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PART II END-OF-CHAPTER ACTIVITIES Chapter 1 The Nature of Intercultural Communication Questions 1.

The term "melting pot" means a sociocultural assimilation of people of differing backgrounds and nationalities; the term implies losing your ethnic differences and forming one large society. When a firm is referred to as being global, it means that the corporation is producing and marketing products in numerous parts of the world. For an example of how products have been globalized but have maintained the status quo of the area to which they were introduced, students should be instructed to consult such references as Axtell's books and Advertising Age, which covers new marketing ventures of corporations. A comparison should be made between how the product selected is marketed in the U.S. and in a foreign country. Norms are culturally ingrained principles of correct and incorrect behaviors that, if broken, carry a form of overt or covert penalty. Rules are formed to clarify cloudy areas of norms. A role includes the behavioral expectations of a position within a culture and is affected by norms and rules. Networks are formed with personal ties and involve an exchange of assistance. Subcultures are groups of people possessing characteristic traits that set them apart and distinguish them from others within a larger society. Examples of subcultures in the U.S. include senior citizens, baby boomers, Latin Americans, Catholics, trade associations, and self-help groups. Cultural synergy takes place with the merging of two cultures to form a stronger overriding culture. Corporate cultures are an example of a synergy of diverse cultures. Intercultural communication is communication between persons of different cultures; intracultural communication is communication between members of the same culture. The three main dimensions of culture as identified by Borden are languages, physical, and psychological. The language dimension is used to communicate with those with values and beliefs like ours. The physical dimension deals with the physical reality of our environment; it is measured objectively. The psychological dimension is measured subjectively.

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Barriers to communication include physical, cultural, perceptual, motivational, experiential, emotional, linguistic, nonverbal, and competition. To show whether business cultures are aligned to national cultures the answer should include information on how particular businesses either mirror the national culture, develop their own unique culture, or are someplace in between. The answer should show an understanding of the difference between ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric, and geocentric management orientations.

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Case 1 In a reception for a political candidate, the explanation of the cultural phenomenon would include the following. People tend to break into groups with which they feel comfortable where communication barriers will be minimal. The group displays a lack of sociocultural assimilation. The groups have not had to come together and therefore do not have cultural synergy. The groups are practicing ethnocentrism and feel their cultural background is correct and, therefore, they have a preference for people who believe as they do. The groups, because they are ethnically divided, form subcultures within the macroculture of the political party. Case 2 An explanation of the globalization of the automotive industry should include the following factors. As firms globalize, it becomes very difficult to say if a car is U.S., German, Japanese, Mexican, or something else because it is made literally with parts and labor from all over the world. The Japanese did their marketing homework and found out what the U.S. market wanted and gave it to them. As Japan is a very small country and you must prove you have a place to park a car in the larger cities before you can purchase a car, the Japanese obviously need vehicles which are very different from the large automobiles most of the U.S. manufacturers make. Also the Japanese are assembling many of their automobiles in the U.S. that are destined for the U.S. market thereby providing U.S. citizens with jobs. It may be fair to ask how many U.S. cars are assembled in Japan giving Japanese workers jobs? As firms globalize another point is that they are raising the standard of living in those countries where they do manufacturing, which will in turn allow those countries to purchase more of our goods and services in the long run. Case 3 In the U.S. we expect others to honor their obligations to us. Therefore when the Shah was ill, it was correct for the U.S. to offer him medical assistance. The Christian religion is based on a number of commandments, one of which is Love thy neighbor as thyself. The U.S. feels it is their responsibility to help anyone in need anywhere in the world, but particularly friends. The Iranian mindset is based in the Islamic religion which has a very strict code of an eye for an eye, et cetera. The Islamic 10 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Iranians felt that the Shah had sold them out to the U.S. economic concerns, and therefore felt the Shah should pay for his wrong doings. They also felt that if the medical facilities were good enough for the rest of Iran they should be good enough for the Shah. Both the U.S. and Iran saw their positions as correct based on their religious philosophies, and neither looked at the situation from the others perspective. Objectivity is difficult to maintain because we consider our views correct and the other cultures views as wrong. Case 4 Media has made it possible for the world to know what is going on in any part of the world at any time. The only limit is if the media has limited access. The general public did not know when dignitaries talked, met, agreed, or disagreed. It was much easier before satellites for the governments to keep information from the public. Politicians and world leaders now have to deal with the views of their constituents. It has also tended to change the views of the public concerning their leaders. People formerly believed their leaders were almost superhuman and were praised for the devotion. People hear much more today about their leaders and realize they are only human beings and have tended to become more cynical about politics in general. In the United States people realize that when they have helped other countries in the past, the rich got richer and the poor remained in poverty. The money never truly trickled down to the poor to help them. Imelda, in the Philippines, is probably one of the best examples of leaders using money, equipment, and the like meant for the people at large. The leaders are now in a glass bowl where everyone can see what they are doing. It has become more difficult for leaders to hide political manipulation of the public. Case 5 The use of an ethnocentric management style would be very difficult for Asians if it were coming from North America or Europe because this style does not account for cultural differences in the workforce. Ethnocentric management would not take into account the collectivistic nature of Asians. If polycentric management practices are followed, then whichever culture would be working in any other country in the triad would consider the differences in the countrys culture and would change their management practice to fit the culture of the country. Regiocentric management considers a smaller area of a country, a region. Geocentric management allows locations to operate independently. It may be difficult for North Americans or Europeans to adjust to the country culture or the regional cultures in Asia. It might also be difficult for some of the Europeans or North Americans to adjust to the country or to regional cultural differences. Europe and North America have very diverse cultures themselves. Many companies now hire from within the culture to avoid these problems. Activities 11 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Instructors may provide an abstract format for students to use, which would include what the intercultural problem is and a synopsis of the article. Instructors may want to suggest questions on mindsets, roles, subcultures, norms, and networks that the foreign student could address. The Chamber of Commerce would be a possible contact for identifying persons in the local community that conduct business globally. Instructors may wish to suggest cultures where roles of women and children are markedly different from those in the U.S. Proposals for improving relationships between the U.S. and foreign students would need to address the issues of English as a second language, perceptions, and environment. Annual reports are usually kept in the library; instructors may wish to suggest such multinational corporations as General Motors, Sharp, and Coca Cola.

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Chapter 2 Universal Systems Questions 1. Universal cultural systems are formed out of common problems of all cultures. Systems that are universal to all cultures include economic, political, education, marriage and family, and social hierarchies and interaction. A culture develops an economic system in order to meet the physiological needs of its people. These needs are met by establishing a system for producing or procuring goods and a procedure for distributing them. Japan's economy is the strongest in the world; it is a capitalistic/free market based on manufacturing, fishing, and exporting. Canada's economy is strong worldwide; it is capitalistic with socialistic controls in the areas of health care and the retirement system. The economy is driven by industrial plants, mining, fishing, and agriculture. Japan has few natural resources, and Canada has many natural resources. England is ruled by a constitutional monarchy with a parliament. The House of Lords are noblemen who are life appointees and Church of England bishops and is the highest court; the House of Commons is elected by citizens age 18 and over. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons and appoints a cabinet that runs the government. Mexico has a federal government with the president elected by the people 18 years of age and above (voting is compulsory). The states of Mexico are heavily controlled by the federal government in the areas of education and certain industries. Educational systems may be formal, informal, or a combination of the two. Education is free and compulsory for certain age groups in the U.S., Japan, France, England, Canada, and Mexico. Germany's educational system is a bit different. People must choose between technical training and college at age 13; education is free from kindergarten through the university. In Iran religious instruction receives more support than secular education; only recently has their educational system included females. In Saudi Arabia, males and females attend separate schools after age six, including universities. The family system in the U.S. includes the nuclear family (father, mother, and children) and the extended family (grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins). In other cultures the family may include second-, third-, and fourth-generation relationships. The Arabs may have over a hundred close relatives. In Mexico godparent relationships are considered family. People in the U.S. have monogamous or serial monogamous marriages. Dating begins at 13 to 15 years of age. Premarital sex is common, and many couples live together prior to marriage. In Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, marriages are arranged although

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some people are being allowed to choose their mates. Because of the separation of genders, there is no dating. Although Islamic law allows a man to have four wives with the wife's permission, most Saudi men have only one wife. In Japan most marriages were arranged in the past; however, now most people choose their mates. 7. Social reciprocity is important in Mexico, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. Mexicans are good hosts and place great importance on being a good employer, employee, and friend. The Japanese are also concerned with social reciprocity that can be seen in the importance they place on gift giving. The Saudi Arabians are also friendly and hospitable, but their personal privacy is important. Intermediaries are people who act as go betweens with other people. Cultures that use intermediaries generally dislike confrontations and are group oriented. Although intermediaries are not used in the U.S., they are used in Japan, especially in negative situations. Property can be viewed as private, utilitarian, or community. In the U.S. people think of property as an extension of the self and are very possessive of it, while Mexicans think of property ownership in relation to feelings and need. Property is important to the Japanese, perhaps because it is very expensive because so many people live in such small geographic areas. The term equality in the U.S. refers to equality of opportunity, not to equality in terms of wealth, position, or mental ability. In some cultures, people are born into a certain social class (monarchies); equality in that culture would imply the person is equal in terms of social class.

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Case 1 1. The role of U.S. universities will continue to be important. Anyone can get into college in the U. S. since some postsecondary schools have low admissions standards, in contrast to other nations where applicants would not have access to their colleges. The attitude toward higher education in the U. S. is that all persons who are academically qualified should have access to higher education. Even those who criticize the U. S. school system have to concede that something must be right about the system since people of the U. S. were able to put men on the moon. The fact that 25 percent of the U. S. population does not graduate from high school is important in light of what is happening in other countries of the world. Perhaps U. S. secondary schools should provide a stronger foundation in the basics (reading, writing, and calculating) so that U. S. students would be on a more equal footing with such cultures as Japan, where 99 percent complete high school. The presence of so many foreign students in U. S. colleges probably seen primarily as positive. The guiding ideal of U. S. educational system is based on the principle that as people as possible should have access to as much education is the many as

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possible. The U. S. system is geared to accommodate students of various academic aspirations as well as the physically impaired, and those for who English is a second language. Foreign countries will be able to develop educational systems similar to the U.S. in the future not requiring as many of their students to study abroad. Case 2 Children of other nationalities who have been adopted by U.S. Americans often do return to their native country to learn about their own ethnic heritage. Cultural problems would include typical types of cultural shock, including customs and beliefs, food and diet, housing, lack of modern conveniences, and standards of cleanliness. Case 3 The people will have to learn to accept risk. Formerly communist states gave everyone necessities and jobs. Now individuals will have to learn how to compete and be part of the new economic and political systems. Case 4 The feasibility of developing one monetary system to do away with exchange rates is questionable, because of widely fluctuating economies in various countries, differences in GDPs, differences in costs of living, and differences in political structures. Case 5 1. If you chose to take one of the positions, what would you want to know? The answer should include information on the universal systems such as political situation, economic situation, education situation, family situations, and social hierarchies and interaction. A predeparture training program on these issues should be a requirement. 2. How would you prepare for the welcoming and/or the hatred you would experience? Through predeparture training, a person should be prepared for the Iraqis who welcome us and the ones who do not. Part of the preparation should be arguments to use with those who do not want us there. 3. What characteristics that you possess would be a strength or a weakness? This will be individual in response, but should include such items as languages, physical, and psychological dimensions; the fact that culture is learned and the willingness to learn a new culture; not being stereotypical; understanding enculturation, acculturation ethnocentrism, and mindsets; and a willingness to be open and learn new ideas and ways of life. 4. Do you feel that everyone who is in Iraq as a foreign worker should train an Iraqi to replace him/her? The answer to this question will vary but should include arguments for the U.S.s not staying longer than necessary in Iraq (or any country staying in another country); the reasons why it is difficult 15 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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for a people to be occupied (freedom, outsiders, cultural differences, social hierarchy and interaction differences); the fact that the Iraq people need to have incomes and be part of the process of rebuilding their own nation; the fact that only the Iraqi people can form a new political and economic structure for Iraq. Current event articles can also be brought in for this part of the question. What are the intercultural relationship problems in this current situation? Different religion, different family structure, different education, political, and economic structure than what the U.S. people consider normal. The language problem is very large. The fact that the U.S. is one of the strongest nations in the world and fear by the Iraqis that we want their oil and our reason for being there may not be altruistic.

Activities 1. The local international student organization may be a good contact for finding names of Asian or Latin American students to interview. Instructors may wish to provide a list of countries from which students could choose to assure a variety and that two students do not select the same country. Providing a list of countries would again be recommended to avoid possible duplication of countries on which reports are made. The CultureGrams series would be an excellent source for locating this information on patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Possible references to suggest include the CultureGrams series or the encyclopedia.

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Chapter 3 Contrasting Cultural Values Questions 1. Values are formed by contacts with family members, teachers, and religious leaders. The media also has an impact on the formation of values. Values held by people in the U.S. include equality, informality, individualism, and directness; the U.S. is a time-, future-, and work-oriented society. Persons in other cultures do not share these U.S. values. Equality, informality, individualism, and directness are not valued in Asian cultures. Latin cultures do not place the same importance on time as do people of the U.S. In the Asian and Arab cultures, the past is revered; the people are not future-oriented. Semantic differences can affect intercultural communication when the word used has multiple meanings and when the English word does not have a counterpart in a foreign language. An example of semantic differences is the use of the word homely, which in the U.S. means plain but to the English it means friendly, warm, and comfortable. Australians would use the word bloke for man and sandshoes for sneakers. The term attribution means the ability to look at social behavior from another culture's view. Communication problems occur because known experiences from your own culture are used to explain unknown behaviors of those in another culture. Cultural roots influence attitudes toward women. In the U.S., France, and Canada, women are considered equal to men and hold leadership positions in government and industry. In Libya, however, women are considered subordinate to men. Countries in the Far East are beginning to advance women in business, while in the Middle East progress is slow. In the U.S. people value work and subscribe to the work ethic, which means that hard work is rewarded and failure to work is viewed negatively. In much of Europe, attitudes toward work seem more relaxed, as evidenced by the custom of closing businesses during the month of August so that people can go on vacation. The Japanese work long hours Monday through Friday but do not usually work weekends as do U.S. businesspeople. Attitudes toward ethics are culturally diverse. Accepting bribes would not be considered ethical in the U.S., while in some Latin American countries the practice of using gifts to assure success in sealing an agreement is an accepted way of conducting business. Grease payments are considered ethical by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977. Religion plays a minor role in conducting business in the U.S. Although business is not conducted on such religious holidays as

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Christmas and Easter, people do not feel obligated to participate in religious ceremonies since the U.S. has never had an official state church. In Saudi Arabia the official religion is Islam. Muslims observe the ritual of stopping work five times a day to pray, so meetings with Saudis would need to be flexible to allow for this ritual. Conducting business during the month of Ramadan is not recommended as Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. 9. Individualism refers to the attitude of valuing ourselves as separate individuals with responsibility for our own destinies and actions. Cultures that are primarily individualistic include the U.S., Australia, Great Britain, Canada, and the Netherlands. Collectivism emphasizes common interests, conformity, cooperation, and interdependence. Countries that are collectivistic include South and Central American countries, Pakistan and Indonesia; the Japanese and Chinese value the group approach over individualism.

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Case 1 The behaviors Ching Lee observed of the U.S. workers that may have led to the conclusion that workers were not giving him the proper respect could have included: addressing him by his first name (Asians typically would not address superiors by their first name); steady eye contact (Asians do not favor direct eye contact); workers may have preceded him when entering an elevator or room (Asians permit those of higher rank to enter first); and the workers may have been assertive or direct in their communication style (Asians prefer being indirect). Case 2 Cultural attitudes and behaviors Laura Green could expect as a woman negotiating a contract for fast-food restaurants in Saudi Arabia include separation of males and females in the society. Women do not socialize with men in public; they do not drive a car; and many of their restrictions apply to women from other cultures. Ms. Green would need to understand that most Arabs, although they will do business with a woman, will do so only if they know and trust her. Case 3 Mr. Hunt needed to learn about family values in Mexico. Unlike the U.S. where children do not necessarily continue to live near their relatives as adults, in Mexico most people stay near their extended families. Also bosses are considered to be a parental figure and would be expected to know that if the subordinate is not at work there is a valid reason. Helping ones family is a valid reason for missing work in Mexico. In the U.S. for the most part family members take care of themselves. A parent would not expect children or other extended family members to accompany them to the doctor or school. In the U.S. work is first and family is second; in Mexico family is first and work is second.

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Case 4 First Disney must learn about the different European cultures and understand they are dealing with many different cultures. Vacation structures and family structures will be very important considerations. Disney will need to revamp parts of the park with parks and picnic facilities. While the French may not snack, they do enjoy their pastries, coffee shops, cheese shops, and wine shops. If only one day a week is dedicated to family outings in France, then Disney must attract people from other cultures to use the park the other six days of the week. People visiting France would realize that most of the French employees in the country are not overtly friendly to strangers; other Europeans particularly would realize this fact. Disney could use interns or full-time employees from friendly countries to fill some of the key positions. Case 5 The Taiwanese would feel they are being polite by listening intently and not making conversation. The Taiwanese not interacting with the U.S. businesspeople made them feel as if the Taiwanese were arrogant; however, the Taiwanese were trying to show the U.S. people that they were impressed with their presentation. The silence was being used to show attention and respect and was misunderstood as arrogance and a lack of being willing to share ideas. Individualistic cultures want to talk and do business immediately while collectivistic cultures want to listen, discuss among themselves, then come back, and discuss with the other side. The two sides look at doing business from very different perspectives. Activities 1. To assure consistency of format, the instructor may wish to provide a form on which all students would record responses. The results could then be combined and statistically analyzed to determine differences between attitudes toward work among the five groups. Instructors may wish to provide an abstract format to assure consistency. Foreign professors or professors of foreign languages are good sources to talk on attitudes toward women in other cultures. Public relations departments, personnel agencies, and newspapers are good sources for finding names of women in high-ranking positions in government or business. Who's Who in Business is another possible source. To identify women in high-ranking positions in another country, embassies would be a good source. Responses will vary. The instructor could suggest foreign newscasts as sources; students who have lived in different parts of the U.S. and foreign students from other English-speaking countries are also possible sources.

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Chapter 4 Cultural Shock Questions 1. The term cultural shock is used to describe the trauma you experience when moving into a culture different from your home culture. Cultural shock includes the frustrations that accompany a lack of understanding of the verbal and nonverbal communication of the host culture, their customs, and values. The stages of cultural shock include: excitement or initial euphoria, crisis or disenchantment, adjustment, and acceptance. The first stage can last a few days or several months; you are fascinated with the food and people and tend to overlook minor problems and inconveniences. During the second stage, your excitement turns to disappointment as some of the problems now appear to be overwhelming. In the third stage, you begin to make adjustments to the new culture and can see the humor in situations you cannot change. In the fourth phase, you feel at home in the new culture and become involved in activities of the culture and make friends with the nationals. In the final stage, you return to the home culture and experience reentry shock, which may go through the initial four stages of cultural shock. Multinational firms can alleviate cultural shock by selecting employees for overseas assignments who possess certain personal and professional qualifications and by providing training programs for employees prior to overseas deployment. Approaches to intercultural training offered by multinational firms include: intellectual model or classroom model (participants are given facts about the host country using a variety of instructional methods), area training model or simulation model (emphasizes affective goals, culture specific content, and experiential processes), self-awareness model or human relations model (based on the assumption that the trainee with self-understanding will understand the new culture better and will therefore be more effective in the overseas assignment), cultural awareness model (emphasizes cultural insight and stresses affective goals and an experiential process), interaction approach (participants interact with people in the host country), multidimensional approach, (concept that using any single training approach is not as effective as is using an approach which attempts to combine cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of training). Types of cultural stress that may confront persons who are living abroad include adjusting to new foods and problems with housing, climate, services, or communication. Positive coping skills to alleviate stress include diversions, such as taking up a hobby, planning family events, sharing

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problems with friends and family members, changing one's mental outlook, exercise and meditation, and spiritual copers. 7. Social class and poverty-wealth extremes can be sources of cultural shock for U.S. Americans in overseas assignments because the U.S. is mainly one large middle class; and in many developing countries, no middle class exists. U.S. people living overseas are then grouped with the upper class. The poverty of the lower class in other cultures makes people of the U.S. uncomfortable, and they often deal with poverty in socially unacceptable ways, such as paying a maid twice the usual rate just because the person is poor. Types of financial adjustments associated with cultural shock include rate of exchange, banking practices and use of credit cards, cost and availability of housing, and costs of schooling for employees with families. The employee may incur additional expenses related with a higher standard of living, such as hiring domestic help and investing in appropriate formal attire. The Johari Window is used to depict how people in various cultures differ with respect to how much of the inner self is shared with others. The panes of the window are used to represent things others know that I also know (arena or open), things others know that I don't know (blind spot), things others don't know that I know (hidden), and things others don't know that I don't know (unknown). The major dimensions of the Johari Window, what is known to self and to others, can be translated into one's public self and private self. In some cultures, such as the Japanese, the public self is quite small, while the private self is rather large. People in the U.S. have a larger public self with the private self being relatively small. The types of reentry problems encountered by persons returning to the home culture include readjustment to the job (often perceived as a demotion), reestablishing friendships, readjusting to the lifestyle, changes in social life, and a change in the standard of living. Reentry shock can be alleviated somewhat by corresponding regularly with members of the home culture and by subscribing to the home newspaper to stay abreast of current happenings. Keeping in touch with professional organizations and other groups with which you will want to affiliate is also helpful. Sharing your feelings with other people who have lived abroad and with sympathetic family members and friends can also help counteract reentry shock.

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Case 1 Larry made several mistakes while trying to make a good impression on his Japanese hosts. These include: asking the Japanese to call him by his first name, telling several "humorous" stories, bringing gifts with the company logo, and asking about the state of the Japanese economy. The Japanese are rather formal when compared to the U.S. Americans; therefore, it is not appropriate to address persons by their first names in business situations. Jokes do not translate well in other languages; American humor is often misunderstood by people in 21 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

other cultures. Larry should have also inquired into appropriate gift giving practices with the local staff who were more familiar with the Japanese culture. Further, speaking about the Japanese economy is an inappropriate topic for conversation in Japan. Better topics for small talk would have been history, culture, or art; Larry should have also known that the Japanese are comfortable with silence. Case 2 Karl and his family have a big adjustment to make and should prepare for it fully. Karl should order the local Chicago newspaper to catch up on the events of the area. He may also talk to family members in the U.S. who can keep him up to date on any events that he may have missed. Karl should also be prepared for a possible demotion in job title as well as salary upon returning to the U.S. Karl's son is an important consideration; he should become involved with activities involving other children and new friends as soon as possible to help lessen the reentry shock for him. Case 3 Frank had not prepared for his trip to Mexico by learning about the Mexican business culture. If Frank had prepared, he would have realized that lunch is around 2:00 p.m., and that it is for relaxation and getting to know each other not for a business discussion. Juan did not apologize for being late because he was not late. Mexicans also take a lot of pride in their history and would expect anyone interested in a business partnership with them would also be interested in Mexican history. Whereas in the U.S. we tend not to drink as much during lunch, drinking during lunch in Mexico is still very normal. Mexicans also do not do business with someone they know nothing about. The first few meetings are getting to know each other meetings. Because family is so important in Mexico, Juan wanted to know about Franks family and wanted to tell Frank about his family. Frank should have realized this was the first of many getting to know each other meetings and had nothing to do with Juans interest. If Juan had not been interested in a proposed partnership, Juan would not have met with Frank at all. Case 4 With a little research Janice would have realized that English is used in business but is not used for everyday life. Knowing this she could have taken Japanese lessons to learn the basics she would need to understand to survive. Since Japanese is a very complicated language, she probably would not be able to become fluent before she moved to Japan; however, she would be able to find a tutor in Japan and continue to learn and practice her Japanese. Pre-departure training is very important when cultures are completely different. Case 5 1. What does commitment mean to each of the cultures? Germany,

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The Netherlands, the U.S., and Mexico are very different in their work activities. Mexicans like to get to know everyone before they really begin the task. Germans, Dutch, and U.S. Americans all can sit down and start to work immediately. While the U.S. Americans and the Dutch would have a lighter attitude towards the work, the Germans would be very focused. How do task and group-maintenance goals differ in an international team of workers? The task goals are more important to the Germans, then the Dutch, then the U.S., and then Mexico. The group maintenance goals are most important to the Mexicans, the U.S., then the Dutch, then the Germans. If you are a relationship-based country, you are more concerned with the group maintenance goals than countries that are not relationship oriented. What prejudices might these team members have against other group members? The three who are speaking English as a second language could have a prejudice against the U.S. The work ethics are somewhat different among the countries and could cause some prejudices such as a perception of laziness or that the other team members are not pulling their weight. Why were the members acting as they did? The Mexicans arrived late, perhaps only an indication that they probably had something else to finish first. For the other three countries, you are always on time. People simply treat others ethnocentrically until they learn not to do so. A reason for cultural training is to avoid some of these problems or at least to understand why these differences take place. What knowledge would everyone need to know going into an international team? Each of the members needed to understand the basic cultural values of the other team members. How would exploring each others beliefs, norms, and values at the beginning of the team building affect the group? If they all understood each others cultural values, they would be able to work together better and carry out their task objectives more efficiently.

Activities 1. Instruct students to use a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 representing a large degree of reentry shock and 1 representing the least degree of reentry shock, for evaluating a through e. Persons who have not traveled to a foreign country could be instructed to respond according to their experiences when returning to live in a certain part of the country after a prolonged absence. Students' responses to cultural shock expected in Egypt could include: attitudes toward gender, differences in meanings of gestures, religion, Islamic style of dress, and greetings. After returning to the U.S. from Kenya, the types of reentry shock a person might experience include: not having unexpected visits from friends and colleagues, eating practices, having children eat with the family again, differences in meanings of gestures, and more formal dress during work.

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Students could simply review material in the chapter to determine the most important qualifications to look for when deciding which job applicants to interview. Suggest to students that they check the libraries of other public and private schools, in addition to their own school library.

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Chapter 5 Language Questions 1. Language differentiates us into groups by controlling the way we think, the way we shape concepts, how we perceive, and how we judge others. The reasons teenagers and other groups develop jargon and slang are many and varied. Teenagers want to differentiate themselves from the main stream culture (particularly their parents). By developing their own meanings for everyday words, they develop a feeling of separation, of becoming their own group. They also develop a self-esteem and importance many times due to this differentiation, and it allows them to know who one of them is and who is not. The students are also to give examples of slang or jargon used by people with whom they associate. A flamboyant U.S. salesperson would probably not get the sale. If the salesperson did their homework on Japan and chose to ignore what they learned, or did not do their homework and proceeded to treat the Japanese like they do people in the U.S., the Japanese would find the salesperson distasteful. The Japanese use a low voice when they speak without much inflection; therefore, they would find a loud, fast-talking person offensive. The Japanese' nonverbal behaviors are very small and hard for most U.S. people to catch versus our nonverbal dramatization as we speak. Students are to give examples of conversation taboos in their home or group of friends. The examples could include refraining from swearing, talking about sex, talking about home problems, or others. A bicultural/bilingual interpreter has a better understanding of what is meant as well as what is said. Many times there are not equivalent words in both languages and the intended meaning becomes very important. A bicultural/bilingual, because they understand both cultures, would be able to interpret what is meant more accurately than a monocultural/bilingual interpreter. A worker would need to be knowledgeable of a foreign language in situations where the worker interfaces with the other cultures directly. If a U.S. person is working for a German national in the U.S., the person would understand the work attitude differences if they could speak the language because they would understand some of the cultural differences. Many people believe other cultures do not care about their jobs or are more demanding because of the way they express ideas. Ethnic groups that enjoy verbal dueling in the U.S. include those of Italian, Greek, German, or French extraction. More verbal dueling is also observed in the North and Northeast portions of

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the U.S. as opposed to the South and Southeast. Southerners do not like confrontation and often view verbal dueling as arguing. 8. Vocabulary equivalence means there are words with the same meaning. A word will not have equivalence if a subgroup attributes another or another country may attribute a different word. in each language vocabulary meaning to the word, meaning to the same

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Argot is language of a co-culture. Generally the words are the same but the meanings change. In the U.S. several co-cultures practice an argot form of English including the Black Americans, Spanish Americans, and a number of subgroups. The restricted codes of the Bernstein Hypothesis are messages that are highly predictable and require no explanation. Restricted code messages are generally between people who know each other quite well. Elaborated code messages are used with strangers and involve detail and explicit information in an attempt to prevent misunderstanding. Culture and language affect the way we think. We learn to think along a linear or nonlinear continuum. Our culture teaches us how we should perceive what has been said to us. If we lack the cultural background, we will use our own background which may or may not be like the speaker's background. At the linear end a person answers the why to the question and assumes the what; at the nonlinear end the person answers what happened and assumes the why. It is very frustrating when each believes they have asked the correct question to solicit the answer they desire only to receive an answer that, to them, makes no sense.

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Case 1 The suggestion that, due to a large Hispanic population in Florida, Spanish should be considered the first language, brings up several problems. Because the main language of the U.S. is English (which most immigrants have learned), the Hispanics, by not learning English as well as the rest of the country, may be creating a separate society, a subgroup, within the main society. Despite this large Hispanic population in Florida, it is still part of the United States, which is an English-speaking country. Teaching Spanish as a first language and English as a second language could result in isolating Florida from the rest of the U.S. If Spanish becomes the language of Florida, U.S. citizens who are not Hispanic and who do not know Spanish will not be as likely to visit the state. Florida could lose major revenues each year that are generated by tourists. If younger people of Florida do not speak English well enough, whether it is taught as a first or second language, it may hurt their chances of getting into college which in turn will hurt their chances to achieve politically and economically. In countries in which interacting with people from other cultures is quite common, the teaching of other languages should be a priority. In the European Union, for example, countries are very close together, deal with one another regularly, and should be 26 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

able to communicate. In the EU, no predominant culture exists; all countries and their cultures in a sense are on equal ground. The lack of a common language is one of the main problems that India, Canada, and the EU share. Many of the internal problems in countries are due to ethnic differences. Language determines an individual's cognition and perception, and if you do not learn the language of the mainstream, you would not have the conceptual framework to explain your ideas and opinions to others. Case 2 Joe was apparently unfamiliar with the Mexican culture and did not understand the Mexican way of thinking. Getting to know the persons with whom you work is very important in the Mexican culture. By not meeting the people, he sent the unintentional message that he did not think the Mexican people were worth meeting or knowing. In the Mexican culture, you work hard for someone because you care what happens to them and they care for you as an individual. A production manager in a Mexican facility would need to know his workers by name, talk with them, get their opinions, and care about their families. Joe faced a barrier before he even started; he did not speak the language. Joe should have learned at least a little Spanish to let the people know he cared. Joe should have tried to understand the Mexicans' perspectives as to what was important and what was not important. He needed to learn about the local customs, holidays, and activities and take a part in them. While Joe thought the people did not care about their work, they were disappointed that Joe did not care about them. If Joe had established good rapport and focused on how to meet the needs of the Mexican workers, perhaps the plans for improvement would have been accepted. Case 3 They should hire the Brazilian because he would know how to hire people in South America, would have no problem living in South America, and because he speaks Spanish and Portuguese would have no problem calling on people in South American countries. Because he understands the Hispanic mindset, he would not feel uncomfortable doing business on their terms. Since the bottom line is what matters in business, the U.S. manager could live with the incorrect English easier than his customers could live with incorrect Portuguese or Spanish and a good possibility the U.S. person would be culturally deficient. Case 4 When you learn a new language, you may not know all the correct terminology. Also if you are thinking about something new particularly, it is easier to think about it in your home language and then translate it into the second language later. The Germans did not mean to be rude, but were using their language because it was easier for them to think about technical changes in their first language. However, the U.S. people were offended because they could not understand the dialogue and were cut out of the conversation. If it is necessary to speak with another in your first language, you should apologize to the 27 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

people who do not speak the language before you begin and then translate the discussion for them when you finish. Case 5 Cultural differences between people of the United States and Venezuela often account for issues in the U.S. workplace. When Barbara, the U.S. manager, conducts the evaluation session with Carlos, she should explain that in the United States, promptness and dependability on the job are expected and that work takes precedence over the family. Carlos should also be informed that speaking a language other than English when in the presence of U.S. persons living in the United States is extremely rude; the assumption (an assumption that is accurate according to some research) is that the person speaking another language is speaking negatively about them. In addition, Barbara would explain that the United States is a no touch, impersonal culture; thus, employees do not hug each other or use terms of endearment, such as honey and sweetie. When Barbara offers constructive criticism to Carlos, she should keep in mind cultural differences in importance of the family, promptness, expressions of familiarity, and speaking Spanish in the presence of others. Barbara needs to be aware that supervision of male employees by female managers may not be the norm in Venezuela and that she should keep the evaluation session nonconfrontational, nonaggressive, and nonacccusatory. Activities 1. Responses will vary. Students who have not traveled to other countries may provide a list of slang expressions that would have negative connotations in certain parts of the U.S. If the instructor would like to provide examples of slang expressions, the Axtell books contain numerous examples. The local library will have books listed under proverbs and parables that can be used for completing this activity, in addition to ones students may have learned from their personal experience. Possible conversation taboos in the U.S. include how much things cost, politics, and religion. Possible conversation taboos in other cultures may be questions about one's family or other personal information, past wars, political problems, a person's work, and other problems such as India's caste system and poverty. Although responses will vary, students will probably mention problems with word usage, pronunciation, enunciation, subject/verb agreement, incorrect tense, and failure to use plurals when appropriate. Instructors may wish to provide an abstract format for students to use for the article on use of interpreters.

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Responses will vary; students may have encountered passages in other books that have been translated in which the message was changed from the meaning intended.

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Chapter 6 Oral and Nonverbal Communication Patterns Questions 1. Thought patterns include the speed with which decisions are made. Making quick decisions is a characteristic of U.S. managers, while the Japanese views this as impulsive. The deductive method of problem solving is used in the U.S. (going from broad categories to specific examples to determine facts, then solutions to problems). The inductive method is used by Asians (starting with facts or observations and going to generalizations). Paralanguage refers to rate, volume, and quality that affect meanings of messages. People of the Philippines speak softly; Arabs speak loudly. Italians and Arabs speak faster than do people of the United States. Attitudes toward time are reflected in the two time systems, monochronic and polychronic time. People in countries that follow monochronic time (the U.S., England, Switzerland, and Germany) perform only one major activity at a time. People in countries that follow polychronic time (Latin Americans, the Arabs, and people of the Mediterranean) do several things at once and do not mind interruptions. Space needs of people in the United States are greater than those in Latin America or Greece. The Japanese, on the other hand, have greater space needs than people of the United States. Cultures that favor direct eye contact include Britain, Canada, the United States, and Eastern Europe. Cultures that do not favor direct eye contact include the Japanese and people of China and Indonesia. Olfactics (smell) can have a positive or negative effect on intercultural encounters. Most U.S. people respond negatively to body odor, breath odor, and perspiration. The Arabs are comfortable with natural odors and often breathe on people when they talk. Smell is important to the Japanese, Burmese, and Samoans. Cultures that are comfortable with bodily contact include the Latin and Middle East countries, Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, and Russia. Cultures that avoid bodily contact include the U.S., Canada, Japan, England, Scandinavia, and Australia. Appropriate bodily contact in the U.S. would be shaking hands; inappropriate contact would include giving hugs, embracing, or holding hands. Differences in body language of people in various cultures include: people in the U.S. use moderate gesturing, while Italians, Greeks, and some Latin Americans use vigorous gestures; the Chinese and Japanese keep hands and arms close to their bodies when speaking.

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Some colors have a positive connotation in one culture and a negative connotation in another. Black is the color of mourning in the U.S., but white is worn to Japanese funerals. Brides in the U.S. wear white, but brides in India wear red or yellow. The Japanese are comfortable with silence; people of the U.S., Italy, and Greece use little silence. The meaning of silence following a tasteless joke could be disapproval or a lack of understanding. The meaning of silence during a conversation with someone you know well could be dissent or disapproval. Silence following a question could mean that the person does not know the answer.

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Case 1 Barbara's asking Anna in the e-mail why the Germans cannot get their materials shipped on time could be perceived as a generalization that Germans are never on time. Since punctuality is highly regarded by Germans, she may have insulted Anna's national pride. The situation could have been made more positive by simply asking for the reasons why the deliveries during a certain period had been delayed. Had Barbara been better informed about the German culture and its values, she would have known that Germans are typically more time conscious than people in the U. S. The implication may also have been that your organization is more inefficient than other firms in the U. S. By sending her reply in German (which Barbara did not speak), Anna may have been saying nonverbally: "Maybe the materials were delayed, but at least I speak both languages." Case 2 In the negotiation between the representative of the U. S. and members of the Japanese firm, the movement of their heads in an up and down motion may have simply meant "we're listening." Nodding of the head does not necessarily mean that they agree with you, just that they are being politely attentive. Phrase such as "It is very difficult for us to sign" are meant to save the other party from the embarrassment of receiving a direct "no" in response to the request. Saving face is an important aspect in Japanese society. Case 3 Pre-departure training would have corrected this faux pas. For social occasions one arrives half an hour to an hour after the time on the invitation. This and other social blunders can be eliminated with training and reading. Harry could have also asked a colleague when he should arrive at the party. Case 4 Fred, like many U.S. people, believes people show respect by maintaining eye contact. Many cultures, such as China, show respect by not maintaining eye contact. Even Arabs who maintain 31 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

prolonged eye contact between the same sex, will defer eye contact between opposite sexes to show respect. All cultures make many assumptions based on the amount of eye contact they expect to receive. Eye contact is probably one of the most misinterpreted nonverbal communication signals. Case 5 Cultural differences involved in this situation include different attitudes toward tardiness, importance of the family, and what is considered appropriate classroom behavior. In Canada students are expected to be on time; when they are unavoidably late, they should quietly take their seat and wait until the end of class to apologize to the professor in private. While in South America the family is considered more important than work or school, different priorities often exist in such countries as Canada. Activities 1. Responses will vary. Students who have traveled widely will, of course, have more opportunities to encounter incidents of miscommunication. Plausible explanations could include rate of speech, tone, accent, enunciation, and pronunciation. Nonverbal aspects of miscommunication could include chromatics, chronemics, haptics, kinesics, oculesics, olfactics, and proxemics. Prior to preparing the skit, class members should discuss possible scenarios that would make for an interesting skit. The Axtell books (Do's and Taboos . . .) and books by Martin and Chaney (Global Business Etiquette and Passport to Success) are good sources of material. The instructor could find numerous examples of gestures with various meanings in different cultures in the Axtell books. Perhaps the instructor would want to make flash cards for students to use for testing other students' knowledge of these gestures. The instructor could divide the class into small groups, such as: interaction between Latin American males with females/males, U.S. males with females/males, and Egyptian males with females/males. Latin American and Egyptian males would hug. Latin American females and males would hug if they know each other. U.S. males and females would shake hands. Egyptian males would not shake hands or hug a female other than a family member. Eye contact in the U.S. is direct, in Japan it is impolite to look superiors or elders directly in the eye, and in the Middle East eye contact is intense between males but much more indirect between males and females.

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Chapter 7 Written Communication Patterns Questions 1. The formats of business letters in the U.S. and Latin America are as follows: U.S. - block style, date is month-day-year, inside address is title and full name first line-street number and street name second line-city, state, and zip code third line, salutation followed by a colon or no punctuation mark; Latin America - block style, date is day-month-year, name of street then street number on second line, very friendly salutation followed by colon, complimentary close is very formal followed by the company name, four lines, the writer's name, then the writer's title. The tone and writing style of foreign correspondents is more formal and traditional. Bad news--U.S. uses a buffer; Latin Americans avoid the bad news. 2. The Japanese tone and letter style is different from the U.S. The Japanese open with a statement concerning the weather or season of the year. The Japanese write in the plural rather than the first or second person. In order to utilize international English, the following cultural factors need to be considered: An understanding of business communication in the other culture; knowledge of how business communication is taught in the other culture; and knowing that content errors are more difficult for another culture to discern than language errors. The difference between lexical and syntactic errors is that lexical errors are content errors or differences in word meaning, and syntactic errors are the incorrect order of the words in the sentence. People from two cultures who speak the same language may have difficulty communicating due to lexical errors, slang, nonverbal signals with different cultural meanings, words that paint a picture for one culture may give a very different picture in another culture, differences in spelling, and cultural differences between the two speakers. A buffer is used in U.S. letters to begin a letter that contains bad news; the buffer is pleasant but does not say what the bad news is directly. Reading between the lines is expected by Latin Americans, Chinese, and Japanese writers. Guidelines for writing e-mail messages to international colleagues include the following: Use some phrases in the customers language; use a collaborative tone; avoid humor; avoid dwelling on cultural differences; use short, simple sentences;

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avoid abbreviations, contractions, slang, jargon, or idioms; be explicit; avoid use of all capital letters; be generous with compliments; maintain a consistent organizational pattern; and avoid showing anger and assigning blame. 9. 10. Items currently included in U.S. rsum are name, address, phone number, job objective, experience, education, and references. The U.S. rsum is very different from some countries and similar to others. It is considerably shorter with less detail than the German rsum, does not include a picture, religion or age as does the French rsum, does not include family information like the Spanish rsum, and does not include hobbies and activities but may include military experience unlike the British rsum.

Case 1 To find a list of potential candidates for a management position in a U.S. corporate office in Germany, you need to obtain rsums of candidates as follows. Since the position is in Germany, the search should be conducted in Germany. You could use a personnel search firm in Germany. If it is a beginning position, you would want to contact the universities. If it is for a position that needs experience, you would place ads in le Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Suddeutsche Zeitung. It would be best if the ad were written in German even though the person you would want would probably speak English. Have the people send their rsum to you at your office and then review them to find which people you would want to interview. Case 2 If the members of two corporations do not speak a common language and are to work together, they will need to have a common language or very good interpreters and translators. Long term it would be best if someone from both corporations learn the native language of the other corporation. Short term an interpreter, translator, GDSS system, or consultant could be used. U.S. corporations generally expect the other company to learn English. Currently this position is costing many U.S. corporations orders. Studies have found that the corporation who appeals to a foreign corporation's culture generally is the one that gets the orders. Case 3 Although the U.S. executive was not living in England, if he planned to do business in England he needed cultural training. Many U.S., English, Canadian, and Australians think they understand each other because they happen to be descendents of the British Isles and all speak English. This assumption has destroyed numerous business deals. The English are different. They work hard, they generally maintain their deadlines and expect to be left alone to complete them. The English have a stubborn nature; they also do not take kindly to ultimatums and tend to want to get even. Since the U.S. executive was going to (in their minds) treat them as children, they acted as children and did everything according to the book. All paper work was 34 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

perfect before they would allow the booth to be picked up. Basically, the English were saying that we could have finished it on time; however, if you do not have faith in us, you will not have the booth. The U.S. person should have talked to the advertising firm first before having done anything. Case 4 U.S. persons use humor which foreigners find very difficult to understand. Much of humor is a play on words which is lost when someone does not speak the language fluently and understand the culture completely. Most U.S. persons do not have a dry or sarcastic sense of humor and find it hard to appreciate such humor. In the U.S. jokes are made about everything from religion, work, food, sports, sex, or any other topic about which the individual wishes to joke. Many of the U.S. jokes are disrespectful of someone or something, and many cultures find this distasteful. When humor is used out of context, it is unclear to the receiver whether they are to act upon the humor, laugh, or ignore the humor. Case 5 Since the intercultural virtual team is composed of members from China, France, Mexico, and the United States, e-mail messages should focus on relationship building, which is important to the Chinese, French, and Mexicans, and should avoid the typical North American style of being direct and abrupt. Initial messages should be spent on introductions and building relationships. Email messages should avoid dwelling on cultural differences; should be explicit; use short, simple sentences; avoid slang, jargon, idioms, and humor; and should contain compliments and apologies when appropriate. Disadvantages of virtual teams include problems associated with communicating solely via written communication among people who speak different languages, lack of face-to-face interaction, and strategies for handling problem situations in the absence of nonverbal communication. Activities 1. 2. The dictionary is the best source for determining the Latin or Germanic roots of words in the English language. Instruct students to look in the foreign language section of the library to complete this activity. Most libraries also carry some foreign journals or newspapers. Suggested bad-news letter is shown below:

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September 10, 2---

Mr. James Smith The Copper Company 1010 Holmes Road Memphis, TN 38018 Dear Mr. Smith: Your electronics order has been received. Although we try to have all parts in stock at all times, as a businessperson you realize that sometimes this is not possible. We expect delivery of the parts you ordered by October 2, 2--- and will ship them upon arrival. Your order is appreciated. Sincerely, Jane Brewer

September 10, 2--The Copper Company Attention Yoshida Kumar The Electronic Company 4646 Poplar Avenue Memphis, TN 38117 Distribution Manager: Brewer Jane Allow us to open with all reverence to you: The warm part of the year is now here and we are enjoying the change in the weather. We congratulate you on a very prosperous business. We will supply the electronic parts you requested after October 2, 2---, and hope that this meets with your schedule. Let us close with

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Instruct students to note the job requirements as to language skills or other qualifications that are not typically required of a U.S. position. The students can follow the suggested formats in the text or research beyond the text for the appropriate format. Provide students with an appropriate letter format or instruct them to follow guidelines given in the chapter. Have the students consult a text designed for people who speak English as a second language for vocabulary that is appropriate for the letter. Students should have identified such errors as missing articles, sentence construction, word usage, and writing style. Students should concentrate on the fact that one person is group oriented and the other is individual oriented. Writing that could have been improved upon include: First Fax: the strength of disappointment, the accusation, no room to save face, incorrect/ informal English, use of abbreviations, and word usage. Second Fax: too apologetic, sentence structure, word usage, grammar, and use of person's title in the attention line.

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Instructors could provide a case problem that all students would use as a basis for writing the letter, such as asking the foreign person to write a letter thanking someone for a gift.

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Chapter 8 Business and Social Etiquette Questions 1. Introductions in the U.S. tend to be rather informal. First names are used almost immediately. Introductions are more formal in other cultures. Titles are used when introducing people in Germany and Italy. In Britain people who have been knighted are introduced as "Sir" and the first name only (Sir Thomas). Business cards are usually exchanged in the U.S. only when there is a reason to contact the person later; they are not routinely exchanged on the first meeting. The recipient simply glances at the card and puts it in his or her pocket. The Japanese use both hands when presenting the business card and position it so that the recipient can read it. The recipient examines the card and makes some comment while accepting it. Business card exchange is an expected part of introductions in Europe, the Middle East, the Pacific and Asia, and the Caribbean. The U.S. is not a nation of classes, but subtle class distinctions exist based on wealth, education, and occupation or profession. In India a class system exists; the society is divided into castes. The caste system the person belongs to is determined at birth, and interaction between castes is limited. In the U.S. a relationship exists between gender and age and position and status. Women are given leadership positions in business and government and are considered equal to men. In the U.S. a person's age is not viewed as an indication of seniority. The respect for age alone is not as apparent in the U.S. as it is in Asian and Arab cultures. Good telephone manners include answering the phone promptly (first or second ring), identifying yourself properly by giving your department and your name, and being courteous at all times, including the frequent use of "please" and "thank you." Avoid putting people on hold for prolonged periods. Also avoid mouth noises, not paying attention, and having a negative, rude attitude. Flaming means sending vicious, insulting messages; shouting is typing the message in all capital letters. E-mail has the advantage of having a low preparation and fast delivery time as well as being personal and convenient for the receiver. The disadvantage is lack confidentiality and, of course, the lack of nonverbal interaction. Cultural differences in dining practices involve times of day meals are eaten, number of courses served, and manner or style of eating. In Mexico lunch time is from 2 to 4 p.m., while in the U.S. it is usually 12 to 2 p.m. In Latin American countries even

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informal meals usually have numerous courses, while in the U.S. informal meals have only one to three courses. 9. The manner of eating in the U.S. is the zigzag style, which involves switching the fork from the left to the right hand after cutting the meat. In most other countries the Continental style is used, which involves placing the fork in the left hand and knife in the right hand and placing the food onto the back of the fork before placing the food the mouth, fork tines down. In some cultures, knives, forks, and spoons are replaced by other utensils. Many Asians use chopsticks, especially for eating rice. Tahitians eat their food with their fingers. A general guideline for tipping in U.S. restaurants is to tip 15 to 20 percent of the bill. In addition to tipping in restaurants, traveling involves the following situations in which tipping is expected: cab driver, bellman, and other service personnel who may carry your luggage, summon a cab, or deliver small appliances to your hotel room. Tipping customs in other cultures vary. In China, for example, tipping is prohibited. Tipping in Japan is also frowned upon. In Europe a service charge is added to your restaurant and hotel bill; you are not expected to leave an additional tip in most European countries. The primary guideline for business gift giving in the U.S. is that the gift must be modest in price ($25 or less). Business gifts should be personal, yet not too personal. In the U.S. gifts are opened in front of the giver, followed by a verbal and written expression of appreciation. Gift-giving practices are not the same in all cultures. In Japan, for example, gift giving is very much a part of conducting business. Presentation is important; gifts are beautifully wrapped but without the ornate bows used on U.S. gifts. The Japanese do not open a gift in front of the giver; avoid giving a gift in the presence of another person. In the Arab countries, however, the gift must be presented when someone else is present so it will not be interpreted as a bribe. Gifts considered appropriate for a U.S. person to give someone in another culture include imported liquor (except in Islamic cultures), consumables of high quality, U.S.-made sports equipment, U.S. Native American art or jewelry, and designer-made products containing such names as Gucci, Tiffany & Co., or Mark Cross. Musical tapes and CDs are also good choices. A general rule to follow is that the gift should be U.S. made, be useful, and have conversational value. Avoid gag gifts as people of some cultures do not appreciate them. Cultural taboos related to flowers involve color, variety, and number. Red roses are associated with romance in some cultures. In China, white is the color of mourning, and gladioli are often used in funeral sprays; thus, a gift of white gladioli would be inappropriate. In most European countries, avoid a gift of carnations, which are for cemeteries only. Chrysanthemums would be inappropriate in both Japan and Italy; they are associated with funerals and mourning. Avoid sending yellow, red, or white flowers to a Mexican host as these colors have negative connotations for some classes of Mexicans. Armenians give an

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uneven number of flowers on happy occasions; even numbers of flowers are associated with death. For the Chinese, four is the most negative number so gifts of four flowers should be avoided. In Thailand and Hong Kong, three is a lucky number so give gifts of three in these countries. 14. Dressing professionally sends the message that you care about the impression you make on your compatriots and on persons of other cultures. People who wear a suit or executive casual when traveling often get better service from airline personnel and from hotel employees upon their arrival. Airline passengers should be especially considerate of those around them and careful that their behavior does not offend anyone. Because of the limited space, passengers should refrain from wearing strong fragrances. They should respect the preferences of those seated next to them related to conversations. Avoid putting ones seat back in a reclining position when traveling in the main cabin, without first asking permission of the person seated behind you. Passengers should also remember to stay out of the aisles as much as possible, limit their time on the telephone and in the bathroom, and make sure that their children do not engage in annoying activities.

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Case 1 Gift giving is an important aspect of nonverbal communication with the Japanese. However, Mark's ideas present several problems. The clock is an acceptable gift but would be more appropriate without the company logo; if it has the company logo, the logo should be very small. A leather briefcase would be a popular gift. Instead of a country ham, some frozen steaks or a bottle of Scotch might be a better choice. The pen and pencil set are not appropriate, as any items "made in Japan" would not be appropriate gifts to the Japanese from a U.S. businessman. Mark should add another gift to the list to avoid a multiple of four, because the number four has morbid connotations. Other welcome gifts he could include would be coins, musical tapes and CDs, high quality consumables, and liquor. The bright red wrapping paper and matching bows on the gifts are also inappropriate. Lightly tinted rice paper would have been the best choice for wrapping the gifts. Further, the gifts should have been delivered in person. If at all possible, Mark should have presented the gifts while in Japan. Generally, a good rule to follow is to let the persons of the other culture initiate the gift giving, but Mark's presentation of gifts is welcome in the Japanese culture. Case 2 Latin American people are far less time conscious than the people of the U.S. Although the invitation was for 9 p.m., the U.S. American was not expected to arrive right on time but at least 10 to 15 minutes late. Also, the U.S. executive brought a bottle of alcohol unwrapped. He probably should have avoided alcohol, as it was not known whether the host drinks. If alcohol was welcomed, it should have been a brand made in the U.S., and it should have 40 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

been wrapped. The yellow and white chrysanthemums were inappropriate because in many countries these flowers are associated with funerals and mourning. The executive should have asked in a flower shop in the host country what flowers were appropriate. Case 3 The best option is to eat them by swallowing whole if small enough or cutting into bites where you do not have to chew but can simply swallow without tasting the food. You can refuse to eat the item and probably lose face with your fellow employees. You can tell them you have an allergy or medical condition and that your doctor has told you not to eat such foods. In most countries, if it is not an obvious lie, a medical excuse is accepted. Case 4 If there are open seats on the flight, she can ask the flight attendant to change her seat. If there is not a seat available, she can ask if either of the people seated beside her are flying with someone else on the plane and offer to switch seats. If these two options fail, Sara may be stuck and can pray the baby stops crying. Case 5 Research by the visitor from Singapore would have determined that the United States is a high tipping culture. The visitor should have tipped the taxi driver 15 to 20 percent of the fare, the hotel bellman who helped with the luggage a minimum of $5, the concierge who provided special services at least a couple of dollars each time he or she gave assistance, and 18 to 20 percent in the hotel restaurant. Etiquette books that contain guidelines for U.S. tipping include Chaney and Martins The Essential Guide to Business Etiquette (2007), Ingrams The Everything Etiquette Book (2005), and Fords 21st Century Etiquette (2003. Activities 1. Students may volunteer to act as persons from the various cultures listed; others will make the introductions. a. Dr. John Giovanni b. Mr. Chung c. Seora Mara Comerlato-Velasquez d. Sir Thomas Edward Peacock Divide the class into small groups for this activity. Ask students to evaluate others in the group on their effectiveness in business card presentation to someone from Japan.

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To assure that students do not duplicate the cultural faux pas incident, assign certain issues of the journal or newspaper to each student. Since students may not have ready access to information on dining practices in Zimbabwe, Samoa, and Tanzania, instructors may wish to suggest sources that include this information, such as the CultureGrams series, books of etiquette, and the Axtell books. Suggest to students that a good reference would be a recognized book of etiquette, such as Chaney and Martins The Essential Guide to Business Etiquette, Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners, or Stewart's The New Etiquette. Suggest students consult books on global etiquette for giftgiving practices. Dressers Multicultural Managers, Martin and Chaneys Global Business Etiquette, Morrison, Conaway, and Bordens Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, and Sabaths International Business Etiquette series (Asia and the Pacific Rim, Europe, and Latin America) are good sources.

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Chapter 9 Business and Social Customs Questions 1. 2. The U.S. handshake is firm; in France the handshake is light and quick. Verbal expressions used in the United States that have little meaning when translated include: Whats up?; Hows it going?; and graveyard shift. Examples of variations in the English language within regions of the U.S. include such regional expressions as "I'm fixin' to leave" (for "I'm ready to leave") and "He's afeared of the dark" (for "He's afraid of the dark"). "Good day" in French is bonjour (bawn-JHOOR); in German, guten tag (GOO-tun TAHK); in Spanish, buenos das (bway-nos DEE-ahs). In the United States, presentations are often started with a joke or cartoon related to the topic to be covered. Germans find humor out of place during business meetings. They take business seriously and do not appreciate kidding remarks during negotiations. Cartoons are not appropriate in a professional setting of strangers in Germany. In the United States, women are considered equal to men in the workplace. Women are assuming more assertive roles and work side by side in the workplace with men. In Mexico, more familiarity exists between male supervisors and their female secretaries, such as kissing them on their cheek each morning or embracing them. People of the United States think that 13 is an unlucky number. Many U.S. persons will not schedule important events on this day. The Chinese, who also believe that good luck or bad is associated with certain numbers, feel that four is the most negative number because it sounds like the word for death. Many Chinese believe that having an uneven number of people in a photograph will bring bad luck. Countries in which business dress is similar to that worn in the U.S. include Canada, France, Germany, England, Japan, and Mexico. Countries in which business dress may be different from that worn in the U.S. include the Philippines, where more casual attire is appropriate, and Indonesia. In Saudi Arabia, your host may wear the traditional Arabic white, flowing robe, and headcloth. Visitors should not, however, attempt to dress in a like manner. When women conduct business in other cultures, they should follow the rule of wearing a conservative skirted suit or dress. Dresses should be long-sleeved, and dress/skirt lengths should go below the knees. Women should avoid wearing pants when

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conducting business abroad since in many countries women do not wear pants to the office or to nice restaurants. 11. In the United States people are hired with the understanding that their retention and promotion on the job depend upon their performing the job satisfactorily and upon getting along with their colleagues. While workers cannot legally be fired without cause, it is understood that no job is permanent. On the other hand, in such countries as Japan, employees consider their job to be permanent, unless the person breaks the law or is guilty of a moral turpitude. Rules for appropriate behavior in public places in the United States include: keep to the right when walking in malls or on the street; wait your turn when standing in line at the post office, bank, or theater; give priority to the first person who arrives (rather than to people who are older or wealthier as is done in Asian cultures); do not block traffic; do not block someones view at a ballgame or other public event; be considerate of nonsmokers; treat clerks, taxi drivers, and other service personnel with courtesy and respect, since in the United States the principle of equality prevails. Knowledge of holidays and holy days of other cultures is important so that telephone calls and business trips can be scheduled around them. For example, August is not a good time for conducting business in Europe as it is considered the vacation month and many businesses close during this time. Little business is conducted with the Arabs during Ramadan, the Islamic fasting season which lasts a month. U.S. foods considered unusual by people of other cultures include corn-on-the-cob, grits, popcorn, marshmallows, and crawfish. Foods of other cultures that people of the U.S. view as unusual include dog meat, sheep's eyeballs, and chicken/duck feet. Consumption taboos include: Hindus do not eat any beef; strict Muslims do not eat pork or other scavengers or alcohol; and Orthodox Jews eat neither pork nor shellfish.

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Case 1 Hosting a party where people from different parts of the world are present can be a difficult job because of differences in food preferences and consumption taboos. One solution may be to find out the home culture of most of the guests. With a little research, different foods may be prepared to suit the majority of the people. Chicken, fish, and vegetables are some safe recommendations. Avoid foods such as beef, pork, dog, grits, raw fish, and others that may be offensive in some cultures. Another suggestion is to indicate that the occasion is an "intercultural party" and prepare one dish that is typical of the cuisine of various cultures.

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Case 2 A businessperson traveling to a foreign country should know beforehand if there is a conflict with a holiday in the host country. Further, it would be a good idea to set up appointments before traveling. If the businessperson does happen to end up in Mexico during Carnival Week, he or she should share in the experience. Developing good business relationships is important in Mexico, so accepting the invitation would be a good idea if handled properly. The festivities should be enjoyed, but the behavior of the businessperson should be above reproach since the person is representing his or her company. Case 3 The Japanese businessman did not understand the art of small talk. The businessman needs to acquire the knack of small talk so that he can be a good conversationalist at such gatherings. The host knowing that this was the Japanese businesspersons first visit to the U.S. should have made sure that he or one of the guests helped the businessman feel at home by being sure someone was with him at all times. The host should have explained what cocktail parties in the U.S. are like so that the Japanese businessperson did not feel deserted. The Japanese businessperson should have let the U.S. executive know he was leaving. Case 4 Ms. Van Buren did not understand the culture. Mr. Velasquez was being friendly and needed to get to know her before he could do business. Ms. Van Buren responded as if there was something incorrect or improper in his invitation. Mr. Velasquez probably would feel his honor had been besmirched. Mr. Velasquez probably did not give Ms. Van Buren any business because he did not feel comfortable doing so. Case 5 Business dress in the United States has become increasingly casual since the decade of business casual attire in the 1990s. Since attire and hair styles for business presentations should be professional even in the United States, the Chinese, who dress conservatively in loosely styled clothing in muted colors, would not be favorably impressed by a female presenter in form-fitting, bright-colored clothes with short hemlines and long hair. In short, U.S. female presenters in such attire would not be taken seriously; they would lack credibility. Activities 1. Possible sources for appropriate business and social dress information include: CultureGrams, Devine and Braganti's The Travelers' Guide to Asian Customs and Manners, and the Axtell books. Students may be a member of a U.S. subculture and would, therefore, have first-hand knowledge of religious taboos

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associated with food consumption. Students who have traveled abroad would also be able to provide knowledge of such taboos not commonly known. 3. Instructors could provide an unusual or foreign food for students to try. Many times these foods are available at ethnic grocery stores in the local community. Refer students to the section in the chapter related to ways of saying please, thank you, goodbye, and excuse me in French, German, and Spanish. The instructor may divide the class into small groups to practice these expressions. Instructors may wish to suggest such references as Dressers Multicultural Manners, Bosrocks Put Your Best Foot Forward, and Sabaths International Business Etiquette books for information on superstitions.

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Chapter 10 Intercultural Negotiation Process Questions 1. Three reasons why global joint ventures and strategic alliances are increasing are trade agreements dissolving protective tariffs, technology making communication easier, and media allowing people to see more of what is happening in the world The steps in the negotiation process are site and team selection, relationship building, opening talks, discussions, and agreement. Models to consider using are the problem-solving approach, the competitive approach, compromising approach, forcing approach, and legalistic approach. Most negotiation conflicts are culturally based because the negotiators are "not seeing through the same glasses." Prepare, plan, and respect the other culture. Because conflicts are culturally based, they are not always easy to decipher or recognize. The negotiators do not share a perception of reality or the ability to block out information that is inconsistent with their cultural beliefs. Cognitive dissonance, logic, and reasoning differences are generally culturally learned. The saying, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do," is important to the negotiation process. When you are negotiating with someone who has beliefs different from your own, it is necessary to understand and try to accommodate those beliefs as much as possible in order not to offend. Also research has shown that socio-cultural and political issues take up a great deal of the time spent negotiating. If you can understand some of the cultural issues ahead of the negotiation time, the meeting should run more smoothly. The factors to consider when analyzing a negotiation problem include: cognitive dissonance, logic and reasoning differences, interpreter and translation, the translation of ideas, concepts, and meaning. One can prepare for cultural shock during negotiations by preparing ahead of time. Preparation could include learning about their geography, history, and social context. Talk with others who have negotiated with the party, read about the culture, learn at least a little of the language, and talk with legal counsel. Also be very careful about choosing a translator so that ideas are not confused due to language. The integrative agreement takes a cooperative pragmatist who can negotiate an integrative deal and realize distributive outcomes. There has to be trust between the parties. The joint benefits are generally higher with an integrative agreement. The compromise

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agreement is reached when two parties find a common ground that results in lower joint benefits.

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Positive aspects of free trade zones are lower priced products for consumers, lower-priced production for manufacturers, dispensing of positions worldwide helps other economies, and more interaction between cultures in the world. Negative aspects of free trade zones are countries with high production costs lose those positions to other countries, isolationism is impossible, and all the economies of the world are becoming more integrated. When negotiating with the Canadians, the package deal model should be chosen because it considers the atmosphere of the negotiation as well as the background factors, process, and outcome. The cultural implications for U.S. and Japanese negotiating would include the use of silence, the number of people participating in the negotiations, how the contract is considered, language (interpretation, translating, second language), and relationship building. The cultural implications for Japanese and Mexican negotiators would include the use of silence, language, the use of time, and work ethics. These should be explained with examples.

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Case 1 The Russians are in no hurry to make a deal and want to control the agenda. The breaks are a show of power and control over the negotiations. Their negotiation tactics may change as some of them start introducing western business tactics. The U.S. negotiator made the right move because they were on Russia's home territory. Case 2 The salesman's faux pas was taking the bullfight in a nonchalant manner, as it is very important to the Spaniards. Depending on how sensitive the Spaniards are the negotiations could be lost due to the self-esteem of the Spaniards being attacked. Developing a friendship is important to doing business with the Spanish and lacking decorum concerning important events could make that very difficult to do. If the salesman had done any reading on the culture, he would have known the importance of what he was watching and understood that he should not make such comments. Case 3 Becoming comfortable in another culture is easy for some and difficult for others. Being able to shift from one culture to another is also not necessarily instantaneous, depending on how similar or different the two cultures are. By reading, being trained by an interculturalist, and trying to be accepting of the other culture, one breaks down ethnocentric barriers. If you have already built a relationship, the sale should be a lot easier 48 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

than for a beginner. If you are a beginner, you will have to build a relationship first, which could take a while and may delay your making a sale. Case 4 Since the expectations are different, there will not be a contract given on the first meeting. The Chinese and the U.S. persons will feel as if the other did not understand how to do business, and both would be correct. The U.S. person did not understand that the Chinese have to build a relationship and that time is not important as you learn to understand and trust each other. The Chinese did not understand that the U.S. person is not as future oriented as the Chinese but are instead oriented toward the task at hand. The U.S. person did not think it was necessary to sell him/herself or the company whereas that was very important to the Chinese. Case 5 The two companies have resorted to legalistic means to settle their licensing disagreement. Both KE Electronics and JCP have filed legal actions in their own countries to halt sales of the others products. Trust is missing from the two sides. The cultural differences between South Korea and Japan are large, and the two have fought many wars over the centuries leading to a condition of little trust. It sounds as if they are both trying to force the other party to comply. The strategy of truth should include faith, fact, and feeling, and truth seems to be absent in this situation. Activities 1. The Chamber of Commerce, Lions Club, or Civitan group may be good sources of business people who would be willing to serve as members of a panel to discuss "Negotiating with the Japanese" or negotiating with persons of another culture. Students can use information in the chapter to prepare a "negotiation profile" for negotiating with someone from Mexico. Other books, in addition to those listed, include Cohen's Negotiating across Cultures and Moran and Stripp's Dynamics of Successful International Business Negotiations. Instructors may wish to suggest certain business journals or news magazines that typically feature articles on international business, such as Fortune, Time, The Wall Street Journal, and Newsweek. Instructors may suggest the following references for finding information related to problems women may have when negotiating with Arabs: Foster's Bargaining across Borders, Axtells Dos and Taboos around the World for Women in Business, Martin and Chaneys Global Business Etiquette or Passport to Success.

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Chapter 11 Intercultural Negotiation Components Questions 1. The selection of players for the situation is important because they have to handle local introductions, translations, explanations of cultural differences, permits, and navigate the laws and customs of the country. Many times local consultants can be hired to help with these items. If it is a hierarchical society it is important that the negotiating team come from the correct levels of seniority. Power and authority affect negotiations by determining who has the influence over others (power) and by having the power you have the authority to give commands and make final decisions. With power comes the responsibility of taking action. Power can be an advantage or disadvantage depending on how it is used and the ethical behavior. Interpreters and translators play many roles in the negotiation process: they are the key to the culture, they facilitate dialogue, and they give social identity to the members at the table. Gender can have an impact on successful negotiation if the gender is viewed as not being equal to the other gender at the negotiation table. Women are considered as equals at the negotiation table only in the U.S., Israel, England, France, Switzerland, and India. The strategy to use in negotiating with people who believe no one should lose face, negotiation is ongoing, and that consensus is the only way to reach an agreement would be much different than the normal view of negotiation from the U.S. point of view. You would need to be much more open-minded and realize they do have a very different way of looking at an agreement. You would not bring legal people to the negotiation table, nor would you make direct accusations, and time would have to have an open end. The ability to identify the conflict is important, and substantive issues include the use and control of resources. Many times both negotiators will see the conflict and some times only one will see a problem. These issues can cause negotiations to breakdown or deadlock, may cause negotiators to be repetitive in their arguments, and nonnegotiation tactics may be used. The advantages of national culture stereotypes are they give us a view of ourselves from others viewpoints, and gives us a rough idea of what people in another culture may value. The limitation is everyone is an individual and may not fit the national culture stereotype.

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8. Differences exist in negotiating with people who are group oriented, such as the Japanese, and those who are individually 50 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

oriented, such as the Germans. When dealing with a consensus type of negotiation where everyone has to be satisfied with the end product, you must be willing to invest a lot of time. Business as conducted in the U.S. would not work when negotiating with someone who feels saving face is very important. You would also want to make sure you were not accusatory or offensive in any manner. The contract would have to be loose allowing for changes in the future should they be required. 9. Media creates multicultural understanding and misunderstanding depending upon the culture and the cultural biases of the media people. Generally media presents other cultures through the bias of the U.S. perceptual grid. Stereotypes as a result of the media are that all U.S. Americans carry guns, all followers of Islam do not drink alcoholic beverages, and that there are lots of cowboys in the U.S. 10. Personal constructs are individual belief systems and attitudes. If these constructs are so ethnocentrically oriented that they do not allow for the individual to adjust to other cultures during negotiations, then conflicts will arise. 11. Conflicting interest affects negotiations because it is not always easy to determine and includes payment, distribution, profits, contractual responsibilities, and quality. 12. In negotiating with people who are very emotional, and to whom facts or details are not important and status is very important, you would need to pay a little attention to the emotional gestures, realize that details will be considered as they arise, and always give a great deal of respect to the person and their position. 13. Responses could deal with being group oriented in an individualistic society, not watching television, liking classical music as opposed to pop music, being shy in an emotional culture or loud in a quiet culture, anything that would render invalid assumptions the other negotiating team has made. 14. Generally it would be easier for the U.S. Americans to negotiate with the Canadians. U.S. Americans need to do a little research here to be sure they understand the Canadians. Except for the French-Canadians, where one would have to speak French, the English language is spoken; however, the meaning of all the words, the slang, and the idioms do differ. Canadians are very loyal to Britain and think the American Revolution was wrong. For the most part, however, we have been allies over the years. It is also necessary to realize they feel we are a bit pushy and loud, so it would be best to control any such feelings you might have. The Japanese, the Mexicans, and the French-Canadians are more difficult due to the language and cultural differences. The Mexicans want a friendship as well as a business relationship, and the Japanese also like knowing whom they are dealing with very well. It would probably take a lot more negotiations to conclude a deal in Mexico or Japan than in Canada.

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Case 1 a. The environment would be home for the Mexicans and alien for the U.S. The Mexicans would be the perfect hosts in such a situation being sure to take you to all cultural and historic locations and being sure you would dine elegantly. The U.S. negotiators would probably want to get right down to business and might be a little resentful of the time they would have to spend "vacationing." However, if the U.S. negotiators did their homework, they would simply go along and allow extra time. The negotiation situation would depend upon how well the Mexicans like the U.S. negotiators after they have relaxed with them prior to the beginning of the negotiations. The Mexicans tend to talk louder than the U.S. people. The Mexicans also like to do business with friends, and it would be very important for the U.S. negotiators to accept graciously and to give graciously during the "courtship" before the negotiations actually begin. Mexicans tend to be very leery of the U.S. because of past actions the U.S. has taken. The Mexicans would have to believe that the U.S. was sincere in their best interests for Mexico. In Mexico a handshake is a contract and many times more important than the written contract. Also in order to get things done in Mexico, bribes or payments in kind are in order which can be a problem for the U.S. Criteria for achievement would be a win-win situation in which Mexico would be able to utilize their facilities and the U.S. would be able to complete its production. The strategy would be to win the Mexicans over as friends first, to genuinely get to know them and understand them. Courtesy and etiquette would be very important. Females would be sure to have a male on the negotiating team as the spokesperson. It would be best to learn some Spanish. The English used would be limited to International Business English during the negotiations to help eliminate any misunderstandings. Power would be best if shared in this situation in order to build trust between the two companies. As Mexican men are very proud, you would want to avoid anything that might be construed as their losing face or putting them down. Make sure to read and research the people with whom you will be meeting so that you understand them. Culture is very important in this situation because the U.S. and Mexico have a history of conflict and wars. The U.S. has tended to be disrespectful toward the Mexicans and their lifestyle; therefore, this has to be overcome if the negotiations are to succeed.

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The Saudi Arabians are not used to dealing with women. Since this is an Islamic country, the woman is being disrespectful to the Islamic law in her dress. Women are to be covered from the top of their head to their feet. As the women do not eat with the men and do not discuss business, it would be very difficult for the Saudis to feel comfortable dealing with a woman. If a woman is the responsible person, she could bring a man to use as her spokesperson. By allowing the man to do the negotiating, she would make the Saudis feel more comfortable and be more likely to attain her goal. She should also dress very conservatively so as not to embarrass her hosts. Case 3 If it is a good firm, they would know the culture, language, and the way business is to be conducted between the two countries. Generally export companies know the laws, trade agreements, and documents that need to be completed in order to sell a product in a foreign country. The firm needs to be large enough to take care of the volume of goods you plan to ship. They should also be able to make suggestions as to how things should be packaged, containerized, and which shipping lines to use. Case 4 The Mexicans would have viewed the New Yorkers as pushy, unfriendly, not trustworthy, and arrogant. Not going through the business rituals that the Mexicans expected of including the Mexicans in the discussions rather than presenting everything to the Mexicans would have made the Mexicans feel as if they could not approach the New Yorkers. Mexicans will continue a meeting as long as is necessary and consider it rude to leave one meeting for another or to be rushed for time. Because the Mexicans sat quietly, the New Yorkers thought their presentation had sold the Mexicans; however, the Mexicans were only being polite. Case 5 You would want to know that the Indians are a culture that likes to please; therefore, they would have a hard time telling a superior that something could not be done when the superior had asked for it. You would want to be sure that equals were doing the negotiating so that the superior-subordinate relationship issue would not be a problem because Indians see superiors as the people who should make the decisions. It would probably take a few meetings to finalize the agreement; it probably could not be accomplished in one meeting or in one week. You would want to find out information on friendships in business, eating styles, foods, and attitude toward women in business in order to successfully complete a deal. Activities 1. Students may use material in the chapter for completing this activity and, in addition, may wish to consult such references as CultureGrams, Hofstede's Cultures and Organizations, and House et al. GLOBE Study.

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Provide an abstract format for students to use in summarizing the role that gift giving plays when negotiating with the Japanese. In addition to Baldrige's book on etiquette, other references to suggest include Stewart's The New Etiquette, Sabaths International Business Etiquette, Yager's Business Protocol, and Martin and Chaneys Global Business Etiquette and Passport to Success. The instructor could ask students to choose one of the South American countries to avoid duplication. Other references to suggest for researching the role that nonverbal communication plays in negotiation include Foster's Bargaining across Borders and Hofstede's Cultures and Organizations. The instructor may wish to make specific assignments related to trade agreements between the U.S. and another country to avoid duplication of reports. Refer students to sections in the chapter for preparing them for class discussion related to the role that bargaining plays when negotiating with persons in different cultures. Unacceptable behavior that students should have underlined in the scenario include: expressing a dislike for Mexican food, assuming a relaxed manner of dress, failure to address Mexican team members by their titles, pressure to discuss business during the meal, and obvious displeasure at food presentation. Students may be allowed class time for completing this activity, or it may be assigned as homework. Completion of the Negotiation Skills Self-Assessment Exercise should be followed by a discussion in class related to differences in negotiation styles, including advantages and disadvantages of each style.

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Chapter 12 Laws Affecting International Business and Travel Questions 1. The difference between home country laws and host country laws is that the home country laws are the laws, treaties, or acts that govern business within your country of citizenship and those governing your business with other countries; while host country laws are the laws, treaties, or acts that govern business within the foreign country with which you wish to conduct business. A low-context country would view contracts as very rigid and detailed while a high-context country would view a contract as a guideline to be adjusted as needed. Ethics differ around the world because people are culturally diverse. Ethics judgments are based on some standard of moral behavior as to right and wrong. Practicality judgments are based on what is easiest, best, or most effective to achieve an objective. The four governance structures are market governance which is contract based, trilateral governance which adds an arbitrator, bilateral governance which may not spell everything out but has a strong recognition of a continuing relationship, and unified governance in which nothing is negotiated in advance, maximum flexibility is provided, and only one party sets terms for both parties involved. Nonwritten laws are difficult to find out about before visiting a country because many countries determine the rules as they go or base the interpretation of the law on the situation versus the fine points of law. The importance of citizenship has to do with your rights. A citizen is vested with certain rights and duties as a native or naturalized member of a country. However, all countries do not view citizenship equally. Proof of citizenship may not be clear if you were born in another country, your parents are citizens of another country, or you are a naturalized citizen of the country that you consider your home country. A passport is your proof of citizenship while a visa is a right to enter and stay in a country for a period of time for a specific purpose. A multinational corporation is governed by first its country of incorporation and second by all the countries in which it conducts business or has manufacturing or offices. The Act of State Doctrine allows each nation to legally govern within its own boundaries. It is important to have an attorney who is knowledgeable when conducting business in a foreign country so that you will adhere

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to both your country's exporting laws and the foreign country's importing laws. 10. The act which prohibits a corporation or individual from circumventing the Arms Export Control Act of 1968 is the Antidiversion Requirement which states that the bill of lading and the invoice must clearly display that the carrier cannot divert the shipment to a country the U.S. government considers restricted.

Case 1 Since his parents were born in Russia, the Russian government may have still considered them (and hence him) a Russian citizen. They may have revoked his U.S. passport, detained him as a Russian citizen, forced him to complete military training, and forced him to live in Russia because of their interpretation of his citizenship status. Although the U.S. would argue he was a U.S. citizen due to birth, his being on Russian soil would make his release difficult if the Russians did not want to release him. Politically people were released by exchanging someone the Russians wanted for someone the U.S. wanted. Since no international laws govern this issue, each nation determines its own laws as protected by the Act of State Doctrine. Case 2 If it is a country in which such practices are considered legal, in order to get the plant completed on a timely basis the people would be compensated. The compensation, however, could not take the form of direct cash but must be tied to the completion of the project on a timely basis. The moral value and worth of an act is judged by what is produced--the utility. The players in the negotiation game and the environment in which the negotiators are operating help to determine whether the negotiators can justify being exploitative, manipulative, or devious. Since the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 requires U.S. companies to account for and report international transactions accurately and prohibits bribes that are used to gain a business advantage, caution would need to be exercised. Case 3 The laws of the country in which the plane is produced will govern the manufacturing of the plane first, with the other country's laws being secondary. The contract should stipulate where litigation of disagreements should take place; however, it is generally best for the litigation to take place in the country of production. The form of thematization that would be used would be a combination of law, utilitarianism, and religion. The governance structure would be bilateral due to the relationship being long term. Case 4 If the current supplier has not purchased or processed the commodity and are "good guys," they may not require the 56 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

purchasing agent to pay. If the company has purchased or started processing the commodity, the purchasing agent is libel to take the product. The purchasing agent can ask his company to purchase the product to which he committed. If the company refuses, the purchasing agent is personally libel to take the product and pay for it. Case 5 When Halliburton moves to Dubai, they will pay taxes for their operations to the United Arab Emirates rather than to the United States. Halliburton will not pay taxes to the United States on items that are sold to companies within the United States. The companies they sell to will pay taxes. So the U.S. government will be receiving less revenue. Since Dubai has a very favorable corporate tax rate, Halliburton will pay less in taxes and will make more money to share with shareholders, employees, and others. If a substantial number of companies leave the United States, the U.S. government will lose significant tax dollars with which to run the country. Activities 1. 2. Critical incidents related to international law students bring to class could be found on local or national newscasts. The instructor may wish to secure passport forms from the local post office for distribution to the class. Visa forms must be obtained from an embassy for the country students might select. Students may find out about nonwritten laws of a country from an international lawyer, from nationals, or from people who have worked in the country. To avoid duplication of countries, assign students specific countries. If a law school is located in the community, this would be the best source for contacting a professor of international law to discuss cultural variations in contracts. An international lawyer in the community would be another option. Instruct students to use the bibliographical retrieval system of their library for compiling a list of books or journal articles related to international law. Instructors may wish to make the assignment country specific or may wish to restrict the assignment to references published during the past five years. Go to http://www.llrx.com/features/trade.htm to check on the accuracy of the answers.

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