Uma Introdução ao R

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Uma Introdução ao R
Tabela de Conteúdos
Uma Introdução ao R Prefácio 1 Introdução e preliminares 1.1 R O ambiente 1,2 software e documentação relacionada 1,3 R e estatísticas 1,4 R eo sistema de janelas 1.5 Usando R interativamente Uma sessão introdutória 1,6 1,7 Obter ajuda com funções e características 1,8 comandos R, maiúsculas e minúsculas, etc Lembre-se 1,9 e correção dos comandos anteriores 1,10 executar comandos a partir de ou desviar a saída para um arquivo 1,11 permanência de dados e objetos de remoção Duas manipulações simples, números e vetores 2,1 Vetores e atribuição 2,2 aritmética Vector 2,3 gerar seqüências regulares 2,4 vetores lógicos 2,5 valores em falta 2,6 Personagem vetores Índice de 2,7 vetores; seleção e modificação de subconjuntos de um conjunto de dados 2,8 Outros tipos de objetos 3 Objetos, seus modos e atributos 3,1 atributos intrínsecos: modo e tempo 3.2 Alterando o comprimento de um objeto 3,3 obter e definir atributos 3,4 A classe de um objeto 4 e ordenada desordenadas fatores Um exemplo específico 4,1 4.2 A função tapply() e matrizes irregulares 4,3 fatores ordenada 5 matrizes e matrizes 5,1 Arrays 5,2 a indexação de matriz. Subseções de uma matriz 5,3 matrizes Índice 5.4 O array() função 5.4.1 vetores e aritmética mista matriz. A regra da reciclagem 5,5 exterior O produto de duas matrizes 5,6 transposição generalizada de uma matriz 5,7 instalações Matrix 5.7.1 A multiplicação de matrizes 5.7.2 equações lineares e inversão 5.7.3 Autovalores e autovetores 5.7.4 decomposição em valores singulares e determinantes 5.7.5 ajuste dos mínimos quadrados e decomposição QR 5,8 Formação matrizes particionadas, cbind() e rbind()

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Uma Introdução ao R

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5,9 concatenação A função, c() , com matrizes 5,10 tabelas de freqüência de fatores 6 listas e quadros de dados Listas de 6,1 6,2 Construir e modificar listas 6.2.1 Listas de concatenação 6,3 quadros de dados 6.3.1 Fazendo quadros de dados 6.3.2 attach() and detach() 6.3.3 Trabalhando com quadros de dados 6.3.4 Anexando listas arbitrárias 6.3.5 Gerenciando o caminho de pesquisa 7 Os dados de leitura de arquivos 7.1 O read.table() função 7.2 A scan() função 7,3 datasets Acessando builtin 7.3.1 Carregando dados a partir de R outros pacotes 7,4 Editando dados 8 As distribuições de probabilidade 8,1 R, um conjunto de quadros estatísticos 8,2 Examinando a distribuição de um conjunto de dados 8,3 e dois testes de amostra de um 9 Agrupamento, loops e execução condicional 9,1 expressões Agrupado 9,2 Instruções de controle 9.2.1 Execução condicional: if as declarações 9.2.2 execução repetitiva: for loops, repeat e while 10 Escrevendo suas próprias funções 10,1 exemplos simples 10,2 definir novos operadores binários 10,3 argumentos nomeados e padrões 10.4 A '...' argumento 10,5 atribuições dentro de funções 10,6 exemplos mais avançados 10.6.1 Os factores de eficiência em blocos 10.6.2 descartando todos os nomes em uma matriz impressa 10.6.3 integração numérica recursiva 10,7 Âmbito 10,8 Personalizando o ambiente 10,9 Classes, funções genéricas e orientação a objetos 11 modelos estatísticos em R 11,1 Definição de modelos estatísticos, fórmulas 11.1.1 Contrastes 11,2 modelos lineares 11,3 funções genéricas para extrair informações sobre o modelo 11.4 Análise de variância e um modelo de comparação 11.4.1 tabelas ANOVA 11,5 Atualizando modelos equipados 11,6 modelos lineares generalizados 11.6.1 Famílias 11.6.2 O glm() função 11,7 mínimos quadrados não-lineares e modelos de máxima verossimilhança 11.7.1 Método dos mínimos quadrados 11.7.2 máxima verossimilhança

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Uma Introdução ao R

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11,8 Alguns modelos não-standard 12 procedimentos Gráfica 12,1 alto nível comandos de plotagem 12.1.1 A plot() função 12.1.2 Resultados de dados multivariados 12.1.3 Artes gráficas 12.1.4 Argumentos para alto nível de plotagem funções 12,2 baixo nível de comandos de plotagem 12.2.1 anotação Matemática 12.2.2 fontes Hershey vetor 12,3 Interagindo com gráficos 12.4 Usando parâmetros gráficos 12.4.1 mudanças permanentes: O par() função 12.4.2 mudanças temporárias: Argumentos para funções gráficas 12,5 Graphics lista de parâmetros 12.5.1 Os elementos gráficos 12.5.2 eixos e marcas de escala 12.5.3 margens Figura 12.5.4 ambiente figura múltipla 12,6 drivers de dispositivos 12.6.1 diagramas PostScript para escrever documentos 12.6.2 múltiplos dispositivos gráficos 12,7 gráficos dinâmicos 13 Pacotes 13,1 pacotes Standard 13,2 pacotes de Contribuição e CRAN 13,3 Namespaces Apêndice sessão de amostra AA Apêndice B Invocando R B.1 R Invocando a partir da linha de comando B.2 Invocando R no Windows B.3 Invocando R no Mac OS X B.4 Script com R Apêndice C A linha de comando-editor Preliminares C.1 Edição de ações C.2 Editor de resumo de linha de comando C.3 Apêndice D Função e índice variável Apêndice E índice Concept Referências Apêndice F Seguinte: Prefácio , Precedente: (dir) , Up: (dir)

Uma Introdução ao R
Esta é uma introdução ao R ("GNU S"), uma linguagem e ambiente para computação estatística e gráficos. R é similar ao sistema S premiada, que foi desenvolvido nos Laboratórios Bell por John Chambers et al. Ele fornece uma ampla variedade de técnicas estatísticas e gráficas (modelagem linear e não linear, testes estatísticos, análise de séries temporais, classificação, agrupamento, ...). Este manual fornece informações sobre tipos de dados, elementos de programação, modelagem estatística e gráficos. A versão atual deste documento é 2.12.1 (2010/12/16).

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endereço para correspondência e-mail para R-core@R-project.. e ampliou alguns dos materiais. gráficos sobre as instalações de gráficos pode ser lido em quase todo o tempo e não precisa esperar até que todas as seções anteriores foram digeridas. desta forma. Anterior: Prefácio .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Up: Top 1 Introdução e preliminares 4 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Anterior: Top . e por ser um defensor da R do caminho de volta. Up: Top Prefácio Esta introdução para R é derivado de um original conjunto de notas que descrevam o S-PLUS e ambientes S escrito em 1990-2 por Bill Venables e David M. Gostaríamos de agradecer sinceramente a Bill Venables (e David Smith) para a concessão de permissão para distribuir esta versão modificada das notas. ISBN 3-900051-12-7 Prefácio Introdução e preliminares Simples números manipulações e vetores Objetos Fatores Matrizes e matrizes Listas e quadros de dados Lendo dados de arquivos As distribuições de probabilidade Loops e execução condicional Escrever suas próprias funções Os modelos estatísticos em R Gráficos Pacotes A sessão de exemplo Invocando R A linha de comando-editor e variável índice de Função Conceito de índice Referências Seguinte: Introdução e preliminares . Sugestões para o leitor A maioria dos novatos R começará com a sessão introdutória no Apêndice A. Muitos usuários chegará a R principalmente para as suas instalações gráficas..org .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Por favor. Isto deve dar alguma familiaridade com o estilo de R sessões e mais importante feedback algum instante sobre o que realmente acontece. Fizemos uma série de pequenas alterações para refletir as diferenças entre os programas R e S. Smith quando da Universidade de Adelaide. Introdução e preliminares Seguinte: manipulações simples números e vetores .googleusercontent. Comentários e correções são sempre bem vindos. Neste caso.

Uma Introdução ao R

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O ambiente R Related software e documentação R e estatísticas R eo sistema de janelas Usando R interativamente Obter ajuda R comandos; maiúsculas e minúsculas etc Recall e correção dos comandos anteriores A execução de comandos de saída ou o desvio para um arquivo Dados permanência e removendo objetos Seguinte: software e documentação relacionada , Anterior: Introdução e preliminares , Up: Introdução e preliminares 1,1 O ambiente R R é um conjunto integrado de recursos de software para manipulação de dados, cálculo e exibição gráfica. Entre outras coisas, ele tem um tratamento eficaz de dados e instalação de armazenamento, um conjunto de operadores para cálculos em matrizes, matrizes em particular, um grande conjunto coerente e integrado de ferramentas de intermediário para a análise dos dados, facilidades gráficas para análise de dados e exibir diretamente no computador ou em cópia impressa e uma linguagem de programação bem desenvolvida, simples e eficaz (chamado `S '), que inclui condicionais, loops, funções definidas pelo usuário recursiva e facilidades de entrada e saída. (Na verdade a maioria das funções do sistema fornecidos são escritos na linguagem de S). O termo "ambiente" destina-se a caracterizá-lo como um sistema totalmente planejada e coerente, ao invés de uma acumulação gradual de ferramentas muito específicas e rígidas, como é frequentemente o caso com outros softwares de análise de dados. R é muito mais um veículo para desenvolver novos métodos de análise de dados interativa. Ele se desenvolveu rapidamente, e foi prorrogado por uma grande coleção de pacotes. No entanto, a maioria dos programas escritos em R são essencialmente efêmeros, escrito por uma única peça de análise de dados. Seguinte: R e estatísticas , Precedente: R ambiente A , Up: Introdução e preliminares 1,2 software e documentação relacionada R pode ser considerada como uma implementação da linguagem de S, que foi desenvolvido nos Laboratórios Bell por Rick Becker, John Chambers Wilks e Allan, e também forma a base dos sistemas S-P LUS. A evolução da linguagem é caracterizada por quatro livros por John Chambers e co-autores. Por R, a referência básica é o novo S Idioma: Um ambiente de programação para análise de dados e imagens por Richard A. Becker, M. e R. John Chambers Allan Wilks. As novas características da versão 1991 do S são abordados em Modelos Estatísticos em S editado por John Chambers M. e J. Trevor Hastie. Os métodos formais e classes do pacote são baseados em métodos daqueles descritos na programação com dados por John M. Chambers. Veja Referências , referências precisas.

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Uma Introdução ao R

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Há agora uma série de livros que descrevem como usar o R para análise de dados e estatísticas e documentação para o S / S-PLUS pode ser usado tipicamente com R, mantendo as diferenças entre as implementações S em mente. Consulte a documentação que existe para R? . Seguinte: R eo sistema de janelas , Precedente: software e documentação relacionada , Up: Introdução e preliminares 1,3 R e estatísticas Nossa introdução ao ambiente de R não mencionou as estatísticas, mas muitas pessoas usam R como um sistema de estatísticas. Nós preferimos pensar que de um ambiente no qual muitos clássicas e modernas técnicas estatísticas têm sido implementadas. Alguns destes são incorporados ao ambiente R base, mas muitos são oferecidos como pacotes. Há cerca de 25 pacotes fornecidos com R (chamada de "padrão" e "recomenda" pacotes) e muitos mais estão disponíveis através da família CRAN de sites da Internet (via http://CRAN.R-project.org ) e em outros lugares. Mais detalhes sobre os pacotes são dadas mais tarde (ver pacotes ). A maioria das estatísticas clássicas e muito mais nova metodologia está disponível para uso com R, mas os usuários podem precisar de ser preparado para fazer um pouco de trabalho para encontrá-lo. Há uma importante diferença de filosofia entre S (e, portanto, R) e os outros principais sistemas estatísticos. Em uma análise estatística S é normalmente feito como uma série de etapas, com resultados intermediários sendo armazenados nos objetos. Assim, enquanto a SAS e SPSS dará saída abundante de uma análise de regressão ou discriminante, R dará saída mínima e armazenar os resultados em um objeto adequado para posterior interrogatório por funções mais R. Próximo: Usando R interativamente , Precedente: R e estatísticas , Up: Introdução e preliminares 1,4 R eo sistema de janelas A maneira mais conveniente de usar R está em uma estação de trabalho gráfico com um sistema de janelas. Este guia é dirigido aos usuários que têm essa facilidade. Em particular, ocasionalmente se referem ao uso de R em um sistema de janelas X, embora a grande maioria do que é dito é de aplicação geral a qualquer aplicação do ambiente R. A maioria dos usuários acham necessário interagir diretamente com o sistema operacional em seu computador de vez em quando. Neste guia, principalmente discutir a interação com o sistema operacional em máquinas UNIX. Se você estiver executando o R no Windows ou Mac OS você vai precisar fazer alguns pequenos ajustes. Configurando uma estação de trabalho para tirar o máximo proveito dos recursos personalizáveis de R é um procedimento simples mas um pouco tedioso, e não será considerada mais aqui. Usuários em dificuldade deve procurar ajuda especializada local. Seguinte: Como obter ajuda , Precedente: R eo sistema de janelas , Up: Introdução e preliminares 1.5 Usando R interativamente Quando você usa o programa R emite um alerta quando se espera que os comandos de entrada. O aviso padrão é ' > ', que em UNIX pode ser o mesmo que a janela de comandos, e assim pode parecer que nada está acontecendo. No entanto, como veremos, é fácil de mudar para um R prompt diferente se desejar. Vamos supor que o shell do UNIX prompt é ' $ '. Ao utilizar o R no UNIX o procedimento sugerido para o primeiro é o seguinte:

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Uma Introdução ao R

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1. Criar um sub-diretório separado, dizem que o trabalho, para armazenar arquivos de dados em que você vai usar R para este problema. Este será o diretório de trabalho sempre que você usar R para este problema particular.
$ Mkdir work $ Cd work

2. Inicie o programa R com o comando
R $

3. Neste ponto R comandos podem ser emitidos (ver adiante). 4. Para encerrar o programa R, o comando é
> Q ()

Neste ponto, você será perguntado se deseja salvar os dados da sua sessão R. Em alguns sistemas, isso fará com que uma caixa de diálogo, e em outros que você irá receber um prompt para que você possa responder sim, não ou cancelar (uma abreviação de letra vai fazer) para salvar os dados antes de sair, sair sem salvar, ou retornar para a sessão R. Dados que é salvo estará disponível em futuras sessões R. outras sessões R são simples. 1. Fazer o trabalho do diretório de trabalho e iniciar o programa como antes:
$ Cd work R $

2. Use o programa R, que encerra com a q() o comando no final da sessão. Para usar o R no Windows o procedimento a seguir é basicamente o mesmo. Crie uma pasta como a pasta de trabalho, e definir que, no campo Iniciar Em seu atalho R. Em seguida, inicie R clicando duas vezes sobre o ícone. 1,6 Uma sessão introdutória Os leitores que quiserem ter uma idéia de R em um computador antes de prosseguir são fortemente aconselhados a trabalhar com a sessão introdutória dada em uma sessão de amostra . Seguinte: R comandos; maiúsculas e minúsculas etc , Anterior: Usando R interativamente , Up: Introdução e preliminares 1,7 Obter ajuda com funções e características R tem um mecanismo de ajuda inbuilt semelhante ao man facilidade de UNIX. Para obter mais informações sobre qualquer chamada função específica, por exemplo, solve , o comando é
> Ajuda (resolver)

Uma alternativa é
>? Resolver

Para um recurso especificado por caracteres especiais, o argumento deve ser colocado entre aspas simples ou duplas, tornando-se uma "cadeia de caracteres": Essa também é necessário para algumas palavras com significado sintático, incluindo if , for e function .
> Ajuda ("[[")

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É sensível como a maioria dos pacotes base UNIX. tudo até o fim da linha é um comentário .8 comandos R. começando com uma cancela (' # '). comandos Fundamental consistir em expressões e atribuições.googleusercontent. A cessão também avalia uma expressão e passa o valor para uma variável. Os exemplos em um tópico de ajuda pode normalmente ser executado por > Example (topic) A versões Windows do R ter outros sistemas de ajuda opcionais: use >? Ajuda para mais detalhes. Por exemplo. maiúsculas e minúsculas. de preferência. Na maioria das instalações de R ajuda está disponível em formato HTML.start() é particularmente útil. O «motor e palavras-chave 'do link da pesquisa na página carregada pelo help.search para mais detalhes e mais exemplos. comandos elementares podem ser agrupadas em uma expressão composta por chaves (' { 'e' } '). ' ou uma letra. Qualquer forma de aspas pode ser usado para escapar do outro. Os comandos são separados por um ponto e vírgula (' . impressa (salvo se tornado invisível). Normalmente todos os símbolos alfanuméricos são permitidos um (e em alguns países. os pedidos de ajuda subseqüentes são enviadas para o sistema de ajuda baseado em HTML. etc Tecnicamente R é uma linguagem de expressão com uma sintaxe muito simples. Pode ser uma ótima maneira de se orientar rapidamente e entender a amplitude do que R tem para oferecer. que busca ainda funções disponíveis.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. ele é avaliado.. isso inclui os caracteres acentuados) plus ' . eo valor é perdido. O conjunto de símbolos que podem ser usados em nomes de R depende do sistema operacional e do país em que R está sendo executado (tecnicamente na localidade em uso). R dará um padrão diferente pronta.start () que vai lançar um navegador da Web que permite que as páginas de ajuda para serem acessadas por hiperlinks. O help. " e ' _ '. No UNIX. mas o resultado não é impresso automaticamente. Os nomes são actualmente limitado a 256 bytes. Se uma expressão é dada como um comando.search comando (em alternativa ?? ) permite procurar ajudar de várias formas. com a restrição de que um nome deve começar com' . e se inicia com ' . >? Resolver Tentar ?help. executando > Help. Comentários podem ser colocados quase dois em qualquer lugar. Up: Introdução e preliminares 1. '). como na seqüência "It's important" . por isso A e a são diferentes símbolos e remete para as diferentes variáveis. Anterior: Obtendo ajuda . ' o segundo personagem não deve ser um dígito. Nossa convenção é usar aspas duplas. Seguinte: Recall e correção dos comandos anteriores . Se um comando não está completa no final de uma linha. ou por uma nova linha. pois é conceito contém uma lista de alto nível.. por meio 8 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .

desta forma. o editor de texto Emacs fornece mecanismos de apoio mais geral (por meio de ESS. Nós geralmente omitem a continuação pronta e indicar a continuidade de recuo simples. A função de sink .. e os personagens podem ser removidos com a chave <DEL> ou adicionados com as outras teclas. Seguinte: Dados permanência e remoção de objetos . Up: Introdução e preliminares 1. Precedente: R comandos.9 e correção dos comandos anteriores De acordo com várias versões do UNIX e Windows. Como alternativa. digamos commands. matrizes de números. + no segundo e subseqüentes linhas e continuar a ler a entrada até que o comando é sintaticamente completa. Ver R e Emacs .R na obra diretório de trabalho. Esta pergunta pode ser alterada pelo usuário. As linhas de comando digitada no console são limitados 3 a cerca de 4095 bytes (caracteres não). Up: Introdução e preliminares 1. Precedente: Recall e correção dos comandos anteriores . A capacidade de convocação e de edição em UNIX são altamente personalizáveis. o cursor pode ser movido dentro do comando usando as teclas de seta horizontal. As teclas de seta vertical no teclado pode ser usado para rolar para frente e para trás através de uma história de comando. record. Uma vez que o comando está localizado. Mais detalhes são fornecidos mais tarde: ver a linha de comando-editor .lis") irá desviar todas as saídas subseqüentes do console para um arquivo externo.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.11 permanência de dados e objetos de remoção As entidades que R cria e manipula são conhecidos como objetos. funções ou estruturas mais gerais construídos a 9 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .lis.R") Para Fonte do Windows também está disponível no menu Arquivo. eles podem ser executados a qualquer momento em uma sessão de R com o comando > Fonte ("commands. R fornece um mecanismo para chamar e re-execução de comandos anteriores. Você pode descobrir como fazer isso lendo o manual de entrada para a biblioteca readline. Anterior: A execução de comandos de saída ou o desvio para um arquivo . Próximo: Executando comandos a partir de ou desviar a saída para um arquivo . O comando > Pia () restaura-lo para o console novamente.googleusercontent.10 executar comandos a partir de ou desviar a saída para um arquivo Se os comandos quatro são armazenados em um arquivo externo. maiúsculas e minúsculas etc . Emacs Speaks Statistics) para trabalhar interativamente com R. Up: Introdução e preliminares Lembre-se 1. Estas podem ser variáveis. > Pia ("record. seqüências de caracteres..

com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. É bastante comum para objetos com nomes x e y a ser criado durante a análise. 10. anterior: Simple números manipulações e vetores . ou seja.1 Vetores e atribuição R opera sobre estruturas de dados nomeado.4. que consiste em uma coleção ordenada de números. 5.6.c (10. Seguinte: Objetos . A estrutura mais simples como é o vetor numérico. Durante uma sessão I. 5. digamos. sucata.googleusercontent. números e vetores Vetores e atribuição aritmética Vector regular gerar seqüências Lógico vetores Os valores em falta Personagem vetores Índice de vetores Outros tipos de objetos Seguinte: Vector aritmética . 6.. temp. Anterior: Introdução e preliminares . Rhistory. No final de cada sessão R é-lhe dada a oportunidade de salvar todos os objetos disponíveis no momento.4 e 21. neste contexto pode ter um número arbitrário de argumentos de vetor e cujo valor é um vetor tem concatenando seus argumentos finais até ao fim. use o comando R > X <.4. z. Nomes como este são muitas vezes significativos no contexto de uma única análise.4. y. Quando R é iniciado na tarde do mesmo diretório que recarrega o espaço de trabalho a partir deste arquivo. ls() ) pode ser usado para exibir os nomes dos (a maioria) os objetos que estão atualmente armazenados no R.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.6.7) Esta é uma declaração de atribuição usando a função c() que. e as linhas de comando usado na sessão são salvos em um arquivo chamado. Rdata 5 no diretório atual. o associado do histórico dos comandos é recarregada. 3.7. bar) Todos os objetos criados durante uma sessão de R pode ser armazenado permanentemente em um arquivo para uso em futuras sessões R. os objetos são criados e armazenados pelo nome (discutiremos esse processo na próxima sessão). Up: Simple números manipulações e vetores 2.1. Up: Top Duas manipulações simples. Se você indicar que você quer fazer isso. Para configurar um vetor denominado x . partir de tais componentes. A coleção de objetos armazenados atualmente é chamado o espaço de trabalho. Para remover objetos da função rm está disponível: > Rm (x. consistindo de cinco números.1. mas pode ser bastante difícil decidir o que pode ser quando as análises foram conduzidas várias no mesmo diretório. Recomenda-se que você deve usar separar diretórios de trabalho para as análises efectuadas com R. os objetos são gravados em um arquivo chamado. 6. Ao mesmo tempo. que é uma entidade única. 3. tinta. 6 10 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . 21.. O comando R objetos> () (Alternativamente. foo.

3. uma constante é simplesmente repetido. Vetores ocorrendo na mesma expressão não precisam ser todos do mesmo comprimento. max e min e selecionar o menor eo maior elementos de um vetor. Precedente: Vetores e atribuição ..'). o valor é impresso e perdeu 7 .googleusercontent. Em especial. * . respectivamente. / e ^ para elevar a uma potência. 5.4. e assim por diante. a ' = operador pode ser usado como uma alternativa.2 aritmética Vector Vetores podem ser usados em expressões aritméticas. elemento por elemento. 21. A tarefa ainda mais <> Y . agora. e var(x) que dá sum ((x-média (x)) ^ 2) / (comprimento (x) -1) 11 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . com as atribuições acima do comando V <> . c(min(x).. Observe que o operador de atribuição (' <.4. permanece inalterado). Então. Assim. que é a mesma sum(x)/length(x) . log . pode ser pensado como um sintática atalho para isso. range é uma função cujo valor é um vetor de comprimento dois. o valor da expressão é um vetor com o mesmo comprimento que o maior vetor. usando a evidente mudança de operador de atribuição. a mesma atribuição pode ser feita usando > C (10. Se não forem.4.. x) criaria um vetor y com 11 entradas composto de duas cópias de x com um zero no lugar do meio.7)) O operador de costume.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. 2*x 2. Up: Simple números manipulações e vetores 2. que ocorre na expressão.c (x. 21. Duas funções estatísticas são mean(x) que calcula a média da amostra. 6. 6. c (10. todos têm seu significado usual. sqrt . caso em que as operações são realizadas elemento por elemento..6. em uma expressão é tida como um vetor de comprimento um. <. cos . length(x) é o número de elementos em x . max(x)) . vetores mais curtos na expressão são recicladas quantas vezes necessário (talvez fracionada). tan . Seguinte: regular gerar seqüências . Atribuição também pode ser feita usando a função assign() .7) -> x Se uma expressão é usada como um comando completo.1. Os operadores aritméticos elementares são os habituais + . 3. 0.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. 5. e prod(x) o seu produto. que consiste de dois personagens do < "(" menor que ") e" .2 repetidas vezes. se tivéssemos que usar o comando > 1 / x os inversos dos cinco valores seriam impressas no terminal (eo valor de x . e 1 repetido 11 vezes. sin . .4. isto é. Um número que ocorre por si só. até que elas coincidam com o comprimento do maior vetor. y repetida apenas uma vez. é claro."(" menos ") que ocorrem estritamente lado a lado e` pontos 'para o objeto que recebe o valor da expressão. Além de todas as funções aritméticas comuns estão disponíveis. Uma maneira equivalente de fazer a mesma tarefa como acima está com: > Assign ("x". exp . Na maioria dos contextos.2 * x + y + 1 gera um novo vetor v de comprimento 11 construído pela soma. Atribuições também pode ser feita em outra direção. Assim. sum(x) dá o total dos elementos em x .1.6.

-4.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. mas sqrt (-17 0 i) fará os cálculos de números complexos. Coloque n <. também pode ser dada em forma de nome.googleusercontent. Por exemplo > Seq (-5. o padrão by=1 é assumido. 4. retorna um vetor do mesmo tamanho de x com os elementos dispostos em ordem crescente. Para a maioria dos efeitos que o usuário não se preocupa se os "números" em um vetor numérico são inteiros...8. fonte de uma parte explícita complexo. 2) -> s3 gera em s3 o vetor c(-5. Se nenhum desses for dada. Do mesmo modo 12 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . 29.. Assim sqrt (-17) dará NaN e uma advertência. e se estes são os dois únicos argumentos que apresenta o resultado é o mesmo que o operador dois pontos.3 seqüências regulares R tem um número de instalações para a geração de seqüências comumente utilizado de números. -4. caso em que a ordem em que aparecem é irrelevante.. A construção 30:1 pode ser usado para gerar uma seqüência para trás. from=1) são todos iguais como 1:30 .6. seq(from=1.. 30) . se houver.10 e comparar as seqüências 1:n-1 e 1:(n-1) .. Note-se que max e min e selecionar o menor eo maior valores em seus argumentos. Parâmetros para seq() . 30) . . os cálculos são feitos com precisão dupla números reais ou números de precisão dupla complexo se os dados de entrada são complexas. porém existem outras instalações de classificação mais flexível disponível (veja a order() ou sort. Por exemplo 1:30 é o vetor c(1. só algumas das quais podem ser especificados em qualquer uma chamada.. reais ou mesmo complexos.list() que produzem uma permutação para fazer a classificação) . Os próximos dois parâmetros para seq() pode ser chamado by= valor e length= valor. por isso. 2. 5. .. O operador dois pontos tem alta prioridade dentro de uma expressão. assim seq(1.30) .0) .. regular gerar seqüências Seguinte: vetores lógicos . A função seq() é um mecanismo mais geral para a geração de seqüências. ou variância da amostra. 5. 28. Precedente: aritmética Vector . por =.. sort(x) Para trabalhar com números complexos.10) é o mesmo vetor como 2:10 . e para muitas funções R outro. 4. Os primeiros dois argumentos. Isso é seq(2.. Os primeiros dois parâmetros pode ser chamado from= valor e to= valor.6. Up: manipulações simples números e vetores Geração de 2. especificar o início eo fim da seqüência. que especifica um tamanho de passo e um comprimento para a seqüência respectivamente.0. . 4. mesmo se eles tiverem vários vetores. por exemplo 2*1:15 é o vetor c(2. O valor máximo e mínimo de funções paralelas pmax e pmin retornar um vetor (de comprimento igual ao seu maior argumento) que contém em cada elemento o maior eo menor) elemento (em que a posição em qualquer um dos vetores de entrada.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.8. to=30) e seq(to=30. Internamente. Ela tem cinco argumentos. Se o argumento para var() é um n-por-p-valor da matriz é um sub-p-p covariância da amostra tem por matriz a respeito das linhas como independente variada amostra de vetores-p.

vezes = 5) que vai colocar cinco cópias de x fim-de-final em s5 .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.. os componentes de um vetor não pode ser completamente conhecida.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Os dois primeiros são abreviadas como T e F . R permite a manipulação de quantidades de lógica. em seguida. você deve sempre usar TRUE e FALSE .. A função está relacionada rep() que pode ser usado para replicar um objeto de diversas maneiras complicadas. o resultado não pode ser conhecido e.5 valores em falta Em alguns casos. Up: Simple números manipulações e vetores 2. Up: manipulações simples números e vetores 2.na(x) dá um vetor lógico do mesmo tamanho de x com o valor TRUE se e somente se o elemento correspondente em x é NA . Os operadores lógicos são < . pode ser substituído pelo usuário. A forma mais simples é > <S5 . Próxima: Personagem vetores . Quando um elemento ou o valor é "não disponível" ou um "valor faltando" no sentido estatístico. e cria uma seqüência de 1. Os elementos de um vetor lógico pode ter os valores TRUE . atribuindo a ela o valor especial NA .. por padrão. Em geral. 2. FALSE se tornando 0 e TRUE se tornar 1 . qualquer operação realizada sobre um NA torna-se um NA . Seguinte: Os valores em falta .googleusercontent. A função is. Portanto. ou a seqüência vazia se o vetor está vazia (como pode ser ). Por exemplo <Temp> . por =. mas não são palavras reservadas e. Além disso. a partir =.5.4 vetores lógicos Bem como vetores numéricos. >= . Precedente: regular gerar seqüências .rep (x. O quinto parâmetro pode ser nomeado along= vetor. Lógico vetores podem ser usados na aritmética o ) comum.. se c1 e c2 são expressões lógicas. c1 | c2 e) é a sua união (" u". respectivamente. 2) gera o mesmo vetor em s4 . com valores FALSE correspondentes aos elementos de x em que a condição não for cumprida e TRUE onde ela está. não está disponível. um lugar dentro de um vetor pode ser reservado para ela. portanto. == para a igualdade exata e != para a desigualdade. cada = 5) que se repete cada elemento x cinco vezes antes de avançar para a próxima.rep (x. c1 & c2 é a intersecção (" ". por exemplo. A motivação para esta regra é simplesmente que se a especificação de uma operação é incompleta. que se for utilizado deve ser o único parâmetro. veja na próxima subseção. No entanto.x> 13 define temp como um vetor de mesmo comprimento que x . length( vetor ) . Lógico vetores são gerados por condições. Outra versão é útil <> S6 .. portanto.seq (length = 51. FALSE . > S4 <. existem situações onde os vetores lógicos e seus homólogos coagido numéricos não são equivalentes. caso em que são coagidos a vetores numéricos. Precedente: vetores lógicos . e NA (para "não disponível". Note no entanto que T e F são apenas as variáveis que são definidas para TRUE e FALSE . e !c1 é a negação de c1 . . > . veja abaixo). 13 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . <= .

is. NA). <ind . mas isso pode ser alterado pelo parâmetro nomeado.Inf que ambos dão NaN desde que o resultado não pode ser definido de forma sensata. da mesma forma que seriam se fossem impressas. is. guia e \b . usando \ como caracter de escape. setembro = "") faz labs para o vetor de caracteres c ("X1". valores.. > Z <. Os valores em falta são. 1:10. NaN . exemplos de uso vão surgir com frequência. Sempre que necessário. Os argumentos são separados por padrão no resultado por um único caractere em branco. Eles usam seqüências de escape estilo-C. como a expressão lógica em si é incompleta e. mas são impressos usando aspas duplas (ou às vezes sem as aspas). "x-values" . Seguinte: Índice de vetores . por exemplo. "Y6". isto é. 8 "Y") é repetido cinco vezes para igualar a seqüência de 1:10 .pasta (c ("X". O paste() função recebe um número arbitrário de argumentos e concatena-los um a um em cadeias de caracteres. Up: Simple números manipulações e vetores 2. "Y2". mas um marcador para uma quantidade que não está disponível.na (z) Observe que a expressão lógica x == NA é muito diferente de is. "X3".googleusercontent. por exemplo. indecidível. Qualquer número. Anterior: Os valores em falta . "Y"). Outras seqüências de escape são úteis \n nova linha. assim \ é entrou e impressos como \ .nan(xx) só é TRUE para NaN s. etiquetas parcela. sep= string. Para diferenciá-las. "X5".Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. is.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. às vezes impresso como <NA> vetores de caracteres quando são impressas sem aspas. Note que existe um segundo tipo de "desaparecidos" os valores que são produzidos por computação numérica. a chamada Not a Number.na(x) desde NA não é realmente um valor. Em resumo. possivelmente vazio. o que muda é a cadeia. \t .na(xx) é TRUE tanto para NA e NaN valores. e dentro de aspas duplas " está inscrita como ###BOT_TEXT###quot; .c (1:3. "New iteration results" .6 Personagem vetores Personagem quantidades e vetores de caracteres são utilizados freqüentemente em R.. Personagem vetores podem ser concatenados em um vetor pelo c() função. "Y4". "Y10") Note particularmente que a reciclagem de listas curtas acontece aqui também. portanto. "X9". Assim x == NA é um vetor de mesmo comprimento que x todos cujos valores são NA . Exemplos são > 0 / 0 ou > Inf . backspace-ver? Cotações para uma lista completa. Por exemplo > <Laboratórios . "Y8". eles são indicados por uma seqüência de caracteres delimitados pelo caractere aspas duplas. dado entre os argumentos são coagidos a cadeias de caracteres no modo evidente. "X7". assim c("X". As cadeias de caracteres são digitados ou correspondência (double " ) ou simples ( ' ) aspas. 14 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .

Neste caso. o índice do vetor deve ser do mesmo comprimento que o vetor a partir da qual os elementos devem ser selecionados. seleção e modificação de subconjuntos de um conjunto de dados Subconjuntos de elementos de um vetor pode ser selecionado por meio do acréscimo do nome do vetor um vetor de índice entre colchetes.c ("laranja".. "laranja")] frutas 15 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . "maçã". "pêssego") > <Almoço .(1:5)] dá y todos. 10.7 vetores. Seguinte: Outros tipos de objetos . os valores no vetor de índice deve estar no conjunto {1. Esse índice vetor uma especifica os valores a serem excluídos e não incluídos. y será menor que x . 1.2. length(x) }. Um vetor de quantidades negativas integral. .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.2.[c ("maçã". Por exemplo <> Y .na (x)] cria (ou recria) um objeto y que conterá os valores em falta. "y". Também > C ("x". os tempos = 4)] (Uma coisa improvável certo a fazer) produz um vetor de caracteres de tamanho 16 que consiste em "x". "y") [rep (c (1. qualquer expressão que equivale a um vetor pode ter subconjuntos dos seus elementos igualmente selecionadas anexando um vetor de índice entre colchetes imediatamente após a expressão. no resultado. mas os cinco primeiros elementos de x .x [! Is. Um vetor de seqüências de caracteres. nessa ordem.. Um vetor lógico. Também > (X +1) [(! Is.googleusercontent. "y". Mais geral. O vetor de índice pode ser de qualquer tamanho. 2. 4.c (5. Neste caso. vetores Esse índice pode ser qualquer um dos quatro tipos distintos. na mesma ordem do. 1.. 2. <> Fruta . um sub-vetor do vetor de nomes podem ser utilizados da mesma forma como os rótulos positivos integral no item 2 mais acima. 20) > Nomes (fruta) <. anterior: Personagem vetores .1). 3. Esta possibilidade só se aplica quando um objeto tem um names de atributo para identificar seus componentes.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Up: manipulações simples números e vetores Índice de 2.na (x)) & x> 0] -> z cria um objeto z e lugares em que os valores do vetor x+1 para o qual o valor correspondente em x era ao mesmo tempo não falta e positiva. Um vetor de quantidades positivas integral.x [. Os elementos correspondentes do vetor são selecionadas e concatenadas. eo resultado é do mesmo comprimento que o vetor de índice. Note que se x tem valores em falta. "banana". "x" repetido quatro vezes. não de x . Assim <> Y . Valores correspondentes a TRUE no vetor de índice são selecionados e os correspondentes à FALSE são omitidos. x[6] é o sexto componente de x e > X [01:10] seleciona os 10 primeiros elementos de x (assumindo que length(x) não é inferior a 10).. Neste caso.. Por exemplo.

A expressão deve ser da forma vector[ index_vector ] como tendo uma expressão arbitrária no lugar do nome do vetor não faz muito sentido aqui. mas com (possivelmente) as duas variáveis numéricas e categóricas.na (x)] <. Na verdade.8 Outros tipos de objetos Vetores são o tipo mais importante do objeto em R. na qual as colunas podem ser de diferentes tipos. Veja listas . eles são vetores que podem ser indexados por dois ou mais índices e será impresso de maneira especial. como veremos mais tarde. As listas oferecem um modo conveniente para retornar os resultados de um cálculo estatístico. Up: Top 3 Objetos. como as estruturas da matriz. funções são objetos em R que pode ser armazenado em espaço de trabalho do projeto. Veja escrever suas próprias funções . seus modos e atributos O modo de atributos intrínsecos e comprimento A mudança no comprimento de um objeto Obter e definir atributos A classe de um objeto 16 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . fatores fornecem maneiras compacto para manipular os dados categóricos.abs (y) Anterior: Índice de vetores . que vamos encontrar mais formalmente nas seções posteriores. Veja Fatores . Por exemplo > X [is..com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. O vetor atribuído deve corresponder ao tamanho do vetor de índice. matrizes ou. caso em que a operação de atribuição é realizada apenas sobre os elementos do vetor. Pense de quadros de dados como matrizes «dados» com uma linha por unidade de observação. Up: Simple números manipulações e vetores 2. e muitas vezes são eles mesmos vetores ou listas.googleusercontent.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.0 substitui os valores em falta em x por zeros e > Y [y <0] <--y [y <0] tem o mesmo efeito que > Y <. Veja matrizes e matrizes . e no caso de um vetor de índice lógico que deve voltar a ser o mesmo comprimento que o vetor é a indexação. A vantagem é que os nomes alfanuméricos são muitas vezes mais fácil de lembrar que os índices numéricos. Muitas experiências são mais bem descrito por quadros de dados: os tratamentos são categóricos. listas são uma forma geral de vetor no qual os vários elementos não precisam ser do mesmo tipo. quadros de dados são. mas a resposta é numérica. mais geralmente arrays são multi-dimensional de vetores de generalizações. Uma expressão indexada também pode aparecer no fim de recepção de uma cessão.. mas existem muitas outras. Veja quadros de dados . Esta opção é particularmente útil em conexão com os quadros de dados. Isso fornece uma maneira simples e conveniente para estender R. Precedente: números de simples manipulações e vetores . Seguinte: Fatores .

Note-se que um vetor pode ser vazio e ainda ter um modo. 17 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . complexo. mas na verdade existem vários tipos de NA ). lógica e matérias-primas. Outras propriedades de um objeto são normalmente prestados por attributes( objeto ) . "1". Estes são conhecidos como "atômico" estruturas desde os seus componentes são todos do mesmo tipo. individualmente. Up: Objetos 3. 11 Existe uma grande coleção de funções da forma as. . Estas são seqüências ordenadas de objetos que. qualquer dado vetor deve ser inequívoca. o modo e tempo são também chamados de "atributos intrínsecos" de um objeto. As funções mode( objeto ) e length( objeto ) pode ser usada para descobrir o modo e tempo de qualquer estrutura definida 10 . consulte Como obter e definir atributos . O leitor deve consultar os arquivos de ajuda diferentes para se familiarizar com eles.. numérica 9 . Expressões como objetos fazem parte avançada de R que não serão discutidos neste guia. vetores de valores lógicos e vectores de cadeias de caracteres. ou modo.as. A coerção mais ou mudança de modo. As funções são os objetos que fazem parte do sistema R junto com o usuário similar funções escritas. natureza. "9") . Vetores devem ter seus valores todos do mesmo modo. Assim. (e algumas em que não possa ser).Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.character (z) após o qual digits é o vetor de caracteres c("0". de caráter complexo. Pelo modo de um objeto que significa que o tipo básico de seus componentes fundamentais. "2". (A aparente única excepção a esta regra é a "especial" o valor listado como NA para as quantidades não estão disponíveis.1 atributos intrínsecos: modo e tempo As entidades R opera em são tecnicamente conhecidos como objetos. Por exemplo. Devido a isso. R serve para mudanças de modo quase em qualquer lugar que poderia ser considerado razoável para o fazer. Outra propriedade de cada objeto é o seu comprimento. a seqüência de vetores de caracteres vazia é listada como character(0) eo vetor numérica vazia como numeric(0) . se z é um vetor complexo de comprimento 100. Este é um caso especial de uma "propriedade" de um objeto. Listas são conhecidas como "recursivo" ao invés de estruturas atômicas desde que seus componentes possam ser eles próprios listas em seu próprio direito. quer lógico. reconstrói o vetor numérico novamente: > D <. exceto indiretamente quando discutimos fórmulas usadas com modelagem em R. numérico.as..integer (dígitos) Agora d e z são os mesmos. ou cru.. O recursiva outras estruturas são os de função do modo de expressão. R também opera em objetos listas de chamada. Seguinte: A mudança no comprimento de um objeto . que são de modo lista. Por exemplo. Por exemplo. Precedente: Objetos . Exemplos são os vetores de valores numéricos (real) ou complexos.. então em uma expressão mode(z) é a seqüência de caracteres "complex" e length(z) é 100 . ou seja. que serão discutidos em detalhe mais tarde.. algo () para qualquer coerção de um modo para outro.00:09 poderíamos colocar dígitos> <.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. ou para investir um objeto com algum outro atributo que não pode já possuir. com > Z <.googleusercontent. pode ser de qualquer modo.

Essas funções são raramente utilizadas. Assim > E [3] <. por exemplo. Quando ele é usado no lado esquerdo de uma atribuição que pode ser usado para associar um novo atributo com o objeto ou alterar um já existente. Alguns cuidados devem ser tomados quando atribuir ou excluir atributos pois eles são uma parte integrante do sistema de objetos usados em R.) Podemos então manter apenas os três primeiros valores. da mesma forma. é muito importante. > Comprimento (alfa) <. exceto em circunstâncias muito especial quando algum novo atributo está sendo criado para algum propósito particular. (Veja o scan () função . simplesmente.Alfa alfa [2 * 01:05] torna um objeto de comprimento 5 que compreende apenas os componentes antigos. novos componentes podem ser adicionados a ele. Up: Objetos 3.googleusercontent.. desde o modo do componente adicional (s) concorda com o modo do objeto em primeiro lugar. dando-lhe um valor de índice fora do intervalo anterior. Isso se aplica a qualquer estrutura de todos. se alpha é um objeto de comprimento 10.17 faz agora e um vetor de comprimento 3.numérico () faz e uma estrutura de vetor vazio de modo numérico. Anterior: Mudando o comprimento de um objeto .3 e vetores pode ser estendido (por valores em falta). (os dois primeiros componentes. (Os índices de idade não são mantidas. foi criado. para associar a criação de uma data ou um operador com um objeto R. nome ) pode ser usado para selecionar um atributo específico. A função attr( objeto . que são neste momento os dois NA ). Anterior: O modo de atributos intrínsecos e comprimento . mesmo com o índice. e assim por diante. > <. Seguinte: A classe de um objeto .) Inversamente para truncar o tamanho de um objeto requer apenas uma atribuição para fazê-lo. Up: Objetos 3.2 Alterando o comprimento de um objeto Um objeto "vazio" pode ainda ter um modo. Do mesmo modo character() é um vetor de caracteres vazia.10) R permite tratar z . é claro. Portanto. 18 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . O conceito. no scan() função para a entrada. Este ajuste automático do comprimento de um objeto é usado com freqüência. entretanto. Por exemplo > Attr (z. "dim") <. por exemplo..c (10.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. como se fosse um-por-10 da matriz 10. Depois que um objeto de qualquer tamanho. Seguinte: Como obter e definir atributos . Por exemplo > E <.3 obter e definir atributos A função de attributes( objeto ) retorna uma lista de todos os não-atributos intrínsecos atualmente definidas para esse objeto.

"Vic". em vez que você precisa para usar este recurso. "sa".c ("tas". "Vic". "wa". classificado" significa classificados em ordem alfabética. "acto". "tas". "Qld". Para vetores simples. "character" ou "list" . por exemplo. Por exemplo. Up: Top 4 fatores ordenadas e desordenadas Um fator é um vetor de objeto usado para especificar uma classificação discreta (agrupamento) dos componentes de outros vetores de mesmo comprimento. nós aqui olhar para um exemplo específico. por exemplo "numeric" . este é apenas o modo.frame" são outros valores possíveis. conhecida como a classe do objeto é usado para permitir um estilo de objeto orientado 12 de programação em R. funções genéricas e as aulas serão discutidas mais adiante na orientação a objeto . a plot() função irá exibi-lo graficamente em uma determinada maneira. "sa". "Vic". "NT". Um atributo especial. Somente em situações especiais. use a função unclass() . ele será impresso em uma determinada maneira. "NSW". em seguida.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. "NSW". Um fator é igualmente criado usando o factor() função: > <Statef .4 A classe de um objeto Todos os objetos em P tem uma classe.googleusercontent.factor (estado) 19 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . temos uma amostra de 30 auditores fiscais de todos os estados e territórios da Austrália 13 e seu estado de origem individual é especificado por um vetor de caracteres de mnemônicos Estado como <> Estado . "array" . "wa". "factor" e "data. "NSW". "Sa". e outros chamados funções genéricas como o summary() vai reagir a isso como um argumento de uma forma sensível a sua classe. "acto") Observe que no caso de um vetor de caracteres ". se winter tem a classe "data. Enquanto o real "aplicação" de fatores é com as fórmulas do modelo (ver Contrastes ). "Vic".. Objetos 3. mas "matrix" .1 Um exemplo específico Suponha. relatado pela função de class . "Vic". "NSW". Anterior: Introdução e definição de atributos Up:. "wa". "wa". Para remover temporariamente os efeitos da classe. "qld". que é um pouco como uma matriz. "NT".com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. "NSW". "Sa". mas é quando você está aprendendo a entrar em acordo com a idéia de classe e funções genéricas. "qld". R fornece tanto desordenada e fatores de ordem. se um objeto tem classe "data. 4.frame" . "qld". "NSW". Seguinte: matrizes e matrizes . Inverno> será impresso em formulário de dados do quadro. Por exemplo. enquanto unclass> (Inverno) irá imprimi-lo como uma lista comum. "logical" .frame" . Precedente: Objetos . "qld".. mas apenas momentaneamente.

48. 56.244 2.googleusercontent. statef stderr) e os valores calculados são então incster> ato sa nt nsw qld tas wa vic 1. para cada grupo de componentes do primeiro argumento. O leitor deve consultar o documento de ajuda para mais detalhes.3102 4.Tapply (rendas.333 55.2 A função tapply() e matrizes irregulares Para continuar o exemplo anterior. 69. 40. O resultado é uma estrutura do mesmo comprimento que os níveis de atributo do elemento que contém os resultados. "nsw" nt "qld" sa "" tas "vic" wa " O Tapply função () e matrizes irregulares fatores ordenada Seguinte: fatores ordenada .250 A função tapply() é usada para aplicar uma função. O print() função manipula fatores um pouco diferente de outros objetos: statef> [1] sa tas qld nsw nsw wa wa nt qld vic vic nsw qld qld sa [16] tas sa nt wa vic qld nsw nsw wa nsw ato sa ato Vic Níveis: nt nsw ato qld tas sa wa vic Para descobrir os níveis de um fator a função de levels() pode ser usado. 60. 70. Suponha ainda que precisávamos para calcular o desvio padrão da renda do estado significa. 43) Para calcular a média da amostra de renda para cada estado agora podemos usar a função especial tapply() : > Incmeans <. suponha que temos os rendimentos dos auditores fiscais num outro vector (em unidades suficientemente grande de dinheiro) <> Renda . Depois desta atribuição. aqui incomes . 49. visto que R tem também uma função embutida sd() ). 59.5 4.1061 2. 42. statef. 61. 62. 46.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. 58. 59. indicada pelo serviço: > <Stderr . média) dando um vetor de meios com os componentes marcados pelos níveis ato sa nt nsw qld tas wa vic 44. aqui mean() . aqui statef 14 . Como não há uma função embutida var() para calcular a variância da amostra.. em escrever suas próprias funções . > Níveis (statef) [1] "acto". tal função é muito simples de uma linha. 64.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.000 52.c (60. e neste caso era desnecessária.500 56. 65.600 55. Precedente: Fatores .000 60. 61.5 4.Tapply (rendas. 48.7386 0. Para isso. 52. precisamos escrever uma função de R para calcular o erro padrão para qualquer vector dado. 61. 54. 41. Up: Fatores 4.. 51.500 53. os erros-padrão são calculados por <Incster> . definidos pelos níveis do segundo componente.5 5. 49. 49. 46. 58. 61.6575 20 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . como se fossem as estruturas do vetor separados .function (x) sqrt (var (x) / comprimento (x)) (Funções de escrita será considerada mais tarde.500 57.

como podemos ver na próxima seção. O ordered() função cria tais fatores ordenados mas de resto é idêntico ao factor . A combinação de um vetor e um fator de rotulagem é um exemplo de que às vezes é chamada de matriz irregular. Se o seu comprimento é k. uma vez que os tamanhos das subclasses são possivelmente irregular. correspondentes às entradas distintas no fator. Up: Top 5 matrizes e matrizes Matrizes indexação de matriz Índice de matrizes A função Array () O produto externo das duas matrizes Generalizado transposição de uma matriz Facilidades Matrix Formando matrizes particionadas A função de concatenação c () com arrays tabelas de freqüência de fatores Em seguida: Matriz de indexação .. neste caso.. Quando os tamanhos das subclasses são todos os indexação o mesmo pode ser feito de modo implícito e muito mais eficiente. Precedente: Fatores . Como um exercício. marcado pela levels atributo do fator. então a 21 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . No entanto. Às vezes os níveis terão uma ordem natural que queremos gravar e queremos que a nossa análise estatística para fazer uso. Os valores do vetor são coletados em grupos. Up: matrizes e matrizes 5. O valor é um vetor de resultados da função. R permite instalações simples para a criação e manipulação de matrizes. ou na ordem em que foram especificados para factor se eles fossem especificados explicitamente. mas o contraste gerado por eles no ajuste de modelos lineares são diferentes.3 fatores ordenada Os níveis dos fatores são armazenados em ordem alfabética. (Você também pode investigar instalações de P para os testes-t). A dimensão do vetor é um vetor de inteiros não-negativos. Para a maioria dos efeitos que a única diferença entre os fatores de ordenados e não ordenados é que os primeiros são impressos mostrando a ordem dos níveis. Precedente: matrizes e matrizes . por exemplo numérico. Up: Fatores 4.googleusercontent. Anterior: A função Tapply () e matrizes irregulares . simples (apenas um fator) que acontece pode ser pensado como se segue. Seguinte: Listas e quadros de dados . poderíamos querer dividir os contabilistas fiscais por estado e sexo.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. você pode importar para encontrar os habituais limites de confiança de 95% para a média no estado de rendimentos. A função é aplicada a cada um desses grupos individualmente. Para fazer isso você poderia usar tapply() mais uma vez com o length() função para localizar os tamanhos de amostra e do qt() função para localizar os pontos de percentagem do adequado t-distribuições. e em particular o caso especial de matrizes.1 Arrays Uma matriz pode ser considerada como uma coleção multiplicar subscrita de entradas de dados. Por exemplo.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. A função tapply() também pode ser usado para tratar mais complicado indexação de um vetor por várias categorias.

. o vetor de dimensão pode ser referenciado explicitamente como dim(Z) (em ambos os lados de uma atribuição).2]) nessa ordem.2] . os valores correspondentes do vetor de dados só são utilizadas.5.1. se um nome de matriz é dado com apenas um índice ou um vetor de índice. no entanto. . Matrizes podem ser unidimensionais: matrizes deste tipo são normalmente tratados da mesma forma como vetores (incluindo a imprimir).1. Subseções de uma matriz Os elementos individuais de uma matriz pode ser referenciado por dar o nome da matriz seguido pelos subscritos entre colchetes. mas também uma matriz..c (3.. a[2. como estamos proximos discutir. se o único índice não é um vetor. anterior: a indexação de matriz .2]. é c(3. Suponha. z é um vetor de 1500 elementos. Continuando o exemplo anterior. como veremos em A matriz () função . As dimensões são indexados a partir de um até os valores indicados no vetor de dimensão. diz a . Este não é o caso. uma matriz é um array de 2 dimensões. mas as exceções podem causar confusão. as subseções de uma matriz pode ser especificado. em substituição de índices. Up: matrizes e matrizes 22 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . então há 3 * 4 * 2 = 24 entradas em a vetor de dados e os mantém na ordem a[1. que é "grande encomenda de coluna".] é um 4 * 2 matriz com a dimensão do vetor c(4. Índice de matrizes A função Array () Seguinte: A função Array () . a [2.4.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. a[2.4. A atribuição > Dim (z) <.2. Outras funções. matriz é k-dimensional. Os valores no vetor de dados fornecem os valores da matriz na mesma ordem em que iria ocorrer em Fortran. dando uma seqüência de vetores de índice. Up: matrizes e matrizes 5.2. Para qualquer matriz.2].3. digamos Z .] representa a matriz inteira. por exemplo. se o vetor de dimensão para uma matriz. a [2. se qualquer posição do índice é dado um vetor de índice de vazios. um [2. a[2.1. a[.1]. neste caso o vetor de dimensão é ignorada. Seguinte: Índice de matrizes . em seguida. a [2..1]. que é o mesmo que omitir a totalmente subscritos e usar a só. a [2.1].1].100) lhe confere o atributo dim que permite que ele seja tratado como um "3 by 5 por 100 matriz.4.2) eo vetor de dados contendo os valores c (a [2. a [2.4.1]. separados por vírgulas. Por exemplo.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.2) .2 a indexação de matriz. Mais genericamente. em seguida.1].. por exemplo.4.1.. com o primeiro subscrito mais rápidos e mais lentos subscrito passado. a[3.googleusercontent. no entanto. Além disso. toda a gama de subscrição que for tomada.3. a [2. tais como matrix() e array() estão disponíveis para simples e mais natural atribuições de quem.2].. Um vetor pode ser usado por R como uma matriz somente se ele tiver um vetor de dimensão como o seu atributo dim.2]. Anterior: Matrizes .

Suponha. 4 8 12 16 20 > 4 por 5. Como um exemplo menos trivial. Neste caso. v) > <Ib . [1].5)) # Gera uma matriz de > X . e as linhas que contêm um NA produzir um NA no resultado.. um índice da matriz pode ser dada constituído por duas colunas e tantas linhas. 1 5 9 13 17 [2] 2 6 10 14 18 [3]. [4]. X[2. por exemplo. NA e valores de zero são permitidos: linhas no índice de matriz contendo um zero são ignoradas.cbind (1: n. [5] [1]. temos uma matriz de 4 por 5 X e queremos fazer o seguinte: Extrair elementos X[1. c = dim (4. precisamos de uma matriz de 3 por 2 subscrito. [5] [1]. Suponha ainda existem n parcelas no experimento. 3 7 11 15 19 [4]. [1]. nós poderíamos usar > N <. XV) No entanto.. como no exemplo a seguir. ou extrair uma coleção irregular como um vetor. Um exemplo da matriz torna o processo claro. XV) Para construir a matriz de incidência.3 matrizes Índice Bem como um vetor de índice em qualquer posição subscrito.3:1). Nós poderíamos proceder da seguinte forma: > Xb <.2] e X[3.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.3] . As entradas no índice da matriz são os índices de linha e coluna para a matriz duplamente indexados.0 # Substitua esses elementos zeros. [2]. [2] [1]. > X .cbind (Xb. 5.matriz (0.1] como uma estrutura de vetor.crossprod (Xb. . b) > Xv <. > X <. 2 0 10 14 18 [3]. 1 5 0 13 17 [2].matriz (1:20.matriz (0.matriz (c (1:3. variedades) > Xb [ib] <. suponha que queiramos gerar uma situação sem redução) projeto (matriz para um delineamento em blocos definidos por fatores blocks ( b níveis) e varieties ( v níveis). 3 1 > X [i] # Extrai os elementos [1] 9 6 3 > X [i] <. [3].Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. uma maneira mais simples direta de produzir essa matriz é a utilização de table() : 23 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . n. [4]. c = dim (3.1 > X <. No caso de uma matriz duplamente indexados. n. e Substituir essas entradas na matriz X por zeros.1 > XV [iv] <. 2 2 [3]. [3].2)) > I # i é uma matriz 3 por 2 índice. como desejado. blocos) <> IV . uma matriz pode ser usada com um único índice da matriz seja para atribuir um vetor de quantidades para uma coleção irregular de elementos do array.googleusercontent. N dizer. 0 7 11 15 19 [4]. [1].cbind (1: n. Os índices negativos não são permitidos em matrizes índice. 4 8 12 16 20 > I <. [2]. 1 3 [2].

> N <. os seus valores são reciclados a partir do início de novo para fazê-lo até o tamanho 24 (ver A regra da reciclagem ). Seguinte: O produto externo das duas matrizes . que tem a forma > Z <.. Como um exemplo extremo.h.array (0. se o vetor h tem 24 ou menos.googleusercontent.4. mas comuns > Z <.tabela (blocos. o resultado é o mesmo que > Z <. A expressão é digitalizado a partir da esquerda para a direita.1 vetores e aritmética mista matriz. c = dim (3.c(3.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Qualquer operandos vetoriais curto são estendidos através da reciclagem de seus valores 24 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .c (3.2) No entanto. um caráter lógico ou matriz) fornecidos como uma matriz é tratada como um vetor de indexação. então > D <. dim (Z) <.2) e Z[1:24] representa o vetor de dados como era no h .4. O dim atributos de operandos geralmente precisa ser o mesmo.matriz (h. se h for menor que 24.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.2) seria um sinal de erro sobre o descasamento comprimento. No entanto. se A . dim(Z) representa o vetor de dimensão c(3. A regra da reciclagem Precedente: matriz A () função . variedades) Índice de matrizes deve ser numérica: qualquer outra forma de matriz (por exemplo.. Anterior: Índice de matrizes .4 O array() função Bem como dar uma estrutura de um vetor dim atributo. B e C são matrizes semelhantes.2)) torna Z uma matriz de zeros. c (3. Se o tamanho h é exatamente 24. Up: matrizes e matrizes 5. e Z[] com um índice vazio ou Z com não subscrito representa a matriz inteira como uma matriz. Neste ponto. e isso se torna o vetor de dimensão do resultado. Up: matriz A () função 5. os vetores podem ser construídos a partir de vetores da array função. os números. Portanto.4.matriz (data_vector. A regra da reciclagem A regra precisa afetando elemento por elemento misto cálculos com vetores e matrizes é algo peculiar e difícil de encontrar nas referências. dim_vector) Por exemplo.2 * A * B + C + 1 faz D uma matriz semelhante com o seu vetor de dados sendo o resultado do elementode-operações de determinado elemento. Matrizes podem ser usadas em expressões aritméticas eo resultado é um conjunto formado por operações elemento por elemento do vetor de dados.4. mas dim(h) <. a regra precisa quanto à matriz mista e os cálculos do vetor tem que ser considerado um pouco mais de cuidado. então o comando > Z <. Da experiência que temos encontrado o seguinte para ser um guia confiável.4.4.2)) usaria h criar 3 por 4 a 2 na série Z .

O produto externo é formado pelo operador especial %o% : <Ab> . ylab = "Freqüência") Observe a coerção dos names atributo da tabela de freqüência para numérico. a fim de recuperar o intervalo de valores determinantes.exterior (0:09.exterior (a. 9. 0:09) > <Fr . que é um dígito . naturalmente. Isto equivale a encontrar a distribuição de probabilidade de o fator determinante. formando todos os produtos possíveis de elementos do vetor de dados a com os de b . Por exemplo.numeric (nomes (fr)).5 O produto exterior de dois vetores Uma operação importante em matrizes é o produto externo. Up: matrizes e matrizes 5.. considere os determinantes de matrizes 2 por 2 [a. o produto externo de dois vetores normais é uma matriz duplamente subscrito (que é uma matriz de classificação. ad . c. Seguinte: Generalized transposição de uma matriz . XLAB = "determinantes".tabela (exterior (d. seu produto externo é uma matriz cuja dimensão do vetor é obtido concatenando os dois vetores de dimensão (a ordem é importante). f) Em particular.. Se as estruturas de matriz estão presentes e nenhum erro ou a coação para vetor foi precipitada. no máximo. . y. O óbvio "caminho" de fazer esse problema com o for loops. 1. b. de todas as matrizes possível desta forma e representa a freqüência com que cada valor ocorre como uma trama de alta densidade. o resultado é uma estrutura matricial com o mercado comum dim atributo de sua matriz operandos.exterior (x. e cujos dados vetoriais tenho. se quisermos avaliar a função f (x. Qualquer vector operando mais de um operando matricial ou matriz gera um erro. O problema é encontrar os determinantes. as matrizes devem ter todos a mesma dim atributo ou um erro. y) = cos (y) / (1 + x ^ 2) sobre uma grade regular de valores com x-e y-coordenadas definida pelos vetores R x e y .a% b% o Uma alternativa é > <Ab . Definindo suas próprias funções R será considerado ainda em escrever suas próprias funções . d. Uma boa forma de fazer isso usa o outer() função duas vezes: > D <. d]. mas bonito artificial. fr.function (x. Um exemplo: Determinantes de 2 por 2 matrizes de um dígito Como um exemplo. "-")) > Plot (as. onde cada entrada é um inteiro não-negativo no intervalo de 0. y) cos (y) / (1 + x ^ 2) > Z <. 25 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . não-comutativa. até que eles correspondam ao tamanho de qualquer outros operandos. 1).googleusercontent. podemos proceder da seguinte forma: > F <. Anterior: A função Array () ...bc.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Enquanto curto vetores e matrizes somente são encontradas. se cada dígito é escolhido de forma independente e uniformemente ao acaso. "*") A função de multiplicação pode ser substituída por uma função arbitrária de duas variáveis.. Observe que o operador produto externo é.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Se a e b são duas matrizes numéricas. b. type = "h". respectivamente .

1 A multiplicação de matrizes O operador %*% é usado para multiplicação de matrizes. A maneira mais fácil pensar desta operação é como uma generalização da transposição para as matrizes. O argumento perm deve ser uma permutação dos inteiros {1. Up: instalações Matrix 5. como descrito acima.googleusercontent. k}.. . Multiplicação equações lineares e inversão Autovalores e autovetores decomposição em valores singulares e determinantes Mínimos quadrados montagem ea decomposição QR Seguinte: equações lineares e de inversão . Também é surpreendente que cerca de 1 em 20 matrizes seja singular. Precedente: instalações Matriz .7.t(A) .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. ser usado como um vetor n-se no contexto como é apropriado. é um caso tão importante e específico que necessita de uma discussão em separado.7 instalações Matrix Como mencionado acima. Seguinte: instalações Matrix .. Precedente: O exterior do produto de duas matrizes . Seguinte: Formação matrizes particionadas . então poderíamos ter usado B <. naturalmente. para ser discutido em Loops e execução condicional . por exemplo. C (2. então > A * B é a matriz de elemento por elemento e produtos > A *%% B 26 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . respectivamente.aperm (A. Um n por 1 ou por uma matriz n pode.1)) é apenas a transposição de A . mas com dimensão dada por perm[j] se tornando o novo j ª dimensão. perm) pode ser usado para permutar uma matriz. o que for multiplicatively coerente. uma matriz é apenas uma matriz com dois subscritos. O resultado da função é uma matriz do mesmo tamanho que a velho. Por exemplo. (embora nem sempre isso é possível de forma inequívoca. A e B são matrizes quadradas do mesmo tamanho. Se. se possível. Para este caso específico uma simples função de t() está disponível. As funções nrow(A) e ncol(A) indicar o número de linhas e colunas na matriz A . uma subscrita matriz duplamente). onde k é o número de subscritos em a .6 transposição generalizada de uma matriz A função aperm(a.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. t(X) é a função de transpor a matriz.. De fato. Up: matrizes e matrizes 5. Por outro lado.. é tão ineficaz quanto a ser impraticável. então B dada por > B <. No entanto. R contém muitos operadores e funções que estão disponíveis apenas para as matrizes.. a . se A é uma matriz (ou seja. Precedente: Generalized transposição de uma matriz . Up: matrizes e matrizes 5. os vetores que ocorrem em expressões de multiplicação de matrizes são automaticamente promovidos tanto aos vetores linha ou coluna. como vemos mais tarde).

retornando x (até alguma perda de precisão). instalações Matrix 5. Seguinte: decomposição em valores singulares e determinantes . então diag(k) é a k pelo k matriz identidade! Seguinte: Autovalores e autovetores . diag(v) .. 15 A função crossprod() formas "crossproducts". onde v é um vetor. A atribuição > <Ev . é ineficiente e potencialmente instável para calcular x <. deve ser calculado por algo como 16 x %*% solve(A.. Anterior: Multiplicação . se k é um valor numérico único.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. o vetor x é a solução desse sistema de equações lineares. ao invés de calcular a inversa de A . Se x é um vetor. O resultado desta função é uma lista de dois componentes chamados values e vectors . um tanto confusa.2 equações lineares e inversão Resolução de equações lineares é a inversa da multiplicação de matrizes. Note-se que em álgebra linear.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. é considerado como sendo o mesmo que o primeiro. Então ev$val é o vetor de autovalores de Sm e ev$vec é a matriz de autovetores correspondentes. Em R. Esta é a mesma convenção que o utilizado para diag() em MATLAB. mas a operação é mais eficiente.x) .7. que é usado em cálculos multivariada. Numericamente.7. formalmente x = A^{-1} %*% b . A forma quadrática x %*% A^{-1} %*% x .googleusercontent. em seguida. dá o principal vetor de entradas diagonais de M . é o produto da matriz. significando que crossprod(X. y) é o mesmo que t(X) %*% y . Quando.A *% x% apenas A e b são dadas.solve(A) %*% b em vez de solve(A. b) resolve o sistema. Além disso. O significado do diag() depende de seu argumento. > Resolver (a.3 Autovalores e autovetores A função eigen(Sm) calcula os autovalores e autovetores de uma matriz simétrica Sm . Se tivéssemos apenas necessário os autovalores poderíamos ter usado o serviço: evals> <. onde A^{-1} indica o inverso de A . Se o segundo argumento para crossprod() for omitido. dá uma matriz diagonal com elementos do vetor como as entradas de diagonal. Up: instalações Matrix 5.b) . onde M é uma matriz. >% * X% A *%% x é uma forma quadrática.eigen (Sm) atribui essa lista para ev . depois de B> <. Precedente: equações lineares e inversão Up:.eigen (Sm) $ valores 27 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . que pode ser calculado por resolver (A) mas raramente é necessário. Por outro lado diag(M) .

segundo uma matriz de colunas ortonormais V . Consider the following assignments > Xplus <. Look again at the diag() function. including the sign.5 Least squares fitting and the QR decomposition The function lsfit() returns a list giving results of a least squares fitting procedure.coef(Xplus. y) gives the results of a least squares fit where y is the vector of observations and X is the design matrix.] R has a builtin function det to calculate a determinant. não é difícil perceber que > AbsdetM <.lsfit(X. y) 28 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Another closely related function is qr() and its allies. Se a expressão > Eigen (Sm) é usado por si só como um comando os dois componentes são impressas. As a further trivial but potentially useful example.prod (svd (M) $ d) calcula o valor absoluto do determinante de M . Note that a grand mean term is automatically included and need not be included explicitly as a column of X .qr(X) > b <. O resultado da svd(M) é na verdade uma lista de três componentes chamados d . então. Up: instalações Matrix 5. among other things. muitas vezes com uma variedade de matrizes pode ser definida como uma função de R > <Absdet . D é realmente voltou como um vetor de elementos da diagonal. you might like to consider writing a function.eigen (Sm. Previous: Singular value decomposition and determinants . u e v . Precedente: Autovalores e autovetores . and also for the follow-up function ls.values = TRUE) $ valores Seguinte: Mínimos quadrados montagem ea decomposição QR .função (M) prod (svd (M) $ d) after which we could use absdet() as just another R function.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. com significados evidentes.7.qr.. cujo espaço de coluna é o espaço de linha de M e uma matriz diagonal de entradas positivas D tal que M = U %*% D %*% t(V) .. Para grandes matrizes é melhor evitar a computação autovetores se eles não são necessários ao usar a expressão evals> <. only. and another. Se M é na praça de fato.4 decomposição em valores singulares e determinantes A função svd(M) tem uma matriz de argumentos arbitrários. com os seus nomes. M .) (see Linear models ) to lsfit() for regression modelling.googleusercontent. Up: Matrix facilities 5. Further note that you almost always will prefer using lm(. regression diagnostics. An assignment such as > ans <. e calcula a decomposição em valores singulares de M .diag() for. [Hint: You will not need to use an explicit loop. to give the sign and modulus (optionally on log scale). determinant . to calculate the trace of a square matrix.7. evals agora detém o vetor de autovalores eo segundo componente é descartado. Este consiste de uma matriz de colunas ortonormais U com o espaço mesma coluna M .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Se este cálculo fosse necessário. See the help facility for more details. say tr() .

Uma Introdução ao R http://translate..qr. Previous: Forming partitioned matrices . forming the columns. with arrays It should be noted that whereas cbind() and rbind() are concatenation functions that respect dim attributes. This alternative is the older. arg_2 . arg_3 . If some of the arguments to cbind() are vectors they may be shorter than the column size of any matrices present. It is not assumed that X has full column rank. Next: The concatenation function c() with arrays . that is. The function rbind() does the corresponding operation for rows. In this case any vector argument.) the arguments to cbind() must be either vectors of any length. together with an initial column of 1 s we can use > X <. X2) The result of rbind() or cbind() always has matrix status. b is essentially the result of the MATLAB `backslash' operator.8 Forming partitioned matrices.9 The concatenation function. Suppose X1 and X2 have the same number of rows.qr. or column-wise. Up: Arrays and matrices 5. Hence cbind(x) and rbind(x) are possibly the simplest ways explicitly to allow the vector x to be treated as a column or row matrix respectively. To combine these by columns into a matrix X . X1. the projection onto the orthogonal complement in res and the coefficient vector for the projection in b ...vector() 29 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . but rather clears numeric objects of all dim and dimnames attributes. in which case they are cyclically extended to match the matrix column size (or the length of the longest vector if no matrices are given).. or matrices with the same column size.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. matrices can be built up from other vectors and matrices by the functions cbind() and rbind() .fitted(Xplus. Up: Arrays and matrices 5. Next: Frequency tables from factors . low-level way to perform least squares calculations. Redundancies will be discovered and removed as they are found. y) These compute the orthogonal projection of y onto the range of X in fit . . and rbind() vertically.resid(Xplus. .cbind(1. This is occasionally useful in its own right. The official way to coerce an array back to a simple vector object is to use as. cbind() and rbind() As we have already seen informally. it would now generally be replaced by the statistical models features. or row-wise. arg_2 . that is the same number of rows. the basic c() function does not. as will be discussed in Statistical models in R . Although still useful in some contexts.googleusercontent. are of course taken as row vectors. In the assignment > X <.. possibly cyclically extended.. c() . y) > res <. Roughly cbind() forms matrices by binding together matrices horizontally. The result is a matrix with the concatenated arguments arg_1 . Previous: Matrix facilities . > fit <.cbind( arg_1 .

Up: Arrays and matrices 5.45] 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 (45.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.as.10 Frequency tables from factors Recall that a factor defines a partition into groups. Next: Reading data from files .75] 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Extension to higher-way frequency tables is immediate. Up: Lists and data frames 30 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . > vec <..Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. for example with the cut() function: > factor(cut(incomes. > statefr <.tapply(statef. statef. This simple case is equivalent to. breaks = 35+10*(0:7))) -> incomef Then to calculate a two-way table of frequencies: > table(incomef. the result is a k-way array of frequencies. length) Further suppose that incomef is a factor giving a suitably defined “income class” for each entry in the data vector.55] 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 3 (55. but ultimately the choice between them is largely a matter of style (with the former being preferable). that statef is a factor giving the state code for each entry in a data vector. The frequencies are ordered and labelled by the levels attribute of the factor. If there are k factor arguments.c(X) There are slight differences between the two. Previous: The concatenation function c() with arrays . simply for this side-effect: > vec <.65] 0 3 1 3 2 2 2 1 (65.googleusercontent. Similarly a pair of factors defines a two way cross classification. The function table() allows frequency tables to be calculated from equal length factors. Up: Top 6 Lists and data frames Listas Constructing and modifying lists Data frames Next: Constructing and modifying lists . Previous: Arrays and matrices . Previous: Lists and data frames .. but more convenient than. Suppose.table(statef) gives in statefr a table of frequencies of each state in the sample. and so on. for example.statef) statef incomef act nsw nt qld sa tas vic wa (35.vector(X) However a similar result can be achieved by using c() with just one argument. A atribuição > statefr <.

Thus the former is the first object in the list Lst .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. the names are transferred to the sublist. and in this case the component may be referred to either by giving the component name as a character string in place of the number in double square brackets. Lst$child.1 Lists An R list is an object consisting of an ordered collection of objects known as its components . a function. If it is a named list.googleusercontent. ] ' is a general subscripting operator. Lst[[2]] . Here is a simple example of how to make a list: > Lst <. ]] ' is the operator used to select a single element. no. The vector of names is in fact simply an attribute of the list like any other and may be handled as such. when the name of the component to be extracted is stored in another variable as in > x <. 6. Lst[["name"]] is the same as Lst$name . If.7. This is a very useful convention as it makes it easier to get the right component if you forget the number. The names of components may be abbreviated down to the minimum number of letters needed to identify them uniquely. Next: Data frames .9)) Components are always numbered and may always be referred to as such."name".. wife="Mary". these may be individually referred to as Lst[[1]] . ' [[ . a complex vector. ie. Thus if Lst is the name of a list with four components.ages=c(4.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. a character array. for example.children=3.. Thus Lst$coefficients may be minimally specified as Lst$coe and Lst$covariance as Lst$cov . Up: Lists and data frames 31 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . and. Other structures besides lists may. further. or. one can also use the names of the list components in double square brackets. Lst[[x]] It is very important to distinguish Lst[[1]] from Lst[1] .. whereas ' [ . is the same as Lst[[4]][1] and is the number 4 . similarly be given a names attribute also. If Lst is a list. then the function length(Lst) gives the number of (top level) components it has. There is no particular need for the components to be of the same mode or type.. a logical value. and so on.. by giving an expression of the form > name $ component_name for the same thing. So in the simple example given above: Lst$name Lst$wife is the same as Lst[[1]] and is the string "Fred" . and if it is a named list the name is not included..ages[1] Additionally. a matrix. This is especially useful. of course. Lst[[4]] is a vector subscripted array then Lst[[4]][1] is its first entry. a list could consist of a numeric vector. child. more conveniently.list(name="Fred". is the same as Lst[[2]] and is the string "Mary" . Previous: Lists . Lst[[3]] and Lst[[4]] . Components of lists may also be named . The latter is a sublist of the list Lst consisting of the first entry only.

B..1 Concatenating lists When the concatenation function c() is given list arguments. Matrices. numeric matrices.list( name_1 = object_1 .3 Data frames A data frame is a list with class "data. Up: Lists and data frames 6.list(matrix=Mat) Concatenating lists Previous: Constructing and modifying lists .c(list.. Por exemplo > Lst[5] <.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. like any subscripted object. whose components are those of the argument lists joined together in sequence. . list.A. Lists.C) Recall that with vector objects as arguments the concatenation function similarly joined together all arguments into a single vector structure. . Vector structures appearing as variables of the data frame must all have the same length . . It may be displayed in matrix form. Up: Constructing and modifying lists 6. Making data frames attach() and detach() Working with data frames Attaching arbitrary lists Managing the search path 32 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . can be extended by specifying additional components. (which can be freely chosen). logicals and factors are included as is. respectively. are discarded. whose levels are the unique values appearing in the vector. If these names are omitted.. and character vectors are coerced to be factors.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. the result is an object of mode list also.. . such as dim attributes. An assignment of the form > Lst <.frame" .. A data frame may for many purposes be regarded as a matrix with columns possibly of differing modes and attributes. Numeric vectors. > list. lists. lists.2 Constructing and modifying lists New lists may be formed from existing objects by the function list() . object_m for the components and giving them names as specified by the argument names. or logical). namely The components must be vectors (numeric. Previous: Constructing and modifying lists . or variables. There are restrictions on lists that may be made into data frames.. and data frames provide as many variables to the new data frame as they have columns. 6. elements. and its rows and columns extracted using matrix indexing conventions. factors. The components used to form the list are copied when forming the new list and the originals are not affected.googleusercontent. list. and matrix structures must all have the same row size . name_m = object_m ) sets up a list Lst of m components using object_1 . the components are numbered only. or other data frames. character.2. In this case all other attributes.ABC <.

com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Thus in the present context the variables u . Entities at positions greater than 2 on the search path can be detached by giving their number to detach . Up: Data frames 6. but it is much safer to always use a name.v+w However the new value of component u is not visible until the data frame is detached and attached again. for example by detach(lentils) or detach("lentils") Note: In R lists and data frames can only be attached at position 2 or above. v and w would be no longer visible. except under the list notation as lentils$u and so on. The attach > attach(lentils) places the data frame in the search path at position 2 . loot=incomes.frame(home=statef.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Previous: Making data frames . and what is attached is a copy of the original object.v+w does not replace the component u of the data frame. this statement detaches from the search path the entity currently at position 2 . lentils$v .frame() The simplest way to construct a data frame from scratch is to use the read. without the need to quote the list name explicitly each time.2 attach() and detach() The $ notation.data. the simplest way is to resort once again to the $ notation: > lentils$u <.googleusercontent.1 Making data frames Objects satisfying the restrictions placed on the columns (components) of a data frame may be used to form one using the function data. for list components is not always very convenient. Thus suppose lentils is a data frame with three variables lentils$u . 33 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .. Up: Data frames 6.3. but the original list or data frame is unchanged. To detach a data frame. At this point an assignment such as w > u <. A useful facility would be somehow to make the components of a list or data frame temporarily visible as variables under their component name. lentils$w .frame : > accountants <.table() function to read an entire data frame from an external file. and provided there are no variables u . Next: Working with data frames . shot=incomef) A list whose components conform to the restrictions of a data frame may be coerced into a data frame using the function as. You can alter the attached values via assign .data. To make a permanent change to the data frame itself. but rather masks it with another variable u in the working directory at position 1 on the search path. The attach() function takes a `database' such as a list or data frame as its argument. v or in position 1 . v and w are available as variables from the data frame in their own right. This is discussed further in Reading data from files . Next: attach() and detach() .3. u .. use the function > detach() More precisely. Previous: Data frames . such as accountants$statef .

by position number or. Next: Managing the search path . y and z . > detach("lentils") 34 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.3. preferably. for example.3 Working with data frames A useful convention that allows you to work with many different problems comfortably together in the same working directory is gather together all variables for any well defined and separate problem in a data frame under a suitably informative name. Up: Data frames 6. In particular any object of mode "list" may be attached in the same way: attach() > attach(any. by name.GlobalEnv" "lentils" "Autoloads" "package:base" > ls(2) [1] "u" "v" "w" and as we see ls (or objects ) can be used to examine the contents of any position on the search path. add any variables you wish to keep for future reference to the data frame using the $ form of assignment. Previous: attach() and detach() ..3. Initially it gives > search() [1] ". Up: Data frames 6.. Up: Data frames 6. we detach the data frame and confirm it has been removed from the search path. Next: Attaching arbitrary lists .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. In this way it is quite simple to work with many problems in the same directory.GlobalEnv is the workspace. 17 After lentils is attached we have > search() [1] ". and then detach() .old. Previous: Working with data frames .googleusercontent. all of which have variables named x . finally remove all unwanted variables from the working directory and keep it as clean of left-over temporary variables as possible.list) Anything that has been attached can be detached by detach . when working with a problem attach the appropriate data frame at position 2 . before leaving a problem. Finally.3.5 Managing the search path The function search shows the current search path and so is a very useful way to keep track of which data frames and lists (and packages) have been attached and detached. and use the working directory at level 1 for operational quantities and temporary variables. but other classes of object as well. Previous: Attaching arbitrary lists .GlobalEnv" "Autoloads" "package:base" where .4 Attaching arbitrary lists is a generic function that allows not only directories and data frames to be attached to the search path.

the external file will normally have a special form.00 111. see the R Data Import/Export manual. as we strongly suggest they should be.0 900 5 1.0 830 5 6. The first line of the file should have a name for each variable in the data frame.read.5 no 03 57.8 no 05 59.9 yes .1 The read..table() function The scan() function Accessing builtin datasets Editing data Next: The scan() function .table() function To read an entire data frame directly.. such as Cent.75 128. Previous: Lists and data frames .0 1000 5 4. scan() . The function read. this arrangement is presumed to be in force. such as file editors or Perl 18 to fit in with the requirements of R.googleusercontent.0 710 5 7.50 131. For more details on importing data into R and also exporting data. Up: Top 7 Reading data from files Large data objects will usually be read as values from external files rather than entered during an R session at the keyboard. Up: Reading data from files 7. By default numeric items (except row labels) are read as numeric variables and non-numeric variables. an entire data frame can be read directly with the read. This can be changed if necessary. There is also a more primitive input function. Each additional line of the file has as its first item a row label and the values for each variable. Generally this is very simple. If variables are to be held mainly in data frames. > search() [1] ".Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. So the first few lines of a file to be read as a data frame might look as follows.heat 01 52.. Previous: Reading data from files .table() function.75 93.. as factors.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Input file form with names and row labels: Price Floor Area Rooms Age Cent. There is a clear presumption by the designers of R that you will be able to modify your input files using other tools. The read.table() can then be used to read the data frame directly > HousePrice <. R input facilities are simple and their requirements are fairly strict and even rather inflexible.GlobalEnv" "Autoloads" "package:base" Next: Probability distributions .2 no 02 54. In this 35 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .0 690 6 8.table("houses. that can be called directly. If the file has one fewer item in its first line than in its second.50 101.2 no 04 57.heat in the example.data") Often you will want to omit including the row labels directly and use the default labels.

a single vector is read in.0 1000 5 4. all components of which must be of the same mode as the dummy value. the first of mode character and the remaining two of mode numeric. list(id="".0 690 6 8. held in inp . y <.table() function .. Further suppose that there are three vectors.googleusercontent. is a list whose components are the three vectors read in.inp[[1]].9 yes The data frame may then be read as > HousePrice <.dat . and the file is input.2 no 131. byrow=TRUE) There are more elaborate input facilities available and these are detailed in the manuals. Up: Reading data from files 7. Input file form without row labels: Price 52. > X <.matrix(scan("light. The result.75 57.inp[[2]]. case the file may omit the row label column as in the following.2 no 128.table("houses. y=0)) If you wish to access the variables separately they may either be re-assigned to variables in the working frame: > label <.0 830 5 6. 36 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .heat 111.inp$x. The first step is to use scan() to read in the three vectors as a list.0.scan("input.. that no explicit row labels are given. in which case the names can be used to access the vectors read in.0 900 5 1. header=TRUE) where the header=TRUE option specifies that the first line is a line of headings. Floor Area Rooms Age Cent. list("". To separate the data items into three separate vectors.data".00 54.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. y <. If the second argument is a single value and not a list. Previous: The read.scan("input.0)) The second argument is a dummy list structure that establishes the mode of the three vectors to be read. The scan() function Next: Accessing builtin datasets . as follows > inp <..inp[[3]] More conveniently.dat".0 710 5 7.inp$id.. 0).50 59. x <.8 no 93.5 no 101. by implication from the form of the file.2 The scan() function Suppose the data vectors are of equal length and are to be read in parallel.inp$y or the list may be attached at position 2 of the search path (see Attaching arbitrary lists ). ncol=5.dat". x <. x=0.50 57.read. For example > inp <.dat". and hence.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. the dummy list can have named components. use assignments like > label <.75 .

If you want to alter the original dataset xold .0 all the datasets supplied with R are available directly by name..3 Accessing builtin datasets Around 100 datasets are supplied with R (in package datasets ). in a few cases it loads several objects. which is equivalent to xold <. for example data(infert) and this can still be used with the standard packages (as in this example). its datasets are automatically included in the search.googleusercontent. so see the on-line help for the object to see what to expect.3.edit(xold) will allow you to edit your data set xold . However. Up: Reading data from files 7.0.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Next: Editing data . Next: Loops and conditional execution . use the package argument. 7. Previous: Reading data from files . Use > xnew <.edit(xold) . Up: Top 8 Probability distributions R as a set of statistical tables Examining the distribution of a set of data One. To see the list of datasets currently available use data() As from R version 2.1 Loading data from other R packages To access data from a particular package. Previous: Accessing builtin datasets .4 Editing data When invoked on a data frame or matrix. and others are available in packages (including the recommended packages supplied with R).com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. the simplest way is to use fix(xold) . package="datasets") If a package has been attached by library . edit brings up a separate spreadsheet-like environment for editing. and on completion the changed object is assigned to xnew . User-contributed packages can be a rich source of datasets. O comando > xnew <. for example data(package="rpart") data(Puromycin. Previous: The scan() function . This is useful for making small changes once a data set has been read. In most cases this will load an R object of the same name.frame()) to enter new data via the spreadsheet interface.and two-sample tests 37 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .edit(data. However.. Up: Reading data from files 7. many packages still use the earlier convention in which data was also used to load datasets into R.

In addition there are functions ptukey and qtukey for the distribution of the studentized range of samples from a normal distribution. The p xxx and q xxx functions all have logical arguments lower.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. ncp F gamma shape. Distribuição R name argumentos adicionais beta shape1. Further distributions are available in contributed packages.tail and log. Aqui estão alguns exemplos 38 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . and to simulate from the distribution.F(t)).p = TRUE) or more accurate log-likelihoods (by d xxx (.. max uniforme weibull shape. prob norm mean. prob binômio cauchy location. p for q xxx and n for r xxx (except for rhyper .. the probability density function and the quantile function (given q. df2.. and dmultinom and rmultinom for the multinomial distribution.. getting the cumulative (or “integrated”) hazard function. scale logística negative binomial nbinom size.. In not quite all cases is the non-centrality parameter ncp currently available: see the on-line help for details.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. lower. log. n Wilcoxon Prefix the name given here by ' d ' for the density. Next: Examining the distribution of a set of data . This allows.googleusercontent. ' p ' for the CDF.1 R as a set of statistical tables One convenient use of R is to provide a comprehensive set of statistical tables. eg. k hypergeometric hyper lnorm meanlog. notably SuppDists . for which it is nn ). n. shape2. ncp chi-squared exp rate exponencial f df1. scale gama geom prob geométrico m. directly. Previous: Probability distributions . scale Weibull wilcox m. sdlog log-normal logis location. the smallest x such that P(X <= x) > q). scale Cauchy chisq df. ncp Student's t unif min.p xxx (t. H(t) = log(1 . . ' q ' for the quantile function and ' r ' for simulation ( r andom deviates). Functions are provided to evaluate the cumulative distribution function P(X <= x). by .. Up: Probability distributions 8. sd normal pois lambda Poisson signrank n signed rank t df. ncp beta binom size.tail = FALSE.. log = TRUE) ). The first argument is x for d xxx ..p and the d xxx ones have log . rsignrank and rwilcox . q for p xxx .

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> ##

2-tailed p-value for t distribution
> 2*pt(-2.43, df = 13) > ## upper 1% point for an F(2, 7) distribution > qf(0.01, 2, 7, lower.tail = FALSE)

See the on-line help on RNG for how random-number generation is done in R. Next: One- and two-sample tests , Previous: R as a set of statistical tables , Up: Probability distributions 8.2 Examining the distribution of a set of data Given a (univariate) set of data we can examine its distribution in a large number of ways. The simplest is to examine the numbers. Two slightly different summaries are given by summary and fivenum and a display of the numbers by stem (a “stem and leaf” plot).
> attach(faithful) > summary(eruptions) Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Máx. 1.600 2.163 4.000 3.488 4.454 5.100 > fivenum(eruptions) [1] 1.6000 2.1585 4.0000 4.4585 5.1000 > stem(eruptions) The decimal point is 1 digit(s) to the left of the | 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 070355555588 000022233333335577777777888822335777888 00002223378800035778 0002335578023578 00228 23 080 7 2337 250077 0000823577 2333335582225577 0000003357788888002233555577778 03335555778800233333555577778 02222335557780000000023333357778888 0000233357700000023578 00000022335800333 0370

A stem-and-leaf plot is like a histogram, and R has a function hist to plot histograms.
> hist(eruptions) ## make the bins smaller, make a plot of density > hist(eruptions, seq(1.6, 5.2, 0.2), prob=TRUE) > lines(density(eruptions, bw=0.1)) > rug(eruptions) # show the actual data points

More elegant density plots can be made by density , and we added a line produced by density in this example. The bandwidth bw was chosen by trial-and-error as the default gives too much smoothing (it usually does for “interesting” densities). (Better automated methods of bandwidth choice are available, and in this example bw = "SJ" gives a good result.) We can plot the empirical cumulative distribution function by using the function ecdf .
> plot(ecdf(eruptions), do.points=FALSE, verticals=TRUE)

This distribution is obviously far from any standard distribution. How about the right-hand mode,

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say eruptions of longer than 3 minutes? Let us fit a normal distribution and overlay the fitted CDF.
> long <- eruptions[eruptions > 3] > plot(ecdf(long), do.points=FALSE, verticals=TRUE) > x <- seq(3, 5.4, 0.01) > lines(x, pnorm(x, mean=mean(long), sd=sqrt(var(long))), lty=3)

Quantile-quantile (QQ) plots can help us examine this more carefully.
par(pty="s") # arrange for a square figure region qqnorm(long); qqline(long)

which shows a reasonable fit but a shorter right tail than one would expect from a normal distribution. Let us compare this with some simulated data from at distribution
x <- rt(250, df = 5) qqnorm(x); qqline(x)

which will usually (if it is a random sample) show longer tails than expected for a normal. We can make a QQ plot against the generating distribution by
qqplot(qt(ppoints(250), df = 5), x, xlab = "QQ plot for t dsn") qqline(x)

Finally, we might want a more formal test of agreement with normality (or not). R provides the Shapiro-Wilk test
> shapiro.test(long) Shapiro-Wilk normality test data: long W = 0.9793, p-value = 0.01052

and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
> ks.test(long, "pnorm", mean = mean(long), sd = sqrt(var(long))) One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test data: long D = 0.0661, p-value = 0.4284 alternative hypothesis: two.sided

(Note that the distribution theory is not valid here as we have estimated the parameters of the normal distribution from the same sample.) Previous: Examining the distribution of a set of data , Up: Probability distributions 8.3 One- and two-sample tests So far we have compared a single sample to a normal distribution. A much more common operation is to compare aspects of two samples. Note that in R, all “classical” tests including the ones used below are in package stats which is normally loaded. Consider the following sets of data on the latent heat of the fusion of ice ( cal/gm ) from Rice (1995, p.490)
Method A: 79.98 80.04 80.02 80.04 80.03 80.03 80.04 79.97 80.05 80.03 80.02 80.00 80.02 Method B: 80.02 79.94 79.98 79.97 79.97 80.03 79.95 79.97

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Boxplots provide a simple graphical comparison of the two samples.
A <- scan() 79.98 80.04 80.02 80.04 80.03 80.03 80.04 79.97 80.05 80.03 80.02 80.00 80.02 B <- scan() 80.02 79.94 79.98 79.97 79.97 80.03 79.95 79.97 boxplot(A, B)

which indicates that the first group tends to give higher results than the second. To test for the equality of the means of the two examples, we can use an unpaired t-test by
> t.test(A, B) Welch Two Sample t-test data: A and B t = 3.2499, df = 12.027, p-value = 0.00694 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: 0.01385526 0.07018320 sample estimates: mean of x mean of y 80.02077 79.97875

which does indicate a significant difference, assuming normality. By default the R function does not assume equality of variances in the two samples (in contrast to the similar S-PLUS t.test function). We can use the F test to test for equality in the variances, provided that the two samples are from normal populations.
> var.test(A, B) F test to compare two variances data: A and B F = 0.5837, num df = 12, denom df = 7, p-value = 0.3938 alternative hypothesis: true ratio of variances is not equal to 1 95 percent confidence interval: 0.1251097 2.1052687 sample estimates: ratio of variances 0.5837405

which shows no evidence of a significant difference, and so we can use the classical t-test that assumes equality of the variances.
> t.test(A, B, var.equal=TRUE) Two Sample t-test data: A and B t = 3.4722, df = 19, p-value = 0.002551 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: 0.01669058 0.06734788 sample estimates: mean of x mean of y 80.02077 79.97875

All these tests assume normality of the two samples. The two-sample Wilcoxon (or Mann-Whitney) test only assumes a common continuous distribution under the null hypothesis.
> wilcox.test(A, B)

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Previous: Grouped expressions . p-value = 0. Previous: Probability distributions . loops and conditional execution Grouped expressions Control statements Next: Control statements . and so on. be itself included in parentheses and used a part of an even larger expression. Previous: Loops and conditional execution . Up: Top 9 Grouping.5962.007497 alternative hypothesis: true location shift is not equal to 0 Warning message: Cannot compute exact p-value with ties in: wilcox.googleusercontent. Up: Loops and conditional execution 9. assuming a common continuous distribution: > ks. B)) > plot(ecdf(B). Since such a group is also an expression it may. which suggests strongly that these data are from a discrete distribution (probably due to rounding). Commands may be grouped together in braces. p-value = 0. in particular multiple assignments are possible. add=TRUE) will show the two empirical CDFs. There are several ways to compare graphically the two samples.test(A. B) Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test data: A and B D = 0. Wilcoxon rank sum test with continuity correction data: A and B W = 89. and it may be used wherever any expression may be used. ..com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. in which case the value of the group is the result of the last expression in the group evaluated. Up: Loops and conditional execution 9.. do.2 Control statements 42 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is of the maximal vertical distance between the two ecdf's. verticals=TRUE. for example..points=FALSE.. . Even an assignment is an expression whose result is the value assigned. Os seguintes > plot(ecdf(A).points=FALSE. We have already seen a pair of boxplots. expr_m } . verticals=TRUE.1 Grouped expressions R is an expression language in the sense that its only command type is a function or expression which returns a result. xlim=range(A.test(A. B) Next: Writing your own functions .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.05919 alternative hypothesis: two-sided Warning message: cannot compute correct p-values with ties in: ks.test(A. B) Note the warning: there are several ties in each sample. do. and qqplot will perform a QQ plot of the two samples. { expr_1 .

split(x. One possibility here is to use coplot() . Other looping facilities include the > repeat expr 43 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .2. This is a useful function. mostly used in connection with boxplots. with elements a[i] if condition[i] is true. otherwise b[i] . (often a sequence like 1:20 ). ind) > for (i in 1:length(yc)) { plot(xc[[i]]. There is a vectorized version of the if / else construct.1 Conditional execution: if statements The language has available a conditional construction of the form > if ( expr_1 ) expr_2 else expr_3 where expr_1 must evaluate to a single logical value and the result of the entire expression is then evident. Up: Control statements 9. Code that takes a `whole object' view is likely to be both clearer and faster in R. yc[[i]])) } (Note the function split() which produces a list of vectors obtained by splitting a larger vector according to the classes specified by a factor.2. expr_1 is a vector expression.. Previous: Control statements . suppose ind is a vector of class indicators and we wish to produce separate plots of y versus x within classes. a. As an example. Whereas & and | apply element-wise to vectors. now putting all plots on the one display. See the help facility for further details. Previous: Conditional execution .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. 19 which will produce an array of plots corresponding to each level of the factor. the ifelse function. yc[[i]]) abline(lsfit(xc[[i]]. Another way to do this. && and || apply to vectors of length one. expr_2 is repeatedly evaluated as name ranges through the values in the vector result of expr_1 .2 Repetitive execution: for loops.. b) and returns a vector of the length of its longest argument. The “short-circuit” operators && and || are often used as part of the condition in an if statement. This has the form ifelse(condition.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. and only evaluate their second argument if necessary. Up: Control statements 9.) Warning : for() loops are used in R code much less often than in compiled languages. repeat and while There is also a for loop construction which has the form > for ( name in expr_1 ) expr_2 where name is the loop variable.split(y.googleusercontent. is as follows: > xc <. and expr_2 is often a grouped expression with its sub-expressions written in terms of the dummy name . ind) > yc <. Conditional execution Repetitive execution Next: Repetitive execution .

Previous: Loops and conditional execution . Up: Top 10 Writing your own functions As we have seen informally along the way. This is the only way to terminate repeat loops. of course. convenience and elegance. to calculate a value.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. .. Up: Writing your own functions 10. The next statement can be used to discontinue one particular cycle and skip to the “next”.googleusercontent. simpler ways of achieving the same end.. The break statement can be used to terminate any loop.. the language gains enormously in power. such as mean() . arg_i . Simple examples Defining new binary operators Named arguments and defaults The three dots argument Assignment within functions More advanced examples Âmbito Customizing the environment Object orientation Next: Defining new binary operators . Next: Statistical models in R . possibly abnormally. This is an artificial example.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. var() .1 Simple examples As a first example. These are true R functions that are stored in a special internal form and may be used in further expressions and so on. consider a function to calculate the two sample t-statistic. since there are other. The function is defined as follows: 44 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . . showing “all the steps”. and where more examples will emerge. A call to the function then usually takes the form name ( expr_1 .) expression The expression is an R expression. arg_2 . A function is defined by an assignment of the form > name <. expr_2 . It should be emphasized that most of the functions supplied as part of the R system.) and may occur anywhere a function call is legitimate. statement and the > while ( condition ) expr declaração.function( arg_1 . are themselves written in R and thus do not differ materially from user written functions. that uses the arguments. (usually a grouped expression). Previous: Writing your own functions . The value of the expression is the value returned for the function.. and learning to write useful functions is one of the main ways to make your use of R comfortable and productive... In the process. the R language allows the user to create objects of mode function . postscript() and so on. Control statements are most often used in connection with functions which are discussed in Writing your own functions .

If so.length(y1).mean(y1). namely one of the form % anything % it could have been used as a binary operator in expressions rather than in function form. and more 20 . > twosam <.function(y1. where (X'X)^{-} is a generalized inverse of X'X.) The function could then be used as X %!% y . y) { .. > bslash <. yvar) e assim por diante. Previous: Simple examples . y) { X <. we may wish to make it a matrix binary operator for even more convenient use. Next: Named arguments and defaults . %*% .var(y2) s <.(yb1 . X. The classical R function lsfit() does this job quite well.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. for example. you could perform two sample t-tests using a call such as > tstat <.twosam(data$male.var(y1)..qr(X) qr. tstat As a second example.) The matrix multiplication operator. 45 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Hence there is probably some value in having just this part isolated in a simple to use function if it is going to be in frequent use. data$female). Thus given an by 1 vector y and an n by p matrix X then X \ y is defined as (X'X)^{-}X'y.mean(y2) s1 <. (The backslash symbol itself is not a convenient choice as it presents special problems in this context. Up: Writing your own functions 10.googleusercontent. y2) { n1 <. we choose ! for the internal character.2 Defining new binary operators Had we given the bslash() function a different name. The function definition would then start as > "%!%" <. y) } After this object is created it may be used in statements such as > regcoeff <. however this is sometimes a bit tricky to use directly and it pays to have a simple function such as the following to use it safely.function(X.. yb2 <. } (Note the use of quote marks. n2 <.) This would ordinarily be done with the qr() function.yb2)/sqrt(s*(1/n1 + 1/n2)) TST } With this function defined. (This is ordinarily called the least squares estimate of the regression coefficients. Suppose.coef() in the slightly counterintuitive way above to do this part of the calculation. which returns the coefficients of the orthogonal projection of the vector y onto the column space of the matrix.((n1-1)*s1 + (n2-1)*s2)/(n1+n2-2) tst <. It in turn uses the functions qr() and qr. and the outer product matrix operator %o% are other examples of binary operators defined in this way. s2 <. consider a function to emulate directly the MATLAB backslash command.coef(X.function(X.length(y2) yb1 <.bslash(Xmat..

Next: The three dots argument . they may be given in any order. data. graph=TRUE. } it could be called as > ans <. they are not restricted to be constants as in our simple example here. in which case they may be omitted altogether from the call when the defaults are appropriate. limit=20.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.4 The ' . '. limit=20) > ans <.. Up: Writing your own functions 10.frame.fun1(d. for more details on the par() function. which may then be passed on.fun1(d.. graph=TRUE. Previous: Defining new binary operators . Furthermore the argument sequence may begin in the unnamed. Next: Assignment within functions . df) which is now equivalent to the three cases above. of the function.. 20) > ans <. if fun1 were defined as > fun1 <. fun1 <. For example. Previous: Named arguments and defaults .3 Named arguments and defaults As first noted in Generating regular sequences ...frame..com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.. limit=10) which changes one of the defaults. graph=TRUE.. positional form. df. df. Thus if there is a function fun1 defined by > fun1 <. ' argumento Another frequent requirement is to allow one function to pass on argument settings to another. . and specify named arguments after the positional arguments. graph. It is important to note that defaults may be arbitrary expressions.) { [omitted statements] if (graph) par(pch="*".fun1(data=d. or as > ans <. Up: Writing your own functions 10. In many cases arguments can be given commonly appropriate default values. data. df. . TRUE.function(data..) 46 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .. An outline example is given below. for example > ans <.googleusercontent. limit=20.function(data. if arguments to called functions are given in the “ name = object ” form. literally ' .frame.function(data. even involving other arguments to the same function. data.) This can be done by including an extra argument. (See The par() function .fun1(d.. graph=TRUE.fun1(d..frame=df) are all equivalent. data. limit=20) { . limit) { [function body omitted] } then the function may be invoked in several ways. For example many graphics functions use the function par() and functions like plot() allow the user to pass on graphical parameters to par() to control the graphical output.

v)) sv <.vector(table(varieties)) # remove dim attr N <.sv$d^2.table(blocks. topic and is not covered further here.length(levels(varieties)) K <. (Some aspects of this problem have already been discussed in Index matrices . if a little pedestrian.factor(blocks) # minor safety move b <.as. If R and K are the v by v and b by b replications and block size matrices.1 Efficiency factors in block designs As a more complete.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.function(blocks. S-PLUS users should be aware that <<.length(levels(blocks)) varieties <. say blocks ( b levels) and varieties ( v levels). One way to write the function is given below.qr(X) does not affect the value of the argument in the calling program.as.6. This is a somewhat advanced. then the efficiency factors are defined as the eigenvalues of the matrix E = I_v .svd(A) list(eff=1 . varieties) { blocks <. where A = K^{-1/2}NR^{-1/2}. respectively.A'A.) A block design is defined by two factors. Next: Scope .6 More advanced examples Efficiency factors in block designs Dropping all names in a printed array Recursive numerical integration Next: Dropping all names in a printed array .1/sqrt(K) * N * rep(1/sqrt(R). rep(b.. To understand completely the rules governing the scope of R assignments the reader needs to be familiar with the notion of an evaluation frame . Up: Writing your own functions 10. then either the “superassignment” operator. consider finding the efficiency factors for a block design.googleusercontent. though hardly difficult.as. Previous: Assignment within functions .factor(varieties) # minor safety move v <.or the function assign() can be used. These are discussed further in Scope . varietycv=sv$v) } 47 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .vector(table(blocks)) # remove dim attr R <. [more omissions] } Next: More advanced examples .has different semantics in R. and N is the b by v incidence matrix. > bdeff <. Previous: More advanced examples . If global and permanent assignments are intended within a function. blockcv=sv$u. example of a function. See the help document for details. <<. Up: Writing your own functions 10.R^{-1/2}N'K^{-1}NR^{-1/2} = I_v . Previous: The three dots argument .as.5 Assignments within functions Note that any ordinary assignments done within the function are local and temporary and are lost after exit from the function .. varieties) A <. Up: More advanced examples 10. Thus the assignment X <.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.

no.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. rep("".6. nrow(X)). however.dimnames(X) This is particularly useful for large integer arrays.dimnames <. and the function is only competitive with other algorithms when the integrand is both smooth and very difficult to evaluate. shown below. 48 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . but also the block and variety canonical contrasts.d um } array for compact printing. as a “wrap around” to achieve the same result.function(a) { ## Remove all dimension names from an d <. X > temp <. that such functions. Previous: Dropping all names in a printed array . There is. Next: Recursive numerical integration .l + 1]] <. For example to print a matrix.. If the one-panel trapezium rule answer is close enough to the two panel. Otherwise the same process is recursively applied to each panel. but rather the array must be given a dimnames attribute consisting of empty strings. where patterns are the real interest rather than the values.list() l <. Up: More advanced examples 10. The result of the function is a list giving not only the efficiency factors as the first component. no.2 Dropping all names in a printed array For printing purposes with large matrices or arrays.googleusercontent. are not inherited by called functions in higher evaluation frames as they would be if they were on the search path. a heavy overhead.. It is numerically slightly better to work with the singular value decomposition on this occasion rather than the eigenvalue routines. or indeed variables. Note. then the latter is returned as the value. rm(temp) This can be much more conveniently done using a function.dimnames() . It also illustrates how some effective and useful user functions can be quite short. The example below shows a naive way of performing one-dimensional numerical integration.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.3 Recursive numerical integration Functions may be recursive. Removing the dimnames attribute will not achieve this effect. Previous: Efficiency factors in block designs .X > dimnames(temp) <. The integrand is evaluated at the end points of the range and in the middle. Up: More advanced examples 10. however. i) } dimnames(a) <. an array may be printed in close format using > no. The result is an adaptive integration process that concentrates function evaluations in regions where the integrand is farthest from linear. and may themselves define functions within themselves.list(rep("".6. it is often useful to print them in close block form without the array names or numbers.rep("". ncol(X))) > temp. since sometimes these give additional useful qualitative information. With this function defined.0 for(i in dim(a)) { d[[l <.

lim = 10) { fun1 <. fb. The symbols which occur in the body of a function can be divided into three classes.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-..(a + b)/2 h <.googleusercontent. fun) { ## function `fun1' is only visible inside `area' d <. fb. This is called lexical scope . eps.h * (fd + fb) if(abs(a0 . lim. a. fd. a. The example is also given partly as a little puzzle in R programming.7 Scope The discussion in this section is somewhat more technical than in other parts of this document. b.a1 . area <.1.f(d) a1 <. fa. lim .(b . b. b. fb.f(b) a0 <. Under 49 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . eps.0e-06. a0. Free variables become local variables if they are assigned to. a2. fun)) } } fa <.1. d. lim . fun) + fun(f. fd.2*x print(x) print(y) print(z) } In this function. y is a local variable and z is a free variable. a. local variables and free variables.((fa + fb) * (b . fun1) } Âmbito Object orientation Next: Customizing the environment . d. x is a formal parameter. eps = 1.function() n*n n*sq() } The variable n in the function sq is not an argument to that function. Previous: More advanced examples . lim. eps.function(f. cube <.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. formal parameters. Variables which are not formal parameters or local variables are called free variables. a0. In R the free variable bindings are resolved by first looking in the environment in which the function was created. f <.function(f.a2) < eps || lim == 0) return(a1 + a2) else { return(fun(f.function(x) { y <. eps.a))/2 fun1(f.a)/4 fd <. it details one of the major differences between S-PLUS and R. Therefore it is a free variable and the scoping rules must be used to ascertain the value that is to be associated with it. fa.function(n) { sq <. Consider the following function definition. However. Up: Writing your own functions 10. fa. The formal parameters of a function are those occurring in the argument list of the function. Their values are determined by the process of binding the actual function arguments to the formal parameters.h * (fa + fd) a2 <. b. a1. a. First we define a function called cube . Local variables are those whose values are determined by the evaluation of expressions in the body of the functions.f(a) fb <.. Under static scope ( S-PLUS ) the value is that associated with a global variable named n .

The difference between evaluation in R and evaluation in S-PLUS is that S-PLUS looks for a global variable called n while R first looks for a variable called n in the environment created when cube was invoked. If the global or top-level environment is reached without finding the symbol total then that variable is created and assigned to there..3 S> cube(2) [1] 18 ## then the same function evaluated in R R> cube(2) [1] 8 Lexical scope can also be used to give functions mutable state . they will have access to its value. "\n\n") } withdraw = function(amount) { if(amount > total) stop("You don't have that much money!\n") total <<. "\n\n") } balance = function() { cat("Your balance is". total.amount cat(amount. Because these functions are defined in an environment which contains total .open. <<. In the following example we show how R can be used to mimic a bank account. A functioning bank account needs to have a balance or total.account(100) robert <.. "\n\n") } ) } ross <.creates a global variable and assigns the value of the right hand side to it 21 .total + amount cat(amount.googleusercontent.account(200) ross$withdraw(30) ross$balance() robert$balance() ross$deposit(50) ross$balance() ross$withdraw(500) 50 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . is used to change the value associated with total .. lexical scope (R) it is the parameter to the function cube since that is the active binding for the variable n at the time the function sq was defined.total . open. total. "withdrawn.account <. The special assignment operator.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Only when <<. We achieve this by creating the three functions within account and then returning a list containing them. For most users <<.open.function(total) { list( deposit = function(amount) { if(amount <= 0) stop("Deposits must be positive!\n") total <<.has been used in a function that was returned as the value of another function will the special behavior described here occur. a function for making deposits and a function for stating the current balance. "deposited. When account is invoked it takes a numerical argument total and returns a list containing the three functions. Your balance is". Your balance is".com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. in that environment. ## first evaluation in S S> cube(2) Error in sq(): Object "n" not found Largaram S> n <. a function for making withdrawals. total. with the value of right hand side. This operator looks back in enclosing environments for an environment that contains the symbol total and when it finds such an environment it replaces the value.

It is automatically performed at the beginning of an R session and may be used to initialize the environment. personal. Finally. > . there is always a default action provided.R")) # my personal functions library(MASS) # attach a package } Similarly a function . the special functions . cat(paste(date(). then R looks for a .path(Sys. the file Rprofile. the sequence in which files are executed is.RData image has a special status.googleusercontent.Rprofile 22 can be placed in any directory.Last <.. If the environment variable R_PROFILE_USER is set.site in the R home subdirectory etc is used. > . Any function named . Up: Writing your own functions 10.Last can be used."\nAdios\n")) # Is it } time for lunch? Previous: Customizing the environment .First() in either of the two profile files or in the .First() . If the argument lacks any class attribute.First <. Up: Writing your own functions 10. The class mechanism offers the user the facility of designing and writing generic functions for special purposes.RData and then . the file it points to is used instead of the . "mystuff. This file gives individual users control over their workspace and allows for different startup procedures in different working directories. An example is given below.Rprofile file is found in the startup directory. A definition in later files will mask definitions in earlier files. This file should contain the commands that you want to execute every time R is started under your system. Previous: Scope . There is a site initialization file and every directory can have its own special initialization file.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.First and ..off() # a small safety measure.function() { graphics. For example. the definition in the example below alters the prompt to $ and sets up various other useful things that can then be taken for granted in the rest of the session. length=999) # custom numbers and printout x11() # for graphics par(pch = "+") # plotting character source(file. If R is invoked in that directory then that file will be sourced.function() { options(prompt="$ ". Rprofile. . or has a class not catered for specifically by the generic function in question.Rprofile file in the user's home directory and uses that (if it exists). Among the other generic functions are plot() 51 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . "R". Next: Object orientation . continue="+\t") # $ is the prompt options(digits=5. if defined. If that variable is unset.Last() . a generic function performs a task or action on its arguments specific to the class of the argument itself . The location of the site initialization file is taken from the value of the R_PROFILE environment variable. profile file named . A second.8 Customizing the environment Users can customize their environment in several different ways. generic functions and object orientation The class of an object determines how it will be treated by what are known as generic functions. If no . the user profile.9 Classes. Thus.Rprofile files.site .getenv("HOME").com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Put the other way round. is (normally) executed at the very end of the session. An example makes things clearer.

any as. A complete list can be got again by using the methods() function: > methods(plot) For many generic functions the function body is quite short.aov") A single object matching 'coef. The number of generic functions that can treat a class in a specific way can be quite large. For example the plot() function has a default method and variants for objects of classes "data.na(z)] } The reader is referred to the R Language Definition for a more complete discussion of this mechanism. For example. To see what methods are available we can use methods() > methods(coef) [1] coef. summary() for summarizing analyses of various types. Previous: Writing your own functions . . and anova() for comparing statistical models.frame" .) UseMethod("coef") The presence of UseMethod indicates this is a generic function..googleusercontent.listof* [5] coef.aov* coef.Arima* coef. "factor" . for example > coef function (object. Next: Graphics .. .frame") Conversely the number of classes a generic function can handle can also be quite large.object$coef z[!is..) { z <..nls* coef. We can read these by either of > getAnywhere("coef. "density" . none of which can be seen by typing its name. .matrix [<.object$coef z[!is. the functions that can accommodate in some fashion objects of class "data.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-..summary.. Up: Top 52 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .aov' was found It was found in the following places registered S3 method for coef from namespace stats namespace:stats com valor function (object.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.mean plot summary A currently complete list can be got by using the methods() function: > methods(class="data. and more. "aov") function (object.) { z <...nls* Non-visible functions are asterisked In this example there are six methods. for displaying objects graphically.default* coef.frame" include [ [[<.na(z)] } > getS3method("coef".

x_p... i = 1. n. . x . formulae The template for a statistical model is a linear regression model with independent. . . and one needs to ask for the details by calling extractor functions. R provides an interlocking suite of facilities that make fitting statistical models very simple.1 Defining statistical models. Very often x_0 will be a column of ones defining an intercept term. C .googleusercontent. are numeric variables. where the e_i are NID(0... x_1.. x0 . in particular with regression analysis and the analysis of variance.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. The first has an implicit intercept term. sigma^2).. 11 Statistical models in R This section presumes the reader has some familiarity with statistical methodology. Up: Statistical models in R 11.. Suppose y . x1 .. As we mention in the introduction.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. The following formulae on the left side below specify statistical models as described on the right. y ~ x y ~ 1 + x Both imply the same simple linear regression model of y on x. the basic output is minimal. y ~ 0 + x y ~ -1 + x y ~ x .1 Simple linear regression of y on x through the origin (that is. In matrix terms this would be written y = X beta + e where the y is the response vector. . . X is the model matrix or design matrix and has columns x_0.. without an intercept term). namely that something is known about generalized linear models and nonlinear regression. Previous: Statistical models in R . Exemplos Before giving a formal specification. x2 . a few examples may usefully set the picture. Formulae for statistical models Linear models Generic functions for extracting model information Analysis of variance and model comparison Updating fitted models Generalized linear models Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models Some non-standard models Next: Linear models . the determining variables. Later we make some rather more ambitious presumptions. B . The requirements for fitting statistical models are sufficiently well defined to make it possible to construct general tools that apply in a broad spectrum of problems. 53 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . . are factors. homoscedastic errors y_i = sum_{j=0}^p beta_j x_{ij} + e_i.. X is a matrix and A . and the second an explicit one.

The form. y ~ A + x Single classification analysis of covariance model of y. with classes determined by A. 54 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .. The operator ~ is used to define a model formula in R.. (the first is optional). with whole plots (and hence also subplots). y ~ A Single classification analysis of variance model of y.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. term_i is either a vector or matrix expression. For example a split plot experiment..Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. log(y).2) Multiple regression y with model matrix consisting of the matrix X as well as polynomial terms in x to degree 2. for an ordinary linear model. or a formula expression consisting of factors. A and B. y ~ A*B + Error(C) An experiment with two treatment factors. y ~ (A + B + C)^2 y ~ A*B*C .A:B:C Three factor experiment but with a model containing main effects and two factor interactions only.googleusercontent... and with covariate x. y y y y ~ ~ ~ ~ A*B A + B + A:B B %in% A A/B Two factor non-additive model of y on A and B. In abstract terms all four specify the same model subspace. with classes determined by A. onde resposta is a vector or matrix. a factor. The last form produces explicit estimates of as many different intercepts and slopes as there are levels in A. and the second uses explicit powers. log(y) ~ x1 + x2 Multiple regression of the transformed variable. vectors or matrices connected by formula operators . determined by factor C. either + or . as basis. y ~ poly(x. or 1 . with different codings. is response ~ op_1 term_1 op_2 term_2 op_3 term_3 . y ~ A * x y ~ A/x y ~ A/(1 + x) . y ~ X + poly(x. implying the inclusion or exclusion of a term in the model. on x1 and x2 (with an implicit intercept term). (or expression evaluating to a vector or matrix) defining the response variable(s). op_i is an operator. and error strata determined by factor C.1 Separate simple linear regression models of y on x within the levels of A. The first form uses orthogonal polynomials. Both formulae specify the same model. The first two specify the same crossed classification and the second two specify the same nested classification.2) y ~ 1 + x + I(x^2) Polynomial regression of y on x of degree 2.

A 1 stands for an intercept column and is by default included in the model matrix unless explicitly removed.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. .. k. kth levels of the factor. for example in specifying nonlinear models. Inside M all operators have their normal arithmetic meaning. For unordered factors k .29): Y~M Y is modeled as M .M_2 Include M_1 leaving out terms of M_2 . ' becomes ' : ' since the period is a valid name character in R. the specification of the parameters being implicit.1 columns are generated for the indicators of the second. but with a different coding.1 Contrasts We need at least some idea how the model formulae specify the columns of the model matrix. Note that inside the parentheses that usually enclose function arguments all operators have their normal arithmetic meaning. M_1 + M_2 Include M_1 and M_2 . One inevitable change is that the operator ' . Up: Formulae for statistical models 11. In all cases each term defines a collection of columns either to be added to or removed from the model matrix. This is easy if we have continuous variables.googleusercontent. then the “subclasses” factor. if the intercept is 55 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .. and that term appears in the model matrix.. it is not the whole story.1. The notation is summarized below (based on Chambers & Hastie.. M_1 * M_2 M_1 + M_2 + M_1 : M_2 .. Although the answer is already complicated. This is not the case in other contexts. . omitting the constant term. If both terms are factors. M_1 / M_2 M_1 + M_2 %in% M_1 . Contrasts Previous: Formulae for statistical models . as each provides one column of the model matrix (and the intercept will provide a column of ones if included in the model). First. M_1 . 1992. .) For ordered factors the k .. .1 columns are the orthogonal polynomials on 1. M_1 : M_2 The tensor product of M_1 and M_2 . p. (Thus the implicit parameterization is to contrast the response at each level with that at the first. M^n All terms in M together with “interactions” up to order n I( M ) Insulate M . The function I() is an identity function used to allow terms in model formulae to be defined using arithmetic operators.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Note particularly that the model formulae specify the columns of the model matrix . The formula operators are similar in effect to the Wilkinson and Rogers notation used by such programs as Glim and Genstat. M_1 %in% M_2 Similar to M_1 : M_2 . What about a k-level factor A ? The answer differs for unordered and ordered factors.

Second. We have not yet considered interaction terms: these generate the products of the columns introduced for their component terms. a model with an interaction but not the corresponding main effects will in general lead to surprising results. Previous: Linear models . So if you need to compare your results to those of a textbook or paper which used S-PLUS . the whole behavior can be changed by the options setting for contrasts .model <.frame ) Por exemplo > fm2 <.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. "contr. Next: Generic functions for extracting model information . plotted and so on by using generic functions that orient themselves to objects of class "lm" .. for example. the first such term is encoded into k columns giving the indicators for all the levels.2 Linear models The basic function for fitting ordinary multiple models is lm() . Previous: Formulae for statistical models . as the contrast scheme to be used can be set for each term in the model using the functions contrasts and C . S using Helmert contrasts. Estes incluem add1 deviance formula predict step alias drop1 kappa print summary anova effects labels proj vcov coef family plot residuals 56 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Information about the fitted model can then be displayed. and is for experts only.poly")) This is a deliberate difference. as treatment contrasts (R's default) are thought easier for newcomers to interpret.helmert". Although the details are complicated.treatment". The important (but technically optional) parameter data = production specifies that any variables needed to construct the model should come first from the production data frame .lm(y ~ x1 + x2. Up: Statistical models in R 11.lm( formula . and a streamlined version of the call is as follows: > fitted. This is the case regardless of whether data frame production has been attached on the search path or not . provided that marginality is preserved.. We have still not finished. omitted in a model that contains a factor term. Next: Analysis of variance and model comparison .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Fitting.poly")) The main reason for mentioning this is that R and S have different defaults for unordered factors. data = production) would fit a multiple regression model of y on x1 and x2 (with implicit intercept term). "contr. data = data.3 Generic functions for extracting model information The value of lm() is a fitted model object. extracted. technically a list of results of class "lm" .googleusercontent. you will need to set options(contrasts = c("contr. Up: Statistical models in R 11. model formulae in R will normally generate the models that an expert statistician would expect. The default setting in R is options(contrasts = c("contr.

print( object ) Print a concise version of the object. The model with the smallest value of AIC (Akaike's An Information Criterion) discovered in the stepwise search is returned. formula( object ) Extract the model formula. A brief description of the most commonly used ones is given below.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. showing residuals. 57 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .frame ) The data frame supplied must have variables specified with the same labels as the original. deviance( object ) Residual sum of squares. Long form: coefficients( object ) . plot( object ) Produce four plots. predict( object . weighted as appropriate.. The value is a vector or matrix of predicted values corresponding to the determining variable values in data. newdata= data.. summary( object ) Print a comprehensive summary of the results of the regression analysis. Most often used implicitly. fitted values and some diagnostics. object_2 ) Compare a submodel with an outer model and produce an analysis of variance table. residuals( object ) Extract the (matrix of) residuals. weighted if appropriate.frame .googleusercontent. coef( object ) Extract the regression coefficient (matrix). anova( object_1 . Short form: resid( object ) . step( object ) Select a suitable model by adding or dropping terms and preserving hierarchies.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.

The fitted models being compared would usually be an hierarchical sequence.. a model formula such as that in: > fm <. ANOVA tables Previous: Analysis of variance and model comparison .. For further details. A more flexible alternative to the default full ANOVA table is to compare two or more models directly using the anova() function.aov(yield ~ v + n*p*k + Error(farms/blocks). Hence only for orthogonal experiments will the order of inclusion be inconsequential. data=farm.4. > anova( fitted.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.1 .model. when it defines a two strata experiment. and to fit the mean model to each projection. or balanced incomplete block designs with recovery of inter-block information.2 .4 Analysis of variance and model comparison The model fitting function aov(formula. vcov( object ) Returns the variance-covariance matrix of the main parameters of a fitted model object. strata. fitted. namely between and within the levels of the factor. In the simplest case. “within farms. Previous: Generic functions for extracting model information .) The display is then an ANOVA table showing the differences between the fitted models when fitted in sequence. For multistratum experiments the procedure is first to project the response onto the error strata. . Up: Analysis of variance and model comparison 11.googleusercontent. again in sequence.1 ANOVA tables Note also that the analysis of variance table (or tables) are for a sequence of fitted models.. between blocks” and “within blocks”.formula . but rather makes it easier to comprehend and control.. with all determining variables factors. Next: Updating fitted models . see Chambers & Hastie (1992). It should be noted that in addition aov() allows an analysis of models with multiple error strata such as split plot experiments. of course.model.formula + Error( strata. 58 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .formula is simply a factor. For example. The sums of squares shown are the decrease in the residual sums of squares resulting from an inclusion of that term in the model at that place in the sequence.data) would typically be used to describe an experiment with mean model v + n*p*k and three error strata.frame ) operates at the simplest level in a very similar way to the function lm() . The model formula response ~ mean. Up: Statistical models in R 11. This does not give different information to the default.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. namely “between farms”. data= data.formula ) specifies a multi-stratum experiment with error strata defined by the strata. and most of the generic functions listed in the table in Generic functions for extracting model information apply.

Por exemplo > fmfull <.lm(y ~ . fit an additional model including a sixth regressor variable.formula ) In the new.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-..model . + beta_p x_p.update(fm05. only . . data = production) > fm6 <. sqrt(. This linear function is called the linear predictor . mu. x_2. Previous: Analysis of variance and model comparison . A generalized linear model may be described in terms of the following sequence of assumptions: There is a response. . drop1() and step() . new. Its form is > new.. ' . Up: Statistical models in R 11. Por exemplo. The name ' .formula the special name consisting of a period. Previous: Updating fitted models . The stimulus variables influence the distribution of y through a single linear function. of interest and stimulus variables x_1. and fit a variant on the model where the response had a square root transform applied.. only. phi) = exp((A/phi) * (y lambda(mu) . Up: Statistical models in R 11..googleusercontent.. ~ . '.) ~ . and is usually written eta = beta_1 x_1 + beta_2 x_2 + .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. this information is passed on through the fitted model object to update() and its allies. whose values influence the distribution of the response. Other functions for exploring incremental sequences of models are add1() . phi)) 59 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .5 Updating fitted models The update() function is largely a convenience function that allows a model to be fitted that differs from one previously fitted usually by just a few additional or removed terms.update(fm6. Next: Generalized linear models .) would fit a five variate multiple regression with variables (presumably) from the data frame production . . hence x_i has no influence on the distribution of y if and only if beta_i is zero.update( old. but for full details see the on-line help.lm(y ~ x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5. The names of these give a good clue to their purpose. Next: Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models . y. data = production) would fit a model with response y and regressor variables all other variables in the data frame production . .model <. ' can also be used in other contexts. > fm05 <.6 Generalized linear models Generalized linear modeling is a development of linear models to accommodate both non-normal response distributions and transformations to linearity in a clean and straightforward way. + x6) > smf6 <. The distribution of y is of the form f_Y(y.gamma(lambda(mu))) + tau(y. can be used to stand for “the corresponding part of the old model formula”.. but with slightly different meaning. Note especially that if the data= argument is specified on the original call to the model fitting function.

1/mu^2 . inverse . binomial . identity . inverse . log . Previous: Generalized linear models . The family has to be specified in a different way. and is constant for all observations. sqrt The combination of a response distribution. Up: Generalized linear models 11.gaussian poisson quasi Link functions logit ..Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. cloglog .6. but in other cases this function is implied by the response distribution. ell(). log 1/mu^2 . The reader is referred to any of the current reference works on the subject for full details. is a smooth invertible function of the linear predictor: mu = m(eta). Famílias The glm() function Next: The glm() function . Previous: Families . poisson . log identity . The mean. So it is assumed that the distribution of y is determined by its mean and possibly a scale parameter as well. log . the same mechanism as was used for linear models can still be used to specify the linear part of a generalized model. log . where phi is a scale parameter (possibly known). sqrt logit . is called the link function . A represents a prior weight. Those automatically available are shown in the following table: Nome de Família binomial gaussian Gamma inverse.6. such as McCullagh & Nelder (1989) or Dobson (1990). Each response distribution admits a variety of link functions to connect the mean with the linear predictor.googleusercontent. Up: Generalized linear models 11.1 Families The class of generalized linear models handled by facilities supplied in R includes gaussian . assumed known but possibly varying with the observations. and $\mu$ is the mean of y. mu. eta = m^{-1}(mu) = ell(mu) and this inverse function. probit . These assumptions are loose enough to encompass a wide class of models useful in statistical practice.2 The glm() function Since the distribution of the response depends on the stimulus variables through a single linear function only . probit . In the latter case the variance function must be specified as a function of the mean. inverse identity . cloglog identity . identity . a link function and various other pieces of information that are needed to carry out the modeling exercise is called the family of the generalized linear model. log .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.. but tight enough to allow the development of a unified methodology of estimation and inference. inverse gaussian and gamma response distributions and also quasi-likelihood models where the response distribution is not explicitly specified. The R function to fit a generalized linear model is glm() which uses the form 60 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . inverse . at least approximately.

.glm(y ~ x1 + x2. the effects of which become more marked with increasing age. If y is the number of blind at age x and n the number tested. from Silvey (1970).beta_0/beta_1 that is. It is the name of a function that generates a list of functions and expressions that together define and control the model and estimation process. data= data. in parentheses as a parameter. as we shall see later. data=sales) but much less efficiently. The gaussian family A call such as > fm <.model <. F(z) = e^z/(1+e^z). F(beta_0 + beta_1 x)) where for the probit case. The binomial family Consider a small.45.37. and to estimate for each model the LD50. family= family. y = c(6. the name of the link may also be supplied with the family name. The names of the standard.generator . n = rep(50. Samples of islander males of various ages were tested for blindness and the results recorded.frame(x = c(20.data. > fitted. both models have the form y ~ B(n. that is the age at which the chance of blindness for a male inhabitant is 50%.35..Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. the variance function may also be specified in this way.googleusercontent. artificial example.70). On the Aegean island of Kalythos the male inhabitants suffer from a congenital eye disease.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.glm( formula . The data is shown below: Idade: 20 35 45 55 70 No. F(z) = Phi(z) is the standard normal distribution function. supplied family generators are given under “Family Name” in the table in Families . If a problem requires a gaussian family with a nonstandard link. In the case of the quasi family. family = gaussian. the point at which the argument of the distribution function is zero. so no parameter is allowed. The first step is to set the data up as a data frame > kalythos <.44)) To fit a binomial model using glm() there are three possibilities for the response: 61 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . blind: 6 17 26 37 44 The problem we consider is to fit both logistic and probit models to this data. which is the instrument by which the family is described. data = sales) achieves the same result as > fm <.5). and in the logit case (the default).generator . Some examples make the process clear. tested: 50 50 50 50 50 No.frame ) The only new feature is the family.17.lm(y ~ x1+x2. its use is quite simple. Note how the gaussian family is not automatically provided with a choice of links. Where there is a choice of links. Although this may seem a little complicated at first sight.26. In both cases the LD50 is LD50 = . this can usually be achieved through the quasi family.55.

whose actual distribution is often multinomial..counts) Quasi-likelihood models For all families the variance of the response will depend on the mean and will have the scale parameter as a multiplier. As a graceful alternative to the latter. data = worm. and beta_2 = theta_2/theta_1.663 years and 43. kalythos$n .googleusercontent. ldl <.ld50(coef(fml)). For quasi-likelihood estimation and inference the precise response distribution is not specified. To see the results of each fit we could use > summary(fmp) > summary(fml) Both models fit (all too) well.601 years respectively. Supposing a suitable data frame to be set up we could fit this non-linear regression as 62 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . this family provides a way of fitting gaussian models with non-standard link functions or variance functions. c(ldp. To find the LD50 estimate we can use a simple function: > ld50 <.function(b) -b[1]/b[2] > ldp <. beta_1 = 1/theta_1.ld50(coef(fmp)).. Occasionally genuinely Poisson data arises in practice and in the past it was often analyzed as gaussian data after either a log or a square-root transformation. for example for the poisson distribution Var(y) = mu.glm(Ymat ~ x.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. This is a large and important subject we will not discuss further here.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. its first level is taken as failure (0) and all other levels as `success' (1). The form of dependence of the variance on the mean is a characteristic of the response distribution. and so must be a 0/1 vector.theta_2) + e which may be written alternatively as y = 1 / (beta_1 x_1 + beta_2 x_2) + e where x_1 = z_2/z_1. incidentally. family = poisson(link=sqrt). a Poisson generalized linear model may be fitted as in the following example: > fmod <. It even forms a major part of the use of non-gaussian generalized models overall. so we add a matrix to our data frame: > kalythos$Ymat <. If the response is a vector it is assumed to hold binary data. family = binomial. For example. family = binomial(link=probit).glm(Ymat ~ x. ldl) The actual estimates from this data are 43. Since quasi-likelihood estimation uses formally identical techniques to those for the gaussian distribution. data = kalythos) Since the logit link is the default the parameter may be omitted on the second call. x_2 = -1/z_1. data = kalythos) > fml <. If the response is a two-column matrix it is assumed that the first column holds the number of successes for the trial and the second holds the number of failures. consider fitting the non-linear regression y = theta_1 z_1 / (z_2 . If the response is a factor . and in practice the major use of this family is to fit surrogate Poisson log-linear models to frequency data. but rather only a link function and the form of the variance function as it depends on the mean.kalythos$y) To fit the models we use > fmp <.cbind(kalythos$y. Here we need the second of these conventions.glm(y ~ A + B + x. Poisson models With the Poisson family the default link is the log .

Up: Statistical models in R 11. 0.nlm(fn. 207. 0. 1.function(p) sum((y . there is no guarantee that the procedure will converge on satisfactory estimates.1.(p[1] * x)/(p[2] + x))^2) In order to do the fit we need initial estimates of the parameters. 97. family = quasi(link=inverse. 0. One way to find sensible starting values is to plot the data. 47. and superimpose the model curve using those values. out$minimum is the SSE.0) nlminb() .22.googleusercontent.c(0. 0. 0. and they do this by trying out various parameter values iteratively. guess some parameter values.7. y) > xfit <. and convergence may depend critically upon the quality of the starting values. 107.02.10) > y <.02. 1. Now do the fit: > out <.1 + xfit) > lines(spline(xfit.02. variance=constant). This method makes sense if the observed errors could have plausibly arisen from a normal distribution. 159. But in the majority of cases we have to approach the nonlinear curve fitting problem as one of nonlinear optimization. 152. The data are: > x <.06.56.06. data = biochem) The reader is referred to the manual and the help document for further information.10.1 seem adequate. 0.7 Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models Certain forms of nonlinear model can be fitted by Generalized Linear Models ( glm() ). All the methods require initial guesses about what parameter values to try. hessian = TRUE) After the fitting.11.. Unlike linear regression for example. and out$estimate are the least squares estimates of the parameters. We seek the parameter values that minimize some index of lack-of-fit.22. 191.c(76.05) > yfit <. 200) The fit criterion to be minimized is: > fn <.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.1).56. Next: Some non-standard models . 0.200 * xfit/(0. To obtain the approximate standard errors (SE) of the estimates we do: 63 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . page 51. which provide the functionality (and more) of S-P LUS 's ms() and nlminb() . p = c(200. nlm() and (from R 2. 123. > nlfit <.1 Least squares One way to fit a nonlinear model is by minimizing the sum of the squared errors (SSE) or residuals. Mínimos quadrados Maximum likelihood Next: Maximum likelihood . but these starting values of 200 and 0. > plot(x. Up: Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models 11. as needed. R's nonlinear optimization routines are optim() . yfit)) We could do better.1.11. 139. Here is an example from Bates & Watts (1988). 201. 0. Previous: Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models . 0.2.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Previous: Generalized linear models ..glm(y ~ x1 + x2 . 0. . 1.seq(.

c(59.06412146 + xfit) > lines(spline(xfit.8369.function(p) sum( .. 28. 59. df) > fit Nonlinear regression model model: y ~ SSmicmen(x.281e-03 7. 1. yfit)) The standard package stats provides much more extensive facilities for fitting non-linear models by least squares.68370711 0.449 > summary(fit) Formula: y ~ SSmicmen(x. .24e-11 K 6.n*log(1+exp(p[1]+p[2]*x)) + log(choose(n.743 1. which clearly could also be fit by glm() . To obtain the approximate SEs of the estimates 64 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Vm. p = c(-50. 1. y=y) > fit <. The data are: > x <.c( 6.615 3. This example fits a logistic model to dose-response data. Error t value Pr(>|t|) Vm 2. Up: Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models 11.96 SE. 60) > n <.20).412e-02 8.7651 Previous: Least squares . 1.93 on 10 degrees of freedom Correlation of Parameter Estimates: Vm K 0.data.(y*(p[1]+p[2]*x) .8113.6907.57e-05 Residual standard error: 10. 63.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.googleusercontent. 62.7842.7242.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. 53.c(1. 18.2 Maximum likelihood Maximum likelihood is a method of nonlinear model fitting that applies even if the errors are not normal.nls(y ~ SSmicmen(x.127e+02 6. and out$estimate are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.212.1. Vm.68384222 * xfit/(0. The model we have just fitted is the Michaelis-Menten model. 108–111. 56. pp.8839) > y <.02. Vm.06412123 residual sum-of-squares: 1195. 1. 1. or equivalently which minimize the negative log-likelihood.05) > yfit <.2) * solve(out$hessian))) The 2 in the line above represents the number of parameters. so we can use > df <. 52. 13. K) Parâmetros: Estimate Std. A 95% confidence interval would be the parameter estimate +/. 1. 1.nlm(fn.947e+00 30. 61.1. We can superimpose the least squares fit on a new plot: > plot(x.8610. K) data: df Vm K 212.. y)) )) We pick sensible starting values and do the fit: > out <. 62.7. hessian = TRUE) After the fitting. Here is an example from Dobson (1990). 1. > sqrt(diag(2*out$minimum/(length(y) . 60) The negative log-likelihood to minimize is: > fn <.7552. out$minimum is the negative log-likelihood. The method finds the parameter values which maximize the log likelihood. K).seq(.frame(x=x. 60. y) > xfit <.

googleusercontent. at critical points of the determining variables in order to partition the data ultimately into groups that are as homogeneous as possible within. but many other generic functions such as plot() and text() are well adapted to displaying the results of a tree-based model fit in a graphical way. These functions make heavy use of formulae to specify the models.8 Some non-standard models We conclude this chapter with just a brief mention of some of the other facilities available in R for special regression and data analysis problems. usually one for each determining variable. Mixed models. together with code for projection pursuit regression. 65 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Rather than seek an explicit global linear model for prediction or interpretation. The results often lead to insights that other data analysis methods tend not to yield. Additive models.. Less resistant but statistically more efficient methods are available in packages. The model fitting function is tree() . and as heterogeneous as possible between. Local approximating regressions. Tree-based models. Robust regression. Models are again specified in the ordinary linear model form. Functions avas and ace in package acepack and functions bruto and mars in package mda provide some examples of these techniques in user-contributed packages to R.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. This technique aims to construct a regression function from smooth additive functions of the determining variables. Next: Packages . Up: Top 12 Graphical procedures Graphical facilities are an important and extremely versatile component of the R environment. Such regressions are useful for highlighting a trend in messy data or for data reduction to give some insight into a large data set. It is possible to use the facilities to display a wide variety of statistical graphs and also to build entirely new types of graph. The recommended nlme package provides functions lme() and nlme() for linear and non-linear mixed-effects models.96 SE. we do: > sqrt(diag(solve(out$hessian))) A 95% confidence interval would be the parameter estimate +/. Function lqs in the recommended package MASS provides state-of-art algorithms for highly-resistant fits. Function loess is in the standard package stats . There are several functions available for fitting regression models in a way resistant to the influence of extreme outliers in the data. The loess() function fits a nonparametric regression by using a locally weighted regression. Previous: Statistical models in R . Previous: Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models . implemented in user-contributed packages gam and mgcv . An extension is Generalized Additive Models . that is linear and non-linear regressions in which some of the coefficients correspond to random effects. for example function rlm in package MASS .. tree-based models seek to bifurcate the data. recursively.1. Up: Statistical models in R 11. Tree models are available in R via the user-contributed packages rpart and tree .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.

com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. labels and titles are automatically generated (unless you request otherwise. This is a generic function: the type of plot produced is dependent on the type or class of the first argument.. There is a recommended package lattice which builds on grid and provides ways to produce multi-panel plots akin to those in the Trellis system in S. A separate graphics sub-system in package grid coexists with base – it is more powerful but harder to use. such as extra points. R plotting commands can be used to produce a variety of graphical displays and to create entirely new kinds of display. axes. This manual only describes what are known as `base' graphics. Up: High-level plotting commands 12. In addition.googleusercontent. Interactive use is also easy because at startup time R initiates a graphics device driver which opens a special graphics window for the display of interactive graphics. it is useful to know that the command used is X11() under UNIX. using a pointing device such as a mouse. Low-level plotting functions add more information to an existing plot.1 High-level plotting commands High-level plotting functions are designed to generate a complete plot of the data passed as arguments to the function. Previous: High-level plotting commands .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.) High-level plotting commands always start a new plot. Where appropriate. Plotting commands are divided into three basic groups: High-level plotting functions create a new plot on the graphics device. labels. Previous: Graphics . lines and labels. interactive use is more productive. The graphics facilities can be used in both interactive and batch modes.1 The plot() function One of the most frequently used plotting functions in R is the plot() function. Interactive graphics functions allow you interactively add information to. High-level plotting commands Low-level plotting commands Interacting with graphics Using graphics parameters Graphics parameters Os drivers de dispositivo Dynamic graphics Next: Low-level plotting commands . titles and so on. Up: Graphics 12. but in most cases. an existing plot. Once the device driver is running. 66 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .. R maintains a list of graphical parameters which can be manipulated to customize your plots. or extract information from. possibly with axes. erasing the current plot if necessary. windows() under Windows and quartz() under Mac OS X.1. Although this is done automatically. The plot() function Displaying multivariate data Display graphics Arguments to high-level plotting functions Next: Displaying multivariate data .

2 Displaying multivariate data R provides two very useful functions for representing multivariate data.y) xy ) If x and y are vectors. it is divided into a number of conditioning intervals and for each interval a is plotted against b for values of c within the interval.1.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. The first two forms produce distributional plots of the variables in a data frame (first form) or of a number of named objects (second form). that is. x.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. the command > pairs(X) produces a pairwise scatterplot matrix of the variables defined by the columns of X . it produces a plot of the values in the vector against their index in the vector. Previous: The plot() function .googleusercontent. plot( f ) plot( f . this produces a time-series plot. The coplot() and pairs() function both take an argument panel= which can be used to customize the type of plot which appears in each panel. plot( plot( Next: Display graphics . The default is points() to produce a scatterplot but by supplying some other low-level graphics function of two vectors x and y as the value of panel= you can produce any type of plot you wish. y ) f is a factor object. If x is a complex vector. If x is a numeric vector. y is a numeric vector. plot( x ) If x is a time series. 67 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . the second form produces boxplots of y for each level of f . this simply means that a is plotted against b for every level of c . The number and position of intervals can be controlled with given. then the command > coplot(a ~ b | c) produces a number of scatterplots of a against b for given values of c . it produces a plot of imaginary versus real parts of the vector elements..intervals() is useful for selecting intervals. expr is a list of object names separated by ` + ' (eg. When c is numeric. The third form plots y against every object named in expr . You can also use two given variables with a command like > coplot(a ~ b | c + d) which produces scatterplots of a against b for every joint conditioning interval of c and d . If a and b are numeric vectors and c is a numeric vector or factor object (all of the same length). The first form generates a bar plot of f . plot( x . Up: High-level plotting commands 12. a + b + c ). The same effect can be produced by supplying one argument (second form) as either a list containing two elements x and y or a two-column matrix. If X is a numeric matrix or data frame.smooth() . every column of X is plotted against every other column of X and the resulting n(n-1) plots are arranged in a matrix with plot scales constant over the rows and columns of the matrix. y is any object.. An example panel function useful for coplots is panel. y ) produces a scatterplot of y against x . If c is a factor. When three or four variables are involved a coplot may be more enlightening.values= argument to coplot() —the function co. plot( df ) plot(~ expr ) plot( y ~ expr ) df is a data frame.

. z. superimposing the plot on the current plot (some functions only). nclass= hist(x.. y. y) Distribution-comparison plots.. This will work for many.. Previous: Displaying multivariate data .. Next: Arguments to high-level plotting functions . hist(x) hist(x. the breakpoints can be specified exactly with the breaks= argument. z.. y. and the persp plot draws a 3D surface..) persp(x. .4 Arguments to high-level plotting functions There are a number of arguments which may be passed to high-level graphics functions. axes=FALSE Suppresses generation of axes—useful for adding your own custom axes with the axis() function.) image(x. but not all.1. but a recommendation can be given with the nclass= argument. the bars represent relative frequencies divided by bin width instead of counts. type= The type= argument controls the type of plot produced. The default. The image plot draws a grid of rectangles using different colours to represent the value of z . dotchart(x. .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Alguns exemplos são: qqnorm(x) qqline(x) qqplot(x. z. log="x" log="y" log="xy" Causes the x.1. Constructs a dotchart of the data in x . the contour plot draws contour lines to represent the value of z .) Produces a histogram of the numeric vector x .3 Display graphics Other high-level graphics functions produce different types of plots. Previous: Display graphics . . Up: High-level plotting commands 12. axes=TRUE . breaks= n) b . In a dotchart the y-axis gives a labelling of the data in x and the x-axis gives its value.) contour(x.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.. A sensible number of classes is usually chosen. Up: High-level plotting commands 12. Alternatively. The first form plots the numeric vector x against the expected Normal order scores (a normal scores plot) and the second adds a straight line to such a plot by drawing a line through the distribution and data quartiles. types of plot.) Plots of three variables.. For example it allows easy visual selection of all data entries with values lying in specified ranges. y. means include axes.. If the probability=TRUE argument is given.. as follows: add=TRUE Forces the function to act as a low-level graphics function. The third form plots the quantiles of x against those of y to compare their respective distributions.. y or both axes to be logarithmic. . . as follows: type="p" Plot individual points (the default) 68 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .googleusercontent.

2 Low-level plotting commands Sometimes the high-level plotting functions don't produce exactly the kind of plot you desire. y) Adds points or connected lines to the current plot. The default is 1:length(x) . as specified by the character vector names for the points. lines or text) to the current plot.. type="n"). In the first form. type="l" Plot lines type="b" Plot points connected by lines ( both ) type="o" Plot points overlaid by lines type="h" Plot vertical lines from points to the zero axis ( high-density ) type="s" type="S" Step-function plots.. y) lines(x. Ideal for creating plots with subsequent low-level graphics functions. y.. labels. placed just below the x-axis in a smaller font. abline(a. b) abline(h= y ) 69 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Previous: High-level plotting commands . and the text() function supplies special characters. names) The graphics parameter type="n" suppresses the points but sets up the axes. plot() 's type= argument can also be passed to these functions (and defaults to "p" for points() and "l" for lines() . . sub= string Sub-title.. type="n" No plotting at all. in the second. text(x. Some of the more useful low-level plotting functions are: points(x. Normally labels is an integer or character vector in which case labels[i] is plotted at point (x[i]. Use these arguments to change the default labels.googleusercontent. y. y[i]) . the top of the vertical defines the point.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. usually the names of the objects used in the call to the high-level plotting function. xlab= ylab= Next: Interacting with graphics . string string Axis labels for the x and y axes. main= string Figure title. Note : This function is often used in the sequence > plot(x. the bottom. y . Up: Graphics 12. y.) text(x. In this case.) Add text to a plot at points given by x. However axes are still drawn (by default) and the coordinate system is set up according to the data.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. placed at the top of the plot in a large font. low-level plotting commands can be used to add extra information (such as points.

. polygon(x.googleusercontent. x and y coordinates) to determine where to place the new plot elements. as follows: legend( . in that order. h= y may be used to specify y-coordinates for the heights of horizontal lines to go across a plot. legend..Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. y. abline(v= x ) abline( lm. Previous: Low-level plotting commands . and v= x similarly for the x-coordinates for vertical lines. y.obj may be list with a coefficients component of length 2 (such as the result of model-fitting functions. Plotting characters.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. . or fill it if the graphics device allows the filling of figures. Mathematical annotation Hershey vector fonts Next: Hershey vector fonts .obj ) Adds a line of slope b and intercept a to the current plot. colors etc. Similarly a matrix with two columns is also valid input. axis . . it is also sufficient to supply a single argument being a list with elements named x and y .. Also lm. At least one other argument v (a vector the same length as legend ) with the corresponding values of the plotting unit must also be given. legend(x. are identified with the labels in the character vector legend . axis(side.. the following code draws the formula for the Binomial 70 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . mtext . and tick positions and labels. col= v ) Colors in which points or lines will be drawn legend( .) Adds a legend to the current plot at the specified position. lwd= v ) Line widths legend( .. Up: Low-level plotting commands 12.. . y ) and (optionally) shade it in with hatch lines.) plot in a large font and (optionally) a sub-title Adds an axis to the current plot on the side given by the first argument (1 to 4. line styles. In this way functions such as locator() (see below) may be used to specify positions on a plot interactively. it is useful to add mathematical symbols and formulae to a plot.) which are taken as an intercept and slope.) Other arguments control the positioning of the axis within or beside the plot. sub) Adds a title main to the top of the current sub at the bottom in a smaller font. This can be achieved in R by specifying an expression rather than a character string in any one of text . counting clockwise from the bottom.) Draws a polygon defined by the ordered vertices in ( x . Useful for adding custom axes after calling plot() with the axes=FALSE argument... or title . Coordinates are given in terms of user coordinates which are defined by the previous high-level graphics command and are chosen based on the supplied data. lty= v ) Line styles legend( . pch= v ) Plotting characters (character vector) title(main.1 Mathematical annotation In some cases.2. fill= v ) Colors for filled boxes legend( . Low-level plotting functions usually require some positioning information (eg. For example.. Where x and y arguments are required.

x). p^x.3 Interacting with graphics R also provides functions which allow users to extract or add information to a plot using a mouse. including a full listing of the features available can obtained from within R using the commands: > help(plotmath) > example(plotmath) > demo(plotmath) Previous: Mathematical annotation . q^{nx}))) More information. For example. expression(paste(bgroup("(". ")"). the command > text(locator(1). The type argument allows for plotting at the selected points and has the same effect as for high-level graphics commands.) identify(x. including tables of Hershey characters can be obtained from within R using the commands: > help(Hershey) > demo(Hershey) > help(Japanese) > demo(Japanese) Next: Using graphics parameters . for rotated and/or small text. probability function: > text(x. such as postscript does not support interactive pointing. Up: Low-level plotting commands 12.2. ( locator() will be ignored if the current device. Hershey fonts provide certain symbols that may not be available in the standard fonts. the default is no plotting.2 Hershey vector fonts It is possible to specify Hershey vector fonts for rendering text when using the text and contour functions. to place some informative text near an outlying point. In particular. It is particularly useful for interactively selecting positions for graphic elements such as legends or labels when it is difficult to calculate in advance where the graphic should be placed. This continues until n (default 512) points have been selected. or another mouse button is pressed. locator() returns the locations of the points selected as a list with two components x and y . More information. labels) Allow the user to highlight any of the points defined by x and y (using the left mouse 71 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . There are three reasons for using the Hershey fonts: Hershey fonts can produce better output. atop(n. Hershey fonts provide cyrillic and japanese (Kana and Kanji) characters. type) Waits for the user to select locations on the current plot using the left mouse button. cartographic symbols and astronomical symbols. especially on a computer screen. The simplest of these is the locator() function: locator(n. "Outlier". y.. Up: Graphics 12. Previous: Low-level plotting commands . there are zodiac signs. locator() is usually called with no arguments.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.. y.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.googleusercontent. adj=0) may be useful.

If there is a point near the mouse pointer it will be marked with its index number (that is.4 Using graphics parameters When creating graphics. button) by plotting the corresponding component of labels nearby (or the index number of the point if labels is absent).1 Permanent changes: The par() function The par() function is used to access and modify the list of graphics parameters for the current graphics device. Given a number of (x. colors. y) The identify() functions performs no plotting itself. customize almost every aspect of the display using graphics parameters .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. but simply allows the user to move the mouse pointer and click the left mouse button near a point. affecting all graphics functions which access the current device. its position in the x / y vectors) plotted nearby. as a list. For example. Next: Graphics parameters . Sometimes we want to identify particular points on a plot. R maintains a list of a large number of graphics parameters which control things such as line style.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. rather than their positions. you could use some informative string (such as a case name) as a highlight by using the labels argument to identify() . or temporarily. Up: Graphics 12.) A separate list of graphics parameters is maintained for each active device. returns only the named graphics parameters (again. and each device has a default set of parameters when initialized. you can use these indices to extract the selected points from the original vectors x and y . "lty")) With a character vector argument. Every graphics parameter has a name (such as ` col '. Alternatively. we could use the identify() function as follows: > plot(x. The par() function Arguments to graphics functions Next: Arguments to graphics functions . par() Without arguments. which controls colors. y) > identify(x.) and a value (a color number. for example. sets the values of the named graphics 72 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . lty=2) With named arguments (or a single list argument). returns a list of all graphics parameters and their values for the current device. affecting only a single graphics function call. y) coordinates in two numeric vectors x and y . Returns the indices of the selected points when another button is pressed. however. par(c("col".) par(col=4. Up: Using graphics parameters 12. particularly for presentation or publication purposes. Graphics parameters can be set in two ways: either permanently. When the process is terminated (see above).4. Previous: Using graphics parameters . figure arrangement and text justification among many others.. or disable marking altogether with the plot = FALSE argument. You can.googleusercontent. we may wish the user to select some observation of interest from a graphical display and then manipulate that observation in some way.. identify() returns the indices of the selected points. R's defaults do not always produce exactly that which is required. Previous: Interacting with graphics .

Por exemplo: > plot(x.. Next: Device drivers . and then restore the original values so as not to affect the user's R session.5 Graphics parameters list The following sections detail many of the commonly-used graphical parameters. pch="+") produces a scatterplot using a plus sign as the plotting character.. Graphics parameters will be presented in the following form: name = value A description of the parameter's effect. do some plotting.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. lty=2) .. name is the name of the parameter.. > par(oldpar) To save and restore all settable 23 graphical parameters use > oldpar <. and restoring the initial values when plotting is complete.. The R help documentation for the par() function provides a more concise summary.2 Temporary changes: Arguments to graphics functions Graphics parameters may also be passed to (almost) any graphics function as named arguments. plotting commands . that is. > par(oldpar) Previous: The par() function .. You can think of setting graphics parameters in this way as setting “default” values for the parameters. Up: Graphics 12. the argument name to use in calls to par() or a graphics function.4. Setting graphics parameters with the par() function changes the value of the parameters permanently . Unfortunately. even when par() is called from within a function. yaxt 73 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . This has the same effect as passing the arguments to the par() function. Note that axes is not a graphics parameter but an argument to a few plot methods: see xaxt and .par(col=4. which will be used by all graphics functions unless an alternative value is given.. this is not implemented entirely consistently and it is sometimes necessary to set and reset graphics parameters using par() . Previous: Using graphics parameters . You can restore the initial values by saving the result of par() when making changes.. except that the changes only last for the duration of the function call. Up: Using graphics parameters 12.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. > oldpar <. plotting commands . value is a typical value you might use when setting the parameter. without changing the default plotting character for future plots.googleusercontent. in the sense that all future calls to graphics functions (on the current device) will be affected by the new value. this is provided as a somewhat more detailed alternative..readonly=TRUE) . Note that calls to par() always affect the global values of graphics parameters. y. and returns the original values of the parameters as a list. This is often undesirable behavior—usually we want to set some graphics parameters.par(no.. parameters.

filled regions and images. pch = 0:25) Those from 21 to 25 may appear to duplicate earlier symbols. A number from the current palette (see ?palette ) or a named colour. line type 0 is always invisible. and line types 2 and onwards are dotted or dashed lines.axis col. in multiples of the “standard” line width. 1 means right justify and 0.main font.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. use the command > legend(locator(1). pch can be a character or a number in the range 32:255 representing a character in the current font.5 means to center horizontally about the plotting position.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. or some combination of both. adj=-0. pch=4 When pch is given as an integer between 0 and 25 inclusive. respectively. Desired width of lines.sub The font to be used for axis annotation. x and y labels.sub The color to be used for axis annotation. but it is usually a circle. Previous: Graphics parameters .character(0:25). as. Plotted points tend to appear slightly above or below the appropriate position unless you use ". a specialized plotting symbol is produced. and some have restrictions on the widths that can be used. Not all devices support this. The actual value is 74 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . 4 to bold italic and 5 to a symbol font (which include Greek letters).5.1 Justification of text relative to the plotting position. respectively. lty=2 Line types. If possible. font. col.lab col. x and y labels. 0 means left justify. lwd=2 Line widths.) Graphical parameters exist which control how these graphical elements are drawn. but can be coloured in different ways: see the help on points and its examples. 3 to italic.. Graphical elements Axes and tick marks Figure margins Multiple figure environment Next: Axes and tick marks . 2 to bold face.1 Graphical elements R plots are made up of points. font=2 An integer which specifies which font to use for text.lab font. To see what the symbols are. main and sub-titles. Up: Graphics parameters 12. Affects axis lines as well as lines drawn with lines() . In addition." as the plotting character. col=2 Colors to be used for points. main and sub-titles. lines. lines.main col. which produces centered points. etc. The default varies with graphics drivers. text and polygons (filled regions.axis font. Alternative line styles are not supported on all graphics devices (and vary on those that do) but line type 1 is always a solid line. device drivers arrange so that 1 corresponds to plain text.. as follows: pch="+" Character to be used for plotting points. text.

cex=1. cex.main cex. 12) The first two numbers are the desired number of tick intervals on the x and y axes respectively. 1. in text lines. 0 means always parallel to axis. Previous: Axes and tick marks .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. and you can construct axes yourself with the low-level axis() graphics function. Up: Graphics parameters 12.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. and the final component is the distance from the axis position to the axis line (usually zero). Negative values give tick marks outside the plotting region. When tck is small (less than 0.) Next: Multiple figure environment . Next: Figure margins .1 leaves a gap of 10% of the text width between the text and the plotting position. main and sub-titles. however style "r" leaves a small amount of space at the edges. the tick marks (which mark off unit divisions along the axis line) and the tick labels (which mark the units. Previous: Graphical elements .axis cex. the proportion of text that appears to the left of the plotting position.5.. (S has other styles not implemented in R. Positive numbers measure outside the plot region.0) for internal tick marks.lab cex.2 Axes and tick marks Many of R's high-level plots have axes. etc.5.3 Figure margins A single plot in R is known as a figure and comprises a plot region surrounded by margins (possibly containing axis labels.01 and mgp=c(1. respectively.) Choosing a too-small value for this parameter may result in all tick labels being rounded to the same number! las=1 Orientation of axis labels. Use tck=0.5. 1 means always horizontal. The third number is the desired length of axis labels.. The first component is the distance from the axis label to the axis position.5 Character expansion. A value of 1 gives grid lines. tck=0.-1. Up: Graphics parameters 12. in characters (including the decimal point. The second component is the distance to the tick labels. and 2 means always perpendicular to the axis. lab=c(5. respectively. xaxs="r" yaxs="i" Axis styles for the x and y axes.googleusercontent. Graphics parameters controlling figure layout include: 75 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . mgp=c(3. so a value of -0. 7. 0) Positions of axis components. The value is the desired size of text characters (including plotting characters) relative to the default text size. negative numbers inside. With styles "i" (internal) and "r" (the default) tick marks always fall within the range of the data. Axes have three main components: the axis line (line style controlled by the lty graphics parameter). x and y labels.01 Length of tick marks. titles.) and (usually) bounded by the axes themselves. as a fraction of the size of the plotting region.5) the tick marks on the x and y axes are forced to be the same size.sub The character expansion to be used for axis annotation.) These components can be customized with the following graphics parameters.

Up: Graphics parameters 12. The default values chosen for this parameter are often too large. The bottom and left margins must be large enough to accommodate the axis and tick labels. Values are the positions of the left. 0. oma=c(2. 0) Widths of the bottom.. mar except the measurement unit is text lines. mfrow fills by rows. top and right margins. 2. Set this parameter for arbitrary positioning of figures within a page. 2) mfrow=c(2. fig=c(4. 2. and mai are equivalent in the sense that setting one changes the value of the other.5. the second is the number of columns. bottom and top edges respectively. The first value is the number of rows. as a percentage of the page measured from the bottom left corner. 0) omi=c(0.4 Multiple figure environment R allows you to create an n by m array of figures on a single page.. You can even use different values for the last two numbers than the true values for unequally-sized figures on the same page. 0. however this may not be enough when many figures share the same page.66. Previous: Figure margins . 2) Position of the current figure in a multiple figure environment. 4) Set the size of a multiple figure array.8. If you want to add a figure to a current page.5. measured in inches.2) . Each figure has its own margins. Set this parameter to jump between figures in the array.83: if there are three or more of either rows or columns. 3. 4)/10 Position of the current figure on the page. 2. mar=c(4. the right-hand margin is rarely needed. Furthermore. 0) Size of outer margins. and neither is the top margin if no title is being used. The only difference between these two parameters is that setting mfcol causes figures to be filled by column. 9. The example value would be for a figure in the bottom right of the page. the figure shows the page after four plots have been drawn. right. respectively. The first two numbers are the row and column of the current figure.5. Like mar and mai . left. The layout in the Figure could have been created by setting mfrow=c(3. 3. use new=TRUE as well (unlike S). The graphical parameters relating to multiple figures are as follows: mfcol=c(3. as shown in the following figure. 76 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . In a layout with exactly two rows and columns the base size is reduced by a factor of 0. Setting either of these can reduce the base size of symbols and text (controlled by par("cex") and the pointsize of the device). and the array of figures is optionally surrounded by an outer margin . 1) Similar to mai . 1. When multiple figures are in use (see below) the margins are reduced. using the postscript() driver with the height=4 argument will result in a plot which is about 50% margin unless mar or mai are set explicitly.googleusercontent. the reduction factor is 0. 0. mfg=c(2. mai=c(1.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. the last two are the number of rows and columns in the multiple figure array.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. the first measures in text lines and the second in inches. the default is chosen without regard to the size of the device surface: for example. 0. 0. starting with the bottom margin and working clockwise.

best used for image plots. Some commonly-used device drivers are: X11() For use with the X11 window system on Unix-alikes windows() For use on Windows quartz() For use on Mac OS X postscript() For printing on PostScript printers. Previous: Device drivers . (This will happen automatically at the normal end of a session.) PostScript diagrams for typeset documents Multiple graphics devices Next: Multiple graphics devices . There is one such function for every device driver: type help(Devices) for a list of them all. The purpose of a device driver is to convert graphical instructions from R (“draw a line.6 Device drivers R can generate graphics (of varying levels of quality) on almost any type of display or printing device. so you must create them explicitly using oma or omi ..) jpeg() Produces a bitmap JPEG file. issuing the command > postscript() causes all future graphics output to be sent to the printer in PostScript format. or creating PostScript graphics files.6. be sure to terminate the device driver by issuing the command > dev.off() This ensures that the device finishes cleanly. png() Produces a bitmap PNG file.1 PostScript diagrams for typeset documents 77 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . as well as by the grid and lattice packages. for example in the case of hardcopy devices this ensures that every page is completed and has been sent to the printer. There are no outer margins by default. however. This is done by starting a device driver . Outer margins are particularly useful for page-wise titles.googleusercontent. Next: Dynamic graphics . R needs to be informed what type of device it is dealing with. Up: Device drivers 12.) When you have finished with a device.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. pdf() Produces a PDF file. Device drivers are started by calling a device driver function.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. For example. which can also be included into PDF files. (Not always available: see its help page. Text can be added to the outer margins with the mtext() function with argument outer=TRUE . Before this can begin.. More complicated arrangements of multiple figures can be produced by the split. etc.” for example) into a form that the particular device can understand. (Not always available: see its help page. Up: Graphics 12. Previous: Graphics parameters .screen() and layout() functions. however.

googleusercontent.next() dev. horizontal=FALSE.prev() Returns the number and name of the graphics device next to. When multiple devices are open. onefile=FALSE. horizontal=FALSE. width=6. dev. the command > postscript("file.metafile() [Windows] quartz() [Mac OS X] postscript() pdf() png() jpeg() tiff() bitmap() . to which graphics output will be sent.6. The device at position 1 on the list is always the null device which does not accept graphics commands at all.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. This unusual notation stems from S-compatibility: it really means that the output will be a single page (which is part of the EPSF specification). The main commands used for operating with multiple devices. pointsize=10) will produce a file containing PostScript code for a figure five inches high.. and this is known as the current device . 78 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.printer() win. or previous to the current device.2 Multiple graphics devices In advanced use of R it is often useful to have several graphics devices in use at the same time. dev. It is important to note that if the file named in the command already exists. Thus to produce a plot for inclusion use something like > postscript("plot1. This works best when encapsulated PostScript is produced: R always produces conformant output.. The plot will be in landscape orientation unless the horizontal=FALSE argument is given.) For example. Many usages of PostScript output will be to incorporate the figure in another document. respectively. This device becomes the current device. pointsize=10) Previous: PostScript diagrams for typeset documents . you may store the graphics in PostScript format in a file of your choice. Each new call to a device driver function opens a new graphics device. height=5.ps".. By passing the file argument to the postscript() device driver function. and you can control the size of the graphic with the width and height arguments (the plot will be scaled as appropriate to fit these dimensions. and their meanings are as follows: X11() [UNIX] windows() win. it will be overwritten. This is the case even if the file was only created earlier in the same R session. but only marks the output as such when the onefile=FALSE argument is supplied. Up: Device drivers 12.list() Returns the number and name of all active devices. they form a numbered sequence with names giving the kind of device at any position. Of course only one graphics device can accept graphics commands at any one time. perhaps for inclusion in a document..eps". thus extending by one the device list. height=8.

Here.org /rggobi . which= k ) dev. but the copied device is immediately closed.org/ and these can be accessed from R via the package rggobi . Only when a package is loaded are its contents available.print(device. To load a particular package (eg.... To see which packages are installed at your site. for example of surfaces. so that end actions. if needed. However. To see which packages are currently loaded. Also..Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. and to aid package developers. Up: Graphics 12.packages() functions (available through the Packages menu in the Windows and RAqua GUIs.set(which= graphics. extensive dynamic graphics facilities are available in the system GGobi by Swayne..copy(device. k) Can be used to change the current graphics device to the one at position k of the device list. . are immediately performed. see Installing packages ) to install and update packages. such as printing hardcopies.. described at http://www.off() Terminate all graphics devices on the list. specified by ' . This is done both for efficiency (the full list would take more memory and would take longer to search than a subset). Previous: Device drivers . which= k ) Make a copy of the device k . who are protected from name clashes with other code. Up: Top 13 Packages All R functions and datasets are stored in packages .7 Dynamic graphics R does not have builtin capabilities for dynamic or interactive graphics. issue the command > library() with no arguments. Returns the number and label of the device.. use 79 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 ..print is similar. dev.googleusercontent. .ggobi. Here device is a device function.packages() and update. package rgl provides ways to interact with 3D plots.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. we will describe them from a user's point of view. except the null device.ggobi.. dev. dev. eg rotating point clouds or to “brushing” (interactively highlighting) points. with extra arguments. such as postscript . dev. such as postscript devices. this will either print the file immediately or correctly complete the file for later printing. '. The process of developing packages is described in Creating R packages . Cook and Buja available from http://www. Previous: Graphics .off( k ) Terminate the graphics device at point k of the device list.. depending on how the device was initiated. Next: A sample session . For some devices. the boot package containing functions from Davison & Hinkley (1997)). use a command like > library(boot) Users connected to the Internet can use the install.

Up: Packages 13. because it is defined in the base package.bioconductor. The double-colon operator :: selects definitions from a particular namespace. and they provide a way to refer to an object within a particular package.R-project. Next: Namespaces .3 Namespaces Packages can have namespaces . Previous: Standard packages . Previous: Packages . and the datasets and standard statistical and graphical functions that are described in this manual. Namespaces do three things: they allow the package writer to hide functions and data that are meant only for internal use.googleusercontent. t() is the transpose function in R. for a complete list.org/ and its mirrors). Namespaces prevent the user's definition from taking precedence.. In the example above. and then navigate to the package listing in the Reference section. Some of these packages implement specialized statistical methods. For example. Previous: Contributed packages and CRAN . pacotes padrão Contributed packages and CRAN Namespaces Next: Contributed packages and CRAN . See R packages . Up: Packages 13. and other repositories such as Bioconductor ( http://www. 80 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Most are available for download from CRAN ( http://CRAN.2 Contributed packages and CRAN There are hundreds of contributed packages for R.start () to start the HTML help system.1 Standard packages The standard (or base ) packages are considered part of the R source code. and breaking every function that tries to transpose a matrix. use > Help.. but the collection of available packages changes frequently. but users might define their own function named t . they prevent functions from breaking when a user (or other package writer) picks a name that clashes with one in the package. The R FAQ contains a list that was current at the time of release.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.org/ ). and currently all of the base and recommended packages do except the datasets package. Only functions that are exported from the package can be retrieved in this way. the transpose function will always be available as base::t . There are two operators that work with namespaces. Up: Packages 13. Some (the recommended packages) are distributed with every binary distribution of R. others give access to data or hardware. They should be automatically available in any R installation. and others are designed to complement textbooks. They contain the basic functions that allow R to work.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. written by many different authors. > search() to display the search list. Some packages may be loaded but not available on the search list (see Namespaces ): these will be included in the list given by > loadedNamespaces() To see a list of all available help topics in an installed package.

lm(y ~ x.. attach(dummy) 81 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . The triple-colon operator ::: may be seen in a few places in R code: it acts like the double-colon operator but also allows access to hidden objects. 2. rm(x. which searches multiple packages. (Within R. Packages are often inter-dependent. and look at it. x and y. Previous: Packages . Iconify the help window and move on to the next part. x <. With y to the left of the tilde. start your windowing system.. fm1 <. You should briefly explore the features of this facility with the mouse. data=dummy.) help. .1:20 Make x = (1. Up: Top Appendix AA sample session The following session is intended to introduce to you some features of the R environment by using them. x <.1 + sqrt(x)/2 . Users are more likely to use the getAnywhere() function. data=dummy) summary(fm) Fit a simple linear regression and look at the analysis. The colon operators described above will also cause automatic loading of the associated package.rnorm(x) Generate two pseudo-random normal vectors of x.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. y) Remove objects no longer needed. we can do a weighted regression. w <. weight=1/w^2) summary(fm1) Since we know the standard deviations. y= x + rnorm(x)*w) dummy Make a data frame of two columns.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. we are modelling y dependent on x.. but this puzzlement will soon disappear. $ R Start R as appropriate for your platform. A `weight' vector of standard deviations.data. The R program begins. ls() See which R objects are now in the R workspace. When packages with namespaces are loaded automatically they are not added to the search list.lm(y ~ x. Many features of the system will be unfamiliar and puzzling at first.googleusercontent.rnorm(50) y <. and loading one may cause others to be automatically loaded. dummy <. A graphics window will appear automatically. fm <. plot(x..and y-coordinates. (Clean up).frame(x=x. Next: Invoking R . the prompt on the left hand side will not be shown to avoid confusion. y) Plot the points in the plane. Login.start() Start the HTML interface to on-line help (using a web browser available at your machine). 20). with a banner.

ylab="Residuals" . .lowess(x.file("data".Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. detach() Remove data frame from the search path. The next section will look at data from the classical experiment of Michaelson and Morley to measure the speed of light. lrf <. 82 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . lines(x. abline(coef(fm1).system. kurtosis and outliers. This dataset is available in the morley object. lrf$y) Add in the local regression. package="datasets") filepath Get the path to the data file.factor(mm$Run) Change Expt and Run into attach(mm) factors.. and compare using a formal analysis of variance. filepath <. ~ . fm <. fm1.aov(Speed ~ Run + Expt.") Compare the five experiments with simple boxplots. Make the data frame visible at position 3 (the default).factor(mm$Expt) mm$Run <. . fm0 <. x. "morley.table(filepath) mm Read in the Michaelson and Morley data as a data frame. y) Standard point plot.table function. xlab="Fitted values" . ylab="Residuals" . main="Speed of Light Data". 1.. col = "red") Weighted regression line. xlab="Experiment No. and look at it. mm <.tab" .show(filepath) Opcional. plot(Expt.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. file. main="Residuals vs Fitted") A standard regression diagnostic plot to check for heteroscedasticity. mm$Expt <. but we will read it to illustrate the read. dummy) Clean up again. Make the columns in the data frame visible as variables. with `runs' and `experiments' as factors. fm) Fit the sub-model omitting `runs'. There are five experiments (column Expt ) and each has 20 runs (column Run ) and sl is the recorded speed of light.Run) anova(fm0. detach() rm(fm. main="Residuals Rankit Plot") A normal scores plot to check for skewness. xlab="Fitted values" . plot(x. plot(fitted(fm). y) Make a nonparametric local regression function. (Not very useful here. resid(fm). Você pode vê-lo? qqnorm(resid(fm).) rm(fm. Speed. lrf. slope 1).update(fm. abline(0. fm0) Clean up before moving on.googleusercontent. lty=3) The true regression line: (intercept 0. suitably coded. data=mm) summary(fm) Analyze as a randomized block. abline(coef(fm)) Unweighted regression line. Look at the file.read.

. ..x x is a vector of 50 equally spaced values in the interval [-pi\.. plot(w. with rows and columns indexed by x and y respectively. of values of the function cos(y)/(1 + x^2). th <. f.outer(x. w) . nlevels=15. y. par(pty="s") plot(z. f <. len=100) z <. contour(x. fa) . also. y. len=50) y <. x <. xlim=c(-1. objects().. y... f.. ylab="y") lines(z) All points are inside the unit circle.rnorm(100) + rnorm(100)*1i Suppose we want to sample points within the unit circle. We now look at some more graphical features: contour and image plots. pch="+". fa) Make some high density image plots. y.ifelse(Mod(w) > 1. rm(th. type="l") Plotting complex arguments means plot imaginary versus real parts. you probably do not want to save it..xlab="x". y is the same.par(no. (of which you can get hardcopies if you wish). xlim=c(-1... pi.readonly = TRUE) par(pty="s") Save the plotting parameters and set the plotting region to “square”. R can do complex arithmetic. fa. pi. add in more lines for more detail.sqrt(runif(100))*exp(2*pi*runif(100)*1i) plot(w. and clean up before moving on. and to map any outside the circle onto their reciprocal. One method would be to take complex numbers with standard normal real and imaginary parts . Up: Top 83 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .exp(1i*th) 1i is used for the complex number i. This should be a circle. xlab="x". Next: The command-line editor . q() Quit the R program. function(x. Previous: A sample session . pi].seq(-pi. image(x. fa <. oldpar <.. contour(x. but the distribution is not uniform. The points should now look more evenly spaced over the disc. par(oldpar) .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. . pch="+". rm(x. w <.seq(-pi. ( t() is transpose). y. y. ylab="y") lines(z) The second method uses the uniform distribution.1).com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.googleusercontent. and for an exploratory session like this.1). ylim=c(-1. w <. ylim=c(-1.. y.1). f) contour(x.. z) Clean up again.(ft(f))/2 fa is the “asymmetric part” of f. 1/w. w.. and restore the old graphics parameters. f) image(x. You will be asked if you want to save the R workspace. nlevels=15) Make a contour plot.1). y) cos(y)/(1 + x^2)) f is a square matrix. add=TRUE) Make a contour map of f. w <.

The user file is the one pointed to by the environment variable R_ENVIRON_USER if this is set.First exists. files .site is used (if it exists). The startup mechanism is as follows (see also the on-line help for topic ' Startup ' for more information. You need to ensure that either the environment variable TMPDIR is unset or it points to a valid place to create temporary files and directories. via the R CMD interface. The name of this file is taken from the value of the R_PROFILE environment variable. 84 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . R accepts the following command-line options.. R searches for a user profile and sources it.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. In addition. if this is unset. R_PRINTCMD (the default print command) and R_LIBS (specifies the list of R library trees searched for add-on packages). Then R searches for the site-wide startup profile unless the command line option --no-site-file was given. Then. Finally.Renviron in the current or in the user's home directory (in that order) are searched for. The name of the site file is the one pointed to by the environment variable R_ENVIRON . It also loads a saved image from . If that variable is unset.1 Invoking R from the command line When working in UNIX or at a command line in Windows. The name of this file is taken from the environment variable R_PROFILE_USER .site is used if this exists.) Variables you might want to set include R_PAPERSIZE (the default paper size).googleusercontent. for processing files in R documentation format or manipulating add-on packages) which are not intended to be called “directly”.RData . it is executed.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Previous: Invoking R . Users will not normally need to use these unless they are trying to limit the amount of memory used by R. there are options for controlling the memory available to the R process (see the on-line help for topic ' Memory ' for more information). a file called . Unless --no-environ was given. These files should contain lines of the form ' name = value '. otherwise. or. and the section below for some Windows-specific details). R_HOME /etc/Renviron. Most options control what happens at the beginning and at the end of an R session. Up: Invoking R B. if unset. the default R_HOME /etc/Rprofile. if a function . as a wrapper to various R tools (eg. Appendix B Invoking R Invoking R from the command line Invoking R under Windows Invoking R under Mac OS X Scripting with R Next: Invoking R under Windows . the command ' R ' can be used both for starting the main R program in the form R [ options ] [ < infile ] [ > outfile ].Last which is executed at the end of the R session) can be defined in the appropriate startup profiles.RData if there is one (unless --no-restore or --no-restore-data was specified). This function (as well as . R searches for user and site files to process for setting environment variables.Rprofile in the current directory or in the user's home directory (in that order) is searched for. or reside in . (See help("Startup") for a precise description.. unless --no-init-file was given.

) into this directory. -f file --file= file Take input from file : ' . in non-interactive use one of these must be specified or implied by some other option (see below). etc.. --no-init-file and --no-restore . --no-Rconsole (Windows only) Prevent loading the Rconsole file at startup.' means stdin . ( --no-restore implies all the specific --no-restore-* options.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. --encoding= enc Specify the encoding to be assumed for input from the console or stdin .Rhistory in the directory where R was started. If neither is given in an interactive session. --version Print version information to standard output and exit successfully. One or more -e options can be used. The default is to restore. --no-init-file Do not read the user's profile at startup.000 bytes on the total length of expressions used in this way.) --no-restore-history Control whether the history file (normally file . Command-line editing is enabled by default interactive use (see --interactive ). the user is asked for the desired behavior when ending the session with q() .googleusercontent. this also includes --no-Rconsole . See The command-line editor . --no-site-file . --no-environ . but not together with -f or --file . --restore --no-restore --no-restore-data Control whether saved images (file .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Apart from the front-end shell script and the man page. This needs to be an encoding known to iconv : see its help page. packages. but can be set by the environment variable R_HISTFILE ) should be restored at startup or not. --no-site-file Do not read the site-wide profile at startup. This option also affects tilde-expansion: see the help for path. The default is to restore. --no-environ Do not read any user file to set environment variables.RData in the directory where R was started) should be restored at startup or not.. --help -h Print short help message to standard output and exit successfully. R installation puts everything (executables. Implies --no-save unless --save has been set. This is useful when running R from within Emacs using the ESS (“Emacs Speaks Statistics”) package. -e expression Use expression as an input line. --min-vsize= N --max-vsize= N 85 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .) RHOME Print the path to the R “home directory” to standard output and exit successfully. (There is a limit of 10. for more information. --save --no-save Control whether data sets should be saved or not at the end of the R session. ( --encoding enc is also accepted.expand . --vanilla Combine --no-save . Under Windows. Implies --no-save unless --save has been set.) --no-readline (UNIX only) Turn off command-line editing via readline .

This defaults to 10000. This is set by default to the smaller of 1. 86 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . or regular `kilo' (1000). Currently. meaning `Giga' (2^30). --max-ppsize= N Specify the maximum size of the pointer protection stack as N locations. N must either be an integer or an integer ending with ' G '.googleusercontent. Note that input and output can be redirected in the usual way (using ' < ' and ' > ').. possible values for type are ' X11 ' (the default) and.) --args This flag does nothing except cause the rest of the command line to be skipped: this can be useful to retrieve values from it with commandArgs(TRUE) . --slave Make R run as quietly as possible. (computer) `Kilo' (2^10). provided that ' Tcl/Tk ' support is available. and usually 56 bytes on a 64-bit machine. --gui= type -g type (UNIX only) Use type as graphical user interface (note that this also includes interactive graphics). --quiet --silent -q Do not print out the initial copyright and welcome messages. ' x11 ' and ' tk ' are accepted. further command line options are disregarded.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. See the previous option for details on N . -f or --file asserts non-interactive use even if --interactive is given. `Mega' (2^20). A cons cell takes 28 bytes on a 32-bit machine. ' K '. and in particular set R's option verbose to TRUE .) Using -e . Specify the minimum or maximum amount of memory used for variable size objects by setting the “vector heap” size to N bytes. Warning and error messages are sent to the error channel ( stderr ). --verbose Print more information about progress. --debugger= name -d name (UNIX only) Run R through debugger name . (For back-compatibility. and should instead be given when starting the R executable from inside the debugger.. including asserting interactive use without the command-line editor. (The default is to deduce that R is being run interactively if and only if stdin is connected to a terminal or pty . ' Tk '. It implies --quiet and --no-save . --ess (Windows only) Set Rterm up for use by R-inferior-mode in ESS . Currently the maximum value accepted is 100000. --min-nsize= N --max-nsize= N Specify the amount of memory used for fixed size objects by setting the number of “cons cells” to N .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. For most debuggers (the exceptions are valgrind and recent versions of gdb ).5Gb 24 and the amount of physical RAM in the machine. R code uses this option to control the printing of diagnostic messages. or ' k '. ' M '. --interactive (UNIX only) Assert that R really is being run interactively even if input has been redirected: use if input is from a FIFO or pipe and fed from an interactive program. but can be increased to allow large and complicated calculations to be done. This option is intended to support programs which use R to compute results for them. Here. but the line length limit of 4095 bytes still applies. --max-mem-size= N (Windows only) Specify a limit for the amount of memory to be used both for R objects and working areas. and must be between 32Mb and the maximum allowed on that version of Windows.

but not intended to be called “directly”. R. check Check add-on packages. Rd2pdf can be used as shorthand for Rd2dvi --pdf . Stangle Extract S/R code from Sweave documentation Sweave Process Sweave documentation Rdiff Diff R output ignoring headers etc config Obtain configuration information javareconf (Unix only) Update the Java configuration variables rtags (Unix only) Create Emacs-style tag files from C. including HTML . Rd2dvi Rd2pdf Convert Rd format to DVI/PDF. SHLIB Build shared library for dynamic loading. Rprof Post-process R profiling files. package) add-on packages.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. REMOVE Remove add-on packages.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. build Build (that is.. and extracting the examples. INSTALL Install add-on packages. BATCH Run R in batch mode.. 87 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . LINK (UNIX only) Front-end for creating executable programs. The command R CMD allows the invocation of various tools which are useful in conjunction with R. COMPILE (UNIX only) Compile files for use with R. LaTeX. Currently. the following tools are available. plain text. A forma geral é R CMD command args where command is the name of the tool and args the arguments passed on to it. and Rd files open (Windows only) Open a file via Windows' file associations texify (Windows only) Process (La)TeX files with R's style files Use R CMD command --help to obtain usage information for each of the tools accessible via the R CMD interface.googleusercontent. Rdconv Rd2txt Convert Rd format to various other formats. Rd2txt can be used as shorthand for Rd2conv -t txt .

If the named file does not exist it sets the working directory if the parent directory exists. . the home directory is taken to be the starting directory. Up: Invoking R B.sh or .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. Next: Invoking R under Mac OS X . including R_HOME . --mdi --sdi --no-mdi Control whether Rgui will operate as an MDI program (with multiple child windows within one main window) or an SDI application (with multiple top-level windows for the console.2 Invoking R under Windows There are two ways to run R under Windows.pl file. invoking by R. if the environment variable HOME is defined. Failing all those. (This mechanism is used for drag-and-drop and file association with RGui. BSTINPUTS and TEXINPUTS .exe . graphics and pager).exe or a more capable shell). R tries to find system defined home directories. there is a console-based GUI ( Rgui. TMP and TEMP are either unset or one of them points to a valid place to create temporary files and directories. but also works for Rterm. After those two user-controllable settings. You need to ensure that either the environment variables TMPDIR .sh or . but references to the `home directory' need to be clarified. .RData (in any case) it is interpreted as the path to the workspace to be restored: it implies --restore and sets the working directory to the parent of the named file. If the environment variable R_USER is defined. and trigger a break to the debugger during command line processing. Within a terminal window (eg cmd.Debug Enable the “Break to debugger” menu item in Rgui .) The following additional command-line options are available when invoking RGui. The startup procedure under Windows is very similar to that under UNIX..pl ) with several environment variables set appropriately. Previous: Invoking R from the command line . Under Windows cmd can be an executable or a batch file.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. R_OSTYPE . the methods described in the previous section may be used. if 88 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .exe .exe . Environment variables can be supplied as ' name = value ' pairs on the command line. For example. It will be run under the appropriate interpreter (Perl for . you can use R CMD cmd args for any other executable cmd on the path: this is useful to have the same environment as R or the specific commands run under. It first tries to use the Windows "personal" directory (typically C:\Documents and Settings\username\My Documents in Windows XP). or if it has extension . (These are principally intended for batch use.. PATH . In addition.googleusercontent. Next. and environment variables HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH are defined (and they normally are) these define the home directory. The command-line setting overrides the setting in the user's Rconsole file.exe ).pl the appropriate interpreter (if available) is called to run it. that gives the home directory. . If there is an argument ending . that gives the home directory.exe . for example to run ldd or pdflatex . Under Windows with R CMD you may also specify your own .exe or more directly by Rterm. If that fails.bat .exe .) For interactive use. as this is not always defined on Windows.

. The `home directory' is the one inside the R. 89 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . you already have latex.R arg1 arg2 and this can also be used to write executable script files like (at least on Unix-alikes.exe mydoc will run LaTeX on mydoc. and in some Windows shells) #! /path/to/Rscript args <.. (Unfortunately. with the path to R's share/texmf macros appended to TEXINPUTS . Within a Terminal.commandArgs(TRUE) . You can pass parameters to scripts via additional arguments on the command line: for example R CMD BATCH --args arg1 arg2 foo.4 Scripting with R If you just want to run a file foo. q(status=<exit status code>) If this is entered into a text file runfoo and this is made executable (by chmod 755 runfoo ). but the startup and current working directory are set as the user's home directory unless a different startup directory is given in the Preferences window accessible from within the GUI. and this can be redirected in the usual way for the shell running the command. but R CMD texify mydoc will work in that case. it can be invoked for different arguments by runfoo arg1 arg2 For further options see help("Rscript") . If you want to run this in the background or as a batch job use OS-specific facilities to do so: for example in most shells on Unix-alike OSes R CMD BATCH foo.R of R commands. It is a standard doubleclickable Mac OS X application..exe on your path. There is also console-based GUI ( R. Up: Invoking R B.R . Up: Invoking R B.app window by invoking R ..3 Invoking R under Mac OS X There are two ways to run R under Mac OS X. which can be invoked by Rscript foo.R & will pass arguments to a script which can be retrieved as a character vector by args <.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. the recommended way is to use R CMD BATCH foo.googleusercontent. then R CMD latex.R & runs a background job. this does not help with the MiKTeX build of LaTeX.commandArgs(TRUE) This is made simpler by the alternative front-end Rscript . Previous: Invoking R under Windows .com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.app ) that by default is installed in the Applications folder on your system.tex . Previous: Invoking R under Mac OS X . The startup procedure under Mac OS X is very similar to that under UNIX. This writes R output to stdout and stderr .framework. the methods described in the first subsection apply.) Next: Scripting with R .

28 3..70 2.70 and stdin() refers to the script file to allow such traditional usage.50 3.95 3. you could type <ESC><b>..80 2. Up: Top Appendix C The command-line editor C. such as Meta-b . Note that other versions of readline exist and may be used by the inbuilt command line editor: this used to happen on Mac OS X.70 3. Many of these use either Control or Meta characters. an inbuilt command line editor allowing recall..90 3. such as Control-m . and are written as Cm below.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.. are obtained by holding the <CTRL> down while you press the <m> key.. .40 3. When using R with readline capabilities.googleusercontent. Meta characters. and the file README. the #! mechanism does not allow extra arguments like #! /usr/bin/env Rscript --vanilla .37 3..exe . Windows versions of R have somewhat simpler command-line editing: see ' Console ' under the ' Help ' menu of the GUI . Control characters.40 3.50 2. At least in Bourne and bash shells. If you want to refer to the process's stdin .70 3.) .20 5. the functions described below are available.40 2.40 2.1 Preliminaries When the GNU readline library is available at the time R is configured for compilation under UNIX. to enter Mb .77 3.20 3.Rterm for command-line editing under Rterm. Previous: Invoking R . It can be disabled (useful for usage with ESS 25 ) using the startup option --no-readline . The ESC character sequences are also allowed on terminals 90 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . EOF but here stdin() refers to the program source and "stdin" will not be usable. you can still type Meta characters using two-character sequences starting with ESC ..com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.10 3.. use #! /usr/bin/env Rscript . are typed by holding down <META> 26 and pressing <b>.40 2.60 3. Another way to write executable script files (suggested by François Pinard) is to use a here document like #! / Bin / sh [environment variables can be set here] R --slave [other options] <<EOF R program goes here.scan(n=24) 2.03 3. Next: Function and variable index . Thus. and written as Mb in the following. It is commonplace to write R scripts with segments like chem <. Very short scripts can be passed to Rscript on the command-line via the -e flag.03 28. editing and re-submission of prior commands is used. If you do not wish to hardcode the path to Rscript but have it in your path (which is normally the case for an installed R except on Windows). eg scan("stdin". If your terminal does not have a <META> key enabled. use "stdin" as a file connection.70 2. One thing to consider is what stdin() refers to.

Mb Go back one word. Note that case is significant for Meta characters. Ce Go to the end of the line. you can also use the left and right arrow keys instead of Cb and Cf . Horizontal motion of the cursor Ca Go to the beginning of the command.. text Append text after the cursor. In Emacs-style command-line editing any straight typing you do while in this editing phase causes the characters to be inserted in the command you are editing. Cn Go to the next command (forwards in the history). Pressing the <RET> command at any time causes the command to be re-submitted. changed if necessary. respectively. including the erroneous lines. respectively. Cb Go back one character.googleusercontent. Cf. Mf Go forward one word. with real Meta keys. On most terminals. Editing and re-submission texto Cf Insert text at the cursor. characters are typed and insertion mode is finished by typing a further <ESC>.. and re-submitted as new commands. C. Other editing actions are summarized in the following table. and commands in your history may be recalled. <DEL> Cd Delete the character under the cursor.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. you can also use the up and down arrow keys instead of Cp and Cn . C.2 Editing actions The R program keeps a history of the command lines you type. Delete the previous character (left of the cursor). 91 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .3 Command-line editor summary Command recall and vertical motion Cp Go to the previous command (backwards in the history). displacing any characters to the right of the cursor.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. In vi mode character insertion mode is started by Mi or Ma . Cr text Find the last command with the text string in it. On most terminals. Go forward one character.

First : Customizing the environment . Up: Top Appendix D Function and variable index ! : Logical vectors != : Logical vectors %*% : Multiplication %o% : The outer product of two arrays & : Logical vectors && : Conditional execution * : Vector arithmetic + : Vector arithmetic . The readline key bindings can be customized in the usual way via a ~/. Ml Change the rest of the word to lower case. and “save” it..Last : Customizing the environment / : Vector arithmetic : : Generating regular sequences :: : Namespaces ::: : Namespaces < : Logical vectors <<.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. <RET> Re-submit the command to R. The final <RET> terminates the command line editing sequence. that is by including a section like $if R "\C-xd": "q('no')\n" $endif Next: Concept index .Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. and “save” it.inputrc file. Ck Delete from cursor to end of command. Md Delete the rest of the word under the cursor. Previous: The command-line editor .: Scope <= : Logical vectors == : Logical vectors > : Logical vectors >= : Logical vectors ? : Getting help ?? : Getting help ^ : Vector arithmetic abline : Low-level plotting commands 92 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Ct Transpose the character under the cursor with the next. Cy Insert (yank) the last “saved” text here.googleusercontent. : Updating fitted models .12. As from R 2. Mc Change the rest of the word to upper case..: Vector arithmetic . these customizations can be conditioned on application R .0.

set : Multiple graphics devices deviance : Generic functions for extracting model information diag : Multiplication dim : Arrays dotchart : Display graphics drop1 : Updating fitted models ecdf : Examining the distribution of a set of data edit : Editing data eigen : Eigenvalues and eigenvectors else : Conditional execution Error : Analysis of variance and model comparison example : Getting help 93 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .frame : Making data frames as.list : Multiple graphics devices dev..data.vector : The concatenation function c() with arrays attach : attach() and detach() attr : Getting and setting attributes attributes : Getting and setting attributes avas : Some non-standard models axis : Low-level plotting commands boxplot : One.next : Multiple graphics devices dev. ace : Some non-standard models add1 : Updating fitted models anova : ANOVA tables anova : Generic functions for extracting model information aov : Analysis of variance and model comparison aperm : Generalized transpose of an array array : The array() function as.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.googleusercontent.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.and two-sample tests break : Repetitive execution bruto : Some non-standard models C : Contrasts c : Concatenating lists c : The concatenation function c() with arrays c : Character vectors c : Vectors and assignment cbind : Forming partitioned matrices coef : Generic functions for extracting model information coefficients : Generic functions for extracting model information contour : Display graphics contrasts : Contrasts coplot : Displaying multivariate data cos : Vector arithmetic crossprod : Multiplication crossprod : Index matrices cut : Frequency tables from factors data : Accessing builtin datasets data.off : Multiple graphics devices dev.prev : Multiple graphics devices dev.frame : Making data frames density : Examining the distribution of a set of data det : Singular value decomposition and determinants detach : attach() and detach() determinant : Singular value decomposition and determinants dev..

Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.start : Getting help hist : Display graphics hist : Examining the distribution of a set of data identify : Interacting with graphics if : Conditional execution ifelse : Conditional execution image : Display graphics is.googleusercontent..search : Getting help help.nan : Missing values jpeg : Device drivers ks..com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. exp : Vector arithmetic F : Logical vectors factor : Factors FALSE : Logical vectors fivenum : Examining the distribution of a set of data for : Repetitive execution formula : Generic functions for extracting model information function : Writing your own functions getAnywhere : Object orientation getS3method : Object orientation glm : The glm() function help : Getting help help.na : Missing values is.test : Examining the distribution of a set of data legend : Low-level plotting commands length : The intrinsic attributes mode and length length : Vector arithmetic levels : Factors lines : Low-level plotting commands list : Lists lm : Linear models lme : Some non-standard models locator : Interacting with graphics loess : Some non-standard models log : Vector arithmetic lqs : Some non-standard models lsfit : Least squares fitting and the QR decomposition mars : Some non-standard models max : Vector arithmetic mean : Vector arithmetic methods : Object orientation min : Vector arithmetic mode : The intrinsic attributes mode and length NA : Missing values NaN : Missing values ncol : Matrix facilities next : Repetitive execution nlm : Maximum likelihood nlm : Least squares nlm : Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models nlme : Some non-standard models nlminb : Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models nrow : Matrix facilities optim : Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models 94 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .

table() function rep : Generating regular sequences repeat : Repetitive execution resid : Generic functions for extracting model information residuals : Generic functions for extracting model information rlm : Some non-standard models rm : Data permanency and removing objects scan : The scan() function sd : The function tapply() and ragged arrays search : Managing the search path seq : Generating regular sequences shapiro.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-...Uma Introdução ao R http://translate.test : Examining the distribution of a set of data sin : Vector arithmetic sink : Executing commands from or diverting output to a file solve : Linear equations and inversion sort : Vector arithmetic source : Executing commands from or diverting output to a file split : Repetitive execution sqrt : Vector arithmetic stem : Examining the distribution of a set of data step : Updating fitted models step : Generic functions for extracting model information sum : Vector arithmetic summary : Generic functions for extracting model information summary : Examining the distribution of a set of data svd : Singular value decomposition and determinants 95 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . order : Vector arithmetic ordered : Ordered factors outer : The outer product of two arrays pairs : Displaying multivariate data par : The par() function paste : Character vectors pdf : Device drivers persp : Display graphics plot : The plot() function plot : Generic functions for extracting model information pmax : Vector arithmetic pmin : Vector arithmetic png : Device drivers points : Low-level plotting commands polygon : Low-level plotting commands postscript : Device drivers predict : Generic functions for extracting model information print : Generic functions for extracting model information prod : Vector arithmetic qqline : Display graphics qqline : Examining the distribution of a set of data qqnorm : Display graphics qqnorm : Examining the distribution of a set of data qqplot : Display graphics qr : Least squares fitting and the QR decomposition quartz : Device drivers range : Vector arithmetic rbind : Forming partitioned matrices read.googleusercontent.table : The read.

Up: Top Appendix E Concept index Accessing builtin datasets : Accessing builtin datasets Additive models : Some non-standard models Analysis of variance : Analysis of variance and model comparison Arithmetic functions and operators : Vector arithmetic Arrays : Arrays Assignment : Vectors and assignment Attributes : Objects Binary operators : Defining new binary operators Box plots : One.. Previous: Function and variable index .test : One.test : One.test : One.and two-sample tests table : Frequency tables from factors table : Index matrices tan : Vector arithmetic tapply : The function tapply() and ragged arrays text : Low-level plotting commands title : Low-level plotting commands tree : Some non-standard models TRUE : Logical vectors unclass : The class of an object update : Updating fitted models var : The function tapply() and ragged arrays var : Vector arithmetic var.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate..and two-sample tests windows : Device drivers X11 : Device drivers | : Logical vectors || : Conditional execution ~ : Formulae for statistical models Next: References .googleusercontent.and two-sample tests Character vectors : Character vectors Classes : Object orientation Classes : The class of an object Concatenating lists : Concatenating lists Contrasts : Contrasts Control statements : Control statements CRAN : Contributed packages and CRAN Customizing the environment : Customizing the environment Data frames : Data frames Default values : Named arguments and defaults Density estimation : Examining the distribution of a set of data Determinants : Singular value decomposition and determinants Diverting input and output : Executing commands from or diverting output to a file Dynamic graphics : Dynamic graphics Eigenvalues and eigenvectors : Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 96 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . t : Generalized transpose of an array T : Logical vectors t.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.and two-sample tests vcov : Generic functions for extracting model information vector : Vectors and assignment while : Repetitive execution wilcox.

googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-.and two-sample tests Tabulation : Frequency tables from factors Tree-based models : Some non-standard models Updating fitted models : Updating fitted models 97 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 .and two-sample tests Ordered factors : Contrasts Ordered factors : Factors Outer products of arrays : The outer product of two arrays Packages : Packages Packages : R and statistics Probability distributions : Probability distributions QR decomposition : Least squares fitting and the QR decomposition Quantile-quantile plots : Examining the distribution of a set of data Reading data from files : Reading data from files Recycling rule : The recycling rule Recycling rule : Vector arithmetic Regular sequences : Generating regular sequences Removing objects : Data permanency and removing objects Robust regression : Some non-standard models Scope : Scope Search path : Managing the search path Shapiro-Wilk test : Examining the distribution of a set of data Singular value decomposition : Singular value decomposition and determinants Statistical models : Statistical models in R Student's t test : One..and two-sample tests : One.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Empirical CDFs : Examining the distribution of a set of data Factors : Contrasts Factors : Factors Families : Families Formulae : Formulae for statistical models Generalized linear models : Generalized linear models Generalized transpose of an array : Generalized transpose of an array Generic functions : Object orientation Graphics device drivers : Device drivers Graphics parameters : The par() function Grouped expressions : Grouped expressions Indexing of and by arrays : Array indexing Indexing vectors : Index vectors Kolmogorov-Smirnov test : Examining the distribution of a set of data Least squares fitting : Least squares fitting and the QR decomposition Linear equations : Linear equations and inversion Linear models : Linear models Lists : Lists Local approximating regressions : Some non-standard models Loops and conditional execution : Loops and conditional execution Matrices : Arrays Matrix multiplication : Multiplication Maximum likelihood : Maximum likelihood Missing values : Missing values Mixed models : Some non-standard models Named arguments : Named arguments and defaults Namespace : Namespaces Nonlinear least squares : Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models Object orientation : Object orientation Objects : Objects One..

Wilks (1988). Nonlinear Regression Analysis and Its Applications. Richard A.value before any other statements are executed. the action of c() is rather different. it is still available as . Statistical Models in S. [1] [2] [3] not inside strings. John M.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. The New S Language. such as list mode arguments. Chambers and Allan R. [4] [5] [6] of unlimited length. Nelder (1989). Chambers (1998) Programming with Data . London. [7] Actually. See Concatenating lists . Peter McCullagh and John A. Duxbury Press. London. An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models . Springer. New York. 25/02/2011 10:36 98 de 99 .. Belmont.Last. nor within the argument list of a function definition some of the consoles will not allow you to enter more. John M.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. Penguin. Annette J. Chapman & Hall. New York. SD Silvey (1970). Chapman & Hall. Bootstrap Methods and Their Applications . Chapman and Hall. John A. With other than vector types of argument. Cambridge University Press. collapse= ss ) joins the arguments into a single character string putting ss in between. Second edition. New York. There are more tools for character manipulation. This is also called the “ Green Book ”. Rice (1995). see the help for sub and substring . Generalized Linear Models.and two-sample tests Workspace : Data permanency and removing objects Writing functions : Writing your own functions Previous: Concept index . This is also called the “ White Book ”. Becker. The leading “dot” in this file name makes it invisible in normal file listings in UNIX. John M. Vectors : Simple manipulations numbers and vectors Wilcoxon test : One. Chapman and Hall. This book is often called the “ Blue Book ”. Dobson (1990). Chambers and Trevor J. AC Davison and DV Hinkley (1997). de Nova York. and amongst those which do some will silently discard the excess and some will use it as the start of the next line. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons.. Hastie eds.. [ 8 ] paste(. Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis. Notas de Rodapé For portable R code (including that to be used in R packages) only A–Za–z0–9 should be used.googleusercontent. Statistical Inference. London... CA. Up: Top Appendix F References DM Bates and DG Watts (1988). (1992).

3. so the scalar x'x is in this case the result. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Readers should note that there are eight states and territories in Australia.5Gb on some 64-bit versions of Windows. [9] numeric mode is actually an amalgam of two distinct modes. since arguments are coerced to factors when necessary (using as. and this is true for quite a few other functions. Victoria and Western Australia. [ 15 ] Note that x %*% x is ambiguous.. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] In general. The matrix xx' may be calculated either by cbind(x) %*% x or x %*% rbind(x) since the result of rbind() or cbind() is always a matrix. the best way to compute x'x or xx' is crossprod(x) or x %o% x respectively. Under UNIX.factor() ). Note however that length( object ) does not always contain intrinsic useful information. See also the methods described in Statistical models in R In some sense this mimics the behavior in S-PLUS since in S-P LUS this operator always creates or assigns to a global variable. or use xyplot from package lattice . A different style using `formal' or `S4' classes is provided in package methods . South Australia. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] 2. coercion from numeric to character and back again will not be exactly reversible. eg. In such cases the smaller matrix seems implicitly to be the interpretation adopted..5Gb on versions of Windows that support 3Gb per process and have the support enabled: see the rw-FAQ Q2. to be discussed later.Uma Introdução ao R http://translate. the utilities Sed or Awk can be used. ' tapply(incomes. when object is a function. However. The `Emacs Speaks Statistics' package. as explained in the manual.org On a PC keyboard this is usually the Alt key. perhaps using the Cholesky or eigendecomposition of A. Queensland. [ 22 ] So it is hidden under UNIX.R-project. eg.9. occasionally the `Windows' key.googleusercontent. namely the Australian Capital Territory. state) '. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] 99 de 99 25/02/2011 10:36 . Even better would be to form a matrix square root B with A = BB' and find the squared length of the solution of By = x. New South Wales.com/translate_c?hl=pt-BR&ie=UTF-. [ 14 ] Note that tapply() also works in this case when its second argument is not a factor. see the URL http://ESS. as it could mean either x'x or x x'. namely integer and double precision. because of roundoff errors in the character representation. Tasmania. where x is the column form. the Northern Territory. Some graphics parameters such as the size of the current device are for information only. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] See the on-line help for autoload for the meaning of the second term.