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PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS

VOL 53

SEPTEMBER 23, 1938

NO. 38

STUDIES ON DENTAL CARIES
VIL SEX DIFFERENCES IN DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN1 By HENRY KLEIN, Associate Dental Officer, and CARROLL E. PALMER, Passed Assistant Surgeon, United States Public Health Service
INTRODUCTION

Data available in the literature (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) clearly indicate that girls have more dental caries experience (greater number of permanent teeth decayed, missing, or filled)2 at the same chronological age and erupt their permanent teeth at an earlier chronological age than boys. The first of these findings would appear to suggest that girls have a higher susceptibility to attack by caries. Before such a conclusion may be accepted, however, it is desirable to inquire to what extent the earlier time of eruption of the teeth in girls affects or determines their higher caries experience. Analysis of this question constitutes the purpose of the present paper.3
MATERIAL AND METHODS

The data on wlhich the present analysis is based were derived from dental examinations of 2,232 boys and 2,184 girls attending the municipal elementary schools of a small urban conmuniity, Hagers1 From Child Hygiene Investigations, Division of Public Health MIethods, National Institute of Health U. S. Public Health Service. The preceding papers of this series are as follows: I. Dental status and dental needs of elementary school children. By Henry Klein, C. E. Palmer, and J. W. Knutson. Pub. Health Rep., 53: 751-765 (May 13, 1938). II. The use of the normal probability curve for expressing the age distribution of eruption of the permanent teeth. By Henry Klein, C. E. Palmer, and M. Kramer. Growth, 1: 385-394 (1937). III. The measurement of post-eruptive tooth age. By C. E. Palmer, Henry Klein, and M. Kramer. Growth, 2: 149-159 (1938). IV. Tooth mortality in elementary school children. By J. W. Knutson and Henry Klein. Pub. Health Rep., 63: 1021-1032 (June 24, 1938). V. Familial resemblances in the caries experience of siblings. By Henry Klein and C. E. Palmer. Pub. Health Rep., 63: 1353-1364 (Aug. 5, 1938). VI. Caries experience and variation in the time of eruption of the teeth. By Henry Klein and C. E. Palmer. Child Development, 9: 203-218 (1938). 2 Caries experience is defined as the total number of DMF permanent teeth or tooth surfaces (the number of permanent teeth or tooth surfaces decayed, missing, or filled). For a full discussion of the DMF conoept, see reference (3). 3 Stoughton and Meaker (1) write, " a higher percentage of girls than boys have one or more * *. As suggested in the preceding section, it may be permanent teeth decayed, missing, or flled that girl lose their temporary teeth somewhat earlier than boys, and consequently their permanent teeth erupt sooner and are exposed to caries over a longer period."

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town, Md. The dental examinations were made with plain mirrors and fine-pointed pig-tail explorers under favorable lighting conditons. Observations were made on all teeth present in the mouth and, in addition, unerupted and extracted permanent teeth were noted. Pits and fissures in which the explorer caught, and which after thorough inspection were not considered definitely carious, were noted as separate items and were not counted as carious. Teeth designated as caxious were those which showed actual cavities. The lesions recorded are those which are readily found on a careful clinical dental examination. The extent of caries in any single tooth was measured in terms of tooth surfaces involved. When such area3 extended from one surface to others, the involved surfaces were counted separately as carious surfaces. Remaiig roots were considered as equal to five carious surfaces. Records for filled teeth were made in a similar manner, that is, filled surfaces were counted as past carious surfaces. Full crowns, of which few were encountered, were considered equal to five filled surfaces (five surfaces affected by past caries). These procedures were designed to make possible the measurement and tabulation of caries experience.
ANALYSIS

In order to determine the effect of sex differences in the time of ertuption of the teeth on the caries experience of children, it is necessary to collect and tabulate two major classes of data. The first of these, shown in table 1, makes it clearly apparent that, at the same chronological age, girls have more permanent teeth and tooth surfaces affected by caries experience than boys. The second tabulation of data, presented in table 2, makes available, for each sex, information which gives a measure of the length of time the teeth are exposed in the mouth (post-eruptive tooth age).4 In order to show whether or not girls have a greater susceptibility5 to attack by caries than boys, it becomes necesary to inquire whether or not the number of tooth surfaces showing a history of attack by caries is greater for girls than it is for boys at points where each sex has accumulated the same amount of post-eruptive tooth years of mouth exposure. To make this determination, the caries experience values given in table 1 are plotted against the tooth age values given in table 2. The graph shown in figure 1 is thus obtained, from which
4 The application of an epidemiological perspective to the flnding of coincident sx differenes in eruption and in caries experience leads diretly to the suggestion that the teeth of gis, becuse they ewpt earlier than those of boys, have been exposed in the mouth to the risk of attack by caris for longer periods of time than the teeth of boys. Because of the implications of this perspective in the analysis of the sx differences In earie experience, the collecton of data on the mouth years of e e of the permanent teeth of the separate seis has been undertaken and the findings on this point have been presend in a previou publi cation (18). ' In the present analysis caries susceptibility Is measured as the number of pernt toeth or tooth surfa affected by caries experience expressed as a function of accumulated posteruptive tooth age.

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September 23, 1938

may be read the average number of DMF permanent teeth and the number of DMF permanent tooth surfaces observed for each sex for specified average numbers of post-eruptive tooth years of mouth exposure.
TABLE 1.-Numbers of children, numbers of DMF* permanent teeth, numbers of DMF permanent teeth per child, numbers of DMF permanent tooth surfaces, and numbers of DMF permanent tooth 8urfaces per child, by age and sex groups (4,416 elementary school children, Hagerstown, Aid.)
Age (last birthday)
item

i Item

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

AU

Number of children: 197 231 253 270 262 Boys -171 -156 206 256 240 259 269 Girls Number of DMF permanent teeth: 115 255 452 646 722 Boys -43 -52 178 328 542 683 788 Girls Number of DMF permanent teeth per child: 0.25 0.58 1.10 1.79 2.39 2.76 Boys .33 .86 1.28 2.26 2.64 2.93 (iirlsof DMF permanent Number tooth surfaces: 169 365 826 1,301 1,334 Boys -59 237 470 1,038 1,274 1,424 Girls -66 Numler of DMF permanent tooth surfaces per child: Boys -0.35 0.86 1.58 3.26 4.82 5.09 .42 1.15 1.84 4.33 4.92 5.29 Girls -_--

299 297

267 278

199 165

83 2, 232 58 2,184
554 5,932 359 6,340

1,068 1,065 1,012 1,111 1,413 886 3.57 3. 74

3.99 5.09 6.67 5. 08 5.37 6.19

2.66 2.90

2,094 2, 216 2,004 1,191 11,559 2,161 2,852 1,850 82 12,194

7.00 8.30 10. O7 14.35 5.18 7.28 10.26 11. 21 14.17 5.58

*See definition in the text.

TABLE 2.-Accumulated post-eruptive tooth ages (in years) per child, by age and sex groups (4,416 elementary school children, Hagerstown, Aid.)
Chronological age (years)

Study of the data presented in this figure leads to the conclusion that no significant difference in caries susceptibility appears to exist between the two sexes. This conclusion is based on the fact that for equal numbers of years of accumulated post-eruptive tooth age, the caries experience of girls does not consistently exceed or fall below the caries experience of boys. The curve showing the increase of caries experience with increasing tooth age for girls (dotted line) for the first twenty years of accumulated post-eruptive tooth age almost exactly coincides with the curve for boys (solid line). With increase in tooth age, the crossing and recrossing of the lines representing the caries experience trends of the two sexes strongly suggest that the slight differences which are observable are due to chance variations and are not indicative of significant differences in the caries suscepti-

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ACCLLATO KPOST-ERUPTNE TOOTH AGE (YEARS) PERCHLD
FIGURE 1.-The relations, per child, between accumulated POst-eruptive tooth age and carie experience Data derived from dental examinations of2,232 boYs and 2, girls of gs 6 to 5yes, Md.

Bagerstown,

53: 1021 (1938). J. His Majesty's Stationery Office.ep. III. J.. C. Dent. 9.. Palmer. No. Tooth mortality in elementary school children. it is of interest to point out that boys (or girls) whose teeth empt early have higher levels of caries experience than boys (or girls) whose teeth erupt late when the sexes are compared on the basis of chronological age. 11. T. The Incidence of Dental Disease in Children. C. (7) Broughton-Head.. Health Rep. M. Growth. Henry. Cambridge. are exposed longer to the risk of attack by caries than those of boys. Am. Maryland. E. When the caries experience of late and early eruptors are contrasted on the basis of posteruptive tooth age (1$). C. Health R.: Dental caries in American Indian children. 1: 385 (1937). (4) Knutson. Assoc. Dent. because they erupt earlier.. C. 47: 26 (1932). Missouri. C.. W. and Klein.: Dentition as a measure of maturity. Growth. The measurement of post-eruptive tooth age. M. E.. and Knutson. V. A. Palmer. are exposed longer (have a greater posteruptive tooth age) to the risk of attack by caries than are boys. V.. by the fact that the teeth of girls. Henry: Studies on dental caries. (8) Klein. (6) Munnblatt.: A critical study of the incidence of dental caries in children. 97. Reports of the Committee for the Investigation of Dental Disease. T. D.. as compared with that of boys of the same chronological age. C. Brit.: Studies on dental caries. Am. is explained quantitatively by the finding that girls.: Studies on dental caries. 1928. Pub. Anthropol. (12) Palmer. J. London. I. E. because their teeth erupt earlier than do those of boys. (10) Suk. It is indicated that early eruptors have no greater susceptibility to earies than late eruptors . Phys. J. IV. based on 12. 75: 592 (1933). Health Rep. 27: 913 (1906). and Hagerstown. Illinois. (J) Medical Research Council.435 oral examinations by dental personnel Georgia. (9) Cattell. 53: 751 (1938). Pub. (11) Cohen. 15: 2337 (1928).. Harvard Monographs in Education No. II. and Palmer. the conclusion is reached that girls show no greater susceptibility to attack by dental caries than boys.184 girls indicate that the higher caries experience of girls. Pub. and Kramer..232 boys and 2.: Sex differences in the prevalence in dental caries. J. Dental Cosmos.: The influence of sex and environment in relation to dental caries and dentition. Government Printing Office. Dental status and dental needs of elementary school children.: Studies on dental caries. P. E. A. (0) Klein. [In this connection. Public Health Bulletin No. W. 1938 bility of the two sexes. J. REFERENCES of (1) Stoughton. The actual observed finding that girls have more caries experience than boys of the same chronological age is explained. and Kramer. 2: 149 (1938). quantitatively. L. Henry. and Meaker. Klein.. The use of the normal probability curve for expressing the age distribution of eruption of the permanent teeth. Harvard University Press. 239.1689 September 23. 2: 351 (1919). L. On the basis of these findings. 1925.: Eruption and decay of permanent teeth in whites and Negroes with comparative remarks on other races. Henry.: The dates of eruption of the permanent teeth in a group of Minneapolis children.. Washington. M.' SUMMARY Results derived from an analysis of dental examinations of 2. Henry. 1938. Special Report series. (3) Klein.

i 3. As the method of determining the oxygen utilized by the activated sludges employed in the earlier and in the present paper has not been used extensively. P. 16W0 (13) Klein. Data are presented to indicate that rates of oxygen utilization. y=L (1t10-ht) where y=the B. Oct. D. (14) Klein. Cincinnati. It is the purpose of this paper to present a somewhat similar study of biochemical oxidation. Assistant Chemist. RuCHHOFT. the biochemical oxidation of organic matter in sewage. Indianapolis. C. very high rates of oxidation are obtained. Principal Bacteriologist. L=the initial total carbonaceous B. and t=time in days. as shown by Theriault (2). The increased quantity of oxygen used following the addition of the food was ascribed to the oxidation of this added material. and C. Familial resemblanc in the caries experience of siblings. VE Cares experience and variation in the time of eruption of the teeth. satisfied in time t. E. Health Rep. T. Ind.. Pub. United States Public Health Srvice. McNAmzE.. 0. Stream Pollution Investigations. Principal Chemist. Child Development. BIOCHEMICAL OXIDATION BY ACTIVATED SLUDGEI' By C. and that information in addition to that concerning the extent and rate of oxidation of I The data on which this paper is based were presented and discussed before the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Central States Sewage Works Association. STUDIES OF SEWAGE PURIFICATION V. and Palmer. 30. Ohio In a previous paper (1) it has been shown that when sterile sewage or synthetic sewage is aerated in the presence of pure cultures of bacteria isolated from activated sludge. follows the unimolecular expression.September 23. a consideration of the precision of the method is presented. 0. D.1 at 200 C. 1936 .: Studies on dentalcarie. k= a velocity constant of 0. using natural activated sludges obtained from sewage tretment plants. under natural conditions. and Palmer. C. Without attempting to interpret the entire mechanism of the activated sludge process. V. (1) The results of an experment are introduced illustrating that biocheniical oxidation rates are not necessarily limited to this esablinsed natural rate and demonstrating the acceleration of rates of oxidation of organic matter in sewage under artificial conditions of treatment. D. U: 1353 (1938).: Studies on dental aie.by the sludge in an experimental plant varied considerably. Henry. E.. data are presented that have been obtained in sewage and in sludge oxidation studies which arehelpful for such purpose. 9: 293 (1938). It is generally accepted that. Henry. C. The pure bacterial culture sludges consumed oxygen at a very low rate until bacterial food was added to the substrate. BUTTERFXELD..

comparable data on oxygen utilization of sludge alone and on the same sludge fed with single and multiple increments of various substrate nutrients were obtained and are presented as a contribution to our limited knowledge of the rates and extent of sewage oxidation in the activated sludge process.1691 September 23. D. of the sewage varied over wide limits. the sludge with dilution water as a control and the sludge with the substrate feed added were always aerated simultaneously in two or more of these closed aeration bottles. besides small quantities of urea. Consequently.-All sewage was domestic sewage. the total quantity of oxygen remaining. this consisted in aerating the material under study in a closed system and determining. Nutrient substrates. Actitvated 8ludge. This nutrient substrate will be referred to hereafter as synthetic sewage. The proportion of the total purification of sewage accomplished by the activated sludge process which can be credited to oxidation will not be considered here but will be discussed in a later paper. activated sludge from the nortlh and south plants at Lancaster.. as nutrients. and the other inorganic salts usually found in . was employed. Briefly. To determine the performance of any mixture with different or multiple increments of substrate. Unfortunately the B. In a few experments. 1938 a sludge mixture is required to evaluate the biochemical activity of the sludge.-The quarter strength phosphate buffer (3) (formula C) water was used throughout these experiments. Pa. but containing no suspended detritus and having its nutrient material in true colloidal and soluble form was also used in these experiments. It contained peptone and meat extract. 0. Dilution water. Sterile sewage was obtained by autoclaving settled sewage in 6-liter Erlenmeyer flasks at 15 pounds for 15 minutes. A nutrient substrate simulating sewage in B. and it has been shown (5) that the presence of the phosphate did not exert any influence on the rate or extent of oxidation in aerated sludge. periodically. disodium hydrogen phosphate. Biochemical oxygen demand for various periods of incubation by the ordinary dilutioil method was also determined on the nutrient substrates used. D.-The activated sludge used in most of the experiments was obtained from the experimental plant at this station. 0. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS The method of determining the oxygen utilized by sludge or mixtures of sludge and sewage in this study was the same as that used in the previous work (1) (4). The sewage was either filtered through cotton or allowed to settle to remove the coarse suspended matter and make it approximately comparable to the preliminary settled sewage available at sewage treatment plants. This water was developed for use in the oxygen demand test.

Suspended solids determinations were made at the start and at the close of the test. the pH changes found were too small to affect the rate or extent of oxidation and will not be discussed in this paper.0 2Q 4 L6 24 47. 1938 1692 sewage and had the sam composition as that used in the pure culture work (1). All of the experiments described were carried out in a 20° C.Septteber 23. 0. Each bottle was prepared by settling for 30 minutes 1 liter of plant aeration mixture. D. EXPERIMENTAL DATA Precision of oxygen absorption measurements. 2 o Mg o Os 2 indimed tim in hours 4 22.9 31 7 43 4 is8 43 OM 1 71. three aeration bottles were prepared containing as nearly as possible identical quantities of a sludge sewage ture. Accordingly. siphoning off 800 ml of supernatant and adding 825 ml of sewage.-Indicated precision of aeration meth ical rlts obxaed from observations on 3 portions of the same activated sludge plus feed mixture with each portion treated and exramined as a separate unit Acivat Bottle No. the results of which indicate an error not exceeding 5 mg. Although pH determinations were made on the substrates during the course of oxidation in every experiment. The mixtures were aerated simultaneously.8 . The concentrated synthetic sewage contained 250 times the concentration of the same materials as the normal synthetie sewage.3 .415 28 41 MSZIIaUm4SVh ISt__ 7 22.5 24 12-3--------------------------Mea_---Averap de-ton 1. the B.-Although an extensive series of tests has been made on the precision of the aeration method for the determination of -biochemical oxygen demand during the development of the procedure. After mixing.3 1 am 7U8&7 77 4 40 189. it seemed pertinent to repeat these tests using the. identical materials employed in these studies.9 19. TABLE 1. 380 1. load was increased by an amount equivalent to that of a liter of normal sewag but without the necessity of removing any supematant fromr the miture under aeration.i30 1. Determinations of amounts of residual oxygen were made at the intervals indicated in the table.374 1. 45 1. 1894 193 5 191. 61 16 . including the mean and average and maximum deviations from the mean.3 L7 . The results obtained.404 1.375 4 1. 25 ml were withdrawn for the suspended solids determination. constant temperature room.4 19.7 18& 9 191. are given in table 1. 7 42. At start sludge hoAu P. By the addition of 4 ml of this concentrated material to a liter of the sludge mixture.384 1.

DEMONSTRATION OF CHANGE IN BIOCHEMICAL OXIDATION RATES Results of the first experiment are presented to demonstrate that decided changes in the rates of biochemical oxidation reactions are possible under artificial conditions such as are maintained in the activated sludge process.0 milligrams in an observation introduces the possibility of considerable error for the first M-hour aeration period. Small quantities. 1038 The maximum deviation from the mean varied from 0. It is believed that beyond the 1 %-hour observation period the majority of the observations (obtained by differences) are subject to less than 10 percent errors. However.6 to 4. the probable errors are not serious for longer periods and do not in any way invalidate the results obtained.9 to 6. The four mixtures were aerated for 27 hours. these bottles contained no activated sludge at the start but each contained 1 liter of sewage. At the close of the 27-hour aeration period the bottles were opened and samples 2. 4. These limitations of the accuracy of the method should be considered in interpretation of short aeration period (30 minutes) observations. 8. and during this period a number of observations on the amount of oxygen utilized were made. of concentrated sterile synthetic sewage were added to samples 2. As indicated. contained the basic components shown for the first aeration period for samples 1 to 4 in table 2. 3. these increments of oxygen absorption produced by the addition of the sewage ranged from about 40 to 190 milligrams. The average deviations from the mean varied from 0. which is within the limits of the preciaon of the method originally established. These bottles. 8. Table 2 shows the total carbonaceous oxygen demand of the sewage mixtures at the start of the first and second aeration periods calculated from a series of dilution method biochemical oxygen demand values for the components of the .1693 9Bstmbv Z3. at the start.5 hours and oxygen utilization determinations were made during this period of aeration.0 milligrams. As it is desired to observe differences in oxygen absorption results for dosed and control activated sludge mixtures. and 4 again received. and 12 ml of the same concentrated sterile synthetic sewage that had been added at the start. From the 1 %hour observation period on. and 4. and 12 ml. Nothing was added to sample No. an average deviation of ±4.1 milligrams of oxygen per liter. and the probable error due to the method becomes a much smaller factor. respectively. 3. The samples were aerated again for an additional 22. 1. In the later experiments of this paper the observed increments of oxygen absorption resulting from the addition of the substrate food ranged from about 7 to 26 milligrams for the first 3-hour aeration period and the maximum percentage of error due to method are to be expected. In this experiment four aeration bottles were prepared. respectively. 4.

000 1. The total L value of the sewage mixture at the end of the first aeration period was obtained by subtracting the quantities of oxygen used by each sample for the first 27 hours from the initial total L value for the corresponding sample.2 9.8 339.2 103. 184. D. 106.8 131.5 254. 1 322.5 - 11.000 1.September 23 1938 1694 samples. (L values) on rapid derelopment of activated sludge Basic components in ml Total carbonaceous B.9 484.4 103.3 326.0-0-101.6 600.7 120.3 X This value is obtained by deducting the quantity of oxygen used by each sample during the first 27-hour aeration period from the total L value for the corresponding sample at the start.5 364.5 1. and 6 days. 5.3 25.9 552.6 1 ~~3 2 3 87.0 176.507. 0.0 -. 11 -124.9 -------------------------------9------191.7 19.5 158.7 100.7 24 -197.2 659.8 ---65. results for 2.2.359.8 806.7 499.7 62.2 573.5-hour aeration hou:rs Sample No.9 0 3 268.5 -192. the formulae representing the oxidation reaction for these samples have been derived.1 772.-Experiment 1-Total carbonaceous B.6 409.7 140.7 437._7 1.8 ------- From the data presented in tables 2 and 3. TABLE 3.9 537.5 452. 0.034.0 1. 1 Sample No.2 345. and 7 days.4 726.0 93. & Based on dilution method B.5 7 2345- 1--9.8 806.128.4 457.1 92. 090. D. 1 172.4 158. 0.6 63. The total quantity of oxygen utilized at the end of each period of observation for each sample during the first and second aeration periods is shown in table 3.0----.1 1.-Experiment 1-Total oxygen utilized by each sample on rapid development of activated sludge [Results in Milligrams per iterl Results for first 27-hour aeration Aeration time in Results for second 22.6 62. D.5aeration hour aeration aeration period Synthetic sewage Raw Synthetic TtlTtl Raw Synthetic Tfotral Raw Synthetic added for after sewage sewage mixture sewage' sewage mixture sewage sewage first period I234- 1.7 88.3.3 4 99.2 700.6 39.7 339.6 220.6 552.4 40.6 456. 0.2 693.9 4 8 12 552. 6 16.3 22. These formulae are.000 0 4 8 12 0 2 552.-170. 4. 4 ~~ ~~ 23.3 735.6 591.5 -123.9 821.6 229. TABLE 2.0 18 541.0 69.9 41.4.9 535.7 427.6 0 3268. These data are plotted in figure 1. Second At beginning of first 27-hour At beginning of second 22. 1 240.2 22.0213. 2 Based on dilution method B. D. (A) a formula representing oxidation at a unimolecular .6 74.9.1 639.7 79.9 552.2 73.8 925. 3.3 45.000 1.7 198.0 179.9 537. results for 3.3 6156. 339. (L value) in mg First aeration period Sample No.7 1.5 391. 159.

* *5a 32.-Oxidation obaerved during rapid development of &avated aludop by mwyge fed with varying amouts of eonotad food. 1694) . 40. t A z AS //1 ZZ.lieour5 T FIGURE l.m a J00 1t 700 600 S0o *Aio'eb rT #~ 7 Awg 4 4 4./'n o71me.AfAv Z7urs *Ws MAW 1 - x % - A -*. $ f. 87206-388 (Fac p. 4 a bea 4 A*frOd r A *X2 * .S 2.* Toolal Aer.

0. the data for this sample indicated a unimolecular rate fitting the formula (A). and that biochemical oxidation under the various states of equilibrium possible between these two factors does not always follow the unimolecular reaction. however. the term a(10 k1s) rapidly becomes smaller and after a few hours is negligible indicating that (a) has been entirely oxidized. 3. and 4. During the second period. IM rate as already presented (1). however. y=L-[a(1O¢t')+b(1O0k21)]. In this experiment the original sewage aerated during the first 27-hour -period was oxidized at a rate so much higher than the uni- molecular one that the oxidation reaction could be fitted only by the formula (B).1695 1695 28. on the assumption that a population of microflora is developed during the first aeration period . Consequently no fixed formula can be given that will represent the oxidation of organic matter in artificially cultured systems such as the activated sludge process. the rate of osidation depends upon the relation between the microflora and the substrate food which prevail in the biochemical system. D. In formula B the rate at which the portion (a) of L is oxidized during aeration is very high compared with the rate at which (b) is oxidized. however. During this period the data could not be fitted to unimolecular formulae but could be fitted by formula (B).a(1O-ktt) +b(10-k3)l y=the B. The constants for the formulae representing the oxidations for these samples are given in table 4. when further increments of concentrated food were added. The data for these samples during the first 24 hours indicated oxidation at slowly increasing rates. y=L-(1. to which additional concentrated food was added. k1 and k2=the velocity constants that apply to a and b respectively. depending upon a number of factors. On the second day. They do seem rational.1O-t). and t=time in days. b=a constant representing the portion of L oxidized at a lower rate. where L=th initial total carbonaceous B. at constant temperature and optimum pH. Because the rate k1 is relatively large. The data presented indicate that. This phenomenon of oxidation at greatly accelerated rates requiring the more complicated formula (B) to fit the data suggests that the velocity constants in this expression will vary considerably. and (B) a formula representing the oxidation as the sum of two Unimolecular rates (B) y=L. a=a constant representing the portion of L oxidized at a high rate. oxidized in time t.. In samples 2. It may be justifiable to point out that the oxidation reactions occurring in the samples receiving concentrated food could not be explained on the basis of the so-called immediate chemical oxygen demand. D. 0. a marked immediate increase in the rate of oxidation was observed. a lag was observed for a few hours after aeration was started.

Recently Moore (7) has pointed out that the data of Kessler and Nichols (8) on oxygen consumption in activated sludge mixtures could be represented as the sum of three unimolecular rates. Carbonaceous _____________ SaMP16 . m.0 0.280 .September 23.s ------1. indicating.--a------. had a mean value of about 0. at much higher rates.507 227 1.-----. The series showing no nitrification was divided into three groups according to the amount of oxygen used per gram of suspended solids in 4 hours. TABLE 4.First aeration ~ rs S p tion period| tio aera-on ea io prod Second aeatinFrttion aeration period First period n peroidperiod ped aeration L a b L a b KI Ki K K l K Ks I23-----4------- A A A B A B B B 0-11 11-27 ----4.293 ---726 98 6 822 .129 199 930 .44 4 1.2 . 0. I In samples 3 and 4 the K is rapidly increasing during the first 24-hour period and for periods indicated is about as given. Curve (B): y=L-[a(10kat)+b(10-k2z)I. Nitrification occurred in 15 of these tests and did not occur in the remainder.0 0. but the velocity constants at 200 C.194 0 121 339 6.380 553 53 500 - ---- Curve (A): g=L(110-kj9). Theriault and McNamee (5) were the first to show that the expression (B) was necessary to define the rates of oxidation occurring in an activated sludge. Sixty-nine samples of mixed liquor taken from the same point in the aeration tank were studied.3.112 . The mean quantities of oxygen absorbed for each group and the maximum and minimum quantities of oxygen absorbed in 48 hours per gram of suspended solids are . for the periods of observation. Theriault and McNamee (6) determined the rates of oxygen absorption in the mixed liquor of an aeration tank.241 ---. p. Form of re Constants for reaction curv Velocity constants at 200 a. The analyses of their data indicated the following: (1) That the results of some experiments could be fitted to the unimolecular expression (A).20 0206 . A summary of the data obtained by Theriault and McNamee (6) on oxidation in the mixed activated sludge liquor from the aeration tank at this station is presented in table 5. inp.151 1. the food added on the second day. (2) That the data for most of the experiments best fitted the expression (B) indicating oxidation as the sum of two unimolecular rates. QUANTITIES OF OXYGEN USED BY ACTIVATED SLUDGE MIXED LIQUOR FROM THE EXPERIMENTAL PLANT In a series of experiments in 1933.208.-Experiment I-Form of reaction curve and velocity constants for samples during the first and second aeration periods action curve No.090 -------1. D. oxidation at higher rates than those obtained under natural conditions.167 . Ig= 1696 which is capable of oxidizing. B.

as a control. In experiments 6 to 10.5 22. M.3 3 0 -. clarified.304 Min _3. raw.1 --36. In experiments 2 and 3. Bus.2 29. They also indicate that it would be desirable to know the quantity of oxygen that was required by the activated sludge alone. 0 4i42 13. Result pended P.9 24 3 5L 2 & 70 13. 61 1I 7 26 1 38 2 114 58 7 81.100 _ Mean 2. Dilution water was added to the fourth one. 60 No 3--Max.9 89.4 -. and also the biochemical oxygen demand of the substrate that was applied. In the remainder of the experiments. All samples were then returned to the closed system aeration bottles for further aeration.3 22.P. 0 25. Another liter of the same activated sludge mixture was aerated alone.3 22. sludge mixtures prepared as described and dosed with synthetic.0 144 258 119 225 319 201 329 435 308 142 272 73. The sludge was allowed to settle in the cylinders for 30 minutes before siphoning off the supernatant liquor.8 32. which served as a control. In each case the sludge mixture was distributed in 1-liter amounts into liter cylinders.695 ax ------153.8 & 50 & 65 20. 2 30. 500 -2.Max 3. simultaneously.2 97. 4 48.4 47.65 18.1697 xsw A a plotted in figure 2.184 6 80 1I 4 .3 -. These data show the tremendous differences in oxidation taking place at various times in the sludge aeration mixture.320 Min -3. TABLIE 5.-Oxygen used by acivated sludge-mind lquor from experimental plant tm [69 series of tits from January 1933 toX P r 1341 Num- Group Nitrify.09 12. three multiple increments of concentrated synthetic sewage were added to liter quantities of a well-aerated activated sludge mixture and these were aerated.00 _ 2L. 0 202 17.9L 5 258 63 4 80. In experiments 4 and 5 the supernatant liquor was removed as described from liter quantities of aerated mixture and multiple increments of sewage were added to three cylinders. The data in table 6 indicate that in every experiment more oxygen was utilized in the dosed or fed mixtures than in the control mixtures.bet of lug 16- seressods.3 -. The data obtained in these experiments are presented in table 6.13 _Min_ 2. supernatant liquor was withdrawn from the aerated activated sludge mixture chosen for study before dosing with normal strength nutrient material.147 18. or Berkefeld-filtered sewage were aerated simultaneously with controls contaiing the same quantities of sludge and buffered dilution water. 7 142 9.7 7.74.2 THE QUANTITIES OF OXYGEN USED BY ACTIVATED SLUDGE ALONE AND WITH THE ADDITION OF SUBSTRATE FOOD A number of experiments were performed with activated sludge to which different amounts of substrate food were added.2 6 31 -35.8 24. Mg f0 mi ed per gram suspended solids in indicated time (bours) 1 & 32 2 4 6 24 48 No 12- No Yes 4-- -Mean -3. care being taken to prevent settling during the distribution of these samples.296 Min -8 790 12.8 187 14.520 Max 3.932 Mean 3. 230 Mean3. .9 30.

-Oxygen consumption of activated sludge mixed lquor from experimental plant.V4TI. 13 1698 POzzLrLUO Ave CIAc.HOURs 50 FIGURE 2. OW/O /0 40 -30 20 AERATION TIME .September 23.Vc. .

sacs t:t giO semis asesa *' as a a ++ i.OX 4gO H!! c .+++ | 1tH: _ 4+s | '. g. X a <fia<fiH csTsmv sTscs zmvi <mt o~~ <5HHH '__ _ _ _ '0 tffl | ... '* '. . *°.'iteO^ see cas * tt'K V * ~~~~~~~~as eb asI se wC ccc csccs acts ace: e~~~~~~~~~1. . ''::s'''c 0000 000: +:+::: +:: +::t :: l :: icc .::++++ 5555 sac sac _ o ccc| 6c J J .c 00 >~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t 5 _ NO~qgea00 %a a @ t t t0 toe1v4 go C40Qtcc 55 55 34! CA) C tg ! 0 t 'sg 0 ci co C* ob M 'O~~~jccc 5aa i.t . e J J ... ~~~~~~4e~m - ~~~~actto: 4 ac 8°34 sas gX scos . t 5 t t4 :: t 5: :: :: t :: o _____~ to. 1938 iCl05 o o 4..___ 4_ ass _ - -j M ccc._00.. ~~~ scoc coa a ~ .c ''t >oscI: co~~~~~~~~~~M0M 5 R e " . ~~~~~~cea 0 a- :4. ' 5.: :': 5 ::' gsa. "q I! i i 3} . J c s J a? I J l cc t~~~~~~~~~~~~cl co i J Ji ci oaces.. ass w !° ao--0 cc S o c* 0 ~~~ i :::.4. wcc 0 to e0qor' mo o I c. t.m ... o"a __ ccc6 *" ssO . ass§ ... . tsas sea coc ceas0 ccc alco .*0&a4gg ooo0o .++++ :+++.: cc C tc"c'. cc . . 55c "Z t6 Ci ||||8SigS e0 lCa 0 _4 -4 t: t so 04go rew Qo~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. 0C66 ceaseCi 0 t- cc :as I.4. + g4tn+ o _ +++ il ++++| .5 't '.>.c. c b soOO a.c .ecc .. .. ' .4 g5 4 s _ses c 44c C:01 co 5.. u.X a r _o o aato t ao - t a ^ -X:n |01 28 t ' tt5 e05R .ceas :e t5. '. S s8 ~~~~~~~acgt to 0 ~ ~ '::: .s.0 o . o ...1699 : 5 * September 23.l t '' .4 :. J0 tJ C4 ~~~~~~~~~~~ac ___ "O _ __I_:___________Ote-00e t~~~~~~ -04 . ." 0 sacs ace bC -c Sw s-itcc g . tc ... s~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .~~~~~~~ 8 . ' iZ * g .

Pea a °n 0 0 E M3 . .'t ° 0 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~an3a 00 '' a a.= a-£5c co~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~S 0 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0 ) P O loeo'. 10 HI El asn . 13 1700 I aX Ba be 04 ~ b¢ ~~~~~I : o< i e q H: : :.September 23.ooo - 1 - U 3 e isB~~I as . ' .

Although the validity of the assumption has not been checked as yet for carbonaceous material. it has been demonstrated as true for ammonia. it makes little difference whether this assumption is exactly correct or not for the purpose of a practical test. the quantities of oxygen utilized as a result of the food added (B-A. for the aeration periods ordinarily employed. of substrates applied to it at a rather high rate. Nineteen parts per million of nitrate were produced in 24 hours by the addition of 1 increment of sewage. less than twice the amount of oxygen was required when a triple food supply was added. It will be noted that with these substrates the additional quantities of oxygen used by the sludge mixture were of the same order of magnitude as for experments 4 and 5. table 7) are not proportional to the B. The additional quantities of oxygen used when activated sludge is dosed with synthetic sewage. D. 0. D. values. The increased amounts of oxygen used as a result of the addition of the substrateis a useful index of sludge-oxidizing capacity. This has been demonstrated by our experience in the 872060-38-2 . sewage clarified with ferric chloride. However. D. but that the extent of oxidation of increments of substrate feed during the same periods of time is not proportional to their respective B. The reasonableness of this assumption has already been discussed in the pure culture sludge paper (1). It will be observed in experiments 2 to 5 that doubling or tripling the B. and D-A. 1938 The quantities of oxygen that were used as a result of the addition of the food to the sludge obtained by subtracting the quantities used in the controls from the quantities used in the corresponding sludge nutrient substrate mixtures are shown in table 7. 0. This involves the assumption that the same quantity of oxygen is required by the sludge control as for the sludge component of the feed mixture during the short periods of observation employed. activated sludge has the capacity of oxidizing the B. of the substrate food was increased threefold in these experiments.1701 September 23. Although the 5-day B. 0. D. which proportionately provided for the formation of 57 parts. nitrification was carried much further with a single increment of sewage than it was with larger doses. D. the oxygen utilized during 4 hours aeration was only about double that required for a single food increment. of the substrate by the addition of food did not result in proportionate increases in the amount of oxygen utilized. 0. C-A. This is illustrated for experiment 4 by figure 3. For shorter periods of aeration. raw sewage. the sludge produced only 28 parts of nitrate in the same time. In experiment 5. In other words. Experiments 2 to 5 illustrate that. which shows the quantity of oxygen utilized for each of the three increments of substrate food added. or Berkefeld-filtered sewage are shown for experiments 6 to 10 in table 7. of the food increments added. 0. while with 3 portions.

5 -_ _ ' 139.8 53.6 25.7 6155.4 166.0 44.4.1 M175 0 197.8 79. 7 -_ 47.1 '17. calculated as de- .September 23A 198 1702 operation of the experimental plant and by the results obtained by Bloodgood (9) at Indianapolis.0 -111. It will. * 12 hours.2 .279. If a substrate with a constant 5-day B. of the substrate added. 1 ----33.4 103.2 816. 1 441.5-4 7.6 27.41. 3 41. therefore.1 89.7 .5 22. 1 606 1 81.6.3 124.7 7 1 10L 7 -. 0.0 415.7 90.80.0 -189. the quantity of substrate oxidation determined as above is a direct index of the oxidizing capacity of the sludge.77. D.3 .2 14 o 216 2.2 .6 -. D. 4y2hours. 9 183. 7 . 28 628.5 - - 2 0 7119.6 316.2 -_ 32. 45.3 98. 77- -92.9 5L 4 -119.4 22.0 153.0 107.7 4 309. This has been done for experiments 2 to 10 and the results are shown in table 8. D. 7 192. TABLE 7.-- H 1% 2 a 4 5 10 11 22 24 B-A C-A D-A B-A C-A D-A 14. of the substrate that was added to obtain comparable data of sludge-oxidizing capacity.5.9 43.50.9-6 42 . As the performance obtained is not independent of the B. D. while low values indicate a poor sludge. For practical purposes.9 20.3 . D.A 170. 0. 7 _ _ 150.45.43. this factor must be taken into account in sludge substrate oxidizing capacity tests conducted with substrates having different B.9 --99. 116.5.6 - a43.6 1349 -_ 86 3135. 0.4 63.21.3 22.1 41.2 26 hours.5 62.6 23.9 53.8 .49.7 -------7 6 199.2 36.5 7L 0 88 7 7. is used in the tests. 0 163.0 X 3 15.6 65.1 .1 62. In this study the quantity of oxygen used to oxidize the substrate has been calculated in percentage of the 5-day B. values.5 4 8 hours.1 41.2 -122. 0.3 110.1 43.2 I I hour.8 145.be noted that the percentage of oxidation of the substrate B.5 41.2 __ 87.3 235 8.1 213. High values in general indicate a good sludge.9 184.-_ '18 6 547 2 3 314.8 44.3 193.3 C5 0 - 4----- C-A D-A C-A D-A B-A 5---------B-A 6-----------B-A Br-Al 7- Cs-Al C-A B-A B-A 89- C-A C-A BA B-A 7L 0 833. the difference between the quantities of oxygen utilized by the fed mixture and by the activated sludge control represents substantially the oxidation of the added substrate as produced by the activated sludge under aeration.6 10____----------I C-A 19.1 123 hours.-Additional quantities of oxygen used when various substrate foods were added to activated sludge ComMg of oxyge used per liter in Indicated time (hor) Experiment No. 2 9 hours.6 __ 139. oxidat table 6 2* . _ 131.5 20. 0.7 a 5 .6 -17.1 25. 238.8 4.7 1& 8 .1 .2 25.16789.8 & 8 .2 '20. 0 4.4 a3 2 0 56.3 53.

the B.5 percent. strate applied. from 3. D. 1938 scribed. and upon whether the sludge was nitrifying or not. These great differences in performance are noticeable throughout the aeration periods employed in these experiments./oVv$s FxGuaz 8. of the sub- *4714.4 AwZe.1703 September 23. . 0.-Milligrams of oxgen used to oxidize increasing increments of sewage substrate feed by the same quantity of activated sludge. depending upon the quantity and quality of the sludge present. after %-hour aeration in the presence of activate(d sludge varied tremendously.1 to 70. Experiment 1-non-nitrifYing sludge.

. | bE gg|gg sss5 5sssss fe~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.3 .00 5.> R 0 ia *'':::::::: b . !@@@. 40.. ~ !3 ~ ~ ~~ g RO AbX<z:buz::: O:::. II!a . .. 't CD.Dmfs @~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C g. gesameesa 5 . .: :assesse x x o x ggs 6 be C4 Ni C4- 0. .-~0as s es e t0l 4 0 .b00 50 1704 Io. .... !! ¢ t # s aaaPs ga sses 0lOl0l'~~~~OC0aest~~0t. . § as. ...~ t ge s a mes gees .. ew j.. § ~~* . $7 0 5 l a as' =e ea: s ege =a @ o Wa .w b r o c sem . ..6 ag assesass _s Sr.S55~ assessco1 e w o . m0aa. As | ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. n fi n .4 -stOOO laCO I I se0 Oc eqcoto I I I gg V@4O" 4 Iearsels S9 . V. . o :0C. .g . X .*o-zci ao v C~~~~~~~ao 0 M .4 1-~~~~~es g 9 9 bta>o tg as gasaoe .September :. .|tCoz . . a as .-. .. . . : .3 fNn& =~~~~~~s :!~!j!8 :: s Xt|f r :: .:::: X~~~~~~~a :: :a : *f<OI>t-r. @ a¢N O O O O 8 @ | | $ < @ | | @ | 4 b 8~~~~~~~~~~ 18tI Vc. . + 0 _m cis Is I.. e 0f 0.. eagg g5 >.g D Of sagss C.OC .O co .1 f s t.. .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~z C." i.. s s e s s a f e .f ~~~ 'p. ...8.t i | *oa *o' s' i ..t_< .8 f.f Zi..@O0___0 :::::: :: ::::: X :::::::: : Xo :5 ta ot-C) . :: i VO ::::~:r~ 'a ..1 S a a s a asl |s se 0 3... : . oco4 co s ea:.Co 'I ''i i~ egg N .. ... . § @ . se s s 'S].t s | v -~ 5 'Caelaas g5 g ' ..s 0 M *% t gg: :: .@ . a 0 0*) @ |**8@8@s@*|9 @ CD 5 5 2)gg5gagg ..7i * . fN fCQ* Q '|Cf id b 0 .

p. p. accomplished considerable nitrification. Experiments 6 and 8 indicate that there is very little difference in the percentage of oxidation of raw sewage and synthetic sewage materials when similar doses of these substances are fed to similar quantities of activated sludge. The sludge in experiment 7. of an actively nitrifying sludge. m.2 percent after 22 hours. Although raw sewage ordinarily contains from 1 to 10 million bacteria per ml when added to an activated sludge. as in experiment 2. m. 0.624 p.0 p.041 p. 0. and the results indicate that this is actually the case. was fed to a mixture containing 2. These tests were made in exactly the same manner as those already described. and 62. It would seem from this fact that the numbers of bacteria already present and functioning in activated sludge must be truly enormous. The Berkefeld-filtered sewage used in experiment 6 and the clarified sewage used in experiment 7 had 5-day biochemical oxygen demands of 118 p. of only 31. m. using 3 increments (mixture D) of sewage. In accordance with the principle illustrated in experiments 2 to 5. Dosing with these substrates contributed a much lower B. D. Experiments 9 and 10 show that when sterile sewage is fed to an activated sludge. the percentage of substrate oxidation is approximately the same as when raw sewage is used as the feed. 1938 When a substrate with a 5-day B.. D. 116 percent of the 5-day B. 20. it would be expected that the percentages of oxidation for these substrates would be greater than for the corresponding raw sewages. these experiments indicate that it is immaterial whether these additional bacteria are added or not so far as the success of the biochemical oxidation accomplished in the process is concerned. p. m. D. p. D. was satisfied after 4 hours and 480 percent after 24 hours.564 p. as in mixture B. OXIDATION PERFORMANCE DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PLANT The oxygen requirements of dosed and undosed (control) sludges during the development of activated sludge in the experimental plant were studied in a series of tests.5 p. The first test was made . dosed with clarified sewage. was fed to a mixture containing 3. p. respectively.8 percent of the 5-day B. m. On the other hand. 0. p.1705 September 23. 0. m. while the raw sewage mixture in this experiment failed to reach the nitrification stage during the 10-hour period of examination. load than did the corresponding raw sewages. when a portion of sewage with a 5-day B. of 1. These two cases illustrate the extremes in substrate oxidation performance noted in these experiments. experiment 5. 0. of nonnitrifying activated sludge. D. was satisfied after 4 hours and 58.

3 2.0 &4 164 .9L6 1.4 21. -49.6 '69. of suspended solids had been built up and retained in the tank.920 2.448 34.2 -76 5 49. and the increased qulantities of oxygen used as a result of the food added. 2 5 hours.D. 8 2 232.0 55.8 292.0 8 11.5 -.0 4.130.5 2.O.920 '68.864 16.6 399.0 79.2 -.0 10.9.-Additional quantities of oxygen used. 0. of the substrate feed added for the test. m.9 176.7 59.5 63.4 121.6 89.0 129.D.189. as a result of the addition of sewage.4 16. 0. D.8 137.1 112. of the substrate that is oxidized.0 --------_ 13.IL 0 2.Septembe xim 1706 after the plant had been operated on the fill-and-draw principle for several days and 182 p.5 46. .2 241.3 30.8 100.0 795.0 0.4 3----------------12 -__--__--_--_ 28 35 47 6 70 83 19-----------------4 -5 -6 -7 -8 1 2 3 9 182 300 760 1.m.7 32. D.5 14.p.6 99.8 42.2 79.7 -.5 11.0 8. 188 1.8 55.0 10.m. :1 hour.0 123.9 -760 17.4 2 162.5 209. 3 2 15 6 -- * Obtained by subtracting the activated sludge control data from the corresponding activated sludge plus feed data as given in table 12.0 1 21.5 -- hour. 34 Activated sludge plus sewage 2 Activated sludge control 3 4 24 H 2 3 4 24 37.5 472. used per liter In indicated time (hours) (days) pOnde p.8 300 8.462 28.671. 0. 25 hours.4 L5 455.0 233.188 13. 8 11.1 118. MgofOsiisel Utasruos!b seratautB. 0 15 4 12.4 54.9 -84.0 136.2D.7 182 0.2 -24.2 226.7 94.6 92 8 174.2 20.9 144.448 2.0 3.462 1.1 2L 0 25. is presented in table 11.5 50.7 21. ed. TABLE 10.0 40. of substrate p.6 & 5 -41.5 12. 6 22. At the end of this period a fairly good nitrifying sludge had been developed. p.7 -17.0 -.6 147.300 38. 1 39.7 -10. 1. 9 -26.0 9. of feration Nsa susd Mg of 0.-Qui2ntities of oxygen used by activated sludge control and activated sludge plus sewage during activated sludge development in experimental plant Activated Time from start Test sludge. by activated sludge during its development in the experimental plant Activated frm Time startof Teatsludge Time from stwt of | TNest soli susNo._ 6-day strata feed (hours) 2 2 fr-h!m 4 4 i? 3 3 2 _ 46.3 36.9 -22. Table 10 shows the 5-day and 20-day B. p.0 78. 300 2. 1 29.6 34. The percentage of the 5-day B.864 173. of B.2 7. 5 20. D. The quantities of oxygen used by the control and by the dosed sludge during this series of tests are shown in table 9.9 240.8 -45. the 5-day B.9 84.2 -. of the plant effluent.Sm 5-day 20-day solids.8 13.0 49.1 7.9 190.7 69.86.12 19 -__ -4 28 35 -6 47 56 -7 -8 70 83 -- 1 2 3 5 ------------ 9 . calculated as has been described.5 74.9 321. TABLE 9. 1 51.1 4.Mgf2sd nrterasareultofsnbtime acdition in eunin p.3 11.3 106.7 ----2-. pended aeration (days) B.7 11.0 -.3 1.2 . 0.3 3 -17. D.1 -45. 8 246.3 -16.5 115. Thereafter tests were made about once a week for 11 weeks.7 27.7 179.4 86.7 231.

300 2.5 percent. 14. while on April 10 it had a value of only 55 p.6 29. Reference to table 9 indicates that. The data on tests 5 and 6 indicate that by this time the substrate oxidizing capacity had reached that of a normal nonnitrifying sludge.7 26.7.3 and 6.7 * Difference in oxygen used by sludge feed mixture minus oxygen used by sludge control divided by 5-day B. In this test the percentages of the 5-day B. There was a further improvement in the substrate oxidizing capacity of the sludge in test 6.offeedX 100. m.016.7 -101. D.5 121. the quality of the sludge in test 4 had retrogressed since test 3 was made. Test 5.7 2 52. of the 5-day B. In tests Nos. of the sewage arriving at the plant. showed a remarkable improvement in its substrate oxidizing capacity.5 -14. One difficulty with the tests was caused by the wide fluctuation in the 5-day B.2 3 7 6. A more uniform strength of the sewage used would doubtless have increased the significance of the tests.45 -6.920 25. of 795 p.42 Test No. D.3 percent. respectively. 0.188 182 300 760 70- 56 -7 6 1.3 166.6 50. D.8 126.8 50.2 19 4783- 28 -------------- 35 -5- 3 4- 1.900 p. 0.9 121. 1 and 2.7 -25.0 .1 -21.462 p. 2 5 hours. 1938 TABLE 11.. 3 and 4 the amount of sludge had increased and the 4-hour percentages o substrate oxidation had increased to 21. of the substrate feed oxidized during all periods had increased and in 4 hours had reached 34.0 '116. no fuirther .1 18. respectively.448 - 1.2 -51. 0.3 28. 0. m. 3 -1 12 -2 --------------------------- 2 3 4 24 41.-Percentage of 5-day B.72 0. made with a sludge of 1.2 37. operated on the fill-and-draw principle for several days and then was returned to continuous flow operation. judged by the amount of oxygen necessary to stabilize the sludge alone.462 9 864 - 8- 2. D. p.3 1. During the period of sludge development covered by these tests the suspended solids in the aeration tank mixture gradually increased from 182 to 2. p. ed sludge (hours) suspend-- p. The plant was.P. therefore. of the substrate feed was oxidized in 4 hours. m.3 -34.3 17. Thus on March 25 the sewage feed had a 5-day B. 0. In tests Nos. 0. No significant changes appeared in the results from tests 7 and 8 except that.1 and 24. p.4) -58. p.4 -48. .0 . for some unexplained reason. suspended solids.8 98. m. D. 1 hour. of 8ubetrate sewage oxidized by activated sludge during development in experimental plant ActivatTime from start of ation aS (days) Percentage oxidation during the Indicated time /2 7.1707 September 23.6 (72. D.

The results obtained in the previous study (1) with pure culture sludges on synthetic and sterile domestic sewage are included in this table for comparison. .690 -----do--- I Actively nitrifying sludge. satisfaction were obtained. --113.2 23 6 33. 214 Raw sewsge_ do -177 & 9 21. oxidized as a resul of its addition to various types of activated 8ludge Mean ber of sludge detn pended mans. 6 2.63. 0.onnitrifying sludge. These data idicate that the percentage of the B.0 199.9 288 41. the oxidation of the substrate organic matter was carried into the nitrification stage for the first time. D. 0. D.-__ 1X 3 Type of sludge tons p. D. 0. Description J 5-day D 6 10 24 Activated sludge'I_ -4 Do 2 Do-11 Purecu1ture sludge J 8 12. 2'N. however.6 80.-Summary of mean percentages of 6-day substrate feed B. as indicated by the presence of nitrates in the dosed mixture. D.8 48 1 53. and 116 percent of the 5-day B.ped Substmte fed _ of y substt feed Percent B. D. than the tests on synthetic and on sterile sewage. odized Xn indlcted time (hours) .517175 12. p. D.SeptembW 2.780 Snhetic sad strl sewage.3 and 115 percent in 134 and 5 hours. SUMMARY OF SUBSTRATE OXIDATION PERFORMANCE A summary of the mean substrate organic matter oxidation performance obtained with various sludges when dosed with different substrates and calculated as described. 0. oxidations of 54. J'Nonnitrifying zoogle bacteria. 8 61. is shown in table 12 and illustrated in figure 4. m. and higher proportions thereafter. In test 9.0 2. With nitrifying sludges the highest percentages of 5-day substrate B. D. NU 1708 substrate oxidation was noted in test 8 after the fifth hour. 0 109 246 54.TABLE5 12. 0. 0. 0. respectively.8 . 166 12. for periods up to 3 hours.4 46. 8 2. of the substrate was oxidized in 5 hours.0 1. These sludges dosed with comparatively weak substrates indicated 5-day substrate B. of the substrate oxidized in activated sludge plant operation is much higher than has been generally realized. The mean result of 11 tests with raw sewage substrate oxidized by nonnitrifying activated sludge gave lower satisfaction of 5-day B.0 40. In the tests made on sterile and synthetic sewage the data indicate that activated sludge did not quite equal the performance of pure culture sludge in substrate organic matter oxidation.3 80.

oxidized by various types of activated sludge. - e 1%I ^ . D.n /4v S/ ¢ ~ ~ ~ /dchvukdit ~ ~ dv. k~~~~~~~~~~M u4 A v t v.fy..-Mean percentage of 5-day substrate feed B.U Se okvu Weog MfArv . .2 STR EA POLLUTION INVE$7: STATION 5 /0 AERATION 15 20 25' TIXME. /#Ii? Row lekdS/ .. 0.HMou#S FIGURE 4.C m GIf 20 5>+ tr/>{ t.1709P 1wtmbr 23 1938 .. A 144 - O N7 fr - wk S 4.

3 7.1 & 9. 7 83 -9 151 -10 3.5 8.6 10. obtained as described. During the same period the 24-hour oxygen requirement per gram of sludge was reduced from 185.9 1LO 11.2 70 -8 4. p.6 152 -11-154 -12 3.3 47 -6 2.3 1.9 40.5 81. tests 10 to 14 were made.300 18 7 2. 7 33.7 56 -7 4. From the sixth to the ninth test there was little change in the oxygen requirements of the sludge.3 35. From these data the quantities of oxygen used per gram of sludge have been calculated. TABLE 13.822 -2.35 14.5 10. 15 hours. m.-------------14 -121 9- 182 -00 -760 -1.0 2.5 28.9 '15.3 milligrams to 79.0 79. after the plant had been operating again for almost 30 days.m. 3 6.188-1.5 3. 2 15.1 .864 2.3 * P.7 3-1 -2 -3 -28 -4 7. are shown for experiments 2 to 10 in table 6 and for the series of tests on sludge development in table 9. It will be observed that the 4-hour oxygen requirement per gram of sludge was reduced progressively from 72.6 1.3 15.9 31.5 38.3 -22.4 155-____________ 13 -156 . Consequently the substrate liquor contained practically no organic food and the oxygen used by these mixtures can be ascribed to the oxidation of the sludge and to material previously adsorbed on the sludge floc. 1 hour.September 23.3 milligrams on the second test to 28. Sludge pended index solids.3 25.8 &1 7. 18 10. The quantities of oxygen used per gram of sludge during activated sludge development are shown in table 13.6-- 4.1 milligrams on the sixth test.080 -2. 1 12.4 69.848 -- 8. The oxygen requirements of the sludge.1 146. 1 130.8 72.982 28.7 i7 .3 '16 2 19.3 122. After the nintb test the plant was shut down for 38 days before it was started again.9 125.0 --15.0 -1& -14. 0 12. .4 8& 9 35.920 19. ~~~~~~ ~ cate ttime (hours) _ 2 3 4 _ 24 207.0 185.4 35 -5 5. 1 79. 1938 1710 OXIDATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE The control activated sludge mixtures used in all of these experiments contained the same quantities of sludge as the dosed mixtures and they were made up to volume with buffered dilution water after the old supernatant had been removed.7 8.6 22.462 25. In August 1936.448 19.5 &68 123.8 24.p.8 2.6 5. suspended solids divided by sludge volume in milliliters per liter after 30 minutes' settling.5 7.6 milligrams. Sus- Mg of 02 used 2 r gram 3 sludge in indi- cent Per- p. During this period the plant was operated on an 8-hour aeration period and the tests show that the oxygen requirement of the sludge reached mmum values.1 6 7.784 2&68 2.5 -18.-Quantity of oxygen used to oxidize sludge during activated sludge development in experimental plant Time from start of aeration (days) Test No.8 3 2 38.0 -17.4 14.

dependent upon temperatures.2 Developed on sterilesewage ----do feed. A " The quantities of oxygen used by sludges from other sources are shown in table 14. 9Triplicate portions of same Apr. It would seem justifiable to conclude from the data presented that the oxygen requirement of the sludge is an important criterion of sludge condition.9 0 .5 .22.7 _ 0. Pa.27. 5 77. the smaller will be the capacity remaning for inmediate oxidation of added substrate. 1936 . such tests were made on three multiple increments of sludge.42. 12Lancaster.8 -52.. There is.7 12 hours If.7 . as has been shown here.1 time (hours) 4 5 1}S 3 10 12 24 . .8 -91. 6 -25. and data are needed on a large variety of activated sludges before any conclusion can be reached regarding a mean oxygen requirement that would insure maximum efficiency in plant operation.3 -14. On April 24.-40.2 .7-31.1711 fte" .. in the oxygen requirement of the sludge alone.7 12.4 47.2 .7 . for its substrate oxidizing performance. considerable seasonal fluctuation.7 13. Pa.3 9. 13Feb.1 . 0 6.-Quantities of oxygen per gram of sliude used to oxidize activated sludge from various sources Mg of 02 used per gram of sludge in the indicated Origin of sludge Date.177.pM. From a biochemical standpoint this was the poorest of all sludges examined.16 1-.9 1._-__Feb. Several tests on sludge from the small experimental activated sludge plant at the station are also shown. Pureculturezoogeal bact -------- ---- 37 1L3 01 7. 22 Apr. 24 (4896) m Laboratory sludge: Mixed sewage culture: Deeloped on raw sewage Apr. The north-side Lancaster plant sludge had oxygen requirements per gram of sludge of the same order of magnitude as the sludge from the experimental plant after an activated sludge had been developed.& I 1 11. &7 1 0 --13. north plant Mar. In 24 hours it required as much oxygen as the sludge in the exprimental plant at the start of activated sludge development and twice as much as any activated sludge examined. it follows that the higher the oxygen requirement of the sludge alone. TABLEI 14.25.3 111. Apr. 24 (1632) sludge with Indicated Asus pr.4 -41.0 --11. the oxidation capacity of an activated sludge for short periods of aeration is definitely limited.89. 24 (3264) pended soldsin p.2 16. 5. south plant -. 4DoDo Apr.7 37.9 --6. as heretofore defined.20. 1936.6 10.O . the results of which indicate fair agreement.5 9 -40. 8Small experimental plant Do -Apr.. required more oxygen per gram than any other sludge examined.10. 16.6 115.0 20. Pa. apparently.2 6.4 -.41 --8.3 - 23.5 34. Lancaster. 9 &5 5.6. After the first 13%-hour period the sludge from the south-side plant at Lancaster.2 . was nil.4 86.64.

7 39. 2.8 27.0 28 5 46. TABLE 15.0 34.448 Sludge development test 62300 Sludge development test 7Sludge development test 8-2 900 Mean (nonnitrifying activated sludge) -2.2- 45. a direct relationship exists between the oxygen requirement of the sludge alone .0 151 172.7 37. pp. The B.3 38. The substrate oxidation capacity of the sludge.6 22. 170 233 137 173 168 176 123 78 79.8 4L 2 22. 5 31.2 35. Percentage of ox.5 -47. whether it is capable of nitrifying or not.448 Experiment 8 raw sewage-2. Factors 4 and 5 are dependent upon the proportions of sludge and nutrient substrate used in the test.4 186 -- 24.w sewage-_2. and 5 The concentration or quantity of sludge used.8 53.8 41.2 16. e. considerable variation in the percentage of oxygen required by the unfed sludge in the various experiments.7 31.3 34.2 31.5 51. 1 The following factors are apparently responsible for this variation: 1.Septmber 23.9 33.268 Experiment 7 rt.333 Mean (pure culture zoogleal sludge) . The oxygen requirement of the unfed sludge.2 35. 0. As (2) falls below this point (1) also falls.-Percentage of the total oxygen required by fed sludge mixture that is used by unfed sludge Sus. Similar percentage oxygen requirements of the pure culture sludge that was studied (1) are also shown. dependent upon the treatment that the sludge has undergone up to the time of the test.6 -42. Experi ent 10 raw sewage-_ 1.8 42.8 31. of the nutrient substrate..024 Experiment 6 raw sewage2.1 62.7 49. however. The data indicate that the percentage oxygen requirement of the unfed sludge is considerably higher for apparently normal nonnitrifying sludge than for pure culture sludge.4 72 2 1.m_ xEperiment 4 C raw sewage 2. 3. vacti sludge. The type of sludge (i.0 27.4 55. p. 9 32.784 2.816 Experiment 9 raw sewage -_-2.0 strate sub 4 to 1 to 2 4 to 5 10 24 41.1 46. There is. D.3 22.ygen used by the sludge alone in indicated time (hours) 3 Activated sludge used (only nonnitrifying sludges were included) solids. An actively nitrifying sludge has a very high value for (1) (as ammonia is also being oxidized) and a fairly low value for (2).0 53. 1938 1712 PERCENTAGE OF OXYGEN USED BY THE UNFED SLUDGE The percentage of the total oxygen required by the fed sludge mixture that is used by the unfed sludge has been calculated for a number of experiments and the results are given in table 15.5-day pended B. 0.5 40. 8 31.9 37.8 40.8 21.5 25.5 3& 8 50.9 25. adfded. if given the proper nutrient substrate).2 16. 690 36 2 14.462 Sludge development test 51.2 -48. T'he first three of these are primary factors.2 33. p. 4. If similar quantities of sludge are dosed with somewhat similar quantities of nutrient substrate.8 550 49. The first two factors are inversely related until (2) reaches a fairly low value where (1) is a maximum.9 176.0 35.

-Relatio. of the substrate food added. This is illustrated by the multiple substrate food experiments which indicate that the oxidation obtained during the early t 0 O /0 R Sr4= ~~~~~~~Sr*eAMPoLUV£vvs rION 80 70 60 20 4D 403D Parar UPf re. D. 0.=L[e(1o~k*')+b(1o~ksi)J to represent them. This relationship is indicated in figure 5. depending upon a number of factors.1713 SqMIbeN2 and the percntage that his quantity of oxygen is of the total used by the dosed mixture. It has been shown that in 5 hours the increased quantityr of oxygen used as a result of the addition.Consequently no fixed formula can be given that wvill represent the reactsion for activated sludge withOUt further definition and limitation of the term activated sludge. (4-hour aeration time data. However. The velocity constants in the above expression for the oxridation reaction will vary considerably.of sewage to activated sludge varies from about 20 to more than 100 percent of the 5-day B.) hours is not proportional to the B. DISCUSSION The oidizing rates of good activated sludges are high after dosing when compared with the rate of natural biochemical oxidation.. 0.n betwen the quntibtyofoye used to stabilize the sludge alone and the percentage that thlS oxye Is of the total oyen used in a dosed aeration mlsture. On account of the high rates of oxidation obtained with freshly dosed activated sludge mixtures.s OX?W tD OY SLV8 Ato'v FIOua 5. D. of the . the oxridation reaction results cannot be fitted by the unimolecular expression but requie the formula y. this oxidation capacity developed by the sludge is definitely limited. The capacity to oxidize substrate food at high rates is developed in the sludge as a result of continuous feeding and proper aerobic conditions which promote the development of enormous numbers of bacteria.

The variability of the oxygen requirement of return activated sludge and of its substrate oxidation capacity indicates that practical tests to measure these characteristics would be valuable aids in plant operation. the substrate oxidation capacity also falls. This may happen during sludge reaeration. requires more air for the process. Practical tests for the determination of these criteria in conjunction with sludge index and the other common tests should be very valuable aids in plant operation. and Smith (14) have also presented studies on rates of oxygen utilization of sludge sewage mixtures with the object of plant control. If the oxygen requirement of the sludge falls too low. and will produce slightly smaller quantities (dry weight. The harmful effect caused in this manner by reaeration has been demonstrated by Bottcher (10). They used a unimolecular rate curve for this reaction and according to their calculations 60 percent of the air used during a 5-hour period should be applied 2 The total volume will depend upon other factors. Jenks and Levine (11) have discussed the theoretical rate of oxygen requirement of the activated sludge process on the assumption that the rate of air supply should be adjusted to the diminishing demand. On the other hand. 171 1714 sewage. Additional studies on activated sludge which have been completed since the data presented here were obtained have confirmed the conclusion that the oxygen requirement of a sludge and the substrate oxidizing capacity are valuable and important measures of sludge condition.September 23. D. 0. not volume) of sludge to be wasted. Tests of this kind have been applied in the operation of the plant at Indianapolis and have been described recently by Bloodgood (9). carrying higher concentrations of sludge in the aeration tank than necessary to maintain a maximum substrate oxidizing efficiency tends to oxidize larger quantities of the sludge itself. not volume2) of sludge. that about 30 to 70 percent of the oxygen absorbed by a freshly dosed activated sludge is used by the sludge alone to oxidize previously adsorbed food material. Spiegel. It would seem that. from the standpoint of economy of oxygen consumption. The oxygen requirement of the sludge for 5 hours varies from about 10 to 40 milligrams per gram of sludge. removal capacity. Kappe. Also. a plant will produce slightly larger quantities (dry weight. The relative quantities of oxygen necessary for biochemical oxidation by activated sludge during successive portions of the aeration period are of practical interest in plant operation. Operated in this manner. a plant will be operated most efficiently when the smallest quantity of activated sludge that will permit the maintenance of the sludge in an optimum oxidizing state is carried in the aeration tank. These criteria are more sensitive indicators of change in sludge condition than other chemical tests such as percentage of ash or substrate B. .

of suspended . D. the larger the proportion of sludge solids the more uniform the rate of oxygen utilization. and 11.500 p. With sludges of average or low oxygen requrements.0 20. Hurwitz. D. of 175 p. and Mohiman (12) pointed out that this rapidly decreasing oxygen requirement would not be obtained in the presence of activated sludge.5 8. south plant- during the first hour. as shown in table 12. Using a substrate feed with a 5-day B. 0. north plant. -12 Mar.5 3. Grant. tests 10 and 12 Table 14. 4.1715 September 28.0 4. about 50 percent of the oxygen required for substrate oxidation in a 6-hour aeration period was used during the first 2 hours of the period. Lancaster. from the standpoint of biochemical oxidation. about 28 percent during the second 2 hours. Lancaster. Accordingly.5 The percentage of the oxygen used during the 6-hour aeration period that was required in each 2-hour period for each of these sludges was about as follows: Oxygen requirement of sludge Low Average High - Substrate oxidizing capacity period 50 First Second period period 20 24 Third -- Good Eoellt _ Poor -40 31 29 _-48--- 30 28 These data seem to indicate that the amount of air tapering permissible in a plant. as shown in tables 13 and 14 for sludge having low. m. the milligrams of oxygen per gram of sludge necessary for each 2-hour aeration period were about as follows: Oxygen require. 24 percent during the second hour. Their data indicate that the rate of utilization of the oxygen by activated sludge was linear and. was plotted. and high oxygen requirements. is dependent upon the oxygen requirement of the sludge itself. and 16 per- First Second Third period period period &0 14.5 percent during the third 2-hour period.0 7. average. Substrate oxidizlug capacity ment of sludge Good -_ Low_ Excellent Average -Poor High from dta iii Table 13. When the mean rate of substrate oxidation by nonnitrifying sludges. Feb. and Table 14. p. When the oxygen requirements per gram. 0. the oxygen requirement of the mixed liquor for each 2-hour period will be very nearly equal to the proportional requirement of the substrate oxidation accomplished regardless of the quantity of activated sludge. therefore. p. and a nonnitrifying sludge of average oxygen requirement containing 2. were plotted. of the substrate was oxidized during the first 2 hours of the aeration period. it was found that approximately 25 percent of the 5-day B.0 15. 14 percent during the second 2-hour period. and 22 percent during the third 2-hour period. 0 14. m. 1938 cent during the last 3 hours.

(3) That the.5 87.SLUDOG (AVERAGE) 175XO. 5-day B. Calif. from 55 to 70 percent of the total air was applied to the first half of the aeration tanks and that this percentage increased with high sewage flows or bulked sludge. but the formula y=L. 5X0.28=24. mTotal for aeration mixture This indicates that about 49 percent of the oxygen required during a 6-hour aeration period is used during the first 2 hours. more nearly represents the reaction. If a mixture cont g sludge with a high oxygen requirement was used.50=43.5XO.0 2.. SUMMARY The results and conclusions of practical interest that seem warranted from this study may be summarized as follows: (1) That the oxridation rates in activated sludge vary considerably depending upon the conditions of operation.September 23.50=87. 0.1 at 200 C.5XO.24-17.m.4 44. The rates expressed in milligrams of oxygen per liter per hour are naturally very much higher in the activated sludge process than in streams. the proportion of oxygen necessary in each 2-hour period would tend to approach the values shown above for the sludge of poor substrate oxidizing capacity. then. the oxidation reaction data cannot be fitted to the above expression. development of a mass of bacteria by the application of food and maintenance of proper aerobic conditions for their rapid propagation is the explanation for the high rate of biochemical oxidation obtained in the activated sludge process. the number of milligrams of oxygen required per liter for each portion of the aeration period may be estimated as follows: Total required in 6 hours SUBSTRATE First period Second perlod Third period 1. is accepted as representing normal biochemical oxidation as it ordinarily occurs in streams.3 2.8 36. 1938 1716 solids. p. D.7 87. The unimolecular expression y=(110-tii) with a k of 0.5X0.. 5X29 =72.5 160.8 72.22=19. (2) That oxidation rates are obtaine(d in the activated sludge process very much greater than the normal biochemical oxidation rate observed in streams. Haseltine (13) points out that.5p.3 72.48=34. 28 percent during the second 2 hours. When an activated sludge is dosed.500 p. with increasing quantities of sludge.[a(1Oit))+ b(1o-k2)] with k values indicating higher rates.5XO.7 78.5 87. and 23 percent during the third 2 hours.28=2D.5 72. however. In any case the elapsed time and the nature of treatment of the sludge from the time it left the effluent of the aeration tank until it was returned to the influent would influence the proportion of oxygen required during the first 2 hours of aeration. p. at Salinas.5XO. .

0. thus enabling a much quicker discovery of unsatisfactory conditions and a correction of the difficulties before they become unmanageable. It is probable that observations of oxygen utilization during an aeration period of 1 to 4 hours with the simplest apparatus would be most useful for practical plant control operations. with the apparatus described by Bloodgood (9) or by other apparatus and methods. This information is of particular value because it is obtained after a relatively short observation period. 0. the control sludge required only about 30 to 50 percent of the oxygen used by the fed mixture during a 5-hour aeration period. 0. m. The limits given are rather wide. the knowledge of the quantities of oxygen used by the control and fed sludge mixtures will enable the operator quickly and more effectively to control plant operation. it is found that usually from 40 to 50 percent of the 5-day substrate feed 872060--38B--- . The quantity of oxygen used per gram of suspended solids for a good unfed (return) sludge seems to vary from about 10 to 30 milligrams in 5 hours. After some experience has been obtained on any particular plant. The quantity of oxygen used as a result of the addition of a given increment of substrate is an index of the oxidizing activity of the sludge. With nonnitrifying activated sludges fed with substrates with a 5-day B. of the substrate added. (8) When the oxygen utilized as a result of the addition of substrate to activated sludge is taken as a measure of substrate oxidation and calculated in terms of the 5-day B. (5) That the quantity of oxygen used by the unfed or control sludge portion is a criterion of sludge condition. D. Such observations may be made with the methods and apparatus described in the previous paper of this series (1). The additional oxygen used by the sludge as a result of the addition of the substrate is tentatively ascribed to the oxidation of substrate. Experience at any particular plant will indicate the optimum range of oxygen requirement of the sludge for the operation cycle at that plant.1717 1 7ptembe 23. but it is possible that some activated sludges may have a 5-hour oxygen demand somewhat higher than 30 millgrams of oxygen per gram of suspended solids and still be fairly good sludges. D. p..f the substrate is not proportional to the B. (6) With good activated sludges the fed activated sludge portion uses considerably more oxygen than the control or unfed portion. (7) It is shown that the quantity of oxygen utilized as a result of the addition 4. D. of 80 to 200 p. I193 (4) That independent observations on the quantities of oxygen required by a fed and unfed portion of an activated sludge result in valuable information on sludge condition and plant operation. of the substrate added but seems to be dependent upon the biochemical character and activity of the sludge used.

Pub. (6) Theriault. J. C. Don E. (4) McNamee. . V.. Eng. Rate of disappearance of oxygen in sludge. 1475. (3) Theriault. a quantity of oxygen representing more than 100 percent of the 5-day B.. p. and Levine. L.. I93 1718 B.: Oxygen utilization by activated sludge. VI. 22: 1339 (1930). and McNamee. of the substrate oxidized (determined as above) is gradually increased during the development of activated sludge in a plant until the above values are reached. Sewage Works J. (7) Moore.: A stream-flow sewage treatment process. Eng. (14) Spiegel. 51: 1034 (1936). Biochemical oxidation by sludges developed by pure cultures of bacteria isolated from activated sludge. Health Rep. D. Health Rep..: Studies of sewage purification. T. F. and Smith.. 59: 67 (1936). U. 0. but rather that each plant will require a different optimum quantity of sludge dependent upon the character and strength of sewage and cycle of operations of that individual plant. Health Rep. 0. (10) The rapid reduction in the oxygen requirement of fed activated sludges due to the rapid oxidation of suibstrate indicates the practicability of tapered aeration in plant operation. 2: 228 (1930). F.. 9: 173 (1937). J. E. 10: 26 (1938). P. D. REFERENCES (1) Butterfield. 1931). m. (9) Bloodgood.: Oxidation of sewage by activated sludge. Edward W.. 1480. no more sludge than is necessary to maintain a satisfactory plant effluent should be carried for the most economical operation. H. T. D. Hurwitz. J. McNamee. M. 84: 167 (1937). U. (8) Kessler.: Unpublished data... Sewage Works J. P. Reprint No.: Experiences in the regeneration of activated ludge at the Stahnsdord Sewage Works of Berlin. of the substrate added may be used in 5 hours as the result of the addition.. (10) Botteher.: Experimental studies of natural purification in polluted waters..: Control of the activated sludge process. (2) Theriault. L. W. Public Health Service (1927). S. D. S. C.. P. is oxidized in 5 hours by nonnitrifying activated sludge. C. T.. News-Record. Sewage Works J. E.. The selection of dilution waters for use in oxygen demand tests. 46: 1084 (May 8.. S. 0. 9: 12 (1937). (9) It is shown that the percentage of the 5-day B. 7: 810 (1935). Pub. Milton. D.. Sewage Works J. Health Rep. (11) Jenks. J. 52: 387 (1937).: The oxygen demand of poluted waters. P. Sewage Works J. and McNamee.. Pub. 1933. (5) Theriault. S.: The oxygen demand of mixtures of activated sludge and sewage.. C. Water Works and Sewerage. D. and Mohlman. Reprint No. Gesundheits Ingenieur. and Nichols.. Pub. VI. Gilbert M. (12) Grant. E. E.: The oxygen requirements of the activated sludge process. 173. 100: 808 (1928). Chem.) 5-day oxygen demand is added to a nitrifying activated sludge. Stanley E. In general. Pub. J. Ruchhoft.: Operating control tests for the activated sludge process. If a substrate having a rather low (100 p. H.. D. Ind. 1931). G. Water Works and Sewerage. 46: 1301 (May 29. 84: 121 (1937). Max.September 23. P. (11) The study indicates that there is no single optimum quantity of activated sludge that should be carried in all plants. D.: Experimental studies of natural purification in polluted waters. Kappe. Health Bull. Public Health Service. (13) Haseltine. E. and McNamee. and Butterfield..: Studies of activated sludge oxidation at Indianapolis.

Section I emphasizes the following points: The 4. The 597 mental hospitals have in excess of one-half million beds." gives a panoramic view of the medical type. The other 40 percent include a number that were newly established and many that were discontinued." should present much valuable information. privately owned." presents information regarding the extent to which such factors as control. -Even so. mental hospitals are often filled to more than their rated capacity. I Public Health Bulletin No. 243. The second section. Government Printing Office. control. thus signifying that their average size is large. C. entitled "Trends in Hospital Development. Inclusion of a number of charts and tables augments its usefulness as reference material. During the period covered by the study reported in the second section of the bulletin. entitled "Hospital Facilities in the United States. about 60 percent of the 8. and to those seeking a more adequate distribution of such accommodations. one-half of which have less than 50 beds each. The loss of facilities as revealed by the data is actually more apparent than real. Nonprofit organizations lead as the sponsors of general and special hospitals. represent an aggregate capacity of 451. on the other hand. and location have motivated stability of existence during the indicated span. "Selected Characteristics of Hospital Facilities in 1936. and use of hospitals which operated in 1936 and the relationship of these facilities to population groups. The first section of this publication. size. and located in populous counties comparatively well supplied with hospital facilities. Tuberculosis sanatoria are of moderate size. 506 registered institutions of this type having about 71. The institutions that failed to survive were for the most part small ones.1719epteb 3.841 registered general and special hospitals in the United States.000 beds. mental and tuberculosis institutions are pimarily tax-supported.000 beds. 10 cents. The southem States have relatively few hospital facilities of all types. HOSPITAL FACILITIS IN THE UNITED STATES To those persons interested in supply and demakid as it applies to hospital facilities. . while States of the Mountain and Pacific areas and those of the middle Atlantic seaboard rank much more favorably when accommodations are related to population. a recent bulletin 1 issued by the Public Health Service. size.191 registered hospitals under analysis maintained continuous e2istence.im 1719 . D. 1928-1936. Washington.

766 Policies in fore-------------------------------11.000 policies.000 policies in force. 048 --Number of death claims 8. 500 Deaths under 1 year of age-1514 Average for 3 prior years-Deaths under 1 year of age. 5B8 1507 20038 69.September 23.-18. 9.478 811. 1938 ing week. first 35 weeks of year. 3. 1937 Data from 88 large cities of the United States: 7.573 11.041 &3 10. 1938 [From the Weekly Health Index. Department of Commereol Week ended CorrespondSept. first 35 weeks of year -. 4 annual rate Death claims per 1.3 Death claims per 1.030 _ Total deaths -.052 Average for 3 prior years_ 287.--85 Data from Industrial Insurne companies: 68.643 Total deaths. 17.770. first 35 weeks of year . issued by the Bureau of the Census.1 . -1 7. annual rate 1 Data for 86 cities. 16 1720 DEATHS DURING WEEK ENDED SEPTEMBER 3.328.

18 6 18 14 7 11 2 13 3 10 22 12 a 7 4 4 30 16 14 9 17 115 36 7 45 21 28 66 9 67 19 7 16 13 31 7 3 4 2 2 5 -11 Ohio 11 Indiana 7 Illinois _2 _ Michigan -_ 4 Wisconsin W. Sept. 10. and under what conditions cases are occurring UNITED STATES CURRENT WEEKLY STATE REPORTS These reports are preliminary. 11. Sept. 13. with the implication that cases or deaths may have occurred but were not reported to the State health officer. 1933. CEN. wbile lealers (. Sept.Sept. NO0. Sept. 193337 10. 10. 37 1938. a zero (0) indicates a positive report and has the same significanoe as any other figure. where. - 12 8 20 4 22 19 20 9 4 --- 21 6 14 9 16 7 ----13 30 9 14 11 7 6 11 53 9 14 14 30 2 13 15 0 2 0O 3 10 26 13 --4 2 5 0 3 3 6 5--5 10 1 23 9 7 13 5 19 21 12 7 5 ----37 2 1 -01----------2 6 1 11 4 4 1 1 7--8 (1721) . Cases of certain diseases reported by telegraph by State health officers for the week ended September 10. ATL - 1 ----0 14 ----0 ----35 3 0---------1 1 9 3 11 24 6 a 23 ----11 1 30 3 74 13 27 12 6 21 13 1 1 a 12 11 3 92 8 2 15 1 6 -7 New York 7 New Jersey9 Pennsylvania. Sept. 1193. and the figures are subject to change when later returns are received by the State health offieers.) represent no report. 11. 1937 m37 rate c cases dian rate cass cass dian rate cases cases dian 111W 11G. Minnesota -4 Iowa 27 20 Missouri 0 North Dakota 15 South Dakota Nebrask-0 Kansas 8 See footnotes at end of table. N. 1938. 1938. and comparison with corresponding week of 1937 and 6-year median Diphtheria Measles Division and State Sept. CIN.PREVALENCE OF DISEASE No health department. 1933. 0 _-O-O-6 ConnectictIMI. 10. 10. 11. 37 10. 12 2 0 Maine0 0 0 New Hampshire1 -14 1 Vermont 2 4 8 Massachusetts 0 0 0Rhode Island.000 population (annual basis).Sept. In these and the following tables. can effectively prevent or control disease without knowledge of when.--Z. Sept. 11. me10. rates p'er 100. 10. me 138. State or local.

000 population (annual basis). s d_an 0 -----i 31 14 18 19 16 7 5. 10. 1933. 10. 1938. North Carolina k South Carolina ' Georgia 4 Florida 4 1C. 295275.September 21. AT.Sept. and comparison with corresponding week of 1937 and 6-year median-Continued Diphtheria Influenza Measle Divi^sion and State Be-8ept Sept.Sept. 7771 66147. Sept. 11.--Vermont Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut MID. CNN.0 9 31 53 79 87 63 12 94 94 58 _ 36 2 5 18 41 3 41 145 3 63 89 630 4 3 20 3 15 6 4 3 5 2 30 2 2 3 2 14 .2 1 _- - - 18 4 3 3 2 1 1 3 1 2 2 9 46 I 21 63 74 21 20L45 1684 13 4 23 438 I 8691762. 1933. 11.I 17 11 8 3 2 3 15 ------i 6 2 14 12 9 5 1 14 6 9 5 33 3 3 23 40 47 3 61 3 3 14 8 103 7 6 17 64 3 17 7 3 . 1937._--_ 14 Utah 3 0 10 01 PACIFC a 1---___ 3 Washington7 0 71 20 41 1 Oregon 11 5 24 11 12 20 6 13 California24J 479 330f 34Sf 453 607 24 588 Total .Be 11. MaineNew Hampshire. Sept. rate Poliomyelitis 1937. 80. 10. Sept. 1938. Sept. me- Sept. 12 33 73 28 118 142 85 25 25 63 63 64 59 10 29 36 0 26 1 4 4 38 10 79 51 50 8 14 35 35 25 23 4 14 43 0 0 1 10 4 6 C 3 37 7 36 24 31 4 II I 22 Wyoming 2 49 Colorado----49 New Mexico--13 Aiizona . 37 1 10. Montana Kentucky- 14 31 19 9 4 11 29 26 01 I I 10 i11 I I a 11 0 5 5 0 4 1 0 2 2 0 4 1722 1933. Sept. I Sept. 6 0 0 24 0 3 0. 998 14. me. 1938. median rate ca me. 193337 10.304 _ Idaho- Tennessee -----Alabama 4 Mississippi 3 W. Sept.1938. CNN.4701243. 10. 1937. 1938. DelawareMaryland 2 3-Dist.2 4 9 8 91 13 91 13 202a 40 61 17 go 38 19 76 . 10. A. me.1938. 11. 1938. 1938. Sept. cases cases dan 37 10. 1938. 1937.2371343. I 1937 rate casesc ca 37 medisa NEW ZNG. meningococcus Division and State Sept. 1L 19 38. 1938. 1933. 10. 4541142. 36 weeks -1815. rates per 100. ArkansasLouisanaOklahomaTexas 4 NOUNTAN . of Coal Virginia 2 West Virginta. 19331.Se t.50. 1938 Cases of certain diseases reported by telegraph by State health officers for the week ended September 10.I 2 2 i II 4 179 21 . 37 37 1938. 870119.8 0 I 0 0 c I I 0 1 0 j 12 0 0 2 L2 0 9 01 1 a 12 0 1 44 0 a 6 C is 23 0 a 95 2S 214 0 1 8 38 8 8 3 8 a New York New Jersey ------- Pennsylvania SOe footnote at end of table 1.2 C 493 . Sept. 1. 11.283 Scarlet fever Meningitis. 1937 rate cases cases dian rate cases cases 50.

11. ATL. 0 Ohio Indiana -0 Ilhinob as _-_-_ 2.1 0 -Wisc W.0 Dist of Col 4 Virginia 2 11 West Virginia North Carolina'--.Sept. an s 0 Michigan -1. 1933..90embw u CaseJ cera disam report by telegraph by State heath offers for the week September 10.5 5 7 2 4 1 4 0 6 0 6 2 0 00 0 0 00 1 1 10 4 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 2 2 0 66 18 130 49 19 30 26 36 1 4 27 20 5 11 0 3 2 1 1 0 4 4 3 7 10 15 3 22 14 4 a 40 53 61 90 82 57 45 b2 35 92 83 46 88 17 78 61 26 18 25 43 0 3 1 37 0 15 3 16 29 20 1 15 1 26 25 17 12 111 40 128 50 41 18 18 32 2 8 9 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 2 0 00 5 4 3 1 2 1 5 38 81 .6 Sept. Sept.000 population (annual basiu).8 Tennesse 1. 50. cases ta 1938.8 Kentuky 1. 19& 1937. 1937 193337 me..I938. 0 4 1 0 2 1 1 2 1 0 0. Sept. cam cam dian rate cases t rate ate i N. 31 20 35 10 42 4 14 65 7 65 11 Total----36 wees-2.24 0 New MexicoArizona-0 0---. 1_.5 0 6 0 3 1 00 1 0 1 7 00 1 0 00 00 1 2.5121 4e9821 361j 1.Iowa --0 O-0 Missouri North Dakota . NO.50 87 40 43 8 35 53 51 33 22 12 79 50 20 68 29 11 9 13 31 2 14 1 18 19 34 12 13 4 44 28 11 22 29 18 Delawarme -0 O0 8 Maryland . sept..3 South Carolina 4---.0 0 0 South DakotaNebraska -4 0 Kansas-050.1 1571139. 1938.. 1988. 1. and compzrson with corresponding week of 1937 and 6-year meian-Continued m" "m"al on' Poliomyolitb I Srlet fevr DIVISIOn and State sept. CNN. 11. me1938.Sept. 1.1641 43X16 4 e33 1 25X1 X201 1.4901167. -1: 1. CNN. Sept.0 1.4~ . rats per 100. 717i167.8 Alabama 4 2. 11. CNCN.44~73I~~ ~~~73 . CNN.023f 9101 41f. 1937.5 0 1 0 4 3 1 0 0 0 4 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 15 6 19 29 36 3 9 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 23 9 8 1 13 50 4 1 1 5 5 5 42 27 17 9 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 12 7 14 21 1 0 2 21 1 2 5 2 4 37 817 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 3 20 2 27 42 9 3 8 24 5 2 2 8 5 5 12 6 3 8 24 8 2 4 8 5 2 " 9 012 00 00 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 39 24 62 29 11 63 40 4 0 Washington. c1938. 50. 10 10.4=3I 4.1723 SePt.8 2 1. 0 Minnesota.31 - 5. 490 Se footnotes at end of table.O Utah-0 PACIFC 0 0 0 2 4 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 5 0 0 O 0 0 0 00 1 3 0 17 2 4 1 0 1 1. 10. 37 io.7 Georgia4 6 Florida 4 N. -. . sept. 10. NO.-0 Oregon Ca --fornia.0 1 1 1 1 0 00 2 4 0 0 5 1 25. Ark-ansas-0 0 Lolisiana0 OklahomaL Texas4----------MOUNTAIn 10 MontanaIdaho-0 _ 0 Wyoming3Colorado . me.6 Missiwippi 4 W. 37 IA.

0_ 0 Connecticut ct MMD. ATI. CZN. 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0- 28 23 2 0 1 5 3 0 9 1 43 16 24 28 2 11 49 9 17 7 32 27 147 88 26 14 74 35 13 0 _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 9 8 23 31 13 25 33 2 1 0 13 19 9 19 23 5 40 39 21 10 53 62 75 220 245 44 4 58 19 15 19 - Kentucky-Tennessee-0 4 Alabama'-------Mississippi "4----___________ W. NO. CNN. rat case cae eas I 18 10 7 0 0 Maine _0 New Hampshire ______ 0 Vermonm _o_____0 Massachusetts ORhode eIsnd d. 1938.10. 50.-1_ Wisconsin ____ __-W. 1.20 2 3 1 13 8 7 2 1 a 358 42 111 151 31 191 37 31 7 4 19 4 5 2 1 1 . Ohio -___ Indiana -__-----Illinois 2 _-0 Michigan . cam a 3._ 18 . l rate I ._---0 0 0 NorthDakota south Dakota_-0 O-0 O0_ 0 s-0 Nebrska 1 Kansas -3 50.-. _. and comparuon with cr4podin week @ 1937 and 6-year median-Continued Sma_pox Division and 8tate Typhoid and pamtyphold lbver 1 Whooping oough Sept. 81 6 29 40 38 14 39 19 52 132 63 23 0 6 3 0 0 3 3 1 0 1 2 0 0 O 0 0 0 s5 47 24 12 29 98019 4 18 48 4 1 2 6 12 12 20 23 48 41 47 34 64 16 23 Montana _---------Idaho-0 Wyom Ing -. 10. 50. 10. Arkansas-0 Louisiana -----------------Oklahoma _Texas 4--MOUNTAIN 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 O0 68 0 0 0 25 1 0 73 13 . 1 5 2 1 3 0 1 1 17 21 23 12 9 6 10 37 15 0 4 14 20 28 67 44 87 19 70 22 14 35 11 5 3 5 101 3 35 1 3 2 2 68 11 47 16 3 2 5 23 3 2 1 12 1 12 2 34 3 Minnesota -6 0 Iowa-0 O Missouri _-.icers for the wk ended ber 10 1988. I 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 O0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 t 1 I I 3 1 0O 6 3 44 8 0 2 1 0 0 a 1 1 0 368 1 158 6 52 63 27 26 0 Pennsylvania - 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 1 3 2 1 1 18 7 9 18 6 20 14 33 33 301 21398 14 318 266 129 252 77 11 300 249 683 85 33 31 207 15 42 137 99 7 454 231 383 N.. Sept. Sept. SePt.00X population (annual basie).ofC-0 0 2 -0 Virginia 0 West Virginia _-0 0 -0 North Carolina 0 South Carolina 4 _-0 Georgia 4 _-0-0 Florida 4 -0 ]C. ian 1938. 1937. 11' me. SePt. 10. SePt.1724 Septembr 2. 37._ Colorado -10 New Mexioo __--O--0 Arizona -O------Utah See footnotes at end of tabla - 10 0 3 1 2 10 32 1 4 1 0 0 0 0 O-. 1933. CNN.. 10zie 1 "a 1937 m rate 0O 0 Sept. AML York-0 New New Jersey-0 NEW ENG. 0 Delaware-0 0 _ Maryland s 0 DLst. SePt. 19 Cas of certain diease8 reported by telegraph by State healh o. rates per 100. No.. 1 10. CNN.

Sept. 1938..ul19388 Arizona South Carolin Aug"s IM 1. Missisippi.764 1. cas 198 19197 I Bset. 4. rate cas PAICM Washington Oregon-_ Califonia Total -2 _ _ - 31 25 3 1 5 4 11 4 2 8 28 41 56 10 13 25 11 7 2 15 614 8 3 27 3 5 15 753 63 132 9 20 20 116 8B weeks. Wyoming.887 10.phoid pox sfever poxt June 1IN8 Arizona __ Puerto Roo South Carolina 1 0 _ 2 -- 20 29 62 6 93 88 50 245 57 366 2. Georgia. rate Sepu-OP 11.000 populi"on (annual basis). week ended Sept. I Rocky Motain spott Virgsnla. Florida. cea Mm _ d Sept.40 9.10 8. Te. 3.theria gocoo- gii. * Typhus fever.1 12 6 7 _ ---0 37 2 2 0 0 14 8 1 0 102 12 5 62 29 118 2 . fever. 10. and Whooping cough 1938. 10.1725 b Cases of certain disese.Delaware -0 Indiana -3 New Mexico West Vrnla .339 185155. 19819 1938. 1..243 0 11 86 Aranss-3CO LitD . erod ended earlier than Saturday. 1938. 1. 20. 10. 10. 13 cases as follows: Illinok. Sept. and comparison with coreapuing week of 1937 and 5-pear medimn-Continued Typboid and pratyphold fever DivisionStat. 197.028 1 New York City ony. 1. Aaa.. 1988. 71 caes as follows: South Carolina. I19 IO. 1938.136 5. 10. case rate Sept. 1. 10.%00 11. week ended Sept. Maryland.-________________ 14 12. 30. SUMMARY OF MONTHLY REPORTS FROM STATES The following summary of cse reported monthly by States b published weekly and covers only thos States from which reports are received during the current week: Menin- state menm. 1 Wyoming- 0 O 4 0 44 2 3 26 10 27 2 64 8 14 2 48 29 1 3 23 . 3. 1. North Carolina. reported by ilegraph by State healh officers for the week ended September 10.Diph- Influ- enza Ma- Mea- Pd- | Poi- yeS litis Scarlet fever Ty Small.471 143 3.445 3 846 2 310 103 229 64 18 2 2 231 3 363 110 1 1 0 0 1 3 4 3 O 0_ 1 0 3 14 0 8 12 11 32 22 3 74 11 45 8 45 0 0 40 41 46 . 10. 7. 4. rates per 100.

6 Typhus fever: 9 New Mexico (unspeciSouth Carolina . Paratyphoid fever: Arkans s----a Connecticut __ Puerperalsepticemia: Arkansas Rabes in animals: -Arkansas Connecticut-. and in a pool of 256 fleas from 10 ground squirrels shot August 24.__ Wyoming-6 Puerperal septicemia: 8 Conjunctivitis.---Wyoming-_ ___-_ Vincent's infection: 8 4 2 3 1 6 1 1 Wyoming Whooping cough: Arkaun -----Connecticut__---Delaware -______----India na-----._ West virgida -Tetanus: Connecticut -----Trachoma: Arkans -. R. 354 45 DiarrheaSouth Carolina 4 DysenteryDysentery: 48 German measls 10 Arizona 39 Hookworm disease_ 124 Puerto Rico or -93 Encephalitis._ 20 Trachoma: bi) 45 Arizona-____--_______ 12 Connecticult (bacillary). NEW MEXICO Under date of September 7. Diarrhea: Tetanus: 13 New Mexico-26 RicoPuerto 5 Dyetery: South Carolina -30 Arkansas (baclllsy).NeW Meico _-West Virginia Wyoming _ Ophthahnhaneonatorui Arkanas_--Neow Mexio ._ 54 1._._ New Mexioo -----West Virginia ______ Wyoming. ____ 2 41 260 19 40 70 108 13 PLAGUE INFECTION IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING IN PRAIRIE DOGS AND IN FLEAS FROM PRAIRIE DOGS AND GROUND SQUIRRELS IN CATRON COUNTY.__-_ fied)-7 Whooping Cough: West Viria (amoe136 Arizona -_ _ Puerto Rio _. . a 8 --New Mexico Mumps 1 83 Trachoma __--_ WVyoming -____1 5 Hook:worm disease: Undulant fever ____ Aransas __c 130 Whooping cough --- Mumps: Cas ----------- 20 64 2 8 2 1 9 j 4 1 39 1 11 4 Delaw _-Indiana .CannecticutoChickenpox _ 15 ___ 81 Food poisoning: DysenteryNew Mexico ---------1 Encephalitis. Tularsemia: Arkansas ---------Ne* Mexico -----Wyoming _-. epidemic 1 German measles: or lethargic Connecticut _________y 7 German meaqles .._ Indiana Rocky Mountain spotted fever: _ Summary of monthly report from States-Continued isse JWl 1988-Continued Cases Chickenpox: 4Das South Carolina: 72 42 Chickenpox Arizona _--_ Dengue 1 Puerto Rioo _.12 South Carolina _-__ Rabies in animals25 PFlariasis: 1 Tetanus -Puerto Rico ___ 2 Tulamemia . Eskey.204 West Virgnia (bacil300 South Carolina .__-.._Wyoming --------Septic sore throat: ArkansasConnecticut-_-_-__ New Mexico.5 Arizona12 1 Undulant fever-_ South CarolinaWhooping cough -.Septemb m 1726 Ast 19#8-Ctinued _ Arkans --Connect i-Delaware Indiana . 25 miles northeast of Reserve. 1938.523 Hookworm disease: 76 21 South CarolinaAugt INS Mumps: 10 Chickenpox: Arizona Arkansas -_--_ 4 South Carolina-31 Connecticut-25 Ophthalmia neonatorum: 2 Delaware _1 Puerto Rico -9 IndianaSouth Carolina -12 New MexicoParatyphoid fever: 15 West Virginia 6 South Carolina . epidemic Mumps lethargic: Ophthalria neonato1 ruin--------. Infectious: Puerto Rico _ Connecticut-4 Rabies in animals: 18 New Mexicoo-2 South Carolina_-_. reported plague infection proved in prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni zuniensis) and in pools of fleas from prairie dogs and ground squirrels (Citellus grammurus) in Catron County as follows: In tissue from one prairie dog shot August 13.-German measles: Typhus fever -. in a pool of 12 fleas from 8 prairie dogs shot August 22. 1 Delawrare (bacillary) Tularamia: New Mexico (amoebic) 6 1 South Carolina _____ New Mexico (bacillary). in tissue from one prairie dog shot August 24. 25 miles northwest of Quemado.4 Arizonaa Paratyphold fever -.___-Undulant fever: Arkan _--Connectlcut-___ New Mexico_Wegt Virginia . . Julg 1938 Arizona: 2 . Senior Surgeon C. 8 miles southwest of Adams Diggings. 4 miles east of Quemado. in a pool of 120 fleas from 16 prairie dogs shot August 22. 3 miles north of Adams Diggings..

This table summrizes the repot receved wekly from a selected list of 140 cities for the purpose of a DiphState and city theria Influenza Me PneuSias moni flev e 279 243 Small._I_ 0 0 0 0 0 Rending-0 O0--_ 0 .. WEEKLY REPORTS FROM CITIES City reports for week ended Sept. 6 1 12 22 a 2 Indla-apoli 0 0 0 0 0 0 South Bend 0 0 6 0 2 _ 0 Tea te Figures for Barm Vt. estimated. 6 miles northeast of Opal and in a pool ofS lice from 57 ground squirrels shot August 11. Eskey.0 O O 2 0 0 1 0 Trenton -0__ Pennsylvania: 14 0 7 1 2 2 Philadelpb _a_ 8 0 2 4 2 1 0 Pittsburg.. 2 to 9 miles northwest of Fontenelle. reported plague infection proved in a pool of fleas and a pool of lice from ground squirrels (CiteUus elegan8) in Lincoln County as follows: In a pool of 106 fleas from 60 ground squirrels shot August 10.Tuberpo 2 7 T closis phoid Whoop.0Scranton__Ohio: 0 5 0 1 0 0 _ Cincinnati__ O _ 8 10 1 0 0 1 Cleveland O 8 1 0 0 0_ 1 Columbius 2 0 0 1 ____ 2 0 Toledo Indiana: 0 8 0 0 0 0 Anderaon~ _ 4 0 0 0 1 0 Fort Wayne.0. 1938. 1938 showing a cross sction of the current urban incidence of the communicable disease listed In the table.200 52 42 39 84 1 0 1 4 0 0 0 36 342 120 12 -- 1 2 1 1 98 174 63 62 -- - 0 0 0 0 0 9 25 105 11 28 .1727 COUNTY. 8 60 0 2 24 1 7 New York _1 2 0 2 0 Rochester 0 0 0 7 Syracuse ___ New Jersy: 0 1 1 O 1 0__ Camden-0 1 0 3 0 1 Newark . WYOMING thp t I= IN A POOL OF FLEAS AND A POOL OF LICE FROM GROUND SQUIRRELS IN LINCOLN Under date of September 7.I 0 1 0 Buffalo ___-. Current week ' 111 4 47 28 14 15 154 98 282 299 316 346 95 73 1 f 1. Senior Surgeon C.4 .. 3. Lincoln County.012 __ 0 0 0 0 0 0 Burlington 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rutland.Des.-Massachusetts: 8 8 O0 0 3 0 Boston -0 0 0 0 0 0 Fall River 1 1 0 1 0_ 0 Springfield 4 0 0 0 0 0 Worcester Rhode Island: 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pawtucket 0 1 0 0 0 0 Providence Connectictft: 0 1 1 0 0 0 Bridgeport_____ 2 0 0 0 0 Hartford-0 0 1 0 0 0 0 New Haven____ New York:. ing sa c Cases Deats cases deaths cases deathas Data for 90 cities: 5-ya average-. report not received - Portland New Hampshire: Concord Manchester-_ Nashu Vermont: Barre ----- _ 0 0 O 0 O O 0 22 O -_ _ O __ _ __ ------ O 0 O --- 2 O -- 0 O O 0 O 1 O 0 0 7 O O O O _ 0 0 2 1 0 0 O O 14 27 7 _ 9 5 176 19 19 40 12 52 28 36 37 -- - ---_ 3 0 11 5 9 0 1 3 0 3 1 1 0 17 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 0 0 0 10 1 0 8 327 3 13 3 62 4 72 19 1 4 4 63 3 10 5 0 3 0 0 7 66 0 3 2 5 0 18 4 0 0 5 7 2 4 1 0 4 0 0 0 13 100 1.. R.

- Wllmington Maryland: Baltimore ___ Cumberland_ Frederick District of Colunmbia: Washington___- Mlinois: AltonChicagoElginMonlneSpringfield Michigan: Detroit FlintGrand Rapids. Joseph-St._ Greenvil& -.0 North Carolina: 0-0Gastonia0 Raleigh .WichitaDelaware: ---- 5 00 1 0- 1 1 00 000 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 2 2 6 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 18 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 3O 0 363 3 1 0 177 11 4 a 3 185 45 a 2 24 221 21 31 5 7 96 8 6 12 0 0 0 0 00-00 00--12 --0 00 01 1 0 0 00--0 1 --00 -00 0 O ------00 0 00 0- 2 2 2 _ 0 07 0 1 0 4 1 0 0 0 _ 1 0 00 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 O_ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 1 0 4 2 0 1 1 8 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 4 1 0- 6 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0----O0 0 0 0 18 15 11 84 45 7 12B 0 8 02 1 10 0 79 180 11 33 0--_ 1-6 1 0 9 2 2 10 5-00 1 1 3 21 0 0 16 25 ---- 1-0 002 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 7 1 2 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 11 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 0 0 0 2 0 0 25 189 13 7 120 22 29 47 9 Vyychburg ------ O0 1 0 1 ----- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 09 0 7 0 1 4 0 2 1 1 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 1 0 1 82 0 03-18 2 1 2 9 2 17 11 14 18 4 0 0 0 0 09 7 0 0-------O0 _------1 0 0 0 1 1 0 . Lous North Dakota: FargoGrand Forks_ Minotouth Dakota: Aberdeen.____ Sioux Falls Nebraska: Lincoln ___ Omaha...Sep.. South Carolina: _ 0 0 Charleston-_ 0 0 _____ Florence 0 0. Wisconsin: KenoshaMadisonMilwaukee RacineSuperiorMinnesota: DuluthMinneapolis St.tember 23&I1 State and city 1728 City reports for week ended Sept.ts all 549 10 _ a t a d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 fever 22 1 2 0 0 9 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 37 0 0 1 12 3 6 2 0 7 1 2 cuh1_lhever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 O 2 0 0 0 1 0 Norfolk 1 2 Richmond. 3.. 1938-Continued Diph.Tube- P pox | Typhold 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Whoop Ing I.| | theria Influenza Mea..00 Wilmington I-1 __ 0 Winston-Salem. 0 2RoanokeWest Virginia: 00 Charleston 0_ 0---O00 Huntington---Wheeling.Paul Iowa: Cedar Rapids Des Moines--Sioux City Waterloo Misouri: Kansas City__ St.Kansas: Lawrence __ Topeka.Pneufiles m let mall.

Im_l-tO phoid Wop Metg lot ing ta Dap a cm Deaths. 19 y Tuber--Whoop n Dih DSph. 0 Brunswick 0 Savannah Florida: Miami-0 _0 Tampa--0 Kentcy 0 Ashland 0 Covington-_. 1938-Continued teptmbw 2.1729 City reports forweek ended Sept.fuenzaMM Paue. 8.0 0 Montgome 6 0 --- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 1 0 - 2 2 0 1 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 0 2 0 0- 0 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 3 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 5 1 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 3 6 4 10 1 0 0.__0 1 0 0 San Antonio____ Montana: 0 0 0 Billings 0 0 Helena-0 0 0 0 MissoulaColorado: Colorado 0 0 0 Springs1 1 Denver-4 O 0 0 2 Pueblo -_ New Mexico: 0 0 0 Albuquerque Utah 4 0 0 Salt Lake City- ArkansasSmith 6 0 19 3 2 0 2 10 2 0 5 2 0 1 0 2 6 6 0 0 0 2 3 0 4 4 167 44 32 41 14 84 71 2 53 9 1 0 0 3 2 1 5 19 0 7 1 6 10 78 12 1 3 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 4 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 4 1 0 5 0 14 0 6 0 16 1 0 1 2 0 32 8 12 12 36 87 32 17 84 Oregon: Portland- Washington: Seattle-----SpokaneTacoma ------ 0 0 0 ---- 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 4 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Salem California: Los Angeles____ Sacramento___.Bear. Cases Deaths earn O0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 dea'ths casse 6 5 0 0 0 *1 2 0 1 2 s deaths 11 0 2 2 0 faeve 0 2 1 0 8 0 0 0 1 cough 5 0 0 0 1 alle 68 s 25 29 14 Georia: 4 Atlanta .-0 7 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 10 1 9 9 2 2 0 9 0 0 0 309 24 148 . 0 2 0 20 0 0 4 7 1 1 0 0 -O 14 22 58 25 81 45 71 29 O-O- 0 -----1 Fort 0 0 0 Little Rock Louisiana: 0 0 0 Lake Charles--1 2 1 0 New Orleans0 0 0 Shreveport Oklahoma: 3 1 0 0 Oklahoma City3 --Tulsa Texas: 1 1 0 Dallas0 1 2 0 Fort Worth 0 0 0 Galveston 0 Houston._ Sn Francisco 0 __2 0. 0 Lexington 0 0 Louisville __ Tennesee: 1 Knoxville _____ O Memphis 0_ 0 NashvilleAlabama: 2 Birmlngham Mobile .

3. BirIga 1. 1. Atlanta. 1.1. 2. S. 3. 1. 8. 193 1730 Ct"it. San Antonio.zusfver.. 1. Lawrence. Kans. S. Los Angeles 2. Grand Forks.September A. Tampa. ouson.y report-a for week ended Sept.aitis. 1. POiOme State and city litislis Case Deathsow 0 0 8 8 1 1 4 2 0 Ohio: Cleveland------Columbus------Illinois: Detroit -------Wisconsin: Milwaukee ------ Pennsylvania: PhiladelphiaL---- 1 0 2 0 Chicago Michigan: -------- 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia: Washintn----Georgia: Saan Alabama: Birmingham Louisiana: New Orleans-1---Shreveport------Texas: Houston_------Oregon: Portland-------Calffornia: San Francisco ----------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 Dengue fever.1.Case: Charlesto. 1. 7. 1.-ase: harleston. 8. Miami.Atlanta. Pelezga. Atlanta. Mobile.-Houston.-Cases: Boston. 1. Moble. Denver. 1. C. Detroit. Eswepl. State and cit3rM* Polio- Case Rhode Island: Providenoe-e---New York: BuffalIo New York-------------- Deaths 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Mnnis. epidemic or IetI4aTgl. Savannah. Miniot. 1 case. Tg~. Helena. 1988-Continued Meningitis. 2. . (5. 1. 1.

Foochow. Cholera CIina. 5. AND YELLOW FEVER NoTz. Jamaica. 1938. (1731) .Puerperal sepsis ____Tuberculosis-34 34 Typhoid fever 7 Other Kingston localities 2 86 CHOLERA.-207 1.-During the 4 weeks ended September 3.-27 InCuenza 3 Lethargic encephalitis -723 Malaria - 82 6 2 -- Paratyphoid fever -15 1 Poliomyelitis6 4 Puerperal fever -19 18 Scarlet fever-2. 421. Hong Kong. 19. TYPHUS FEVER. PLAGUE.FOREIGN AND INSULAR CZECHOSLOVAKIA Communicable diseases-May 1938.-During the month of May 1938. pages 1544-1558. cases of cholera were reported in China as follows: Canton.1938. Shanghai. 5. and in the island outside of Kingston. 11. SMALLPOX.I Dysentery _-----. Macao.939 Diphtheria . 1938. 1938. Swatow. certain communicable diseases were reported in Czechoslovakia as follows: Disease Cases Deaths 27 Disease Cases Deaths 2 2 -Anthrax 72 Cerebrospinal meningitis Chickenpox .-A table giving current information of the world prevalence of quarantinable diseases appeared in the PuBLac HzALTH RzpoTs for August 26.-During the week ended September 3. 118 -68 Trachoma Tularemia-307 31 Typhoid fever Typhus fever -1 2 1 JAMAICA Communicable diseases-4 weeks ended September 3. as follows: Disease Cerebrospinal meningitis Chickenpox -------Diphtheria_ _ Dysentery -------------_ Erysipelas _------ Other Kingston localities 1 __---_ 3 7 4 --_ 2 5 1 Disease 1 Leprosy. 56. cases of certain communicable diseases were reported in Kingston. A similar cumulative table will appear In future Issues of the PuBic HEALTH RxroaTs for the last Friday of each month.

cholera was reported in French Indochina as follows: Annam Province.-During the week ended August 27. Piedras Negras. Queretaro State. 1 case of typhus fever was reported in Iraq. Island of Hawaii. Hawaii Territory-Island of Hawaii-Hamakua District-Paauhau. 1938.-During the week. 1938. Gold Coast. Mexico State. Chihuahua State. San Luis Potosi. Ciudad Juarez. 2 cases. Plague Brazil-Pernambuco State. 1 case. Aguascalientes State. 1 death. F. 1938.. 1 case. Smallpox Mexico. 1 case of plague was reported in Pernambuco State. United States. Brazil.-On August 22. 1 death. Typhus Fever Iraq. 1 death. 1938. smallpox was reported in Mexico as follows: Aguascalientes. French Nigeria. 3 cases. typhus fever was reported in Mexico as follows: Aguascalientes. Yellow Fever Gold Coast-Ahliha.-A report of plague infection in Catron County.September 2. 3 deaths. 7 cases.ended September 3. Monterrey. near Ho in British Togoland.. Nuevo Leon State. Nigeria (French)-Tahoua. San Luis Potosi State. 3 cases. Aguascalientes State. San Luis Potosi. 1 case. Mexico. D. D. 4 cases. in Paauhau. 1 fatal case of yellow fever was reported in Ahliha. 1938.-During the month of May 1938.-During the month of June 1938. Michoacan State. appears on pages 1726 and 1727 of this issue of PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS. Wyoming. Queretaro. 1 suspected case of yellow fever was reported in Tahoua. 19 cases. Guanajuato State. 4 cases. Tonkin Province. Hamakua District. 34 cases. F. and in Lincoln County. Toluca.-A rat found on August 26. 5 cases. 5 cases. has been proved positive for plague.-During the month of May 1938. 7 cases. x . Guanajuato. New Mexico.-On August 31. San Luis Potosi State. Coahuila State. Hawaii Territory. Morelia. 1917 1732 Indochina (French). Medico. 1 death. Mexico.