SATELLITE KNOTS
YUANYUAN BAO
Abstract. Knot Floer homology is an invariant for knots in the threesphere for
which the Euler characteristic is the AlexanderConway polynomial of the knot. The
aim of this paper is to study this homology for a class of satellite knots, so as to see
how a certain relation between the AlexanderConway polynomials of the satellite,
companion and pattern is generalized on the level of the knot Floer homology. We
also use our observations to study a classical geometric invariant, the Seifert genus,
of our satellite knots.
1. Introduction
Given a link L in the threesphere S
3
, the knot Floer homology of L [13, 15] is
denoted
iZ
HFK(S
3
, L, i) with i being the Alexander grading. It generalizes the
AlexanderConway polynomial in the following sense:
Theorem 1.1 ([13], [15]). Given an lcomponent link L S
3
, we see
i
(
HFK(S
3
, L, i)) T
i
= (T
1/2
T
1/2
)
l1
L
(T).
Here (
HFK(S
3
, L, i)) denotes the Euler characteristic, and
L
(T) denotes the nor
malized AlexanderConway polynomial of L.
Therefore, it is natural to ask whether a given property of the AlexanderConway
polynomial has a generalization in the context of knot Floer homology. This homology
has proven to be a useful tool for studying some geometric properties of knots, such
as the sliceness [11] and the Seifert genus [12] etc. Therefore, any new observaton
would possibly give us new hints and insights into understanding these properties of
knots.
When considering satellite knots, we know the following Equation (1). Given a
knot K S
3
and a nontrivially properly embedded simple closed curve P S,
where S is a solid torus, we let K
P
t
denote the ttwisted satellite knot for t Z.
Here K and P work as the companion and pattern of K
P
t
, respectively. The sign of
a fulltwist is dened in Figure 1. The AlexanderConway polynomial satises the
following equation (see [6]):
(1)
K
P
t
(T) =
K
(T
)
O
P
t
(T).
Here O denotes the unknot, and is an integer such that times a generator of
H
1
(S, Z) equals [P] H
1
(S, Z).
Key words and phrases. knot Floer homology, satellite knot, Seifert genus.
The author is supported by scholarship from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science
and Technology of Japan.
1
a
r
X
i
v
:
1
0
0
4
.
4
0
7
7
v
1
[
m
a
t
h
.
G
T
]
2
3
A
p
r
2
0
1
0
2 YUANYUAN BAO
a positive fulltwist a negative fulltwist
Figure 1. The sign convention for a fulltwist.
In this paper, we study the knot Floer homology of (S
3
, K
P
t
) for a class of given
patterns. One of our purposes is to see how Equation (1) is developed in knot Floer
homology.
This subject has been studied by Hedden in two cases. The (p, pn1) cabled knots
were studied in [3], where he showed the homology of the cabled knot of a knot K
depends only on the ltered chain homotopy type of
CFK(S
3
, K) when [n[ 0. In
[4] Hedden studied the knot Floer homology of Whitehead doubles comprehensively.
As one important application, he showed a way to nd innitely many topologically
slice but not smoothly slice knots. For other research related to this topic, the reader
is referred to [8] and [1].
Before stating our results, we review some information about the knot Floer ho
mology theory. Ozsv ath and Szab o [14] dened a homology theory for oriented closed
3manifolds, known as the Heegaard Floer homology or Ozsv athSzab o homology. In
this paper, we focus on the hat version of this homology. The chain complex associated
with a 3manifold M is denoted
CF(M), and its homology
HF(M) is a topological
invariant. Given a nullhomologous embedded curve K in the 3manifold M, Ozsv ath
and Szab o [13], and Rasmussen [15] independently noticed that K induces a ltration
to the complex
CF(M), and they proved that the ltered chain homotopy type with
respect to the new ltration is a knot invariant. When M = S
3
, let F(K, m) be the
subcomplex of
CF(S
3
) of ltration m for m Z and let
HF(F(K, m)) denote the
homology of the subcomplex F(K, m). Then there exist inclusive relations:
0 F(K, m) F(K, m + 1)
CF(S
3
).
Let
CF(S
3
)/F(K, m) denote the quotient complex of F(K, m) in
CF(S
3
).
The associated graded chain complex is
CFK(S
3
, K, m) = F(K, m)/F(K, m1)
and its homology is denoted
HFK(S
3
, K, m). The homological grading of the homol
ogy group is renamed the Maslov grading, and the new grading induced from the
ltration is called the Alexander grading. The Ozsv athSzabo invariant is dened
as:
(K) = minm Z[i
:
HF(F(K, m))
HF(S
3
) is nontrivial.
Now we dene the patterns to be used here. Consider the tangle (B
3
, S
r
) dened
in Figure 2 for any r Z
0
. Inside a rectangle marked by an odd (even, respectively)
number is a negative (positive, respectively) fulltwist. The four endpoints of the
tangle are A, B, C, and D. Connecting A to D, and B to C gets the 2bridge knot
C(2, 2, . . . , 2
. .
2r
) in Conways normal form, which is denoted C(2r) here for short,
while connecting A to B, and C to D gives rise to the 2bridge link C(2, 2, . . . , 2
. .
2r+1
),
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 3
and it is denoted C(2r +1). The patterns used in this paper are shown in the middle
of Figure 2. They are embeddings of C(2r)
r0
into the solid torus S, and we denote
them by P
r
r0
. When r = 0, the corresponding satellite knots are the Whitehead
doubles.
1
2
2r1
2r
(B , S )
3
r
2r+1
A
B
C
D
A D
B C
Figure 2. The lefthand gure is the tangle (B
3
, S
r
). The middle
gure illustrates the patterns in the solid torus S. The righthand
gure shows the pattern in the case r = 1 as an example.
The research in this paper is motivated by Heddens research on Whitehead dou
bles in [4]. We found that many of his ideas can be used to study a huge class of
satellite knots. Many interesting applications are given in [4], so we hope to get more
applications, especially those to some geometric invariants of knots, by studying more
satellite knots. We choose P
r
r0
as the patterns since the satellite knots obtained
are certain extensions of the Whitehead doubles.
Our main result is as follows.
Theorem 1.2. Let K S
3
be a knot with Seifert genus g(K) = g. Then the top
Alexander grading of
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) is r +1 when t ,= 0 for r Z
0
. At this grading,
there exists an integer N so that for t > N > 0, the following hold.
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)
= Z
t2g2
(r+1)
g
m=g
_
HF
r1
(F(K, m))
_
2
,
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r+1)
= Tor
Z
2(K)2g2
(r+1)
Z
2(K)+t
(r)
g
m=g
_
HF
r1
(F(K, m))
_
2
,
where Tor denotes a nite Abelian group, and the subindices of Z represent the Maslov
gradings.
The convention for equations in Theorem 1.2 is, if the power of a summand on the
right side of an equation is negative, we simply move this summand to the lefthand
side of the equation and convert the power into its opposite value, just as we usually
do for multiplication of numbers.
From Equation (1), the AlexanderConway polynomial of K
Pr
t
satises
(2)
K
Pr
t
(T) =
O
Pr
t
(T),
4 YUANYUAN BAO
since = 0 for all the patterns in P
r
r0
. In other words, the value of the Alexander
polynomial
K
Pr
t
(T) does not depend on the choice of the companion knot K. On the
other hand, we see from Theorem 1.2 that the knot Floer homology
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) at
the grading r+1 with large twist is determined by the ltered chain homotopy type of
CFK(S
3
, K). This observation implies again that knot Floer homology is much more
powerful then the AlexanderConway polynomial in revealing properties of knots. A
proof of Theorem 1.2 is given in Section 3.
From Theorem 1.2, we see that the top Alexander grading of
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) when
t is not equal to zero is r + 1, which only depends on the pattern P
r
. This fact is
proved here directly from the denition of knot Floer homology. It is in line with
Equation (2) from the viewpoint of Theorem 1.1. Since the Seifert genus of a knot
can be detected from its knot Floer homology (see Theorem 2.3), the Seifert genus
of K
Pr
t
for t ,= 0 is r + 1. As an application and also a complement to Theorem 1.2,
we show that the top Alexander grading of
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
0
) for r Z
0
is r + 1 as
well for nontrivial knot K S
3
, which implies the Seifert genus g(K
Pr
0
) is r + 1.
We state this result as Corollary 1.3. Note that g(K
Pr
0
) cannot be detected from the
AlexanderConway polynomial
K
Pr
0
(T) since deg(
K
Pr
0
(T)) = 2r.
Corollary 1.3. For any nontrivial knot K S
3
, the Seifert genus g(K
Pr
0
) of the
satellite knot K
Pr
0
is r + 1.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we construct Heegaard diagrams
for the satellite knots K
Pr
t
for all r Z
0
and t ,= 0. In Section 3, we study the
knot Floer homology of K
Pr
t
. We start by studying the Alexander gradings of some
generators of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
). After that, we focus on the top Alexander grading level,
and prove Theorem 1.2. In Section 4 we prove Corollary 1.3.
2. Heegaard diagrams for the satellite knots K
Pr
t
r0
2.1. A brief review of knot Floer homology in S
3
.
Denition 2.1. For a nullhomologous simple closed curve K in an oriented closed
3manifold M, a doublypointed Heegaard diagram (simply a Heegaard diagram) for
(M, K) is a collection of data (
g
, =
1
,
2
, ,
g
, =
1
,
2
, ,
g
, z, w),
which satises the following conditions.
(i) The surface
g
splits M into two handlebodies U
1
and U
2
. It is called the
Heegaard surface, and its genus g is called the Heegaard genus.
(ii) The sets and are two collections of pairwise disjoint essential curves in
g
such that U
1
and U
2
are obtained by attaching 2handles to
g
along the
and curves, respectively.
(iii) There exist two arcs a and b in
g
with common endpoints z and w such that
a (
g
i=1
i
) = and b (
g
i=1
i
) = . The knot K is isotopic to the union
a b after pushing the arcs a and b properly into the handlebodies U
1
and
U
2
respectively.
Given a knot K S
3
, let (
g
, , , z, w) be a Heegaard diagram for the knot
(S
3
, K). Dene a set:
S = x = (x
1
, , x
g
)[x
i
i
(i)
, 1 i g, S
g
.
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 5
The chain complex associated with the Heegaard diagram (
g
, , , z, w) is freely
generated by S. Suppose D
1
, . . . , D
m
denote the closures of the components of
g
. A domain in
g
is a twochain T =
m
i=1
a
i
D
i
for a
i
Z. For two domains
T
1
=
m
i=1
a
i
D
i
and T
2
=
m
i=1
b
i
D
i
, the sum used in this paper is dened as
follows:
T
1
+T
2
:=
m
i=1
(a
i
+ b
i
) D
i
.
The local multiplicity n
d
(T) of a point d int(D
i
)
g
at T is dened by n
d
(T) :=
a
i
. Given two generators x and y in S, a domain T is said to be connecting x to y if
T connects x to y along the curves and connects y to x along the curves.
Given two generators x and y and a domain T connecting x to y, the following
equations hold:
A(x) A(y) = n
z
(T) n
w
(T),
gr(x) gr(y) = (T) 2n
w
(T),
where A and gr represent the Alexander and the Maslov gradings respectively, and
(T) is the Maslov index of (T).
We review a combinatorial formula for Maslov index from Lipshitz. Given a domain
T =
m
i=1
a
i
D
i
, the point measure n
x
(T) of T at a generator x = (x
1
, x
2
, , x
g
) is
dened as
(3) n
x
(T) =
g
i=1
n
x
i
(T),
where n
x
i
(T) is dened to be the average of the coecients of T at the four re
gions divided by the corresponding curve and curve around x
i
. Here e(T) =
m
i=1
a
i
e(D
i
), and if a region D
i
is a 2ngon, then
(4) e(D
i
) = 1 n/2.
Theorem 2.2 ([7]). Given two generators x and y, let T be a domain connecting x
to y. Then we have
(T) = e(T) + n
x
(T) + n
y
(T).
The formula can be simply applied in our calculations since the domains we will
consider all consist of polygons of even number of edges.
It is known that the knot Floer homology detects the Seifert genus:
Theorem 2.3 ([12]). For any knot K S
3
, the knot Floer homology of K detects
the Seifert genus of K. Namely
g(K) = max
_
i Z
HFK
j
(S
3
, K, i) ,= 0
_
.
There are exact sequences associated with the knot Floer homologies of links in
S
3
(refer to [13]), which can be regarded as extensions of the skein relation of the
AlexanderConway polynomial. We recall the one to be used in Section 4. Let
L
+
S
3
be a link, and p be a positive crossing of some projection of L
+
. There are
two associated links, L
0
and L
)
HFK(L
0
)
HFK(L
+
) ,
where all the maps above respect the splitting of
HFK(L) under the Alexander grad
ing, and the maps to and from
HFK(L
0
) drop the Maslov grading by 1/2. The map
from
HFK(L
+
) to
HFK(L
Figure 4. Connecting chosen points by arcs in the front hemisphere
and the back hemisphere.
(i) Fix the endpoints A, B, C and D of the tangle S
r
in a great circle of S
2
as in
Figure 4.
(ii) Along the great circle, choose p
r
disjoint points in both the segments
AB and
.
We claim that
HD(S
3
, P
r
) = (
2
, ,
Pr
,
r
, , z, w)
is a Heegaard diagram for (S
3
, P
r
). The chain complex dened on it is denoted
CFK(S
3
, P
r
), and its homology is the knot Floer homology of C(2r). Notice that the
intersection
r
Pr
contains q
r
points, labelled y
1
, , y
qr
from right to left. We can
get a Heegaard diagram for (S
1
S
2
, P
r
) by changing the curve
Pr
into the curve
Pr
in the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, P
r
). Precisely, it is
HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) = (
2
, ,
Pr
,
r
, , z, w).
The chain complex dened on this Heegaard diagram is denoted
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
),
and its homology is the knot Floer homology of the link C(2r + 1) (see [13] for the
knot Floer homology of a link). The intersection
Pr
r
contains 2p
r
points, labelled
8 YUANYUAN BAO
a
1
, a
1
, , a
pr
, a
pr
, as shown in the righthand gure of Figure 5, from bottom to
top.
a
1
a
a
a
1
2
2
y
a
r
2
a
1
1
a
2
a
y
1
2
q
r
y
y
a
p
r
1
a
p
r
a
p
r
a
p


+1
A
B
C
D
0
0
0
1
p
r
Figure 5. (a) The lefthand gure shows the Heegaard diagrams
HD(S
3
, P
0
) and HD(S
1
S
2
, P
0
), while the righthand gure is for
HD(S
3
, P
r
) and HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) in general case. (b) The shadowed do
main on the lefthand side is the generator Q
0
of the periodic domains
in HD(S
1
S
2
, P
0
).
We pause for a while to look at the existence of periodic domains in each dia
gram. First, we review the denition of a periodic domain. For a Heegaard diagram
(
g
, , , z, w), let D
1
, . . . , D
m
denote the closures of the components of
g
.
Denition 2.4. A periodic domain is a twochain T =
m
i=1
a
i
D
i
for which the
boundary is a sum of and curves and the local multiplicity n
w
(T) is zero.
It is easy to check that the set of periodic domains is a group, and it is isomorphic to
H
1
(M, Z) (refer to [14]). When the manifold is S
3
, there will be no periodic domains
in any Heegaard diagram associated with S
3
since H
1
(S
3
, Z) = 0. However, the
Heegaard diagram HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) is a diagram for S
1
S
2
, and therefore contains
periodic domains since H
1
(S
1
S
2
, Z) = Z.
Lemma 2.5. Let Q
r
be a generator of the group of periodic domains in HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
). Then
n
z
(Q
r
) = n
w
(Q
r
) = 0,
for any r Z
0
.
Proof. We consider the mapping class group of the sphere S
2
which xes the endpoints
A, B, C, D pointwisely, and denote it MCG(S
2
, A, B, C, D). The lemma is proved
by induction on r. When r = 0, a generator Q
0
for the periodic domains in HD(S
1
S
2
, P
0
) is shown in Figure 5. We see Q
0
=
0
P
0
and n
z
(Q
o
) = n
w
(Q
0
) = 0.
Assume the lemma holds for some r 0. We show that it holds for r + 1 as well.
The change from (B
3
, S
r
) to (B
3
, S
r+1
) corresponds to a homeomorphism f : S
2
S
2
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 9
A
B
C
D
P
r
P
r
A
B
C
D
P
r
P
r
Front
back
Figure 6. The front and the back sides of the domain Q
r+1,2
bounded
by
Pr
and
Pr
in S
2
for any r Z
>0
.
induced by two fulltwists on S
2
. It is easy to see that f MCG(S
2
, A, B, C, D)
and f(
r
) =
r+1
. Let Q
r+1,1
= f(Q
r
) and
P
r+1
= f(
Pr
). Notice that there
exists an oriented domain bounded by
P
r+1
and
P
r+1
in S
2
A, B, C, D, which
we denote Q
r+1,2
. See Figure 6 for the description. Let Q
r+1
= Q
r+1,1
+ Q
r+1,2
.
Then Q
r+1
is a generator of the space of periodic domains in HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r+1
), and
Q
r+1
=
r+1
P
r+1
. Since every step happens inside S
2
A, B, C, D, it is obvious
that n
z
(Q
r+1
) = n
w
(Q
r+1
) = 0. The lemma is proved by induction.
Suppose the Heegaard diagram
HD(S
3
, K) = (
g
,
1
,
2
, ,
g1
,
K
,
1
,
2
, ,
g
, z
, w
)
for the companion knot K is constructed from one of its projections (see [10] for
construction). Here
K
is a meridian of K, and
K
(
g
i=1
i
) =
K
1
= x
0
.
See the lefthand picture of Figure 7 for the diagram around the meridian
K
. Let
CFK(S
3
, K) be the complex dened on HD(S
3
, K). Its homology is the knot Floer
homology of K. In this Heegaard diagram, one can draw a longitude
K
g
of K
with framing t such that
K
(
g1
i=1
i
) = . Here the framing of
K
is t means that
the linking number lk(
K
, K) is t in S
3
. The longitude
K
can be arranged to have
one intersection point with
K
. That is,
K
K
= .
Let S
3
t
(K) be the 3manifold obtained by tsurgery of S
3
along K. Notice that
S
3
t
(K) is a rational homology sphere when t ,= 0. We assume t ,= 0 except in Section
4. If we regard
K
as a rationally nullhomologous simple closed curve in S
3
t
(K), a
Heegaard diagram for (S
3
t
(K),
K
) is obtained by replacing
K
with
K
in HD(S
3
, K).
Specically, it is
HD(S
3
t
(K),
K
) = (
g
,
1
,
2
, ,
g1
,
K
,
1
,
2
, ,
g
, z
, w
).
Here the placement of the point z
K
K
1
P
r
P
r
z
x
0
Figure 7. The lefthand gure is a local picture of both HD(S
3
, K)
and HD(S
3
t
(K),
K
). The righthand gure highlights the meridian
longitude system (
Pr
,
Pr
) of the solid torus S.
As a result, a Heegaard diagram for K
Pr
t
is described as follows:
HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) = (
g+2
, = ,
1
,
2
, ,
g1
,
Pr
K
,
Pr
K
,
=
1
,
2
, ,
g
,
r
, , z, w).
Here
g+2
is the connected sum of
g
and
2
obtained by attaching a onehandle
along the feet and
, and attach a onehandle along the boundaries of disks such that the resulting
surface is a Heegaard surface of S
3
. The attachment happens inside the tubular
neighborhood of K. The curve
Pr
K
(
Pr
K
, respectively) is the band sum of
Pr
and
K
(
Pr
and
K
, respectively) along the onehandle described above (see Figure 8
for a detailed illustration). The chain complex dened on HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) is denoted
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
). Its homology, therefore, is the knot Floer homology of K
Pr
t
.
Attaching a twohandle to the Heegaard surface
g+2
along the band sum of two
closed curves is equivalent to identifying these two curves. In the attachment S
3
IntN(K
Pr
t
) = (S
3
IntN(K))
N(K)=S
(S IntN(P
r
)), the meridian
K
N(K)
is identied with the meridian
Pr
S, and the longitude
K
N(K) is identied
with the longitude
Pr
S. Therefore we do the band sums
Pr
K
and
Pr
K
.
One can check that the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) satises the conditions in
Denition 2.1.
Here we assume that the orientation of
g+2
is inherited from
g
. Explicitly, the
local orientation of
g+2
is shown in Figure 8.
3. Studying the homology group
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
)
In Section 3.1, the Alexander grading of the complex
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) is studied.
Then in Section 3.2, restricting to the top Alexander grading, we compute the knot
Floer homology
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) for suciently large [t[, and prove Theorem 1.2. The
study here depends heavily on the ideas from Hedden in [4].
3.1. Relation of
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1) and
HFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
) for t ,= 0. First, the
generators of the complex
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) are assorted into two classes. In order to
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 11
g
2
K
P
r
P
r
P
r
P
r

g+2
g
2
Figure 8. The lefthand gure illustrates the connected sum
g+2
=
2
along a tube, and the band sums
K
Pr
and
K
Pr
. The
righthand gure shows the local orientation of each surface.
get more accurate classication, the Alexander gradings of some generators are then
studied in many aspects. As a result, we nd that the top Alexander grading of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) is r + 1, which only depends on the pattern P
r
. Moreover, staying at
the top grading level, we obtain a parallel result to that of Section 3 in [4]. That is,
there is a natural identication of the chain complexes
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1) =
s
i
Spin
c
(S
3
t
(K))
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
, s
i
).
On the right side, the notation Spin
c
(S
3
t
(K)) denotes the set of Spin
c
structures in
S
3
t
(K).
Precisely, we claim that the generators of the chain complex
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) are
split into two classes of the forms
(i) x, y
i
p
CFK(S
3
, P
r
)
CFK(S
3
, K), i = 1, 2, , q
r
,
(ii) x, a
j
q
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
)
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
), j = 1, 2, , p
r
.
The claim above is based on the following argument. Recall each generator corre
sponds to a (g +2)tuple of intersection points between curves and curves of the
Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
). In this Heegaard diagram, we rst choose the inter
section point for the curves and
r
, which are two curves of HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
). Notice
that the intersection point x has to be chosen since it is the unique choice for .
For the curve
r
, we can either choose an intersection point in y
i
qr
i=1
=
r
Pr
K
,
which constitute the rst class, or an intersetion point in a
j
pr
j=1
=
r
Pr
K
,
which make up the second class (see Figure 5 for illustration). The intersection
points of the other and curves can be naturally combined to form generators of
CFK(S
3
, K) or generators of
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
).
We now calculate the Alexander grading dierences between generators in
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
).
First let us compare generators with common restriction to their rst factors. The
proof uses the same ideas as those in the proofs of [4, Lemmas 3.2 and 3.3].
Lemma 3.1. (i) Suppose x, y
i
p and x, y
i
p
).
12 YUANYUAN BAO
z
w
x x
x
0
2
1
1
2
x x
1
K
K
z
w
x x
x
0 2 1
1 2 x
x
1
K
K
t<0
t>0
Figure 9. The triangles
,x
0
,x
1
when t < 0 and t > 0.
(ii) Suppose x, a
j
q and x, a
j
q
S
2
, P
r
)
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
) for j 1, , p
r
. Then we have
(7) A(x, a
j
q) = A(x, a
j
q
).
Proof. (i) Suppose is a Whitney disk from x, y
i
p to x, y
i
p
with
n
w
() = 0. Then the restriction of to
2
must be a periodic domain in
HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
), and thus have the form n Q
r
. The rst statement of the
lemma follows since n
z
(Q
r
) = n
w
(Q
r
) = 0 by Lemma 2.5.
(ii) The second statement can be proved by using a similar argument.
In the following lemma, we rst compare some generators with common restriction
to their second factors, and then compare some generators coming from dierent
classes.
Lemma 3.2. (i) For each generator q
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
), we have
(8) A(x, a
j
q) A(x, a
k
q) = A(x, a
j
) A(x, a
k
),
for j, k 1, , p
r
. For any generator p
CFK(S
3
, K), we have
(9) A(x, y
m
p) A(x, y
n
p) = A(x, y
m
) A(x, y
n
),
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 13
y
j
j
y
j
j
a
1
y
1
Figure 10. The lefthand side is the domain D
y
j
,
,a
j
, and the right
hand domain is D
y
j
,a
j
.
for 1 m, n q
r
. Here the Alexander gradings on the right sides of (8)
and (9) are the gradings in the complexes
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) and
CFK(S
3
, P
r
)
respectively.
(ii) For each generator q
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
), the following hold:
A(x, a
j
q) A(x, a
2qr+j1
q) = 1,
A(x, a
k
q) A(x, a
k
q) = 1,
(10)
for 1 j q
r
and 1 k p
r
.
(iii) There exist a generator p
CFK(S
3
, K) and a generator q
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
)
such that
(11) A(x, y
j
p) A(x, a
j
q) = 0,
for any 1 j q
r
.
Proof. (i) Let be a Whitney disk fromx, a
j
q to x, a
k
q with n
w
() = 0.
Let [
g
denote the restriction of to
g
. Then
([
g
) =
g1
i=1
r
i
i
+
g
j=1
s
j
j
+ r
0
K
+ s
0
K
,
for some integers r
i
, s
j
where 0 i g 1 and 0 j g. First we verify
that s
0
= 0. This is because the multiplicity of
K
Pr
in should be equal
to the multiplicity of in , which must be zero.
Therefore we are able to regard [
g
as a twochain in the Heegaard diagram
HD(S
3
, K). We note that its boundary ([
g
) consists of curves and
curves in HD(S
3
, K). These two facts together with the assumption n
w
() =
0, that is n
w
([
g
) = 0, imply that [
g
is a periodic domain in HD(S
3
, K).
Since there is no periodic domain in any Heegaard diagram for S
3
, the domain
[
g
must be the empty set. As a result, the domain of is contained in
2
,
and therefore can be regarded as a Whitney disk from x, a
j
to x, a
k
in
the Heegaard diagram HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
). A similar argument can be used to
prove Equation (9).
14 YUANYUAN BAO
(ii) The domain shown in the lefthand gure of Figure 11 connects x, a
2qr+j1
to x, a
j
. The local multiplicities of points z and w are zero and one
respectively. Therefore we have
A(x, a
j
) A(x, a
2qr+j1
) = 1.
By (8), we have
A(x, a
j
q) A(x, a
2qr+j1
q) = 1,
for any 1 j q
r
. On the other hand, for any 1 k p
r
, there exists
a Whitney disk
k
from x, a
k
q to x, a
k
q, as shown in the right
hand gure of Figure 11 (the shadowed domain). It is easy to calculate that
n
z
(
k
) = 1 and n
w
(
k
) = 0. The result follows from the denition of the
Alexander grading.
(iii) Let z represent a (g 1)tuple of intersection points between the curves
1
, . . . ,
g1
and the curves
2
, . . . ,
g
in
g
. Recall that x
0
is the unique
intersection point in
1
K
. Let x
1
1
K
be the point shown in Figure 9.
Then p = x
0
, z becomes a generator of
CFK(S
3
, K) and q = x
1
, z is a
generator of
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
).
Let
,x
0
,x
1
be the triangle in Figure 9 which has vertices x
1
, x
0
and .
When t < 0, a Whitney disk
j
fromx, a
j
q to x, y
j
p can be obtained
by making the connected sum of the triangle
,x
0
,x
1
and the triangle in
2
which has vertices y
j
, a
j
and
and a
j
, which we denote D
y
j
,
,a
j
. Recall in Section 2, the curve
r
is chosen to be the boundary of the splitting disk of the tangle (B
3
, S
r
). We
can choose the properly embedded disk shown in Figure 12 as the splitting
disk of (B
3
, S
r
). By local modications near the endpoints C and D of the
tangle (B
3
, S
r
), this disk is converted into a domain in
2
which has vertices
y
1
,
and a
1
. We call it D
y
1
,
,a
1
. Notice that there exists a domain D
y
j
,a
j
in
2
which has vertices y
1
, y
j
, a
1
and a
j
for any 1 < j q
r
, as shown in Figure
10. We dene
D
y
j
,
,a
j
:= D
y
j
,a
j
+ D
y
1
,
,a
1
.
See the righthand gure of Figure 13.
When t > 0, let
j
be the connected sum of the triangle
,x
0
,x
1
in
g
and the domain D
y
j
,
,a
j
in
2
. See the middle gure of Figure 13. Then
j
is a Whitney disk from x, a
j
q to x, y
j
p. Since n
z
(
j
) = 1 and
n
w
(
j
) = 0, we get A(x, y
j
p) A(x, a
j
q) = 1. This equation
together with (10) implies (11) for the case t > 0.
y
j
j
y
k
k
a
k
a
2p +j1
Figure 11. The domain on the lefthand side connects x, a
2qr+j1
to x, a
j
in
2
, while the domain on the righthand side is from
x, a
k
q to x, a
k
q in
g+2
.
the splitting
disk bounded
by
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
the domain with
vertices
1
a
1
y
1
a
1
,
and
D
A
B
C
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
1
1
A
B
C
D
Figure 12. The lefthand gure shows the splitting disk of (B
3
, S
r
)
bounded by
r
. In the righthand gure the disk is modied to make
the domain D
y
1
,
,a
1
in
2
.
the determinants of C(2r +1) and C(2r), and about the complexes
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
)
and
CFK(S
3
, P
r
).
Lemma 3.3. (i) We have det(C(2r + 1)) = p
r
and det(C(2r)) = q
r
.
(ii) The dierentials of the complexes
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) and
CFK(S
3
, P
r
) are
trivial.
Proof. (i) In general, the doublebranched cover of S
3
branched along the two
bridge link L := C(b
1
, b
2
, , b
n
) is the lens space L(p, q), where
p
q
= b
1
+
1
b
2
+
1
b
3
+ +
1
b
n
.
Then
[
L
(1)[ = [H
1
(L(p, q), Z)[ = [Z/[p[Z[ = [p[.
16 YUANYUAN BAO
x
1
0
y
j
x
1
x
x
0
y
j
y
j
y
1
y
1
a
j
a
j
a
j
a
1
a
1
D
y
a
1
j
,
,
1
D
y
,
a
j
Figure 13. The rst two gures show the connected sums of the cases
of t < 0 and t > 0. The third gure illustrates D
y
j
,
,a
j
= D
y
j
,a
j
+
D
y
1
,
,a
1
.
The doublebranched covers of S
3
branched along the twobridge links C(2r+
1) and C(2r) are L(p
r
, q
r
) and L(q
r
, p
r
2q
r
) respectively. Therefore, we have
det(C(2r + 1)) = p
r
and det(C(2r)) = q
r
.
(ii) As recalled in Theorem 1.1, the Euler characteristic of the knot Floer homol
ogy of a link is the AlexanderConway polynomial. In the cases of C(2r +1)
and C(2r), we have
iZ
T
i
j
1
2
+Z
(1)
j1/2
rk(
HFK
j
(S
3
, C(2r + 1), i)) = (T
1/2
T
1/2
)
C(2r+1)
(T),
iZ
T
i
jZ
(1)
j
rk(
HFK
j
(S
3
, C(2r), i)) =
C(2r)
(T).
When we put T = 1, the equalities above simply become:
iZ,j
1
2
+Z
(1)
i+j1/2
rk(
HFK
j
(S
3
, C(2r + 1), i))
2
C(2r+1)
(1)
= 2p
r
,
iZ,jZ
(1)
i+j
rk(
HFK
j
(S
3
, C(2r), i))
C(2r)
(1)
= q
r
.
Recall that the numbers of the generators in the complexes
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) and
CFK(S
3
, P
r
) are exactly 2p
r
and q
r
, respectively. Here we are
using the integer coecient for the homologies. Therefore the dierentials of
the complexes
CFK(S
1
S
2
, P
r
) and
CFK(S
3
, P
r
) are trivial.
On the other hand, since the link C(2r + 1) is a bred alternating link [2], the
polynomial
C(2r+1)
(T) is monic with highest power (r +1)/2 (refer to [5]). In other
words, the top Alexander grading of
HFK(S
3
, C(2r + 1)), which corresponds to the
highest power of the polynomial (T
1/2
T
1/2
)
C(2r+1)
(T), is r + 1, and the rank
satises
rk(
HFK(S
3
, C(2r + 1), r + 1)) = 1.
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 17
That is to say, in the Heegaard diagram HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
), there is a unique intersection
point, denoted a
f(r)
, in
Pr
r
generating
HFK(S
3
, C(2r+1), r+1). For convenience,
here we dene a map f : Z
0
Z
>0
by sending r to f(r).
From Equations (6) to (11) and the discussion above, we conclude that there are
2r +3 Alexander gradings in the chain complex
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) at which the complex
is nontrivial. The subcomplexes at the top and the bottom gradings are generated by
generators of the form x, a
f(r)
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
) and x, a
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
)
for some p
r
< q
r
, respectively. Therefore, the following identications exist
as groups:
(12)
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, )
=
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
),
where stands for the top or bottom grading of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
). As we will see in
Proposition 3.4, these identications can be extended to the isomorphisms of homolo
gies, and the homology groups of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) at the top and the bottom gradings
are nontrivial. Due to the symmetry of knot Floer homology with respect to the
Alexander grading, the top and the bottom gradings of the knot Floer homology of
K
Pr
t
for t ,= 0 are r + 1 and r 1, respectively, and we focus on the homology at
the top grading
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1).
Now we prove Proposition 3.4. A proof when r = 0 is given in [4] by Hedden.
The general statement here is proved in exactly the same way. For the readers
convenience, we recall the proof.
Proposition 3.4. Let K be a knot in S
3
. Then we have
(13)
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, )
=
s
i
Spin
c
(S
3
t
(K))
HFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
, s
i
),
where stands for the top or bottom grading of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
).
Proof. We prove the isomorphism for the top grading case. The other case can be
proved by the same argument. Consider the complex (
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, ),
) with
being the top grading. Suppose x, a
f(r)
p and x, a
f(r)
q are two generators
of the complex, where p, q
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
). There is a unique Whitney disk
p,q
in
g+2
with n
z
(
p,q
) = n
w
(
p,q
) = 0 connecting x, a
f(r)
p to x, a
f(r)
q.
If p and q belong to dierent elements in Spin
c
(S
3
t
(K)), the dierential
never
connects x, a
f(r)
p to x, a
f(r)
q. This is because the restriction of
p,q
to
2
is n Q
r
for some n ,= 0. Recall that Q
r
is a generator of the periodic domains in
HD(S
1
S
2
, P
r
), and it has both positive and negative local multiplicities. Therefore
the Whitney disk
p,q
does not have holomorphic representatives. We can conclude
that the dierential
respects the splitting of
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
) along Spin
c
(S
3
t
(K)).
Now suppose that p and q belong to the same element in Spin
c
(S
3
t
(K)). In this
case, the restriction of
p,q
to
2
is empty. The Whitney disk
p,q
is completely
contained in
g
, and therefore can be regarded as a Whitney disk connecting p to
q in HD(S
3
t
(K),
K
), and in addition n
w
(
p,q
) = n
z
(
p,q
) = 0. Therefore
p,q
contributes equally to the dierentials of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r +1) and
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
).
Conversely given any Whitney disk
p,q
in HD(S
3
t
(K),
K
) connecting p to q, if
18 YUANYUAN BAO
n
w
(
p,q
) = n
z
(
p,q
) = 0 it can be naturally regarded as a Whitney disk connecting
x, a
f(r)
p to x, a
f(r)
q in
g+2
, with n
w
(
p,q
) = n
z
(
p,q
) = 0.
In one word, the argument above implies that the dierentials on both sides work
in the same manner. Therefore, Equation (13) holds.
3.2. The group
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1) when [t[ 0. In this subsection, we adapt
the ideas in Section 4 of [4] to study
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r +1) when [t[ is suciently large.
As stated in the proof of Lemma 3.2, each generator in x, y
1
CFK(S
3
, K) is
of the form x, y
1
x
0
, z where z = (z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
g1
) for z
i
i
(i)+1
for
1 i g 1 and S
g1
, while each generator in x, a
j
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
)
is of the form x, a
j
x
K
, z for some point x
K
1
K
Pr
. The regular
neighborhood
K
I
g
of
K
is called the winding region of the Heegaard diagram
HD(S
3
t
(K),
K
). We assume that for the longitude curve
K
of framing t, there
are [t[ intersection points in
1
K
Pr
supported in the winding region
K
I.
For convenience, let x
k
[ [t[/2 k [t[/2 , k ,= 0 denote the set of these
intersection points, where u is the integer associated with a number u such that
0 u u < 1. See Figure 9 for the placement of the points in x
k
[ [t[/2 k
[t[/2 , k ,= 0. With these assumptions, the intersection point x
0
, z
CFK(S
3
, K)
is in 1 to [t[ correspondence with the intersection points x
k
, z
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
)
for [t[/2 k [t[/2 (k ,= 0) in the winding region.
We recall a theorem from Hedden in [4].
Theorem 3.5 (Theorem 4.3 in [4]). Let K S
3
be a knot. There exists an integer
N > 0 such that for t > N the following hold for all m.
HFK
(S
3
t
(K),
K
, s
m
)
=
HF
+d
(m)
(F(K, m))
HF
2m+d
(m)
(F(K, m1)),
HFK
(S
3
t
(K),
K
, s
m
)
=
HF
d
+
(m)
_
CF(S
3
)
F(K, m)
_
HF
2md
+
(m)
_
CF(S
3
)
F(K, m1)
_
,
where d
(m) = (t (2mt)
2
)/4t.
The element s
m
satises a certain condition related to m, as stated in [4] before
Theorem 4.3, which will not be recalled here.
Proposition 3.4 and Theorem 3.5 provide us a relation between
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r +
1) and the ltered chain homotopy type of
CFK(S
3
, K), but no information about
the Maslov grading is mentioned. In order to solve the problem, we rst restate
Lemmas 4.5 and 4.6 in [4], which study the Maslov gradings of some generators. We
modify them into our context as follows.
Lemma 3.6. Consider the chain complex
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) for any r 0 and t ,= 0.
Let [t[/2 k < 0 and 0 < l [t[/2, and N be the integer introduced in
Theorem 3.5. For t > N > 0 we have
gr(x, a
f(0)
x
k
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + 2A(x
0
, z) + 1,
gr(x, a
f(0)
x
l
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + 1,
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 19
while for t < N < 0, we have
gr(x, a
f(0)
x
k
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + 2A(x
0
, z),
gr(x, a
f(0)
x
l
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z).
Here A(x
0
, z) denotes the Alexander grading of x
0
, z in
CFK(S
3
, K).
In the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K
P
i
t
) for i 1, there is a Whitney disk
i
con
necting x, a
f(i1)
p to some generator x, a
p for any p
CFK(S
3
t
(K),
K
).
See the shadowed domain in Figure 14. We rst check that a
= a
f(i)
. Notice that
n
z
(
i
) = 1 and n
w
(
i
) = 0, so we get
A(x, a
p) = A(x, a
f(i1)
p) + 1.
The Alexander gradings of the generators x, a
j
p for j 1, , p
i1
in
CFK(S
3
, K
P
i1
t
) do not change when we regard these generators as in
CFK(S
3
, K
P
i
t
).
Therefore we have
A(x, a
p) = i + 1.
The discussion in Section 3.1 tells us a
f(i)
is the unique point in
i
P
i
corresponding
to the Alexander grading i + 1, so = f(i).
Consider the Maslov grading. By Lipshitzs formula (refer to Theorem 2.2), we
have
(
i
) = e(
i
) + n
{x,a
f(i1)
}
(
i
) + n
{x,a
f(i)
}
(
i
).
Here since
i
can be cut into a hexagon (see Figure 14), by Formula (4) we see
e(
i
) = 1
3
2
=
1
2
.
It is easy to see from Figure 14 that
n
{x,a
f(i1)
}
(
i
) =
3
4
and n
{x,a
f(i)
}
(
i
) =
3
4
.
Therefore we get (
i
) = 1/2 +3/4 +3/4 = 1. Since (
i
) = 1 we get the equation
(14) gr(x, a
f(i)
x
k
, z) gr(x, a
f(i1)
x
k
, z) = 1.
Notice that Equation (14) does not change when we regard x, a
f(i)
x
k
, z and
x, a
f(i1)
x
k
, z as generators of
CFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) for any r > i. Therefore, applying
Equation (14) r times gives:
gr(x, a
f(r)
x
k
, z) gr(x, a
f(0)
x
k
, z) = r.
This together with Lemma 3.6 implies the following equations. Let [t[/2 k < 0
and 0 < l [t[/2 and N be the integer in Lemma 3.6. For t > N > 0, we have
gr(x, a
f(r)
x
k
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + 2A(x
0
, z) + r + 1,
gr(x, a
f(r)
x
l
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + r + 1,
(15)
while for t < N < 0, we have
gr(x, a
f(r)
x
k
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + 2A(x
0
, z) + r,
gr(x, a
f(r)
x
l
, z) = gr(x, y
1
x
0
, z) + r.
(16)
Equations (15) and (16) allow us to obtain a similar result to Theorem 4.2 in [4].
Before stating the result, we prove a lemma.
20 YUANYUAN BAO
a
x
f(i 1)
P
a
a
f( )
x
y
P
f( )
f( )
y
f(i 1)
f(i 1)
Figure 14. The lefthand gure illustrates the domain
i
from a
f(i)
to a
f(i1)
. The righthand gure is a hexagon obtained by cutting
i
along the curve .
Recall that any two Heegaard diagrams which specify the same 3manifold can
be connected by a nite sequence of Heegaard moves, which consist of isotopies,
handlesides and (de)stablizations. See [16] for an introduction. In the following
lemma, we forget the knots and simply regard HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) and HD(S
3
, K) as two
Heegaard diagrams for S
3
.
Lemma 3.7. The Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) can be converted into the Heegaard
diagram HD(S
3
, K) for (S
3
, K), by applying a nite sequence of Heegaard moves in
the complement of w.
Proof. The process converting HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) to HD
(S
3
, K) is shown in Figure 15.
Figure 15 (1) shows the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
), and the curve
r
bounds
a properly embedded disk, say D
r
, in B
3
, which is a splitting disk of the tangle
(B
3
, S
r
). We isotope D
r
to the position shown in Figure 15 (2) where except the
folded region, the disk D
r
is embedded in S
2
= B
3
. Then we make a handleslide
move of
r
along as shown in Figure 15 (3). Then isotopy moves change
r
to the
curve in Figure 15 (4). Further isotopy moves occuring in S
2
change
r
to the curve
shown in Figure 15 (5). The reason we consider the disk D
r
is to guarantee that the
isotopy moves from Figure 15 (4) to Figure 15 (5) occur in the complement of w in
2
. The Heegaard moves from Figure 15 (6) to Figure 15 (7) are shown in Figure
15. Then we apply two destablizations to the diagram of Figure 15 (7), the rst one
is between and , and the second one is between
r
and
Pr
. The nal diagram,
as shown in Figure 15 (8), is the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K). The whole process
from HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) to HD(S
3
, K) is in the complement of w.
Now we show a lemma, which connects
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1) to the ltered chain
homotopy type of
CFK(S
3
, K).
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 21
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
the splitting
disk bounded
by
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
a
1
1
a
1
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
the folded
region
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
a
1
D
A
B
C
making a handleslide
of along
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
a
1
D
A
B
C
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
a
1
D
A
B
C
isotopy moves
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
a
1
D
A
B
C
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
a
1
D
A
B
C
1
D
A
B
C
1
D
A
B
C
isotopy moves
handleslide
again
isotopy moves
(1)
(2)
(3) (4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
destablization
of with
&
destablization
of with
Figure 15. The Heegaard moves from HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) to HD(S
3
, K).
22 YUANYUAN BAO
Lemma 3.8. For all t > N > 0, where N is dened as before, there are isomorphisms
of Zgraded Abelian groups:
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r+1)
=
t/2
m=t/2+1
_
HF
r1
(F(K, m))
HF
r1
(F(K, m1))
_
,
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r+1)
=
t/2
m=t/2+1
_
HF
r
_
CF(S
3
)
F(K, m)
_
HF
r
_
CF(S
3
)
F(K, m1)
__
.
Proof. The proof goes completely in the same way as that of [4, Theorem 4.4], except
for minor dierences in the grading shifts on the righthand side of the equations. As
stated in Lemma 3.7, by a sequence of Heegaard moves, each of which happens in the
complement of the basepoint w, we can convert the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) to
the Heegaard diagram HD(S
3
, K). The Maslov grading of any generator unaacted by
the Heegaard moves, is unchanged throughout the process. It follows that a generator
of the form
x, y
1
p x, y
1
CFK(S
3
, K)
in HD(S
3
, K
Pr
t
) inherits the Maslov grading of p
CFK(S
3
, K) in HD(S
3
, K). More
precisely we have
(17) gr(x, y
1
p) = gr(p).
With Equations (15), (16) and (17), the discussion now follows in the same way as
Heddens proof of [4, Theorem 4.4]. The only dierence is that we make a shift of r
or r + 1 on the right hand of an equation, where Hedden made a shift of 0 or 1.
Since [t[ can be suciently large, we assume that [t[ > 2g + 4. Applying the
adjunction inequality (refer to [13]) to Lemma 3.8 gets another version of Lemma 3.8:
Lemma 3.9. Let K S
3
be a knot with Seifert genus g(K) = g. Then for all
t > N > 0, where N is dened as before, there are isomorphisms of absolutely Z
graded Abelian groups
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)
= Z
t2g2
(r+1)
g
m=g
_
HF
r1
(F(K, m))
_
2
,
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)
= Z
t2g
(r)
g
m=g
_
HF
r
_
CF(S
3
)
F(K, m)
__
2
,
where the subindices r + 1 and r of Z denote the Maslov gradings of the terms.
Next, we want to replace
HF
_
CF(S
3
)/F(K, m)
_
by
HF(F(K, m)) in Lemma 3.9.
Here we need a lemma, which has a parallel proof to that of Lemma 5.7 in [4].
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 23
Lemma 3.10. Let K S
3
be a knot with Seifert genus g(K) = g, and t > N > 0 as
above. Then
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1) =
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1) if , = r, r + 1,
rk(
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)) = rk(
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)) t 2(K),
rk(
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)) = rk(
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1)) + t 2(K).
Proof of Theorem 1.2. By applying Lemma 3.10, we replace
HF
_
CF(S
3
)/F(K, m)
_
in the second equation of Lemma 3.9 with
HF(F(K, m)). Since the rank of an Abelian
group does not count the torsion part, we add the torsion part Tor to complete the
proof.
Theorem 1.2 is a rough estimate for
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r + 1). At present we cannot
get more concrete information about
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
), as Hedden did for Whitehead
doubles in [4]. However, we claim that Theorem 1.2 can be used here to determine
the Seifert genus of K
Pr
t
for t = 0.
4. The Seifert genus of K
Pr
t
First we remark that there are classical lower bounds to the Seifert genus g(K) of
a knot K S
3
. One of them is the degree of the AlexanderConway polynomial.
Precisely it is
(18) g(K)
1
2
deg(
K
(T)).
Recall in the case of K
Pr
t
, we have Equation (2):
K
Pr
t
(T) =
O
Pr
t
(T).
It is easy to deduce that
1
2
deg(
K
Pr
t
(T)) =
1
2
deg(
O
Pr
t
(T)) =
_
r + 1 if t ,= 0,
r if t = 0.
Applying Relation (18), we get
g(K
Pr
t
)
_
r + 1 if t ,= 0,
r if t = 0.
On the other hand, a Seifert surface of K
Pr
t
, which is realized by the surface in
Figure 16, is of genus r + 1. Therefore r + 1 is an upper bound to g(K
Pr
t
) for any
t Z. Therefore
g(K
Pr
t
) = r + 1 if t ,= 0,
r g(K
Pr
t
) r + 1 if t = 0.
Better than AlexanderConway polynomial, knot Floer homology detects the Seifert
genus as stated in Theorem 2.3. We will use Theorems 2.3 and 1.2 to prove that
g(K
Pr
t
) = r + 1 holds for t = 0. First we prove a lemma on the signature of the link
C(2r + 1).
24 YUANYUAN BAO
Lemma 4.1. The signature of the link C(2r + 1) is 1.
Proof. Consider the Seifert surface F
r
in Figure 16. A generating set of H
1
(F
r
) is
chosen in Figure 16. We have
V + V
t
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
2 1 O
1 4 1
1 2 1
.
.
. 1
O 1 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
where V is the Seifert matrix of C(2r+1) associated with the generating set of H
1
(F
r
)
in Figure 16. One can easily prove that the signature of V + V
t
is 1, and so is the
signature of C(2r + 1).
The generators of H (F )
1 r
Figure 16. A Seifert surface F
r
of C(2r + 1) and a generating set of H
1
(F
r
).
From here, we use F := F
2
instead of Z as the coecient of the knot Floer homology.
Now we recall a result in [4], which will be used later.
Lemma 4.2 (Proposition 5.1 in [4]). Let K S
3
be a knot with Seifert genus g(K) =
g. Then for t 2(K) we have:
HFK
(K
P
0
t
, 1)
= F
t2g2
(1)
g
m=g
_
HF
1
(F(K, m))
_
2
.
Recall in Section 3.1, we saw that
HFK(S
3
, C(2r + 1), r + 1) = F
((2r+1)/2)
,
where the subindex (2r + 1)/2 denotes the Maslov grading. There exists a skein exact
sequence connecting K
Pr
t1
, K
Pr
t
and C(2r + 1) as follows (see Section 2.1):
(19)
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t
, r+1)
f
1
F
((2r+1)/2)
f
2
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
t1
, r+1)
f
3
,
where f
1
and f
2
decrease the Maslov grading by 1/2, while f
3
does not increase the
grading. In fact, it can be proved that f
3
preserves the grading. This fact is stated
in [4] for the case r = 0 . In general, its proof uses the same idea as that of [4,
Proposition 5.8].
ON THE KNOT FLOER HOMOLOGY OF A CLASS OF SATELLITE KNOTS 25
Lemma 4.3 (Proposition 5.8 in [4]). In the exact sequence (19), f
3
preserves the
Maslov grading.
We prove Corollary 1.3.
Proof of Corollary 1.3. First we know g(K
Pr
0
) r + 1. We claim that the equality
holds by showing that
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
0
, r + 1) ,= 0.
If
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
0
, r +1) = 0, then
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
0
, r +1) = 0, for , = r, r + 1. From
the exact sequence (19) combined with Lemma 4.3 we get
0
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
s1
, r + 1)
f
3
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
s
, r + 1) 0,
for , = r, r + 1, which implies that
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
s
, r + 1)
=
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
0
, r + 1)
= 0,
for , = r, r +1 and any s Z. This property together with Theorem 1.2 implies that
(20)
g
m=g
_
HF
(F(K, m))
_
2
= 0,
for , = 1, 0.
Now we focus on the exact sequence
(21) 0
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
s1
, r + 1)
f
3
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
s
, r + 1)
f
1
F
(
2r+1
2
)
f
2
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
P
s1
, r + 1)
f
3
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
P
s
, r + 1) 0.
The assumption
HFK(S
3
, K
Pr
0
, r + 1) = 0 implies
HFK
(S
3
, K
Pr
0
, r + 1) = 0 for
= r, r + 1. When s = 1 by applying the exact sequence (21) we get
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
1
, r + 1) = 0,
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
1
, r + 1)
= F.
Then when s = 2, we have
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
2
, r + 1) = 0,
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
2
, r + 1)
= F
2
.
We continue to increase s and apply the exact sequence (21) iteratively. When s is
suciently large, say s = S for some large S > 0, we have
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
S
, r + 1) = 0,
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
S
, r + 1)
= F
S
.
On the other hand, let s start from 0. Decreasing s and applying (21) iteratively,
we get
s = 0 :
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
1
, r + 1)
= F,
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
1
, r + 1) = 0,
s = 1 :
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
2
, r + 1)
= F
2
,
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
2
, r + 1) = 0,
.
.
.
s = S :
HFK
r
(S
3
, K
Pr
S
, r + 1)
= F
S
,
HFK
r+1
(S
3
, K
Pr
S
, r + 1) = 0.
26 YUANYUAN BAO
Let S > N, where N is the integer stated in Theorem 1.2. Comparing the knot Floer
homologies of K
Pr
S
and K
Pr
S
stated above with Theorem 1.2, we get the following
restrictions to
HF(F(K, m)):
g
m=g
_
HF
1
(F(K, m))
_
2
= 0,
F
S2g2
g
m=g
_
HF
0
(F(K, m))
_
2
= F
S
,
F
S+2(K)
g
m=g
_
HF
1
(F(K, m))
_
2
= F
S
,
F
2(K)2g2
g
m=g
_
HF
0
(F(K, m))
_
2
= 0.
Combining the properties above together with (20), we can derive the following
properites of the knot K:
(i)
g
m=g
_
HF
(F(K, m))
_
2
= 0 for , = 0,
(ii)
g
m=g
_
HF
0
(F(K, m))
_
2
= F
2g+2
,
(iii) (K) = 0.
If a knot K S
3
satises the properties stated above, Lemma 4.2 implies that
HFK(S
3
, K
P
0
0
, 1) = 0, which in turn implies that the genus of K
P
0
0
is zero according
to Theorem 2.3. That is to say K
P
0
0
is the unknot, which happens only when K itself
is the unknot. This contradicts our assumption that K is nontrivial. Therefore, we
get
HFK(K
Pr
t
, r + 1) ,= 0, which implies g(K
Pr
0
) = r + 1.
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(2005), pp. 13891418 (electronic).
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3
, Comment. Math. Helv., 61 (1986), pp. 519555.
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Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ohokayama, Me
guro, Tokyo 1528551, Japan
Email address: bao.y.aa@m.titech.ac.jp
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