Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

SCREW THREADS

SCREW THREADS

THREAD TERMINOLOGY

Crest

The peak edge of a thread.

Root

The bottom of the thread cut into a cylindrical body.

Thread angle

The angle between threads faces.

External Thread

Thread angle The angle between threads faces. External Thread Root Thread angle Crest Internal Thread Root

Root

Thread angle

Thread angle The angle between threads faces. External Thread Root Thread angle Crest Internal Thread Root

Crest

Internal Thread

Root

Thread angle The angle between threads faces. External Thread Root Thread angle Crest Internal Thread Root

Crest

THREAD TERMINOLOGY

 

The largest diameter on

Major diameter

an internal or external thread.

 

The smallest diameter on

Minor diameter

an internal or external thread.

External Thread

Minor dia. Major dia.
Minor dia.
Major dia.

Internal Thread

Minor dia. Major dia.
Minor dia.
Major dia.

THREAD TERMINOLOGY

 

The distance between crests of

Pitch

threads.

Lead

The distance a screw will advance when turned 360 o .

External Thread

Pitch
Pitch

Internal Thread

threads. Lead The distance a screw will advance when turned 360 o . External Thread Pitch

Pitch

Forms of Screw Threads

1. British standard whitworth (B.S.W.) thread.

2. British association (B.A.) thread.

Forms of Screw Threads 1. British standard whitworth (B.S.W.) thread. 2. British association (B.A.) thread. B.S.W

B.S.W

Forms of Screw Threads 1. British standard whitworth (B.S.W.) thread. 2. British association (B.A.) thread. B.S.W

B.A.

Forms of Screw Threads

3. American national standard thread.

4. Unified standard thread.

Forms of Screw Threads 3. American national standard thread. 4. Unified standard thread. American thread Unified

American thread

Forms of Screw Threads 3. American national standard thread. 4. Unified standard thread. American thread Unified

Unified thread

Forms of Screw Threads

5. Square thread.

6. Acme thread.

Forms of Screw Threads 5. Square thread. 6. Acme thread. 7. Knuckle thread. 8. Buttress thread.
Forms of Screw Threads 5. Square thread. 6. Acme thread. 7. Knuckle thread. 8. Buttress thread.

7. Knuckle thread.

8. Buttress thread.

Forms of Screw Threads 5. Square thread. 6. Acme thread. 7. Knuckle thread. 8. Buttress thread.
Forms of Screw Threads 5. Square thread. 6. Acme thread. 7. Knuckle thread. 8. Buttress thread.

Forms of Screw Threads

9. Metric thread.

Forms of Screw Threads 9. Metric thread. Basic profile of the thread. Design profile of the

Basic profile of the thread.

Design profile of the nut and bolt.

THREAD REPRESENTATION

1. Detailed representation 2. Schematic representation
1. Detailed representation
2. Schematic representation
3. Simplified representation
3. Simplified representation

DETAILED REPRESENTATION

Use slanting lines to represent crest and root. Roots and crest are drawn in sharp

Use slanting lines to represent crest and root. Roots and crest are drawn in sharp Vs.

External thread

Thread runout

Pitch 60 o
Pitch
60
o
crest and root. Roots and crest are drawn in sharp Vs. External thread Thread runout Pitch

Internal thread

crest and root. Roots and crest are drawn in sharp Vs. External thread Thread runout Pitch

SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION

Use alternate long and short lines for representing crests and roots of the thread, respectively.

Use alternate long and short lines for representing crests and roots of the thread, respectively.

External thread

and roots of the thread, respectively. External thread Pitch Root (thick line) Crest (thin line) Internal
Pitch
Pitch
and roots of the thread, respectively. External thread Pitch Root (thick line) Crest (thin line) Internal

Root (thick line) Crest (thin line)

Internal thread

and roots of the thread, respectively. External thread Pitch Root (thick line) Crest (thin line) Internal

SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION

Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root of

Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root of

the thread, respectively.

External thread

Thread runout

Root
Root

Pitch/2

for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Thread runout Root Pitch/2 Crest Internal thread
for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Thread runout Root Pitch/2 Crest Internal thread

Crest

Internal thread

for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Thread runout Root Pitch/2 Crest Internal thread

SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION

Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root of

Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root of

the thread, respectively.

External thread

continuous lines for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Internal thread Sectional view

Internal thread

continuous lines for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Internal thread Sectional view

Sectional view

Common Types of Screw Fastenings

1. Through bolts.

Common Types of Screw Fastenings 1. Through bolts. 4 . C a p s c r

4. Cap screws.

2. Tap bolts.

bolts. 4 . C a p s c r e w s . 2. Tap bolts.

5. Machine screws.

3. Studs.

c r e w s . 2. Tap bolts. 5. Machine screws. 3. Studs. 6. Set

6. Set screws.

These are similar to cap screws with the head slotted for a screw driver. These
These are similar to cap screws with the head slotted for a screw
driver. These are generally used with a nut.

Locking Devices

1. Jam nut or lock nut.

Locking Devices 1. Jam nut or lock nut. 2 . C a s t l e

2. Castle nut.

Jam nut or lock nut. 2 . C a s t l e n u t
Jam nut or lock nut. 2 . C a s t l e n u t

3. Sawn nut.

Jam nut or lock nut. 2 . C a s t l e n u t
Jam nut or lock nut. 2 . C a s t l e n u t

4. Penn, ring or grooved nut.

Jam nut or lock nut. 2 . C a s t l e n u t

Locking Devices

5. Locking with pin.

Locking Devices 5. Locking with pin. 6. Locking with plate. 7. Spring lock washer.

6. Locking with plate.

Locking Devices 5. Locking with pin. 6. Locking with plate. 7. Spring lock washer.

7. Spring lock washer.

Locking Devices 5. Locking with pin. 6. Locking with plate. 7. Spring lock washer.

Stresses in Screwed Fastening due to Static Loading:

1. Internal stresses due to screwing up forces,

2. Stresses due to external forces, and

3. Stress due to combination of stresses at (1) and (2).

Initial Stresses due to Screwing up Forces

1. Tensile stress due to stretching of bolt. - The initial tension in a bolt, based on experiments, may be found by the relation

where

Pi =2840 d

N

Pi =Initial tension in a bolt, and d =Nominal diameter of bolt, in mm.

- When the joint is not required as tight as fluid-tight joint, then the initial tension in a bolt may be reduced to half of the above value. In such cases

Pi =1420 d

N

Stresses in Screwed Fastening due to Static Loading:

If the bolt is not initially stressed, then the maximum safe axial load which may be

applied to it, is given by

P =Permissible stress × Cross-sectional area at bottom of the thread (i.e. stress area)

area at bottom of the thread (i.e. stress area) where d p = Pitch diameter, and

where dp = Pitch diameter, and

dc = Core or minor diameter.

2. Torsional shear stress caused by the frictional resistance of the threads during its tightening.

frictional resistance of the threads during its tightening. where τ =Torsional shear stress, T =Torque applied,

where

τ =Torsional shear stress, T =Torque applied, and

dc =Minor or core diameter of the thread.

Stresses in Screwed Fastening due to Static Loading:

3. Shear stress across the threads.

due to Static Loading: 3. Shear stress across the threads. where τ s =The average thread

where

τs =The average thread shearing stress for the screw

b =Width of the thread section at the root. The average thread shearing stress for the nut is

the root. The average thread shearing stress for the nut is 4. Compression or crushing stress

4. Compression or crushing stress on threads.

for the nut is 4. Compression or crushing stress on threads. where d =Major diameter, dc

where

d =Major diameter,

dc =Minor diameter, and

n =Number of threads in engagement.

Stresses in Screwed Fastening due to Static Loading:

5. Bending stress if the surfaces under the head or nut are not perfectly parallel to the bolt axis.

where

or nut are not perfectly parallel to the bolt axis. where x =Difference in height between

x =Difference in height between the extreme corners of the nut or head,

l =Length of the shank of the bolt, and

E =Young’s modulus for the material of the bolt.

Stresses due to External Forces

1. Tensile stress.

the bolt. Stresses due to External Forces 1. Tensile stress. where d c =Root or core

where

dc =Root or core diameter of the thread, and

σt =Permissible tensile stress for the bolt material.

Stresses in Screwed Fastening due to Static Loading:

2. Shear stress. Shearing load carried by the bolts,

2. Shear stress. Shearing load carried by the bolts, 3. Combined tension and shear stress. Maximum

3. Combined tension and shear stress. Maximum principal shear stress,

by the bolts, 3. Combined tension and shear stress. Maximum principal shear stress, Maximum principal tensile

Maximum principal tensile stress,

by the bolts, 3. Combined tension and shear stress. Maximum principal shear stress, Maximum principal tensile