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 58

An EV-DO Connection An EV-DO Connection

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 59

EV-DO Connection
Access Point (AP)
TRAFFIC CONTROL MAC PILOT

CONNECTION ROUTE UPDATE CONNECTION REQUEST MAC ACK TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MAC RTC ACK TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMPLETE XON REQUEST NULL MESSAGE NEIGHBOR LIST XON RESPONSE ROUTE UPDATE

ACCESS TRAFFIC PILOT RRI DRC ACK DATA

Access Terminal (AT)

Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W23 #2 PN168+2 W23 #3 PN168+9 W23 #4 PN168+5 W23 Pilot Searcher

TRANSITION TO DORMANT
NULL MESSAGE TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMPLETE NEIGHBOR LIST

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 60

System Acquisition System Acquisition and Synchronization and Synchronization

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 61

Sync Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Maximum Revision Minimum Revision Pilot Pn SystemTime 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MaximumRevision MinimumRevision Pilot Pn SystemTime 4 0xAD 2A BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 11 0 1 1 216 0x07 39 50 86 F0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Initialization State Protocol Sync

The Sync message gives the mobile system time and the Pilot PN, along with basic signaling link details. After reading this message, the mobile can receive the control channel messages

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 62

Access Parameters Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Access Cycle Duration Access Signature Open Loop Adjust Probe Initial Adjust Probe Num Step Power Step Preamble Length Capsule Length Max APersistence APersistence APersistence APersistence Reserved 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID AccessCycleDuration AccessSignature OpenLoopAdjust ProdeInitialAdjust ProdeNumStep PowerStep PreambleLength CapsuleLengthMax APersistence APersistence APersistence APersistence Reserved 16384 0x03 2C BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 2 1 64 0 79 0 5 8 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule MAC: Access Channel MAC Protocol Access Parameters

The Access Parameters message tells the mobile everything it needs to know to transmit probes correctly on the access channel

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 63

Quick Config Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Color Code SectorID 24 LSBits Sector Signature Access Signature Redirecting Terminals away from this Network Max Nbr of RPC Channels Supported by Sector 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID ColorCode SectorID24 SectorSignature AccessSignature Redirect RPCCount 3 0xAD 2A BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 15 0 30 53506 0 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Overhead Messages Protocol Quick Config

0 Invalid 0

The Quick Config message tells the mobile the sector identify (color code, sector ID, Sector Signature, and Access Signature) The redirection flag can be used to send mobiles to a different carrier frequency or network, much like the GSRM in CDMA2000

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 64

1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Country Code

1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID Country Code

Sector Address Identifier Subnet Mask Sector Signature Latitude Longitude Route Update Radius Leap Seconds Local Time Offset Reverse Link Silence Duration Reverse Link Silence Period Channels Available System Type Band Class Channel Nbr Neighboring Sectors Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Pilot PN Neighbor Channel Included

SectorID SubnetMask SectorSignature Latitude Longitude RouteUpdateRadius LeapSeconds LocalTimeOffset ReverseLinkSilenceDuration ReverseLinkSilencePeriod ChannelCount SystemType BandClass ChannelNbr NeighborCount NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborPilotPN NeighborChannelIncluded

49156 0xAD 2A BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 15 1 1 0x00 84 0A C0 00 00 00 00 00 0A 04 0C A8 00 D1 02 104 0 0 0 0 13 1568 0 0 1 0 1 25 14 435 48 384 285 99 321 477 291 267 309 144 159 180 132 0

01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Sector Parameters Message


Gives full details of the sector configuration: ID, subnet mask, Lat/Lon,leap sec and local time offset, RL silence, Channels available, system type, band, channel#, neighbor list and search windows/offset
EV-DO rev A - 65

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Overhead Messages Protocol Sector Parameters

00D00'00.00N 000D00'00.00E

26 Hours 08 Minutes 0 Frames

System compliant to IS-856 1900MHz Band

Not Included

Neighbor Search Window Size Neighbor Included SearchWindowSizeIncluded Search Window Size (14) SearchWindowSize Neighbor Search Window Neighbor Offset Included SearchWindowOffsetIncluded

1 Included 8 60 Chips

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel Not Included

Observing a Connection Observing a Connection

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 66

EV-DO Connection
Access Point (AP)
TRAFFIC CONTROL MAC PILOT

CONNECTION ROUTE UPDATE CONNECTION REQUEST MAC ACK TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MAC RTC ACK TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMPLETE XON REQUEST NULL MESSAGE NEIGHBOR LIST XON RESPONSE ROUTE UPDATE

ACCESS TRAFFIC PILOT RRI DRC ACK DATA

Access Terminal (AT)

Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W23 #2 PN168+2 W23 #3 PN168+9 W23 #4 PN168+5 W23 Pilot Searcher

TRANSITION TO DORMANT
NULL MESSAGE TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMPLETE NEIGHBOR LIST

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 67

Connection: Route Update Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Message Seq Pilot Pilot Ec/Io Keep Reference Pilot Nbr of Pilots 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq ReferencePilotPn ReferencePilotStrength ReferenceKeep NumPilots 49157 0x04 2C BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 14 0 136 216 4 1 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Route Update

0.6 dB

The Route Update message is really a request for the sectors the mobile wants to have in its active set much like the pilot strength measurement message in CDMA2000 In this example the mobile asks for only one sector, PN216 Num Pilots 0 means there is just one pilot
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 68

Connection Request Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Transaction ID Request Reason Reserved 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID TransactionID RequestReason Reserved 49152 0x05 2C BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 12 1 32 0 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Idle State Protocol Connection Request Access Terminal Initiated

The Connection Request Message is sent by an idle mobile to request entry into active state, creating or joining a session This message is sent on the Access Channel. The mobile expects: To hear an acknowledgment on the control channel, or it will send another probe using the access protocol To hear a channel assignment message
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 69

AC Ack Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 49155 0x9A 2C BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 0 0 2 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule MAC: Access Channel MAC Protocol AC Ack

The Access Channel ACK message is sent on the forward control channel to tell the mobile its recent probe has been heard by the system After hearing this message, the mobile knows it does not to send any further repeated copies of its probe The mobile now waits for some form of channel assigment message

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 70

Traffic Channel Assignment Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Message Seq Channel Included Frame Offset Slots used to Transmit 1 DRC Value DRC Channel Gain Ack Channel Gain Nbr of Pilots Pilot Pn SofterHandoff MacIndex DRCCover RAB Length RAB Offset 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq ChannelIncluded FrameOffset DRCLength DRCChannelGain AckChannelGain NumPilots PilotPn SofterHandoff MacIndex DRCCover RABLength RABOffset 49153 0xB1 2C BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 14 1 0 0 8 1 61 8 1 216 0 63 1 2 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Traffic Channel Assignment Not Included

2 Slots 30.5 dB 4.0 dB

32 Slots 0 Slots

The traffic channel assignment message tells the mobile the sectors in the active set and the MAC index for each, along with DRC length/cover, RAB length/offset, and frame offset
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 71

RTC Ack Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 2 0x00 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule MAC: Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol RTC Ack

The mobile sends the RTC Ack message to confirm it has received the channel assignment and is working to apply it

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 72

Traffic Channel Complete Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID MessageSeq 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq 0 0x19 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 14 2 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Traffic Channel Complete

The mobile sends the Traffic Channel Complete message to confirm it has implemented the Traffic Channel assignment given to it by the system. Now the system can proceed with any additional signaling for configuration and the actual connection can proceed

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 73

X On Request
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 1 0x19 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 22 7 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule APPLICATION: Stream 2 Application XonRequest

The mobile now requests that data transmission begin, by transmitting an X On request.

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 74

Null Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag 16387 0x4C 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 1 0 0 255 0 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule

Null Message

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 75

Neighbor List Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Neighbor Count Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Channel Included (14) Search Window Size Included Search Window Size (14) Search Window Offset Included 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID Count PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN ChannelIncluded SearchWindowSizeIncluded SearchWindowSize SearchWindowOffsetIncluded 32772 0x4C 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 14 4 14 435 48 384 285 99 321 477 291 267 309 144 159 180 132 0 1 8 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Neighbor List

Not Included Included 60 Chips

0 Not Included

Neighbor PNs, channels, search window sizes and offsets


10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 76

X On Response
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 16389 0x4C 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 0 0 22 8 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule APPLICATION: Stream 2 Application XonResponse

The system confirms whether it has implemented the X On request from the mobile

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 77

Route Update Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Message Seq Pilot Pilot Ec/Io Keep Reference Pilot Nbr of Pilots 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq ReferencePilotPn ReferencePilotStrength ReferenceKeep NumPilots 0 0x59 2D BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 14 0 137 216 4 1 0 01/06/2006 01:46:28

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Route Update

0.6 dB

The mobile again reports its desired active pilot set This can include additional desired sectors, or ask to drop unwanted sectors In this example, no change is being made

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 78

Broadcast Reverse Rate Limit


1/6/2006 1:46 1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID RPC Count Rate Limit Reserved Control Channel Broadcast 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID RPCCount RateLimit Reserved MAC: Reverse Broadcast Reverse Rate Limit 49152 0xB8 2E BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 4 1 1 5 0 01/06/2006 01:46:29

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule MAC: Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol Broadcast Reverse Rate Limit 153.6 kbps

The Broadcast Reverse Rate Limit message tells EV-DO rev. 0 mobiles the maximum permitted reverse link transmit rate Mobiles start at 9600 bps and dynamically creep upward in speed until they reach this limit, or until the system asks for every mobile to reduce by setting the Reverse Activity bit EV-DO rev. B mobiles use a different mechanism for speed control
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 79

Nak Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 0 0xD9 56 BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 22 2 01/06/2006 01:46:42

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule APPLICATION: Stream 2 Application Nak

Mobile sends Application NAK message This indicates the end of transmission

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 80

Nak Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 32771 0x20 47 BD D6 98 00 1 25 216 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 0 0 22 2 01/06/2006 01:46:37

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule APPLICATION: Stream 2 Application Nak

System sends Application NAK message in response to the mobile Mobile goes to idle state

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 81

Page Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 49156 0x12 C0 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 1 0 12 0 01/06/2006 01:49:59

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Synchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Idle State Protocol Page

Forward control channel Page pages mobile to return to active state

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 82

AC Ack Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 1 0xA5 C0 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 0 0 2 0 01/06/2006 01:49:59

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule MAC: Access Channel MAC Protocol AC Ack

Control Channel MAC protocol sends this Access Channel AC Ack message to confirm the mobiles probe has been heard

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 83

RTC Ack Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID 16384 0x9B C1 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule MAC: Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol RTC Ack

Mobile acknowledges system

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 84

Traffic Channel Complete


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID MessageSeq 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq 32771 0xAD C1 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 14 2 0 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Traffic Channel Complete

Mobile acknowledges it is using the traffic channel

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 85

Null Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag 32770 0xEB C1 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 255 0 0 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule

Forward Traffic Channel

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 86

Neighbor List Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Neighbor Count Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Pilot PN Channel Included (9) Search Window Size Included Search Window Size (9) Search Window Offset Included 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID Count PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN PilotPN ChannelIncluded SearchWindowSizeIncluded SearchWindowSize SearchWindowOffsetIncluded 49155 0xEB C1 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 14 4 9 267 495 180 99 312 45 159 132 63 0 1 8 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Neighbor List

Not Included Included 60 Chips

0 Not Included

Forward traffic channel


10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 87

Route Update Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Message Seq Pilot Pilot Ec/Io Keep Reference Pilot Nbr of Pilots Pn Offset Channel Included Ec/Io Pilot Drop Timer Not Expired 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq ReferencePilotPn ReferencePilotStrength ReferenceKeep NumPilots PilotPnPhase ChannelIncluded PilotStrength Keep 16387 0x02 C2 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 14 0 141 12 18 1 1 31690 0 19 1 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Route Update

0.1 dB

Not Included 0.1 dB

The mobile requests its desired active set. This time there are two pilots, PN offset 12 and PN phase 31690

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 88

Null Message
1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag 32769 0x42 C2 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 255 1 0 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule

Forward traffic channel null message

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 89

Traffic Channel Assignment Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Message Seq Channel Included Frame Offset Slots used to Transmit 1 DRC Value DRC Channel Gain Ack Channel Gain Nbr of Pilots Pilot Pn SofterHandoff MacIndex DRCCover RAB Length RAB Offset Pilot Pn SofterHandoff MacIndex DRCCover RAB Length RAB Offset 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq ChannelIncluded FrameOffset DRCLength DRCChannelGain AckChannelGain NumPilots PilotPn SofterHandoff MacIndex DRCCover RABLength RABOffset PilotPn SofterHandoff MacIndex DRCCover RABLength RABOffset 49157 0x52 C2 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 14 1 1 0 7 2 58 8 2 12 0 63 1 2 0 495 0 62 2 2 0 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Traffic Channel Assignment Not Included

4 Slots 29.0 dB 4.0 dB

32 Slots 0 Slots

32 Slots 0 Slots

Forward Traffic Channel. Note PNs, MAC indices, DRC and RA


10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 90

Traffic Channel Complete


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID MessageSeq 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID MessageSeq 49155 0x57 C2 BF D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 0 14 2 1 01/06/2006 01:50:00

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is valid AckSeqNo is valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism was reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Route Update Protocol Traffic Channel Complete

Reverse traffic channel

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 91

Connection Close Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Reason for Close Suspend Enable 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID CloseReason SuspendEnable 32773 0x5E C3 C0 D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 255 0 0 13 0 0 0 01/06/2006 01:51:22

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Connected State Protocol Connection Close Normal Close Disabled

Forward traffic channel closes the connection Note Normal Close, i.e., this was my idea

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 92

Connection Close Message


1/32 chip counter 1.25 msec counter Frequency Band CDMA Channel Nbr Pilot PN Offset Half-slot Reference Counter IS-890 Signaling Seq Nbr Valid AckSeqNo valid Ack Packet Fragmented Signaling Link Protocol Seq Nbr of Message Seq Nbr of Ack Synchronous Control Channel In Configuration Bit Type Message ID Reason for Close Suspend Enable 1/32 Chip Counter 1.25 msec Counter Band ChanNum PilotPN HSTR Is_hdris890 SeqValid AckSeqValid Frgmented Reliable SeqNo AckSeqNo SyncCCFlag InConfiguration Type MessageID CloseReason SuspendEnable 16389 0x73 C3 C0 D6 98 00 1 25 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 13 0 1 0 01/06/2006 01:51:22

NOT IS-890 SeqNo is not valid AckSeqNo is not valid Packet NOT fragmented Signaling Link Protocol delivery mechanism NOT reliable

Asynchronous Control Channel Capsule CONNECTION: Connected State Protocol Connection Close Close Reply Disabled

Reverse traffic channel. Note Close Reply i. e., it wasnt my idea but we will since you want to

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 93

Access Terminal Architecture Access Terminal Architecture And Handoffs Route Updates And Handoffs Route Updates

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 94

Block Diagram of an Access Terminal


summing time-aligned

Chips

control

Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Receiver RF Section IF, Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0

bits

Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx

Symbols

power

Viterbi Decoder, Convl. Decoder, Demultiplexer

Packets
UART Conv or Turbo Coder

Messages

CPU

Transmit Gain Adjust Messages Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen.

Transmitter RF Section
10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 95

1xEV-DO Forward Link: AT Rake Receivers


ONE sector at a time!!

Access Terminal
Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN RF PN PN Walsh Walsh Walsh Pilot Ec/Io

user data

AP AP

Searcher PN W=0

Burst by burst, the Access Terminal asks for transmission from whichever Active sector it hears best, at the max speed it can successfully use Using latest multipath data from its pilot searcher, the Access Terminal uses the combined outputs of the four traffic correlators (rake fingers) Each rake finger can be set to match any multipath component of the signal The terminal may be a dual-mode device also capable of 1xRTT voice/data fingers could even be targeted on different AP, but in 1xEV-DO mode only a single AP transmits to us, never more than one at a time, so this capability isnt needed or helpful in 1xEV-DO mode
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 96

1xEV-DO Reverse Link: Soft Handoff


All Active Set sectors can listen to the AT

Access Terminal
Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN RF PN PN Walsh Walsh Walsh Pilot Ec/Io

user data

AP

DO-RNC chooses cleanest packet

AP

Searcher PN W=0

The AT uses the Route Update protocol to frequently update its preferences of which sectors it wants in its active set Frame-by-frame, all the sectors in the Active Set listen for the ATs signal Each sector collects what it heard from the AT, and sends it back to the DO-RNC. The DO-RNC uses the cleanest (lowest number of errors) packet
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 97

1xEV-DO Route Update Mechanics


Access Terminal

DO-RNC
Sel.
AP AP

Rake Receiver PN Walsh

? ?

PN RF PN PN

Walsh Walsh Walsh

user data

Searcher PN W=0

Pilot Ec/Io

1xEV-DO Route Update is driven by the Access Terminal Access Terminal continuously checks available pilots Access Terminal tells system pilots it currently sees System puts those sectors in the active set, tells Access Terminal Access terminal requests data bursts from the sector it likes best tells which sector and what burst speed using the DRC channel so there is no Soft Handoff on the forward link, just fast choices All sectors in Active Set try to hear AT, forward packets to the DO-RNC so the reverse link does benefit from CDMA soft handoff
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 98

Route Update Pilot Management Rules


PILOT SETS The Access Terminal considers pilots in sets Active: sectors who listen and can transmit Active 6 Candidates: sectors AT requested, but not Candidate 6 yet approved by system to be active Neighbors: pilots told to AT by system, as Neighbor 20 nearby sectors to check Remaining Remaining: any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets (div. by PILOT_INC) Access Terminal sends a Route Update HANDOFF Message to the system whenever: PARAMETERS It transmits on the Access Channel PilotAdd PilotDrop Pilot In idle state, it notices the serving sector is PilotDrop Compare Timer far from the sector where last updated Dynamic Thresholds? In connected state, whenever it notices the Softslope Handoff Parameters suggest a change
AddIntercept DropIntercept NeighborMaxAge
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 99

AT must support

Format of Traffic Channel Assignment Message


The Traffic Channel Assignment Message assigns all or some of the sectors the access terminal requested in its most recent Route Update request The message lists every Active pilot; if it doesnt list it, its not approved as active Notice the MAC index and DRC Cover so the access terminal knows how to request forward link bursts on the data rate control channel
Neighbor Structure Maintained by the AT
Pilot PN Channel SrchWinSize SrchWinOffset

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 100

1xEV-DO Network Architecture 1xEV-DO Network Architecture Simple IP and Mobile IP Simple IP and Mobile IP

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 101

CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls

(C)BSC/Access Manager Switch

PSTN

t1

t1

SEL

t1

CE
BTS

The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 102

CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network


PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network
Authentication Authorization Accounting

Internet VPNs
PDSN Home Agent

AAA
Switch

(C)BSC/Access Manager

PSTN

t1

t1

SEL

t1

CE
BTS

CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 103

1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network


PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network
Authentication Authorization Accounting

Internet VPNs
PDSN Home Agent

DO Radio Network Controller


(C)BSC/Access Manager

DO-OMC

AAA
Switch

CE

PSTN

t1

t1

SEL

t1

CE
BTS

1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading The following sections show Lucent, Motorola, and Nortels specific solutions
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 104

Simple IP Network Architecture


Simple IP
IP Based

transport to data networks Dynamic/static connection from local PDSN No mobility beyond serving PDSN

FAST IP PACKET TRAFFIC Internet VPNs T


AAA
Authentication Authorization Accounting

PDSN

R-P Interface
BTS

rf
Fast! CE
Wireless Mobile Device

(C)BSC/Access Manager Switch

PSTN

t1

t1

SEL

t1

CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC

POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS

In a Simple IP network, the mobile is able to connect to the external packet networks directly through the PDSN attached to the local BSC The IP address for the internet connection is assigned by the local PDSN from the pool of addresses available to it If the mobile moves into a different network, the data session ends The mobile can establish an entirely new connection through the new network, if desired
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 105

Mobile IP in a Multi-Market Network


Internet
Regional Data Center

Private IP Networks

Home Agent

Home Agent

AAA Server

Operator's Private Network


Nortel System
IP Data

Lucent System
IP Data

Motorola System
IP Data

PCF

PDSN FA Switch

RP Interface BSC

PDSN FA

RP
Access Mgr. Switch

PDSN/FA Switch

RP
CBSC

Voice

Voice

Voice

PSTN
10-2007

PSTN
1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

PSTN
EV-DO rev A - 106

Mobile IP
Subscribers IP routing service is provided by a public IP network Mobile station is assigned a static IP address belonging to its Home Agent Mobile can maintain the static IP address even for handoff between radio networks connected to separate PDSNs! Mobile IP capabilities will be especially important for mobiles on system boundaries Without Mobile IP roaming capability, data service for borderarea mobiles will be erratic

MOBILE IP
IMPLICATIONS Handoffs possible between PDSNs Mobile can roam in the public IP network Mobile termination is possible while Mobile is in dormant or active mode

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 107

How the PDSN HA and FA Forward Your Packets


Mobile IP is a packetforwarding arrangement that allows the mobile user to send and receive packets just as if they were physically present Foreign Home at their home agent Agent Agent location.
Encapsulation

Just like Home!

158766 158767 158768 158769 158770 158771 158772

158774 158775 158776

158782 158783 158784 158785

158790 158791 158792 158793 158794 158795 158796 158797

158778 158779 158780 158781

158786 158787 158788 158789

FedEx

Secure Tunneling
Forward and Reverse

FedEx

158773

Mobile User

This box is the mobile user's Postal address

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 108

Nortel 1xEV-DO Architecture Nortel 1xEV-DO Architecture

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 109

A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System


Providing 1xRTT Voice, Data, and 1xEV-DO

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 110

A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System


Providing Only 1xRTT Voice, Data

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 111

A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System


Providing 1xEV-DO Only

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 112

Nortel Multiple Backhaul and Configuration Possibilities

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 113

Nortel DOM: Data-Only Module


The Data Only Module (DOM) adds 1xEV-DO capability to a MetroCell AP CEM shelf transmits/receives baseband data to/from the digital control group (DCG) in the CORE module CORE switches baseband to proper carrier on the MFRM for transmission the DOM performs all encoding/decoding of IP packets for transport on data-only network to the Data-Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) One DOM supports up to a three-sector, one-carrier MetroCell AP Additional DOMs support additional carriers

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 114

Nortels DO-RNC The Data-Only Radio Network Controller


DO-RNC is the heart of a 1xEV-DO network, located at the central office (CO) with the BSC and/or BSS Manager (BSSM) DO-RNC is a stand-alone node supporting 1xEV-DO. It manages: DOMs at multiple APs (even on different band classes) over IP-based backhaul network access terminal state, both idle and connected handoffs of ATs between cells and carrier frequencies (reverse); sector selection (fwd). Nortel DO-RNC connections from airlink to PDSN over Data-Only standard A10-A11 interfaces Radio Network Controller connects to MetroCell AP via dedicated IP backhaul network DO-RNC is the peer of the access terminal for most over-the-air signaling protocols, including session and connection layers
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 115

Backhaul and Backhaul and Related Considerations Related Considerations

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 116

Rate Limitations from Backhaul


Wireless sites are commonly connected using T-1s or E-1s, depending on local availability In the case of T-1s, the raw rate is 1.544 megabits/second. Accounting for overhead, this translates into a maximum steady throughput of roughly 400 to 450 kb/s per sector on a 3-sector, 1-carrier EV-DO site. If one sector is busy while the other two are only lightly loaded, throughput of roughly 1 mb/s can be obtained on one sector However, early 1xEV-DO cards without support for multiple ARQ instances can only achieve about 400 kb/s throughput even without backhaul limitations Solutions under study to relieve backhaul congestion include fiberbased ATM to the sites; multiple-T1s; sites linked by Cable Modems, and other methods
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 117

1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Key Performance Indicators Key Performance Indicators

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 118

Latency
IP Data Environment Internet VPNs
T
PDSN/Foreign Agent Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting

PDSN Home Agent

AAA

R-P Interface
AP
SEL

t1
DO RNC or FMS

EVM

EVDO IOS PPP

Coverage Holes Pilot Pollution Missing Neighbors Fwd Pwr Ovld Rev Pwr Ovld Search Windows Wireless Island Cells Mobile Device Slow Handoff

Latency can occur because of RF channel congestion or from IP network causes RF overload can delay availability of supplemental channels IP network congestion can delay availability of packets Ping and loopback tests with local PDSN and servers can identify whether problem is in backbone network Does latency correlate with independent evidence of RF congestion?
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 119

IP Data Environment

EVDO RF Environment

Throughput
IP Data Environment Internet VPNs
T
PDSN/Foreign Agent Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting

PDSN Home Agent

AAA

R-P Interface
AP
SEL

t1
DO RNC / FMS

EVM

EVDO IOS PPP

Coverage Holes Pilot Pollution Missing Neighbors Fwd Pwr Ovld Rev Pwr Ovld Search Windows Wireless Island Cells Mobile Device Slow Handoff

Throughput can be limited by RF and IP causes Traditional RF problems limit capacity of the channel Congestion in the IP network can limit speed of data available Does low throughput correlate with independent RF indicators? Does low throughput correlate with independent IP pings and tests?

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 120

IP Data Environment

CDMA RF Environment

I0, Total AT Receive Power


AT Receive Power usually expressed in dBm measured derived from handset IF AGC voltage broadband, unintelligent measurement: includes all RF in the carrier bandwidth regardless of source, not just RF from serving BTS
overload>> <<too weak

I0
AT Receiver
-40
Rake R R LNA x LO IF

BW ~30 MHz.

R BW 1.25 S MHz. RX Level (from AGC)

-90 -105

AT power is important, but its exact value isnt critical too much received signal (-35 dbm or higher) could drive the ATs sensitive first amplifier into overload, causing intermod and code distortion on received CDMA signals too little received signal (-105 or weaker) would leave too much noise in the signal after de-spreading, resulting in symbol errors, bit errors, packet errors, and other problems
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 121

Ec/Io and C/I


There are two main ways of expressing signal quality in 1xEV-DO C/I is the ratio of serving sector power to everything else C/I determines the forward data rate mobiles measure C/I during the pilot burst period, then from it decide what data rate to request on the DRC Ec/Io is the ratio of one sectors pilot power to the total received power Ec/Io and C/I are related, and one can be calculated from the other EVDO Ec/Io is close to 0 db near a sector, and ranges down to -10 at a cells edge EVDO C/I can be above +10 db near a sector, and -20 or lower at the edge

AP

Relationship of C/I and Ec/Io For EV-DO Signals


mobile receive power

C I
0 0

Power from Serving Sector

Ec Io

Interference Power from other cells

Ec/Io, db

-10 -20 -30 -30

-20

-10

+10

+20

C/I, db 10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 122

Relationship of Ec/Io and C/I in 1xEV-DO Systems


-30
Ec/Io, db C/I, db

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20 0

-0.04 -0.14 -0.17 -0.21 -0.27 -0.33 -0.41 -0.51 -0.64 -0.79 -0.97 -1.19 -1.46 -1.76 -2.12 -2.54 -3.01 -3.54 -4.12 -4.76 -5.46 -6.97 -8.64 -10.41 -12.27

20 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12

-5

-10

Ec/Io, db

-15

-20

-25

-30

C/I, db

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 123

Statistical EVDO Indications


RF Connection failures Mobile does not reach an assigned traffic channel RF Connection Losses Existing connection is lost due to failure of forward or reverse link RF Blocking Due to MAC index, backhaul, or other congestion

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 124

Optimizing the RF Air Interface Optimizing the RF Air Interface

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 125

Dealing With RF Coverage Anomalies


It is difficult to build a system without encountering a few coverage holes and without having some sectors that cover more than planned The techniques for identifying and resolving these problems are similar to IS-95 and 1xRTT, with a few modifications Detection methods: Area sweeps with EV-DO PN scanners and EV-DO terminals If a sector is in the active set of mobiles in places beyond the line joining its surrounding tier of sites, reduce its coverage Site RF parameters, antenna downtilt, or antenna height If a sector fails to cover its intended area, look for obvious hardware or environmental reasons Repair or correct any such impairments, and if unsuccessful, look for other serving sectors Reradiators are feasible for EV-DO, but setup is tricky

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 126

Generating and Optimizing Neighbor Lists


After coverage of each sector has been studied and adjusted if necessary, neighbor relationships are now stable Initial neighbor lists can be generated from propagation prediction modeling or even from drive-test results with AT or PN scanners The most reliable way to groom neighbor lists is to use system tools to collect route update requests from each sector. These results can be analyzed in matrix form to determine the frequency of requests for each surrounding sector Sectors with more than 5% of requests are usually added Sectors with less than 1% of requests are usually unnecessary Watch out for sectors that are already neighbors of neighbors and would be unnecessary Watch out for special specific cases where unusual relationships exist because of terrain and busy roadways

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 127

Optimizing Search Windows


The pilot searcher of a mobile must be able to see the pilots of any sectors it may encounter otherwise route update is impossible Timing errors affect pilot searching. Sources include: Timing delay from reference sector to mobile This delay is unknown to the mobile, but it goes into the mobiles reference timing without the mobiles knowledge Timing delay from needed neighbor signal to the mobile This delay is also unknown to the mobile, but it can shift the apparent timing of the desired neighbor either ahead or behind the timing the mobile expects The worst-case error in timing is the propagation delay of a straight line between reference sector and desired sector Neighbor search window can be set to this level initially and possibly reduced if accumulated data later allows Active search windows float on their individual pilots and do not need to be large enough to handle propagation delay. They only need to accommodate delay spread, which is better measured than calculated.

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 128

Search Window Offset


Search Window Offset 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Offset (PN chips) 0 +0.5 x WindowSize +1.0 x WindowSize +1.5 x WindowSize - 0.5 x WindowSize -1.0 x WindowSize -1.5 x WindowSize reserved
-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 +0.5 +1.0 +1.5

Search window offsets make it possible to individually compensate for the great distance of certain sectors from the service area of another The range of adjustment can effectively shift the center of the search window by up to 1.5 times earlier or later than the actual search window width

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 129

Andrews Invex3G Tool


100 MB ethernet connection to PC the eight card slots can hold receivers or dual-phone cards theres also room for two internal PN scanners Multiple Invex units can be cascaded for multi-phone loadtest applications Cards are field-swappable Users can reconfigure the unit in the field for different tasks without factory assistance

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 130

Overview of Field Tool IP Test Capabilities

Application Raw Upload Raw Download Raw Loopback

Description Uploads data with no overhead (no headers, no handshaking beyond the normal TCP handshaking) Downloads data with no overhead (no headers, no handshaking beyond the normal TCP handshaking.) A loopback (data is sent to the remote server which returns the same data) application with no overhead (no headers, no handshaking beyond the normal TCP handshaking.) Ping does not use the TCP protocol, but rather uses the connectionless and unreliable ICMP protocol. Sends small echo request packets to a remote server, which responds with an echo reply. A standard web page browse request. A web-based upload (similar to how web-based email sites allow users to upload files as attachments). A standard FTP file download. Many file downloads on the Internet use FTP. A FTP file upload. The file is generated by the Invex3G platform and sent to the server. Retrieves all the mail for a given mailbox (e-mail address) from an e-mail server. Note: does not delete the e-mail messages from the mailbox. Waits a specified amount of time.

Purpose Testing uplink throughput Testing downlink throughput Simultaneous exercise of the uplink and downlink

Ping (ICMP ECHO)

Determining round-trip-time between the user and the remote server, as well as general link integrity (by counting the number of missing echo reply packets). If Raw Download is unavailable, testing downlink throughput; modeling typical customer use. If Raw Upload is unavailable, testing uplink throughput. If Raw Download and HTTP GET are unavailable, testing downlink throughput; modeling typical customer use. If Raw Upload and HTTP POST are unavailable, testing uplink throughput Modeling typical customer use.

HTTP GET HTTP POST FTP GET FTP PUT Mail GET (POP3)

Wait

Testing idle timers, timeouts, etc.

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 131

Agilent Drive-Test Tools


Agilent offers Drive-Test tools Serial interfaces for up to four CDMA phones or cards A very flexible digital receiver with several modes PN Scanner Fast, GPS-locked, can scan two carrier frequencies Spectrum Analyzer Can scan entire 800 or 1900 mHz. Bands Base-Station Over-Air Tester (BOAT) Can display all walsh channel activity on a specific sector Useful for identifying hardware problems, monitoring instantaneous traffic levels, etc. Post-Processing tool: OPAS32
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 132

1xEV-DO Setup Performance: 1xEV-DO Setup Performance: Sessions and Connections Sessions and Connections

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 133

Session Configuration Parameters


In initial Session and Connection setup, the access channel and control channel carry the messages If L3 messages and RF indications are available, problems usually can be identified Check the access parameters The range of powers should step through a range from the idlemode noise floor up to about 20 db above it A smaller power range can result in missed probes Check AP/BTS reverse receive levels, peak and average looking for indications of interference Ensure sector size and acquisition search windows are adequate

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 134

Long Setup Times and RF Failures


Long setup times, often seen as bad latency in VOIP and PTT applications, can result when extensive probing occurs. This can be the result of: RF reverse link interference External interference or rogue terminals Incorrect Access Parameters, having mobiles start probing at low RF levels

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 135

Forward Link Forward Link Throughput Optimization Throughput Optimization

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 136

PDSN/Foreign Agent

Forward Link Scheduler


data Buffer

R-P Interface
AP
PCF SEL

User Data Rate


EVM
EVDO device

t1
DO-RNC or FMS

The main bottleneck is forward link available C/I and timeslots Each connected data User has a buffer in the PDSN/PCF complex When data is in the buffer, a Data Ready message is sent to the mobile The mobile then requests data from the desired sector on DRC/DSC The scheduler fairly divides slots among the active users Proportional Fairness applies, always trying to give slots to each user when that users link is better than average This substantially improves (40%+) both user and overall sector throughput QOS (Quality of Service) rules also may be implemented, giving preference to some users and some types of traffic
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 137

So S L O W ! !
IP Data Environment Internet VPNs
T
PDSN/Foreign Agent Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting

Wheres My Data?!!

PDSN Home Agent

AAA

R-P Interface
AP
SEL

t1
DO-RNC / FMS

EVM

EVDO IOS PPP

Coverage Holes Pilot Pollution Missing Neighbors Fwd Pwr Ovld Rev Pwr Ovld Search Windows Wireless Island Cells Mobile Device Slow Handoff

Some sessions have long latency and slow throughput Where is the problem? Anywhere between user and distant host: Is the mobile users data device mis-configured and/or congested? Is the AP congested, with few timeslots available? Poor RF environment, causing low rates and packet retransmission? Congestion in the local IP network (PCU, R-P, PDSN FA)? Congestion in the wireless operators backbone (OSSN) network? Congestion in the PDSN HA? Congestion in the outside-world internet or Private IP network? Is the distant host congested, with long response times?
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 138

IP Data Environment

EVDO RF Environment

Finding Causes of Latency and Low Throughput


Test Server Test Server IP Data Environment
T

Test Server
PDSN/Foreign Agent

Internet VPNs

Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting

PDSN Home Agent

AAA

R-P Interface
BTS

v SEL
DO-RNC or FMS

t1

CE

EVDO IOS PPP

Coverage Holes Pilot Pollution Missing Neighbors Fwd Pwr Ovld Rev Pwr Ovld Search Windows Wireless Island Cells Mobile Device Slow Handoff

IP network performance can be measured using test servers Problems between mobile a local test server? The problem is local check RF conditions, stats: poor environment, SCH blocking? if the RF is clean, investigate BSC/PCU/R-P/PDSN-FA Local results OK, problems accessing test server at PDSN-HA? problem is narrowed to backbone network, or PDSN-HA Results OK even through test server at PDSN-HA then the problem is in the public layers beyond.
10-2007 1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel EV-DO rev A - 139

IP Data Environment

EVDO RF Environment

Forward Link Speed No Dominant Server

When there are many equal servers, the C/I values of each server are very poor and the forward link data speed from any of the servers is very low This is the equivalent of pilot pollution in 1xRTT CDMA

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

EV-DO rev A - 140

Forward Link Speed Very Dominant Server

When one server stands head and shoulders above the other sectors, its C/I is excellent and it can deliver very fast data However, if this server is overloaded with traffic, the mobile has no alternative sector and the blocking will have a large impact

10-2007

1xEV-DO Rev. A (c)2007 Scott Baxter and Nortel

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Forward Link Speed Three Equal Servers

When three sectors are approximately equally strong, their C/I values are medium-to-poor. Any of these sectors could deliver data to the mobile at 307 Kb/s If one of these sectors becomes saturated and puts up its DRC Lock bit against our mobile, the mobile could choose another sector and avoid most blocking
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Single User Traffic Statistics from Invex

The average bit speed obtained by a mobile on downlink is affected by: RF conditions (this determines the instantaneous bit speed when a slot is being sent to the mobile) Fraction of time during which the mobile owns the sector The above tabulation from the Andrew Invex tool shows the bit speed for all slots to the mobile, allowing independent identification of RF problems and traffic congestion effects due to others

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Reverse Link Reverse Link Throughput Optimization Throughput Optimization

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Reverse Link Throughput Considerations

Reverse Link throughput is influenced by Instantaneous RF conditions, dictating selected packet speed and Hybrid-ARQ speedup, if any Congestion on the reverse link, as indicated by the sector limiting the available slots from the mobile T-1 or other backhaul limitation, imposing ceilings on the number of reverse packets which can be uploaded from an AP to the AN

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Reverse Link Rate Control in Rev. A


Discussion of Reverse Link rate control algorithm Bucket control mechanism Available packet scheduling parameters vary by manufacturer Extreme sensitivity to reverse link interference, like 1xRTT

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1xEV-DO // 1xRTT 1xEV-DO 1xRTT Interoperability Interoperability

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1xEV-DO/1xRTT Interoperability
The CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. 0 Standard IS-856 makes no provision for any kind of handoff to or from any other technology Driven by Operator interest, a Hybrid mode has been developed to provide some types of handoff functions to the best extent possible Hybrid Mode is a mobile only function neither the EV nor 1xRTT network knows anything about it is a proprietary feature with vendor-specific implementation has no standard-defined RF triggers; no hooks In the 1xEV rev. A standard, some new features are provided Using the CDMA2000 Circuit Services Negotiation Protocol, the 1xEV control channel can carry 1xRTT pages too this and other changes will eventually make the hybrid mode unnecessary and obsolete

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What Handoffs are Possible in Hybrid Mode?


All switching between systems occurs in Idle Mode there are no handoffs in active traffic state in either mode Sessions can be transferred from one system to the other, but NOT in active traffic state If there is a connection, it can be closed and then re-originated on the other system In some cases this can be accomplished automatically without the end-users awareness in other cases, the user must manually reconnect

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Hybrid Mode Transition Scenarios


1:2 Deployment 1:1 Deployment EV-DO, F2 1xRTT, F1 1:1 Deployment

DO systems will be Implemented in Several Configurations 1:1 overlays in busy core areas 1:1 or 1:N overlays in less dense areas Many EV>1x and 1x>EV transition events may occur as a user transitions from area to area Initial system acquisition is also involved as a user activates their AT in different locations These transitions are dependent on the Hybrid mode implementation in the AT The following pages show some possible transitions assuming Mobile IP and AT Hybrid Mode are implemented

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1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Hybrid Idle Mode


1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Mode depends on being able to hear pages on both systems 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO is possible because of slotted mode paging 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO paging slots do not occur simultaneously mobile can monitor both During 1xEV-DO traffic operation, the hybrid-aware mobile can still keep monitoring 1xRTT paging channel During 1xRTT traffic operation, the hybrid-aware mobile is unable to break away; 1xRTT traffic operation is continuous no opportunity to see 1xEV-DO signal This hybrid Idle mode capability is the foundation for all 1xRTT/1xEV mode transfers the network does not trigger any transfers

1xEV-DO Idle

1xEV-DO Active

Idle Mode

Hybrid Mode 1xRTT Idle


Idle Mode

1xRTT Active

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Hybrid Dual-Mode Idle Operation 1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Paging Interoperability


16-frame Control Channel Cycle 16 slots of 26-2/3 ms = 426-2/3 ms

LONGEST POSSIBLE PACKET DRC 16 Subpackets

1xRTT Minimum Slot Cycle Index: 16 slots of 80 ms each = 48 26-2./3 ms frames

A dual-mode 1xRTT/1xEV-DO mobile using slotted-mode paging can effectively watch the paging channels of both 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO at the same time How is it possible for the mobile to monitor both at the same time? The paging timeslots of the two technologies are staggered Three of the 16 timeslots in 1xRTT conflict with the control channel slots of 1xEV-DO However, conflicts can be avoided by page repetition, a standard feature in systems of both technologies
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Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is NOT Available


1xEV-DO Active 1xEV-DO Idle

Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL

no, cant see EV

Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL

Register with 1xRTT Network

1xRTT Idle

Idle Mode Classical 1xRTT Idle Mode

After entering this state, the mobile will search for EV-DO at intervals (typ. 3 min) Voice Page! Idle Mode Release

1xRTT Active

1xRTT Voice Call

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Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is Available


1xEV-DO Active
Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session 1xEV Traffic interrupted during 1xRTT voice call 1xEV Traffic Data Connection Closed

Triggers:

1xEV-DO Idle

Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL

yes, found EV Idle Mode

AT Data Ready! AN Data Page!

Idle Mode

Hybrid Mode
Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network

Hybrid Mode
Voice Page! Idle Mode

Hybrid Mode
Idle Mode

1xRTT Idle

Idle Mode

Idle Mode

Release

1xRTT Active

1xRTT Voice Call

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In-Traffic: EV-DO Fade with 1xRTT Available

Fade

1xEV-DO Active

AT data ready

Traffic Mode, Data Transfer

Close Connection

PPP Resync MIP Registr.

Traffic Mode, Data Transfer


AN data ready

Fade

1xEV-DO Idle

Get New UATI Dormant /Idle DO System Acquired


no

Same DO Subnet?

1xRTT Idle

Idle Mode

Dormant /Idle

1xRTT Active

Reestablish Call

PPP Resync MIP Registr.

Resume Data Transfer

Transfer Finished

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Transition In-Traffic: Lost EV-DO and 1xRTT

Fade

1xEV-DO Active

Traffic Mode, Data Transfer

Close Connection

Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session Get New UATI


No

1xEV Traffic

Fade

1xEV-DO Idle

DO PRL, Idle Search for Mode DO

Found New DO Signal!!

Triggers: AT Data Ready! AN Data Page!

Same DO Subnet? Yes

Idle Mode

Idle Mode

Hybrid Mode
Fade

Idle Mode Use 1x PRL, Search for 1xRTT Use 1x PRL, Search for 1xRTT
No Signal Found!!

1xRTT Idle

Idle Mode
Lost Signal!!

No Signal Found!!

No 1x Signal, Continue EV Operation

1xRTT Active

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Dormant Session, EV-DO Lost > 1xRTT > 1xEV-DO

1xEV-DO Active

Coverage Edge

Fade

Traffic Mode, Data Transfer


Data Finished, Call Dormant Fade Found New DO Signal!!

PPP Resync MIP Registr.

1xEV-DO Idle

Get New UATI


No

Idle Mode

DO PRL, Search for DO

No Signal Found!!

DO PRL, DO Available?

No Signal Found!!

DO PRL, DO Available?

No Signal Found!!

DO PRL, DO Available?

Same DO Subnet? Yes

Idle Mode

Hybrid Mode
Idle Mode

1xRTT Idle

Idle Mode

Idle Mode

1xRTT Active

PPP Resync MIP Registr.

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EVDO Standard EVDO Standard And Standards Documents And Standards Documents

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EVDO Standards
C.S0024-0_v2.0 Oct., 2000 Original EV-DO standard, derived from Qualcomms HDR C.S0024-0_v3.0 Dec., 2001 Improvements to stability and throughput C.S0024-0_v4.0 Oct., 2002 Final Rev. 0 standard; improvements in several layers C.S0024-A_v1.0 Mar., 2004 First Rev. A standard, offering higher speeds on the reverse link and enhancements to speed applications like VOIP and multi-user/multimedia C.S0024-A_v2.0 July, 2005 More application-driven enhancements C.S0024-A_v3.0 Sep., 2006 Current Rev. A Standard: More application-driven enhancements C.S0024-B_v1.0 May, 2006 Advanced version providing up to 4.9 mb/s per carrier and the ability to gang multiple carriers for speeds of at least 14 mb/s

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Conceptual Framework of the IS-856 Standard


Architecture Reference Model

IS-856 defines the behavior of Interface Sector three main entities: Access Access Network Terminal Access Terminal Air Interface Protocol Architecture Access Network IS-856 Layer Protocol & Function Chapter The behavior of the system is 2 Application Default Signaling Application defined in layers Default Packet Application 3 Stream 0: Default Signaling the layers provide a Stream 4 Stream 1, 2, 3: not used by default simple, logical foundation Negotiation for performing functions Session Protocol Configuration Address Mgt. 5 Protocol State Mtce. and applications Connection Air Link Connection Establishment 6 Air Link Connection Maintenance Specific applications, functions and protocols Security Authentication 7 Encryption exist in each layer Defines procedures to transmit Each layer is defined in Mac 8 and receive over the physical layer specific chapters of the Physical Channel Structure Modulation. 9 standard Frequency, Power Encoding.
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Air

Stack Layers and their Default Protocols


Default Signaling Application
Signaling Network Protocol Signaling Link Protocol

Default Packet Application


Radio Link Protocol

Flow Control Protocol Location Update Protocol

Application
layer

Stream Protocol Session Management Protocol Air Link Management Protocol Packet Consolidation Protocol Security Protocol Control Channel MAC Protocol Address Management Protocol Initialization State Protocol Route Update Protocol Key Exchange Protocol Forward Traffic Channel MAC Protocol Authentication Protocol Access Channel MAC Protocol Idle State Protocol Session Configuration Protocol Connected State Protocol Overhead Messages Protocol Encryption Protocol Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol

Stream
layer

Session
layer

Connection
layer

Security
layer

Mac
layer

Physical Layer Protocol

Physical
layer

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1xEV-DO Protocol Layers and Packet Encapsulation


Application Layer Stream Layer Session Layer Connection Layer Encryption Layer Authentication Layer Security Layer
Header Applicaton Layer Packet

Header

Payload

Packet

Packet

Payload

Header

Payload

Pad

Header

Payload

Trailer

Header

Payload

Trailer

Header

Payload

Trailer

Header

Payload

Trailer

MAC Layer

MAC Header

MAC Payload

MAC Trailer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer Payload

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EV-DO Rev. A Improvements


Support of enhanced reverse link One channel per mobile station Mobile station is required to transmit at 1.84 Mbps peak rate Shorter frames Higher capacity Forward link enhancements Higher peak data rate of 3.1 Mbps Smaller packet sizes (128, 256, and 512 bits) Multi-user packets Improved slotted mode Shorter slot cycle for reduced activation time Subsynchronous control channel for enhanced standby time Slots coordinated with need to listen to 1xRTT paging channel 1xRTT paging channel content transmitted on EVDO control channel Enhanced multi-flow packet data application Reverse link MAC enhancements for QoS Data Source Control (DSC) for seamless cell selection Enhanced Generic Attribute Update protocol

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Non-Default Protocols
Multi-Flow Packet Application
Flow Control Protocol Radio Link Protocol Data over SignalIng Protocol Location Update Protocol

CDMA2000 Circuit Services Notification Application

Application
CDMA2000 Circuit Services Negotiation Protocol layer

Generic Virtual Stream Protocol

Stream
layer

Generic Multimode Capability Discovery Protocol Enhanced Idle State Protocol Generic Security Protocol
Enhanced Forward Traffic Channel MAC Protocol Enhanced Control Channel MAC Protocol

Session
layer

Connection
layer SHA-1 Authentication Protocol
Subtype-1 Reverse Trafic Channel MAC Protocol Subtype 3 Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol

DH Key Exchange Protocol


Enhanced Access Channel MAC Protocol Subtype-2 Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol

Security
layer

Mac
layer

Subtype 1 Physical Layer Protocol

Subtype 2 Physical Layer Protocol

Physical
layer

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