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DYWIDAG Geotechnical Systems GEWI Piles

GEWI Piles (Small-Diametered Injection Piles) with LoadCarrying Elements made of Reinforcing Bars with Thread Ribs BSt 500 S- GEWI or BSt 500 S, 20 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm

Approval Number Z-32.1-2 Validity 28 August 1992 03 November 2013

DEUTSCHES INSTITUT FR BAUTECHNIK


(German Institute for Civil Engineering)
Statutory Body

10829 Berlin, 04 November 2008 Kolonnenstrasse 30 L Phone: +49 (030) 78730-357 Fax: +49 (030) 78730-320 Ref. No.: II 20-1.34.11-20/06

Approval Certificate

Approval number:

Z-32.1-2

Applicant:

DYWIDAG-Systems International GmbH Dywidagstrasse 1 85609 Aschheim Germany

Object of approval:

DYWIDAG GEWI Piles (Small-Diametered Injection Piles) with Load-Carrying Elements made of Reinforcing Bars with Thread Ribs BSt 500 S-GEWI or BSt 500 S, diameters 20 mm, 25 mm, 28 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm

Valid until:

3 November 2013

The aforementioned object of approval is herewith generally approved by the construction supervision authority in accordance with German building legislation. * This approval certificate comprises 14 pages and 11 appended sheets.

Important Notice
The approval in hand is the translation of a document originally prepared in the German language which has not been verified and officially authorized by the Deutsches Institut fr Bautechnik (German Institute for Civil Engineering). In case of doubt in respect to wording and/or interpretation of this approval, the original German version of this document shall prevail exclusively. Therefore no liability is assumed for translation errors or inaccuracies. _______________________ * This general approval replaces the approval certificate of 17 October 2007.
The object of approval was for the first time generally approved by the construction supervision authority on 28 August 1992.

Page 2 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1 2 3 4 This approval certificate is proof of the usability and applicability of the Object of Approval as called for by the state building regulations. The general approval does not replace the permits, licences and certificates required by German law for the execution of construction projects. The general approval is granted without prejudice to third party rights, in particular private property rights. Notwithstanding further regulations in the "Special Provisions" Section, the manufacturer and distributor of the object of approval shall provide the user with copies of the approval certificate; furthermore, they shall inform the user that the approval certificate must be available at the place of use. On request, copies of the approval certificate shall be submitted to all authorities involved. The approval certificate may only be copied in its entirety. Any publication of excerpts requires the consent of the German Institute for Civil Engineering. Texts and drawings in advertising material may not contradict the approval certificate. Translations of the approval certificate shall contain the following notice: "Translation from the German original has not been certified by the German Institute for Civil Engineering". The approval is not granted irrevocably. The provisions of this approval may be amended or modified subsequently, in particular, if made necessary as a result of new technical findings.

Page 3 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

II. SPECIAL PROVISIONS


1 Object of Approval and Application Range
Object of this general approval are DYWIDAG GEWI piles with load-carrying elements made of reinforcing bars with thread ribs BSt 500 S-GEWI or BSt 500 S with nominal diameters of 20 mm, 25 mm, 28 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm. The piles in question are injection piles (composite piles) for which the stipulations of DIN 4128:1983-041 shall apply, unless stated otherwise below. The piles may be used as tension or compression piles for temporary (< 2 years) and permanent application. The piles are designed for loading by axial loads only. A geotechnical expert must be consulted, if the soil contains parts, which might weaken the corrosion protection of the cement grout, if they intrude into the grout body (e.g. organic material). The piles shall not be installed, if the foundation soil contains ground water or seepage water from waste heaps and/or landfills ensuring a high probability of steel corrosion in form of cavities and holes in accordance with DIN 50 929-3:1985-092, Table 7, with Wo < -8, unless the steel load-carrying element is protected by a corrugated plastic sheathing over its entire length.

2
2.1 2.1.1

Provisions for the Building Product


Properties and Composition General In accordance with Appendices 1, 2 or 8, the piles shall be made from a continuous steel load-carrying element which may consist of 1 to 3 bars (see Section 2.1.2), and uniformly embedded in cement grout over their entire length. Steel Load-Carrying Element

2.1.2

2.1.2.1 Steel Grade and Dimensions Only generally approved reinforcing bars with thread ribs BSt 500 S-GEWI or BSt 500 S, nominal diameters 20 mm, 25 mm, 28 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm, shall be used (Approval Certificates No. Z-1.1-58, Z-1.1-59, Z-1.1-1 06 and Z-1.1-167). 2.1.2.2 Single-Bar Piles The steel load-carrying element of single-bar piles consists of a reinforcing bar with thread ribs in diameters 20 mm, 25 mm, 28 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm or 50 mm (see Appendices 1 or 2). The single-bar piles may be provided with a cement grouted plastic corrugated sheathing (see Section 2.1.3). 2.1.2.3 Multibar Piles The load-carrying element of the multibar piles (see Appendix 9) may be composed of the following combinations of reinforcing bars with thread ribs: - 2 x 40 mm dia.

1 2

DIN 4128:1983-04 DIN 50929-3:1985-09

Small diameter injection piles (cast-in-place concrete and composite piles); construction procedure, design and permissible loading Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from the outside; buried and underwater pipelines and structural components

Page 4 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

- 2 x 50 mm dia. - 3 x 32 mm dia. - 3 x 40 mm dia. - 3 x 50 mm dia. - 1 x 40 mm dia., 1 x 50 mm dia. - 2 x 40 mm dia., 1 x 50 mm dia. - 1 x 40 mm, 2 x 50 mm dia. 2.1.2.4 Coupler Splices In accordance with the relevant approval certificates (Approval Certificates No. Z-1.5-76 and Z-1.5-149) for threaded splices and anchorages for reinforcing bars with thread ribs BSt 500 S-GEWI, diameters 20 mm, 25 mm, 28 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm, the reinforcing bars with thread ribs may be spliced with couplers (see Appendices 1 through 5). For tensile loadings the couplers shall be torqued with nuts. If in the case of compressive piles the coupler is not secured with lock nuts, it shall either be glued to the load-carrying element or prevented from unscrewing by means of pins. In case of predominantly dead load applications, lock nuts may be dispensed with, if a heat shrink sleeve is used in accordance with Appendices 3, 4 or 5. In case of load-carrying elements embedded in plastic corrugated sheathings (see Section 2.1.3), the couplers shall be protected with a heat-shrinkable sleeve as shown in Appendices 3, 4 or 5. Pursuant to DIN 30 6723 the hollow space between the grout and splice shall be completely grouted with the plastic sealing tape "Densoplast Petrolatum" on both sides of the splice, before the heat-shrink sleeve is shrunk on. The petrolatum shall be melt on through heating. The heat shrink sleeves shall have a minimum wall thickness of 1.5 mm in the shrunk condition. The heat shrink sleeves shall be shrunk on through hot air, infrared radiation or the soft flame of a gas burner. The distance between the joints in the longitudinal direction of the reinforcing bar with thread ribs shall be 1 m. The clear distance between the couplers in a multibar pile shall be at least 50 mm. Irrespective of the above stipulations in this section, a fixing by lock nuts is always required in case of alternating loads and not predominantly dead load applications in accordance with DIN 1055-1004 (see Appendix 3 or 5). 2.1.2.5 Pile Connection in the Foundation Body Steel load-carrying elements consisting of one reinforcing bar with thread ribs may be anchored either with GEWI anchorages pursuant to the approval certificate for tension bars and anchorages of reinforced bars with thread ribs BSt 500 S-GEWI (Approval Certificates No. Z-1.5-76 or Z-1.5-149) or with torqued plate anchorages (for 32 mm to 50 mm) as shown in Appendix 11 or through bonding as required by the relevant approval certificates for reinforced bars with thread ribs (Z-1.1-58, Z-1.1-59, Z-1.1-106 and Z-1.1167). If the steel load-carrying element consists of 2 or 3 reinforced bars with thread ribs, the force shall be transferred from the steel load-carrying element into the foundation bodies via GEWI anchorages as required by Approval Certificates No. Z-1.5-76 or Z-1.5-149 (see Appendices 8 and 9). The additional reinforcement in the pile head shall be positioned in accordance with the above approval certificates.

DIN 30672:2000-12

DIN 1055-100:2001-03

External organic coatings for the corrosion protection of buried and immersed pipelines for continuous operating temperatures up to 50 C Tapes and shrinkable materials Action on structures - Part 100: Basis of deign, safety concept and design rules

Page 5 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

2.1.3

Plastic Corrugated Sheathing The load-carrying element of single-bar piles may be embedded in a cement grouted plastic corrugated sheathing over its entire length as required by Section 2.1.2.2. (see Appendix 2). In this case the load-carrying element shall be coated with a corrugated sheathing made of either PVC-U in accordance with DIN EN ISO 1163-15, polyethylene with a moulding compound as specified by DIN EN ISO 1872-16 PE,E,45 T022 or polypropylene with a moulding compound pursuant to DIN EN ISO 1873-17 PP B, EAGC, 10-16-003 or DIN EN ISO 1873-13 PP H, E, 06-35-012/022. Care must be taken to ensure that only straight tubes which were also delivered in this condition are used. The sheathing must have a uniform wall thickness of 1 mm; only tubes may be used which do not show any trapped bubbles and whose pigmentation is uniform. If required, the individual segments of the PVC-U sheathings shall be screwed into each other and conglutinated with PVC adhesive. PE or PP sheathings shall be used as unspliced tubes. A PE cap shall be connected to the corrugated sheathing using cams and glued on the earth-side end piece. The vent cap shall be glued to the corrugated sheathing on the airside end piece of the corrugated sheathing. Manufacture, Storage, Transport and Labelling Corrosion Protection and Manufacture of Prefabricated Piles for Installation and Grouting The cement grout covering of the load-carrying element as required by Section 4.2.4 shall be ensured by the measures stipulated in said section. In case the steel load-carrying element is coated with a plastic corrugated sheathing over its entire length in accordance with Section 2.1.3, the annulus between the load-carrying element and corrugated sheathing shall be cement grouted from the bottom to the top as required by DIN EN 447:1996-078 with the load-carrying element inclined. In addition, DIN EN 445:1996-079 and DIN EN 446:1996-0710 shall be observed. To ensure complete grouting the vent cap shall be connected to a 0.5 m long grout hose or to a grout cone. The load-carrying element shall be provided with spacers every 1 m to maintain a distance of 5 mm between the load-carrying element and the corrugated sheathing or a PE helix 6 mm dia. with a pitch of 0.5 m shall be placed between them. The above work shall be carried out in a factory. Storage and Transport The effectiveness of the corrosion protection depends on the integrity of the corrosion protection components. Therefore special care shall be taken during storage, transport and installation of the readily assembled piles that the corrosion protection components, in particular the corrugated plastic sheathing, are not damaged as a result of improper handling.
DIN EN ISO 1163-1:1999-10 Plastics - Unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 1: Designation system and basis for specifications (ISO 1163-1:1995); German version EN ISO 1163-1:1999 Plastics - Polyethylene (PE) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 1: Designation system and basis for specifications (ISO 1872-1:1993); German version EN ISO 1872-1:1999 Plastics - Polypropylene (PP) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 1: Designation system and basis for specifications (ISO 1873-1:1995); German version EN ISO 1873-1:1995 Grout for prestressing tendons - Specification for common grout; German version EN 447:1996 Grout for prestressing tendons - Test methods; German version EN 445:1996 Grout for prestressing tendons - Grouding procedures; German version EN 446:1996

2.2 2.2.1

2.2.2

DIN EN ISO 1872-1:1999-10

DIN EN ISO 1873-1:1995-12

8 9 10

DIN EN 447:1996-07 DIN EN 445:1996-07 DIN EN 446:1996-07

Page 6 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

2.2.3

Labelling The delivery note for the prefabricated pile shall be marked with the conformity symbol by the manufacturer pursuant to the conformity symbol regulations issued by the German States. Labelling may only be carried out, when the requirements pursuant to Section 2.3 have been met. Among others the delivery note shall include the information for which piles the prefabricated pile components are determinated and in which factory they have been produced. Only components for one specified type of injection pile may be delivered on the delivery note. Conformity Evidence General Based on an in-house production inspection and a regular external supervision including a first testing, every fabricating plant must observe the following provisions to confirm conformity of the pile components and the prefabricated piles for installation and grouting in accordance with the provisions of this approval certificate. The manufacturer of the pile components and the prefabricated piles shall commission a recognized certification institution to issue the conformity certificate as well as a recognized inspection agency for external surveillance including product inspections. The certification institution shall submit a copy of the conformity certificate issued to the German Institute for Civil Engineering for information. In addition, the German Institute for Civil Engineering shall be provided with a copy of the report on the first testing for information. Industrial Production Control An industrial production control shall be established and implemented in every fabricating plant. By "industrial production control" the continuous monitoring of the production by the manufacturer is understood which ensures that the manufactured building products comply with the provisions of this general approval. The results of the industrial production control shall be recorded and evaluated. The recordings shall at least include the following information: - Description of the building product or the basic material respectively and its components - Nature of the control or inspection - Dates of manufacture and inspection of the building product or the basic material respectively or its components - Result of the controls and inspections and, if applicable, comparison with the requirements - Signature of the person in charge of the industrial production controls The records shall be kept for at least five years and shall be submitted to the inspection agency employed for external surveillance. On request, they shall be presented to the German Institute for Civil Engineering and the responsible supreme construction supervision authority. In case of insufficient test results, the manufacturer shall immediately take the necessary actions to remedy the defect. Building products not meeting the requirements shall be handled in such a way that excludes any confusion with complying products. After the defect has been remedied, the corresponding test shall be repeated immediately as far as technically feasible and to prove the removal of defects.

2.3 2.3.1

2.3.2

Page 7 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

The in-house production control shall at least include the following measures: 2.3.2.1 Reinforcing Bars with Thread Ribs, Anchoring Components and Parts for Coupler Splices Only reinforcing bars with thread ribs, anchoring components and parts for coupler splices (see details shown in Section 2.1.2) shall be used for which an evidence of conformity has been produced pursuant to the relevant approval certificates No. Z-1.1-58, Z-1.1-59, Z1.1.106, Z-1.1-167, Z-1.5-76 or Z-1.5-149. The stipulations for the receiving inspection set in the approval certificates shall be observed. 2.3.2.2 Plastic Corrugated Sheathings The composition of the moulding compound shall be attested by certificate of conformity "2.1" in accordance with DIN EN 10 204:2005-0111. One plastic corrugated sheathing shall be taken per batch (100 tubes) to measure the wall thickness at one internal and one external corrugation and on the flank of the tubes. The decision whether a batch is accepted or rejected shall be made in accordance with Section 2.3.2.6. 2.3.2.3 Vent Caps and Grout Caps The material properties and dimensions shall correspond to the specifications deposited with the German Institute for Civil Engineering and the external surveillance agency. The values shall be attested by certificate of conformity "2.1" in accordance with DIN EN 10204:2005-0111. 2.3.2.4 Heat Shrink Sleeves The material properties of the heat shrink sleeves and the bonding agent shall be attested by certificate of conformity "2.1" in accordance with DIN EN 10204:2005-0111. The wall thickness shall be measured at 3 locations on the basic material and the bonding job determined per batch (100 pieces). The decision whether a batch is accepted or rejected shall be made in accordance with Section 2.3.2.6. 2.3.2.5 Factory applied Corrosion Protection The corrosion protection measures to be carried out in the factory pursuant to Section 2.2.1 shall be verified by visual inspection on each pile (statistical evaluation not necessary). For the cement grout, test in accordance with DIN EN 4478 shall be carried out. Additionally DIN EN 4459 and DIN EN 44610 shall be observed. 2.3.2.6 Check Plan In case each single measured value equals or exceeds the minimum value stipulated, the batch shall be accepted. If not, further samples may be taken. The same measurements shall be carried out on those samples as on the first sample. The measuring results shall be summed up with the previous measurements. The mean average value x and the standard deviation s shall be calculated from all values. In case the resulting test value (numerical value) z = x - 1,64 s equals or exceeds the minimum value stipulated, the batch shall be accepted, otherwise rejected.

2.3.3

External Surveillance
The industrial production control in each fabricating plant shall be regularly checked by an external surveillance, but at least twice per year. As part of the external surveillance a first testing shall be carried out. Samples for sampling inspections shall be taken and the inspection tools controlled. Sampling and inspections are incumbent on the respective recognized inspection agency.

11

DIN EN 10204:2005-01

Metallic products - Types of inspection documents; German version EN 10204:2004

Page 8 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

The results of the certification and external surveillance shall be kept for at least five years. On request, they shall be presented to the German Institute for Civil Engineering and the responsible supreme construction supervision authority by the certification institution or inspection agency.

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3.1

Provisions for Planning and Design


General Unless stated otherwise below, DIN 105412 shall apply for the planning and design of structures by use of DYWIDAG GEWI piles. DIN 105412, section 8.4.2, applies for pile tests. The minimum required number of tests results from DIN 105412. In case of not predominantly dead loads it shall be shown pursuant to DIN 1055-1004 that the permissible fatigue stress range of the steel load-carrying element or the coupler splices and the anchorages respectively is not exceeded. The permissible fatigue stress ranges shall be taken from the approval certificates for reinforcing bars with thread ribs, or for from the approval certificates for couplers and anchorages of reinforcing bars with thread ribs.

3.2 3.2.1

Evidence for Piles subject to Tensile Stress Evidence shall be produced for temporary piles (service life < 2 years) and for piles provided with plastic corrugated sheathings as required by Appendix 2 that the design value of the active axial load NEd does not exceed the design value of the material resistance for the load bearing steel element (for axial loading). NEd NPl,Rd = A fy/R With NEd design value of the active axial load NPl,Rd design value of the material resistance for the load bearing steel element A cross section of the load bearing steel element fy yield strength of the steel

This tension fy/R must also not exceeded on the tension side of the bar in the case of non-regular bending stresses, calculated from the design values of the active loads. 3.2.2 Evidence shall be produced for piles provided with standard corrosion protection in accordance with Appendices 1 and 8 and which are intended for permanent installation (longer than 2 years) that the following tensile stresses or marginal stresses, calculated from the design values of the active loads, are not exceeded in the steel when subjected to irregular bending stresses: - Load case LF1 - Load cases LF2 and LF3 230 N/mm fy/R

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DIN 1054:2005-01 DIN 1054 Ber. 1:2005-04 DIN 1054 Ber. 2:2007-04 DIN 1054 Ber. 3:2008-01

Ground - Verification of the safety of earthworks and foundations Corrigenda to DIN 1054:2005-01 Corrigenda to DIN 1054:2005-01 Corrigenda to DIN 1054:2005-01

Page 9 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

3.3

Evidence for Piles subject to Compressive Stress Evidence shall be produced that the marginal stresses, calculated from the design values of the active loads, do not exceed the value fy/R (without taking into account the cement grout in the calculation). It is necessary to produce an evidence for the safety against buckling, if the pile is laterally unsupported or installed in soils with an undrained shear strength of cu < 30 kN/m. When determining the bending stiffness, grout may only be used for calculation if it is encapsulated, further cracking of the grout (until the middle of the cross section) must be considered. A lateral bearing through the soil may be taken into account, if the undrained shear strength of cu is 10 kN/m, with a continuous elastic support of kl = 60 cu and a max. contact bearing stress between grout and grout of gr = 6 cu. In this case, a predeformation with a bending radius of 200 m must be considered. In case of free-standing piles or if the undrained shear strength of cu is < 10 kN/m, the safety against buckling shall be verified taking into account the deformations (theory of the second order) in accordance with DIN 18800-213. No lateral support provided by the soil shall be considered in the calculations.

3.4

Evidence of the Transfer Lengths It shall be ensured that the force transfer lengths exceed the required transfer lengths from the steel load-carrying element into the cement grout. Evidence must be carried out in accordance with DIN 1045-114. The values for the bond stress fbd shall be chosen in accordance with DIN 1045-114, table 25, line 1. DIN 1045-114, section 12.5(4) has to be considered for GEWI bars 40 mm and 50 mm. For multibar piles, the value depends on the biggest bar of the pile. A separate evidence for the transverse tensile stresses may be dispensed with, if evidence of the force transfer lengths is produced.

3.5 3.5.1

Evidence of the Anchorage in the Foundation Body General The load transfer of all loads into the concrete structure (e.g. splitting forces,...) has to be proven in accordance with the relavant rules (e.g. DIN 1045-114) in each case.

3.5.2

GEWI Anchorages The provisions of the approval certificates for couplings and anchorages for reinforcing bars with thread ribs BSt 500 S-GEWI, diameters 20 to 50 mm (see also section 2.1.2.3 of this approval certificate) shall be observed for GEWI anchorages (see Appendices 1 and 2).

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DIN 18800-2:1990-11 DIN 18800-2/A1:1996-02

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DIN 1045:2001-07 DIN 1045-1 Ber. 2:2005-06

Structural steelwork; analysis of safety against buckling of linear members and frames Steel structures - Stability - Part 2: Buckling of bars and skeletal structures; Amendment A1 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 1: Design and construction Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 1: Design and construction, Corrigenda to DIN 1045-1:2001-07

Page 10 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

3.5.3 Bond 3.5.3.1 General The bond length lb shall not be taken into account in calculations where the bond characteristics may be impaired by cracks occurring parallel to the load-carrying element. In addition, evidence shall be produced on a case-to-case basis for piles embedded in existing foundations that the loads in the joint between cement grout and bored foundation and in the bored foundation itself may be transferred with sufficient safety. 3.5.3.2 Evidence of the Bond Length The bond lengths lb of the load-carrying element in the pile head (see also appendix 7) shall be determined using the same method as for the transfer lengths. For reinforcing bars with thread ribs (BSt 500 S-GEWI or BSt 500 S), nominal diameters 20 mm to 50 mm, the provisions of the relevant approval certificates shall be observed (Approval Certificates No. Z-1.1-58, Z-1.1-59, Z-1.1-106 and Z-1.1-167). 3.6 Complete structure If necessary, the slip occurring in tensile stressed coupler splices without the use of lock nuts shall be taken into account for the design of the complete project. For more details please refer to the applicant.

4 4.1

Provisions for the Installation


Production of the Hollow Space Uncased and partly cased drillings are permissible for the production of the hollow space for the injection pile, if evidence is produced that the drill rods used are sufficiently rigid to assure a straight drilling, that the borehole wall is stable and that the borehole can be properly cleaned. Pile Shaft General The pile shaft shall be produced by injecting cement grout in accordance with DIN 15 4125:1990-11 , Section 7.3, or DIN 4128:1983-041, Section 7.2. Contrary to DIN EN 446:1996-079, the compressive strength shall be verified by producing 2 series of 3 samples every 7 working days on which piles are concreted or per construction site respectively.

4.2
4.2.1

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DIN 4125:1990-11

Ground anchors, Temporary and permanent anchors, Design, Construction and Testing

Page 11 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

4.2.2

Cement Grout Source material for the grout are cements with special properties in accordance with DIN 1164-1016 and the cements in accordance with DIN EN 197-117 under observance of the actual exposition class in accordance with DIN EN 206-118 in connection with DIN 1045-219 (tables 1, F.3.1 to F.3.2) , water in accordance with DIN EN 100820, and (if necessary) additives in accordance with DIN EN 934-221 in connection with DIN V 1899822 under observance of DIN V 20000-10023 respectively with general German approval and aggregates for concrete in accordance with DIN EN 1262024 under observance of DIN V 20000-10325. The cement grout must be mixed mechanically, and must not segregate and lump before it is injected. The cement grout shall be introduced using the tremie method. As a general rule, the discharge opening of the grouting machine shall reach at least 2 m into the grout material. The steel load-carrying element may be introduced before or after filling the borehole with cement grout. Grouting pressure shall be applied with a grout or injection pump via a sealing cap at the upper end of the sheathing. In case of post-groutings an initial grouting may be abandoned.

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DIN 1164-10:2004-08 DIN 1164-10 Ber1:2005-01

Special cement - Part 10: Composition, requirements and conformity evaluation for special common cement Corrigenda to DIN 1164-10:2004-08 Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements; German version EN 197-1:2000 + A1:2004 Corrigenda to DIN EN 197-1:2004-08 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity; Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity; German version EN 206-1/A1:2004 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity; German version EN 206-1:2000/A2:2005 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 2: Concrete; Specification, properties, production and conformity; Application rules for DIN EN 206-1 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 2: Concrete; Specification, properties, production and conformity; Application rules for DIN EN 206-1; Amendment A1 Mixing water for concrete - Specification for sampling, testing and assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete; German version EN 1008:2002 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 2: Concrete admixtures; Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Concrete admixtures - Part 2: Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling; German version EN 934-2:2001/A1:2004 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 2: Concrete admixtures Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling; German version EN 934-2:2001/A2:2005 Assessment corrosion behaviour of admixtures according the series DIN EN 934 Assessment corrosion behaviour of admixtures the series DIN EN 934; Amendment A1 Application of building products in structures - Part 100: Concrete admixtures according DIN EN 934-2:2002-02 Aggregates for concrete; German version EN 12620:2002

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DIN EN 197-1:2004-08 DIN EN 197-1 Ber1:2004-11 DIN EN 206-1:2001-07 DIN EN 206-1/A1:2004-10 DIN EN 206-1/A2:2005-09

18

19

DIN 1045-2:2001-07 DIN 1045-2/A1:2005-01

20

DIN EN 1008:2002-10

21

DIN EN 934-2:2002-02 DIN EN 934-2/A1:2005-06

DIN EN 934-2/A2:2006-03

22

DIN V 18998:2002-11 DIN V 18998/A1:2003-05

23 24

DIN V 20000-100:2002-11 DIN EN 12620:2003-04 DIN EN 12620 Ber.1:2004-12 DIN V 20000-103:2004-04

25

Use of building products in construction works - Part 103: Aggregates according to DIN EN 12620:2003-04

Page 12 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

4.2.3 Post-Grouting via Grout Nozzles or Grout Valves 4.2.3.1 Post-Grouting via Grout Nozzles The nozzles provided with valves shall be tightly connected to the steel load-carrying element and arranged symmetrically around it. The grout valves shall be arranged according to the foundation conditions. 4.2.3.2 Arrangement of Grout Valves The grout valves and grout tube shall be tightly connected to the steel load-carrying element (see Appendices 1 or 2). In addition, the specifications in Section 7.3 of DIN 4128:1983-041shall be observed. The grout valves shall be arranged according to the foundation conditions. 4.2.4 Centering and Covering of the Steel Load-Carrying Element The steel load-carrying element shall be centered within the borehole such that an adequate cement grout covering is provided at all locations, including the couplers. The dimension of the covering depends on the aggressiveness of the soil, ground water or fissure water; the following minimum values (Table 2) shall be observed. Table 1: Min. measures of the cement grout covering of the steel load-carrying element Aggressiveness to concrete in Cement grout covering c Remark accordance with DIN 4030-126 Not aggressive 20 mm -HS cement CEM III/B shall Not aggressive; but with 20 mm be used in accordance with sulphate content XA1 DIN 1164-116 XA1 20 mm Consult expert1 XA2 30 mm Consult expert1
The piles shall only be installed, when an expert opinion confirms that the permanent load-carrying characteristics of the piles will not be impaired by a time controlled reduction of the skin friction. The thickness of the covering shall be determined as part of that expert opinion.
1

Piles with plastic corrugated sheathings as required by Appendix 2 must have a cement grout covering of at least 10 mm above the corrugated sheathings. If the piles are only temporarily used to carry loads (service life < 2 years), cement grout coverings of 10 mm are sufficient. The cement grout coverings can be assured with elastic spacers (see Appendices 1, 2 or 10 "Elastic Spacer"), segment spacers (see Appendices 1, 2 or 10), also in combination with grout nozzles, or by the casing alone or in combination with the above spacers. The actions to be taken depend on the soil and the inclination of the piles (see also Table 2).

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DIN 4030-1:2008-06

Assessment of water, soil and gases for their aggressiveness to concrete Part 1: Principles and limiting values

Page 13 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

Table 2: Inclination of the Piles and Distance between the Spacers Distance Steel LoadInclination of between Spacer Carrying Remarks the Piles spacers1 Element 0 (vertical) 3.0 m Turn valves by 120 15 1 x 32 mm dia. Valves on underside Centering grout (control through valve 1 x 40 mm dia. marking on the air-side 16 - 80 2.0 m end piece of the loadcarrying element) 1 x 20 mm dia. 0 (vertical) 3.0 m 15 1 x 25 mm dia. Outer diameter D of Elastic or 1 x 28 mm dia. 16 - 45 2.6 m the elastic spacers, cf. segment 1 x 32 mm dia. Appendix 1 spacer 1 x 40 mm dia. 46 - 80 2.2 m 1 x 50 mm dia. Elastic or segment spacer
1 2

Steel combinations in acc. with Section 2.1.2.3

see Appendix 9

Segments with web height = required covering

at least 3 spacers in each case for unspliced load-carrying elements only If the wall thickness of the casing starter tube equals or exceeds the cement grout covering c, spacers may be dispensed 12 with in non-cohesive soils in accordance with DIN 1054 .

4.2.4

Pile Neck The pile neck shall always be cased. 4.2.5.1 Single-Bar Piles A corrugated PE or PVC sheathing shall be provided as constructional protection of the pile neck in the transition region of the pile shaft to the foundation body (see Appendix 1). The min. 1 mm thick corrugated sheathing shall have a distance of 5 mm from the loadcarrying element and shall be encased with at least 10 mm cement grout. The same holds for piles with double corrosion protection (see Section 2.1.3 plastic corrugated sheathing and Appendix 2). If the piles are only temporarily used (service life < 2 years) to carry loads (e.g. for underpinnings), the corrugated plastic sheathing may be dispensed with. Alternatively to the corrugated sheathing, an additional reinforcement made of N94 welded wire fabric (or a reinforcement cage of an equivalent cross-section and the same spacing between the wires) may be provided around the steel load-carrying element in the pile neck. The longitudinal wires must be on the outside; the overlap length in the direction of the bar circumference shall be 180. The additional reinforcement shall be located as far to the outside of the cross-section as possible; the longitudinal wires shall be covered with cement grout in accordance with Table 1 in Section 4.2.4. The inner diameter of the longitudinal wires of the additional reinforcement shall be (dA + 25 mm) of the steel load-carrying element. The welded wire fabric shall be positioned concentrically to the steel load-carrying element to meet the above conditions and centered in the borehole by suitable spacers.

Page 14 of the Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-2 of 4 November 2008

4.2.4.2 Multibar Piles In case of multibar piles a helix shall be placed in the area of the pile neck and its ends welded (see Appendix 8). The dimensions of the helix are based on Appendix 9. The cement grout coverings of the helix shall at least conform to the values of Table 1 in Section 4.2.4.

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