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Child abuse
Child abuse is an immense problem that does require immediate help provided to the
child Irom the side oI specialists. Once a teacher gets an allegation oI abuse Irom a child, he
must not require a written statement Irom the child or must not make the child repeat the
allegation in Iront oI other teachers or adult people. The teacher must not wait until the end oI
the school day, but report immediately by the means oI telephone and support it with a written
report within the next 36 hours. The teacher takes individual responsibility Ior the report, so it
cannot be done anonymously. Both the telephone and the written report are subjects oI certain
legal procedures. The telephone report should include detailed inIormation about the person
making the report and detailed inIormation about the child, suspected oI being a victim oI abuse:
location, special needs, injury, ect. AIterwards all the details must be repeated by the contact
person and approved by the reporting teacher. By no means a teacher should contact the child`s
parents and a teacher should not make an investigation.
The next step aIter the telephone report is the written report. A Iax report is an
interchangeable Iorm oI a written report, required by the 'Department oI Children and Family
Services. The written reports are made through the Iorms: SS 8572 or SS 8572(2), reporting the
Iact oI child abuse and by the Iorm DOJ 900, which is a medical report. Copies should be made
and saved by the reporter Ior Iurther organizational process. Generally all the Iorms iI needed are
provided by the child protective agency.
All the inIormation in the Iorms must be Iull and as objective as possible. They require
detailed inIormation about the liIe oI the child, his needs and other inIormation. A personal
Argumentative essay

opinion oI the reporter has no legal value. The inIormation oI both written and telephone report
is conIidential. This conIidentiality in case oI its violation may result in 6 month oI jail, Ior the
person violating it.
The teacher may Ieel Iree to contact the child protective agency Ior any questions that
may occur throughout the process oI reporting the abuse or neglect. The identiIying inIormation
provided by the reporting teacher should be clear. The teacher is completely responsible Ior any
inIormation that he conceals, including the name oI the possible perpetrator Irom the contact
person. The response and the actions oI the child protective agency Iollowing the reports may
have a wide range. The teacher has to be ready in case the parent requests details about the
reasons the child abuse report was made. Only a small amount oI people have access to the
report details and they always are designated reporters such as CARE Program SCAN Team
The main role oI the teacher is to make the report legally right, according to the local
abuse-reporting plan. Any illegal action, incorrect inIormation that does not coincide with the
reality and is subjective attitude is a law violation and the teacher takes responsibility Ior Ialse

1opic sentences
5upportinq sentences
conc/udinq sentences

1oplc seoteocesChlld abuse ls an
lmmense problem LhaL does
requlre lmmedlaLe help provlded
Lo Lhe chlld from Lhe slde of
5upportinq sentences @he Leacher
musL noL walL unLll Lhe end of Lhe
school day buL reporL lmmedlaLely
by Lhe means of Lelephone and
supporL lL wlLh a wrlLLen reporL
wlLhln Lhe nexL hours
1oplc seoteoces@he nexL sLep afLer
Lhe Lelephone reporL ls Lhe wrlLLen
5upportinq sentences Coples
should be made and saved by Lhe
reporLer for furLher organlzaLlonal
1oplc seoteocesAll Lhe lnformaLlon
ln Lhe forms musL be full and as
ob[ecLlve as posslble
5upportinq sentences@hey requlre
deLalled lnformaLlon abouL Lhe llfe
of Lhe chlld hls needs and oLher
1oplc seoteoces@he Leacher may
feel free Lo conLacL Lhe chlld
proLecLlve agency for any quesLlons
LhaL may occur LhroughouL Lhe
process of reporLlng Lhe abuse or
5upportinq sentences
@he Leacher ls compleLely
responslble for any lnformaLlon LhaL
he conceals lncludlng Lhe name of
Lhe posslble perpeLraLor from Lhe
conLacL person
Child abuse
Concludlng senLences @he maln role of Lhe Leacher ls Lo make Lhe reporL legally rlghL accordlng Lo
Lhe local abusereporLlng plan

!sychological and biological theories of crime in criminology
Criminology is not an old science; nevertheless it is possible to say that the steps oI its
creation started long beIore its oIIicial deIinition as a science. The necessity oI this science is
especially high nowadays when, the level oI crime has risen immensely in every corner oI the
planet. The attempt to explain the human behaviour has already become a priority Ior many
scientists all over the world. The rich socio-historical experience oI the humanity in the past
gives an additional opportunity Ior adequate understanding oI modern criminology and the
problems solved by the given branch oI knowledge. Criminology had several Iactors that
especially inIluenced its development. These Iactors provide a lot oI back up inIormation Ior a
better understanding oI criminology and its possibilities.

Criminology is a socially-legal interdisciplinary science and an integral part oI
legislation. As it has been already mentioned, the beginning oI the existence oI criminology as a
separate science started in the middle oI the XIX century. Its start is strongly associated with the
works oI a Iamous criminologist Cesar Lombroso. Criminology as a science has a list oI primary
problems that it is to solve. The Iirst one to mention is the analytical problem which lies in the
detailed researched oI the phenomenon oI criminality, its general condition and the
categorization oI all the existing criminal maniIestations. So thereIore criminology provides a
correct 'picture oI the present criminal situation in any given geographical location. Other
problems include the prognosis oI the potential criminal situation, the prevention oI criminality
and the determination oI the causes and the consequences oI crime. One oI the most important
criminological issues oI the new era is the designation oI the crime determinants .The biological
theories primarily study the physical constitution and endocrinology. They are a bright example
oI the theories that has not really got any practical support. The misunderstanding oI these
theories has caused a stereotype that iI a person is a criminal then he was born as a criminal and
any steps taken in order to change or to inIluence them are useless. Biological theories are only a
Descriptive essay

part and one the interpretation oI criminality but not the only. In the present time there is no
assertive evidence oI the Iact, that the physical constitution and other biological Iactors cause
Nevertheless, these theories have a right to exist and there was a lot oI important
inIormation that was used in terms oI the development oI criminology as a science. The most
vivid example oI the biological determinism is the theory oI Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso based
his theory on the assumption that criminals have certain physiognomic Ieatures or abnormalities.
Lombroso wanted to be able to detect Iuture criminals in order to isolate them Irom the society.
This gave criminology a strong push to create new methods oI dealing with criminals and
prevent crimes. All the biological theories are based on the notion that biological markers
Ioreordain criminal behaviour. The core oI all these theories is that genetic Iactors or any
abnormalities which are inherited or acquired throughout the liIe, predispose individuals to the
criminal behaviour. Lombroso`s theory gave liIe to probably almost every single biological
theory that appeared aIterward. The main idea oI the psychological theories is that potential
criminal behaviour is the result oI stable psychological trait oI a person. These personality
characteristics are he ones to push people towards committing crimes and demonstrating deviant
behaviour. The psychological theories emphasize the meaning oI extraversion, neuroticism,
psychotisism and may others oI the conduct oI a man. According to the psychological theories
the disposition to crime is the result oI inadequate socialization. They consider the social Iactor
to be one oI the most important ones in terms oI inclination to deviance. Bandura in his
psychological social learning or also known as the social learning theory states: 'Learning would
be exceedingly laborious.iI people had to rely solely on the eIIects oI their own actions to
inIorm them what to do. Irom observing others one Iorms an idea oI how new behaviours are
perIormed, and on later occasions this coded inIormation serves as a guide Ior action |Bandura,
22|. Bandura claimed that modelling plays the most important role in the behaviour Iormation.
Kohlberg`s theory oI moral development is based on the thoughts revealed in the works oI Jean
Piaget. According to Kohlberg every individual passed six stages throughout his development as
a personality. Each oI the stages belongs to a deIinite level, so Kohlberg marked out three
levels: pre-conventional level, conventional level and the post-conventional level. Each oI the

three levels has is own social orientation. The diapason oI the social orientations varies Irom
obedience and punishment, and ends up with principled conscience. All these theories mentioned
above require socialization and without it no morality can be achieved by any means. No
morality is a guarantee oI the Iuture anti-social criminal behaviour. The psychological theories in
criminology in he modern times are the major hope to cope with the ever-lasting problem oI
crime prevention. Psychology has given these theories and supported them various widely
known experiments. This makes the contribution oI the psychological theories to the criminology
as a discipline immense and irreplaceable. These psychological theories give an opportunity Ior
the Iuture adults spend their lives decently and deIinitely not in jail.

Contemporary theories are a combination oI both biological and social Iactors, as one
cannot go without the other. Every individual socializes and the social Iactor should be given the
proper attention it deserves. The best theory or approach towards the possible explanation oI the
causes oI crime and the personality oI the criminals lies in the union oI the most well-grounded
parts oI each oI the theories. It is evident Irom our essay that both oI the groups oI theories have
made a signiIicant contribution into the development oI the criminology as a discipline, because
the biological theories represent the Ioundation Ior all the Iollowing theories which nowadays
create the basics oI the modern criminology. It cannot under any condition be said that one or
another theory is more or less important because they have been developed separately all the
time; and this was the major problem oI criminology.
At the present moment criminology has gathered aspects Irom diIIerent theories in order to
analyze, explain, predict and prevent deviant conduct.

Criminology has come to the point where the contribution oI both oI the groups oI
theories is vital due to the Iact that they all work Ior one purpose to eliminate crime in the
society and create a better world Ior the Iuture generations. It goes without saying that the
scientiIically signiIicance oI the biological theories has lost credit; nevertheless these theories
should not be Iorgotten. II people do not know their pas they will not ever know heir Iuture. The
same works Ior the theories. Only owing to their contribution into his science, criminology has
become as proIessional as it has never been beIore.

1opic sentences
5upportinq sentences
conc/udinq sentences

1oplc seoteocesCrlmlnology ls noL an
old sclence neverLheless lL ls posslble
Lo say LhaL Lhe sLeps of lLs creaLlon
sLarLed long before lLs offlclal
deflnlLlon as a sclence
5upportinq sentences @he rlch soclo
hlsLorlcal experlence of Lhe humanlLy
ln Lhe pasL glves an addlLlonal
opporLunlLy for adequaLe
undersLandlng of modern crlmlnology
and Lhe problems solved by Lhe glven
branch of knowledge
1oplc seoteocesCrlmlnology ls a
soclallylegal lnLerdlsclpllnary sclence
and an lnLegral parL of leglslaLlon
5upportinq sentences lLs sLarL ls
sLrongly assoclaLed wlLh Lhe works of a
famous crlmlnologlsL Cesar Lombroso
Crlmlnology as a sclence has a llsL of
prlmary problems LhaL lL ls Lo solve
1oplc seoteocesneverLheless Lhese
Lheorles have a rlghL Lo exlsL and Lhere
was a loL of lmporLanL lnformaLlon
LhaL was used ln Lerms of Lhe
developmenL of crlmlnology as a
5upportinq sentences@hls gave
crlmlnology a sLrong push Lo creaLe
new meLhods of deallng wlLh crlmlnals
and prevenL crlmes
1oplc seoteocesConLemporary
Lheorles are a comblnaLlon of boLh
blologlcal and soclal facLors as one
cannoL go wlLhouL Lhe oLher
5upportinq sentences
@he besL Lheory or approach
Lowards Lhe posslble explanaLlon of
Lhe causes of crlme and Lhe
personallLy of Lhe crlmlnals lles ln
Lhe unlon of Lhe mosL wellgrounded
parLs of each of Lhe Lheorles
!sychological and biological
theories of crime in criminology
Concludlng senLences Cr|m|no|ogy has come to the po|nt where the contr|but|on of both of
the groups of theor|es |s v|ta| due to the fact that they a|| work for one purpose to
e||m|nate cr|me |n the soc|ety and create a better wor|d for the future generat|ons

Effects of alcohol on the human body
Alcohol is not the last one in the list oI these destructive substances. It is the
'companion oI any signiIicant event occurring in the liIe oI modern people or even an everyday
way to relax and get away Irom all the diIIiculties. People relax and Iorget that they are supposed
to think not only about their health but also about the health oI the people around them. This
especially concerns women, as they are the ones to deliver the next generation into the world. A
woman`s organism is a lot more inIluenced by any external chemical inIluences and alcohol
becoming woman`s Irequent 'companion becomes a real threat Ior the health oI the nation. The
contemporary medical world is very much concerned with the Iemale alcohol abuse phenomenon
and the appearance oI a group oI inclinations that both Iemale and male abusers experience.
Alcohol abuse is the giant problem, which needs to be Iixed desperately. It is very important to
understand its nature and the possible eIIects that it can make to the human body.
Some people start being exposed to alcohol during their Ietal development and thereIore
suIIer throughout their whole lives sometimes not even having a small hope to Iind their places
in the world and not being even 'comparatively independent. They cannot concentrate, talk too
much and are not capable oI making proper decisions. Such people are completely helpless and
unprotected. The outcomes oI alcohol abuse Ior the body are severe. Alcohol or sometimes
called ethanol is a volatile liquid can easily burn oxidizes and is composed oI oxygen, hydrogen
and carbon, having the Iormula oI C2H5OH. Alcohol inIluenced the whole human body, even
including the central nervous system and the brain oI a man. AIter the process oI drinking
alcohol people start Ieeling pleasure and more open to the outer world. Nevertheless, even
though the person Ieels comIortable and more selI-conIident the most dangerous thing is oIten
Iorgotten alcohol`s side eIIects. II a person drinks large amounts oI alcohol in a very small
period oI time it may result in the person`s brain being suppressed by the chemicals and lead to a
Iatality. II the amount oI alcohol in a human body is exceeding a person can die in his sleep,
because the body will not have enough resources to cope with the suppression. It is also
extremely dangerous to combine alcohol with other chemical substances.

Expository essay

The changes that occur in the human organism Ior the reason oI alcohol abuse are terrible. The
whole body is damaged and the person stops being able to either move and think properly. The
eIIect oI alcohol throughout the period oI human`s liIe is immense and even the lesser amount oI
alcohol may cause some changes. These destructive processes, which occur inside the organism,
cause irreparable damage that it made on the genetic level. Even 'social drinking causes
changes in intellectual and behavior activity oI children |2|. Heavy abuse, causing disorders has
nowadays become unbelievably widespread. All this changes throughout the period the
development oI the alcohol dependency cause mental disabilities and severe changes in the
human body.
Alcohol also oIten causes serious weight problem.As a Iact, alcohol prevents people Irom
consuming healthy Iood on a regular basis and it direct inIluences the heart oI a drinker. This is
one oI the primary reasons why people who preIer to drink alcohol can experience a heart
Iailure. Another part oI the body that is directly damaged by alcohol is the liver. This is primarily
due to the Iact that it is liver that works the most to 'clean the organism Irom the chemicals in
alcohol. When alcohol get to the blood oI a person rather oIten, the blood in its turn damages the
process oI Iunctioning oI the liver cells and some oI them start dying. The majority oI people do
not keep in mind the Iact that even a one-time alcohol abuse makes the liver cells die, but it is the
body oI the person, who is not an alcohol heavy drinker, still has time to recuperate Irom the
damage. In case the person drinks alcohol on a regular base the liver becomes weaker and
weaker Irom day to day.
One other important physical sphere that is seriously damaged is the reproductive system
oI a human body. The reason oI this type oI dysIunction is that alcohol deprives the impulses that
the nerves pass, and especially those that cause ability to erect, as Ior men. Women alcohol abuse
it on oI the Iirst to be prevented as the Ietus changes negatively and a lot oI disabled children are
born into to the world. Females metabolize alcohol very quickly and this is the primary cause oI
their necessity to abstain Irom alcohol. Alcohol also inIluences the person`s ability to perceive
sounds and the direction they are coming out Irom. The taste and smell are lost and the speech
becomes unclear. As alcohol constantly burns the throat oI the drinker in may result in severe
pain, vomiting and even cancer. The body itselI starts being very weak, the muscles suIIer Irom
atrophy, pain and spasms. II a person constantly abuses alcohol it will eventually lead to a set oI

permanent transIormations in the brain morphology. One oI the most signiIicant transIormations
concerns the reduction oI the total amount oI brain tissue and the growing size oI the ventricles.
The basic reason the body stops being able to produce brain tissue to cope with the chemical is
because it lacks natural vitamins that a healthy body produces. Another reason because the body
is deprived oI vitamins is that alcohol abusers oIten experience a problem oI systematic eating
and do not consume Iood at the required time, making the body weak and unable to resist the
alcohol eIIects. As the brain oI a person under alcohol dependency does not have enough
vitamins it turns out to be the Iirst step to the beginning oI mental retardation.Alcohol does not
let the brain properly control the maniIestations oI the body, as the central nervous system
becomes damaged through the depression oI the nerve cells in the brain. The cells cannot
respond to the impulses and a group oI body Iunction Iailures appear: anesthesia, respiratory
Iailure, coma and death .As alcohol destroys the central nervous system the drinker experiences
impaired visual abilities, loss oI pain perception, slow reactions, impaired motor skills, altered
perception oI time and space and many others.
The consumption oI alcohol beverages has strongly entered the tradition oI celebration
any signiIicant events in the liIe oI people.. The consequences oI the alcohol abuse do not
decrease with time, though speciIic maniIestations change when doses oI drinking become
smaller. These Iactors prevent people Irom proper social adaptation and thereIore make their liIe
incomplete. Social impracticability oI people suIIering Irom the alcohol abuse is one oI major
problems oI the contemporary medical society. And the only way to solve this problem is to
prevent people Irom drinking alcohol in any amounts. There is no cure a better than alcohol

1opic sentences
conc/udinq sentences
5upportinq sentences

1oplc seoteocesAlcohol ls noL Lhe
lasL one ln Lhe llsL of Lhese
desLrucLlve subsLances
5upportinq sentences eople
relax and forgeL LhaL Lhey are
supposed Lo Lhlnk noL only abouL
Lhelr healLh buL also abouL Lhe
healLh of Lhe people around Lhem
1oplc seoteocesSome people sLarL
belng exposed Lo alcohol durlng
Lhelr feLal developmenL and
Lherefore suffer LhroughouL Lhelr
whole llves
5upportinq sentences@he
ouLcomes of alcohol abuse for Lhe
body are severe Alcohol or
someLlmes called eLhanol ls a
volaLlle llquld can easlly burn
oxldlzes and ls composed of oxygen
hydrogen and carbon havlng Lhe
formula of C3C
1oplc seoteocesAlcohol also ofLen
causes serlous welghL problem
5upportinq sentences When
alcohol geL Lo Lhe blood of a
person raLher ofLen Lhe blood ln
lLs Lurn damages Lhe process of
funcLlonlng of Lhe llver cells and
some of Lhem sLarL dylng
1oplc seoteocesCne oLher
lmporLanL physlcal sphere LhaL ls
serlously damaged ls Lhe
reproducLlve sysLem of a human
5upportinq sentences
Women alcohol abuse lL on of Lhe
flrsL Lo be prevenLed as Lhe feLus
changes negaLlvely and a loL of
dlsabled chlldren are born lnLo Lo
Lhe world
ffects of alcohol on the human body

Concluding sentences: %he consumption of alcohol beverages has strongly entered the
tradition of celebration any significant events in the life of people.

HeaIthfuI Eating
f society would incorporate healthful eating as a way of life, it will eliminate
obesity and a number of disease associated with n my opinion that's a lot, that is why
have decided to write an expository essay about healthful eating. As adults we set the
guidelines for our children, so it is up to us to prevent childhood obesity as well. f we
prevent a child from becoming obese than we have essentially prevented a child from
becoming an obese adult. Would disease and obesity be eliminated or reduced in
number by healthy eating? Let's look at what the benefits are; first off eating healthy is
probably the easiest way and most important way in which you can keep active and
shield yourself from the many diseases that are now common as we grow older
including heart disease and diabetes. Eating healthy you are boosting your energy
levels, improving your bodily functions, and helping to improve your immune system.
There are vitamins and minerals in healthy foods which can boost your immune
system and shield you from many common illnesses. n some cases by eating a healthy
diet you can actually reduce the risks that are often linked with such serious diseases as
cancer and diabetes. n an article by; Linda Bruton website The
5 key benefits of eating healthy. She mentions that you will enjoy life more and have
more energy to face the tasks before you. Also she states; healthy eating can reduce
your stress levels combine this with daily exercise and you will increase this effect even
more. You will sleep better and be more rested when you wake up. Also if you are
currently overweight you will be able to lose that weight more easily and maintain it long
term! Because most people who lose weight with fad diets gain it right back again.
Expository essay

When they go back to their normal eating patterns, if you incorporate healthful eating as
of way a life you will lose that weight as well as maintain it long term. When eating
healthy you can manage your weight and pass it down to your children and you could
see healthier happier children, and teenage obesity could become a thing of the past.
For those reasons alone society should want to start eating healthier. Don't you think?
Really once you implement a healthful eating you will start reaping these rewards and
the benefits of eating healthy will continue to reward you for the rest of your life.
You can check out this website http:// www. if you want to
discover delicious alternatives you never knew could be healthy for you. f you check it
out the sooner you'll learn that healthy eating everyday does not mean time consuming
menu preparation or boring meals. Eating healthy does not have to be one big
vegetable bore. You can meet your daily nutritional needs, your daily food intake should
include some amounts of grain, fruit, vegetables, milk(or other daily product)beans oils
and proteins, because these are just a few foods that have vitamins and minerals to
help have and maintain an healthy immune system.
Always remember if we take care of our bodies are bodies will take care of us.
So let's be more conscious of what we put in our bodies because the lives we save will
definitely be our owns as well as our children!


1oplc seoteocessocleLy would lncorporaLe
healLhful eaLlng as a way of llfe lL wlll
ellmlnaLe obeslLy and a number of dlsease
assoclaLed wlLh ln my oplnlon LhaL's a loL
LhaL ls why l have declded Lo wrlLe an
exposlLory essay abouL healLhful eaLlng
5upportinq sentences eople relax and
forgeL LhaL Lhey are supposed Lo Lhlnk noL
only abouL Lhelr healLh buL also abouL Lhe
healLh of Lhe people around LhemLaLlng
healLhy you are boosLlng your energy
levels lmprovlng your bodlly funcLlons and
helplng Lo lmprove your lmmune sysLem
1oplc seoteoces@here are vlLamlns
and mlnerals ln healLhy foods whlch
can boosL your lmmune sysLem and
shleld you from many common
5upportinq sentenceshealLhy
eaLlng can reduce your sLress levels
comblne Lhls wlLh dally exerclse and
you wlll lncrease Lhls effecL even
more ?ou wlll sleep beLLer and be
more resLed when you wake up
1oplc seoteoceseaLlng healLhy you can
manage your welghL and pass lL down Lo
your chlldren and you could see healLhler
happler chlldren and Leenage obeslLy
could become a Lhlng of Lhe pasL
5upportinq sentenceseally once you
lmplemenL a healLhful eaLlng you wlll sLarL
reaplng Lhese rewards and Lhe beneflLs of
eaLlng healLhy wlll conLlnue Lo reward you
for Lhe resL of your llfe
1oplc seoteocesLaLlng healLhy does
noL have Lo be one blg vegeLable
5upportinq sentences
?ou can meeL your dally nuLrlLlonal
needs your dally food lnLake should
lnclude some amounLs of graln frulL
vegeLables mllk(or oLher dally
producL)beans olls and proLelns
because Lhese are [usL a few foods
LhaL have vlLamlns and mlnerals Lo
help have and malnLaln an healLhy
lmmune sysLem
Concluding sentences: Always remember if we take care of our bodies are bodies will
take care of us. So let`s be more conscious of what we put in our bodies because the lives
we save will definitely be our owns as well as our children!

ealthful eating


essie Head
The world described in this story is exceedingly remote Irom the experience oI
the modern student. It is a tribal village society, rooted Iirmly in the earth and sustained by
Iamily ties and a shared view oI liIe. Students these days typically come Irom nuclear Iamilies
or, increasingly, Irom one-parent Iamilies in urban settings. The extended Iamily oI this story
will probably seem as Ioreign to such students as the ox plough or the wild bush setting.
But despite its exotic setting, 'Looking Ior a Rain God is quite similar in a
number oI ways to another story in this anthologyWilliam Faulkner`s 'A Rose Ior Emily.
Although at Iirst glance so diIIerent, these stories both describe a Iamily-oriented,
homogeneous society which tries to come to terms with a monstrous act committed by one oI
its respected elders. Teachers might anticipate the cry that the Bessie Head story is irrelevant
to contemporary liIe by pairing it with Faulkner`s account oI Emily Grierson.
One oI the triumphs oI the story is the way Bessie Head evokes this society by
her use oI speciIic details. Students might be asked to list some oI the details which create
patterns in the story: the centrality oI Iamily, the reliance on Iarming, the dependence on
water. These details combine and reinIorce one another in the narrative to create a unity oI
tone which is highly expressive oI the integration oI the society described. Paradoxically, the
very homogeneity oI this tradition-directed culture creates a setting in which human sacriIice
is possible.
Much oI the power oI the story derives Irom the contrast between the neutrality
oI the telling and the horror oI the act described. The manner oI the narrator has much in
common with tales like 'The Frog Prince and 'The Blue Jar, both included in this

anthology. In each oI these stories the omniscient narrator adopts a disinterested tone that
allows the story to speak Ior itselI. In 'Looking Ior a Rain God the narrator seems almost
numbed by the tale, a response many readers may Ieel is more eIIective than, say, the outrage
or revulsion which might have been anticipated. The story illustrates what we mean when we
talk oI 'unspeakable crimes.
The treatment oI the children`s role in the story is equally objective and equally
powerIul. Whether their innocent mimicry oI their parents provokes their murder is evidently
unknown to the narrator and, Ior that matter, perhaps unknown to the parents. In any event,
the author adds to the impact oI her story by leaving the connection, and its appalling
implications, to the imagination oI each reader. Readers may Ieel that the narrator`s
explanation'It was really the two women who caused the death oI the little girldoes not
do justice to the moral complexity oI the tale.
Students might be asked whether the introduction oI the time oI this eventthe
year 1958strengthens or weakens the story. Some may argue that the precise date makes the
horriIic event more real while others may Ieel that the date particularizes and thus limits the
universality oI the theme. As in the case oI Iairy tales, the Iact that a story exists in an
indeterminate past oIten endows it with a greater realism.
This anthology contains a brieI essay by Bessie Head, 'Let me Tell a Story Now
. . . It serves to introduce a writer not widely known in the United States. And it provides a
context Ior 'Looking Ior a Rain God, presenting as it does another perspective on her world.


The Introduction or Opening Stage (Exposition):
The story unfolds with the description of the land which is fertile and rich
before 1958. The people enjoy the fertile land and water is available at
various places for them to quench their thirst. The land is filled with trees,
flowing plants and vegetations. Wild figs and berries are available to be
plucked as and when the needs arise.

But all this changes after 1958, as a seven-year drought hits the land. The
landscape, which looks green and fertile, changes forms to become an open
dry-land and the places providing water vanish. The land transforms into
thorny bushes, withering trees and the grounds are barren. The seven-year
drought changes everything, rain becomes a rarity.

The Rising Action Stage
The people experience the real torture of drought. With no rain the air
becomes dry and moisture-less, burning the skin. There is no way of
escaping from the intense heat. The people hope for a good down pour, but
only slight rain comes in November. It helps loosen up the earth and then
!lot of Looking for 1he Rain Cod


the rain is gone. The sun is cruel and each day passes with the sun sucking
up the moisture from the earth and leaves it moisture-less.

Mokgobja, Ramadi, Tiro and Nesta are affected by the prolonged dry spell.
They feel despair and become desperate with the fear of starvation and the
rain not falling. The emotional intensity builds and the womenfolk let out the
signs of coming to their breaking-point. The men are affected by the wailing
and actions of the two women

Mokgobja recalls an ancient act to make the rain fall. He manages to
convince the others of the effect of the ritual and rain will fall. The others
agree with him.
They perform the ritual and the two children are sacrificed. Their bodies are
spread across the land.

The Faing Action Stage
There is still no rain. At night there is total silence. During the day, the sun
reigns to blaze and devour heat. The family decides to return to the village.
The villagers suspect something is wrong as the two girls are missing. The
family tells them that the two girls have died. However, the villagers are not
convinced as it is not possible for the two deaths to occur at the same time.

The police question the family members. The mother of the two children is
not able to hold on any more and tells the truth. They have sacrificed the
two little girls to the rain god.

The osure or Ending
Ramadi and Mokgobja are both charged and sentenced to death for
committing ritual murder. They have to face the consequences of their

The Structure of the Story (PLOT)


ercise 1 ( 1 )
a) A consumer can save a lot oI money by shopping wisely.
b) In other words, the wise consumer does his research and makes a plan so that
he knows what he is looking Ior.
c) This means he is always looking Ior the sales and collecting coupons, but it
also means the person is not a compulsive shopper.
d) He is not tempted by attractive products that are not necessary.
e) Sometimes he goes home without purchasing anything.
I) He might think he wasted his time but he knows he did not waste his money.
g) In conclusion, a wise shopper Iinds ways to save money on the price and to
avoid buying what he does not need.

ercise 1 ( 2 )
a) There are three reasons why Malaysia is one oI the best countries in Asia.
b) First, Malaysia has excellent weather.
c) All year round, the temperature hovers around 30C - 33C.
d) Second, Malaysia has a wide range oI cuisine.
e) They Irequently open their homes to Iriends and relatives.
I) Finally, the people oI Malaysia are Iriendly, gentle, helpIul and hospitable.
g) Visitors simply enjoy the Chinese, Malay, and Indian Iood.
h) In conclusion, Malaysia is not only a desirable place to visit but also a good place to
live in.


&se the following topics to write a paragraph.
1. Computer are popular in oIIices and homes because oI their multiple uses. Young people
are most likely to use a computer Ior social networking, playing games, and watching
videos. Ten percent report reading magazines or newspapers online. Nether less it`s all
Iinancial transactions are done by computer soItware. They provide security, speed and
convenience. Almost all the computers in the world. can browse through much more
inIormation than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous
amounts oI inIormation. It very Iast and convenient access to inIormation. Through E-
Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands oI miles away in seconds.
There is chat soItware that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis.

2. Reading books in English can improve your language proIiciency. When people read,
they usually use "correct" English with a proper grammatical structure. This is not always
true when people speak. So, by reading you see and learn grammatical English naturally.
We will usually encounter new words when you read. II there are too many new words to
learn, then the level is too high and you should read something simpler. But iI there are,
say, a maximum oI Iive new words per page, it might help learnt the vocabulary easily.
Readers may not even need to use a dictionary because you can guess the meaning Irom
the rest oI the text Not only do you learn new words, but you see them being used

3. Doing housework can both be Iun and tedious. Think to yourselI oI something that you
really want and tell yourselI that you can have it once your housework done. This can
give you something to think about and work towards. This always makes housework go a
lot Iaster and it rewards you. Not only do you get your incentive, you also get to come
home to a sparkling clean house. It is tedious and time consuming but it is something that
has to be done by trying tips to make housework not only easier, they can even be Iun.