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Paper No.



Delhi is a fast growing city, which over the years has undergone landmark change in the characteristic of its transportation sector. The city with the largest number of registered vehicles in the country has well developed road, rail & air networks, which provide it with high connectivity, not only within the city but also with various important centers, both within & outside the country. Despite this, the citys transport system is under tremendous pressure for augmentation of its capacity & improvement in its overall structure & functioning. This Paper attempts to appreciate the problems & the critical issues in the traffic & transportation sector of the city. Further it attempts at proposing solutions to improve and manage the system in the coming years. This paper highlights the role of new systems like MRTS, especially in light of the high energy demand created by the existing transport system and the expected demand for alternate system for the upcoming Common Wealth Games.


Under the strong influence of urbanization, the urban population of India rapidly increased from 62 million in 1951 (20 per cent of total population) to a mammoth 326 million by 2001 (25.5 per cent of total population). At this rate it is expected that India will achieve 50 per cent urbanization by 2050, i.e., 50 per cent of the total population would be living in urban centers. This high rate of urbanization has also brought about a wide range of urban problems, especially in the field of transportation. Burgeoning transport demand and comparatively low rate of growth of public transport facilities has resulted in large-scale increase in the ownership of personalized modes of transport. This not only leads towards increasing congestion levels on the roads, especially during the peak hours, but it also results deteriorating environment conditions and increased dependency of the urban centers on energy sources. Delhi, the capital city of India is the third largest city in the country, with a total area of 1483 sq km and a burgeoning population of more than 14 million, Delhi has a total vehicular population of about 5 million, which is more than the combined vehicular population of Mumbai, Kolkatta & Chennai. The high vehicular population can be attributed to the fast rate of growth of the citys population & the comparative low rate of growth of its

public transport (road & rail) system. The growth in personalized modes of transport & the comparative low rate of growth of public transport modes can be further emphasized by the fact that in 1999 for each bus in Delhi, there were 62 two-wheelers. 24 cars, 3 auto-rickshaws. This high vehicular population & the consequent high traffic volume on the city roads, has put the transportation system in the city under heavy stress, with the situation getting worse day by day. Thus it is imperative to assess the transportation problems of the city & incorporate possible solutions, as envisaged in the various plans and programmes of Delhi Urban Area to mitigate these problems in the coming years.

Delhi, the capital of India has a good network of rail & road and it also has a good system of airports. Consequently the city of Delhi is well connected, not only with all the major cities of the country but also that of the world. 2.1. Air Delhi has two airports, Palam (for domestic flights) & Indira Gandhi International airport (primarily for international flights), that are merely 5 km from each other & have regular shuttle service operating between

*H.O.D, Dept. of Transport Planning, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi, Email: **2nd Yr, Masters Student, Dept. of Transport Planning, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi. *** Written comments on this Paper are invited and will be received upto 30th September, 2007.




them. Indira Gandhi International Airport is the main gateway of the city to other parts of the world and it plays host to a large number of airlines from different parts of the world. Over the years, the traffic of both passengers & goods, coming to Indira Gandhi International Airports, has been increasing, necessitating the increase in the capacity of the airport. The Airports Authority of India, on its part has projected the International & Domestic air passengers and overall cargo, at rates recommended by the committee on air transport policy of the Ministry of Tourism & Civil Aviation. Table 1 presents the projected number of passengers & tonnage of goods being transported by the different airlines for the years 2001. Based on these projections & considering the same rate of growth, the authors estimated the growth in passenger & goods air traffic by the end of 2010.
TABLE 1. ANNUAL GROWTH RATE Category Annual Growth Rate 12.0 per cent 12.0 per cent 13.7 per cent

Category Daily total passengers Commuters

2001 672000 354000

2010 (estimated)* 956466 503852

*Estimations made by the Authors

Even though four more terminals are proposed within the Delhi metropolitan area, which are to be located in Trans Yamuna area, Okhla, Bharthal, North Delhi, the rate at which the rail commuter & passenger traffic is increasing, the magnitude of rail traffic in Delhi in the coming years would be too large to handle. Delhi has the concept of ring-rail, which along with its spurs provides connectivity to various towns within the NCR. But owing to the presence of non-compatible land-uses along the rail corridor & the over-utilisation of the corridor by goods trains, the usage of the ring railway corridor by passengers is still quite low. 2.3. Road


2001 2010 Projection Projection*

International passengers Domestic passengers Cargo

165 (lakhs) 191 lakhs 1430 (tones)

458 (Lakhs) 530 (lakhs) 4532 (tones)

Source: Traffic Reporter; Airport Authority of India; November 2003 *Estimations made by the Authors

Owing to improper development of rail based modes in Delhi, the city is heavily dependent on road based modes of transportation (93 per cent of the total trips performed in the city are made using road based transport systems). As result of this, the road length within the city has undergone a growth of 4.53 per cent per annum, from a mere 8380 km in 1981 to as high as 20,487 km by 1990, which at present stands at a total of 22,487 km, the highest in the country. The city also has the highest road density of 1284 km/ 100 of area. Despite the continuous increase in the overall road length in the city, the road density has decreased from 2.30 km/1000 people in 1981 to 2.27 km/1000 people in 1995, while the vehicle density has increased at a faster rate from 90 vehicles/1000 people to 238 vehicles/1000 people during the same period (GNCTD, 1996). These factors have greatly increased the congestion levels on the roads of the city, which have resulted in long delays at intersections, traffic jams and reduction in the overall journey speeds. The heavy dependence of the public on road based transport systems has also greatly increased the number of accidents taking place in the city, with a considerable rise in the number of fatalities.

2.2. Rail Delhi is the converging point for five major northern railway lines, which gives it a high level of connectivity with other parts of the country. The city has four major railway terminals, namely New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi railway station, Hazrat Nizamuddin railway station and Sarai Rohilla railway station and it also has a container depot at Tuglakabad. The 5 rail corridors in the National Capital Territory bring in more than 350 passenger trains and 40 goods trains each day. The prevailing growth rate of rail passenger is of the order of about 4 per cent. Thus the total number of trips for 2001 & 2010 and their breakup has been provided Table 2.



2.4. Growth and Composition of Vehicular Population Excessive dependence on road based modes, coupled with inadequate public transport system & steep rise in the population of the city, has resulted in a sudden spurt in the population of private modes of transport. This rise has been particular significant in the case of motorized two-wheelers like scooters and bikes that have grown at a high rate of 12 per cent from about 1,09,100 in 1971 to as high as 18,76,346 by 1997. The growth of twowheelers is followed by the rise in the number of cars at a high rate of 10 per cent p.a., from 61,530 in 1971 to 7,05,944 by 1997. This high number of private vehicles, has resulted in the highest number of registered vehicles (about 4 million), more than the total number of vehicles in Kolkata, Mumbai & Chennai. The high rise in the private modes can to a great extent be attributed to the insignificant growth in the number of buses & other public transport modes. This can be emphasized by the facts that, the population of buses had grown at an annual growth rate of 9 per cent from 3265 in 1971 to 29331 by 1997& their share in the total vehicular population, during the same period of time, had dropped from 1.60 per cent to 1.03 per cent. Further as compared to 1991, wherein for each bus there where 43 two-wheelers, 14 cars & 3 auto-rickshaws, by 1999 the disparity had changed to 62 two-wheelers, 24 cars & 3 auto-rickshaws for every bus. A recent study conducted by the SPA( Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Bus Rapid Transit System , School of Planning and Architecture, 2006) reveals that Lal Bahadur Shastri Marg near Mulchand Intersection and Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg are the busiest roads of Delhi carrying more

that 16,000 vehicles (18,000 PCUs) and 14,000 vehicles ( 16,000 PCUs ) respectively during peak hour. 2.5. Growth in Travel Demand and Modal Split The total passenger travel demand catered to by road in Delhi is expected to grow over 3 times from 47 billion passenger kilometer (BPKM) in 1990/91 to 143 BPKM in 2010/11 as given in Table 3. This also presents the distribution of total passenger travel demand by different mode (modal split). In spite of a very large fleet of private vehicles in each city, currently buses meet a very high volume of travel demand. Nearly 53 per cent of the total travel demand in the city was met by bus during 1995/96, and this share would increase steadily to 66 per cent in 2010/11 as shown in Table below. The percentage of travel demand, met by privately owned vehicles, is expected to decline between 1995/96 and 2010/11. Further, cleaner technologies like four-stroke engines and cars with catalytic converters would claim a greater share in the total fleet in the coming years. A shift from gasoline to diesel driven cars, jeeps and taxis is expected to rise in the near future, mostly because the market price of diesel, which is much cheaper than that of gasoline. The share of auto-rickshaws in catering to the citys travel demand would decline from 8 per cent in 1995/96 to 5 per cent in 2010/11. Similarly, share of travel demand to be catered to by taxis, though insignificant, is expected to decline in the future. Further studies by RITES, show that the car ownership per 1000 households has increased by 10 times, from 20 cars in 1981 to 200 cars in 2001. As compared to that the 2-W ownership per 1000 households has increased nearly 7 times from 60 in 1981 to 410 in 2001.
DIFFERENT MODES TRANSPORT Total Annual Bus Travel Demand Diesel (109 pkm) 52.9 52.8 56.4 60.83 66.3 47.05 64 88.05 110.98 143.08




Share of Travel Demand by Different Types of Technology in each Mode (per cent) Year Two-Wheeler 2 Stroke 4 Stroke 1990-91 1995-96 2000-01 2005-06 2010-11 14.85 14.88 12.34 9.37 7.2 0.59 0.78 0.93 0.93 0.89 8.55 8.27 7.75 6.42 5.2 Three Wheeler 4.5 3.39 1.76 0.44 0.2 Car/ Jeep Pre 1984 Post 1984 Cat. Conv Diesel 15.88 16.96 13.2 10.27 6.98 0 0.45 3.74 6.56 7.97 1.68 1.81 3.3 4.59 4.78 Taxi Petrol 0.63 0.2 0.12 0.06 0.02 Diesel 0.42 0.46 0.47 0.52 0.46

Source: Bose (1998)


SARKAR & BOSE ON Further, with the addition of the Ring Railway, as per the RITES report 2001, the demand for bus & IPT reduces by 40 per cent & 18 per cent, respectively, thus reducing the total demand on the road network by 58 per cent. Consequently, the demand on metro increases by 21 per cent. 2.7. Goods Movement As per the earlier Delhi Master Plan for 2001, daily goods movement was expected to be generated to the tune of 5700 number of wagons and 63,505 truck traffic in 2001 by rail and road respectively. For integration of goods movement by Road & Rail, freight complexes proposed earlier are again recommended in the MPD2021. The sites in four directions are at: Madan Pur Khadar (NH-2) Patpar Ganj (NH-24) Holambi Kalan G.T. Road (NH-1) Bharthal (NH-8). 2.8. Non-Motorized Transport Facilities Non-motorized transport (NMT) in the city consists of trips made by pedestrians, cyclists, passenger cyclerickshaw, pushcarts and other human and animalpowered vehicles. Despite rapid increase in motorization and the importance of bus transport, NMT has maintained an important role in terms of mobility, livelihood, especially for the poor segments of the population. Despite this, it has not received due attention in terms of planning and budgetary support. The data on share of NMT in Delhi is somewhat sketchy. The number of cycle rickshaws has been increasing steadily in Delhi from 9,000 in 1990/91 to 37,000 in 1994/95, which may be as high as 60,000 to 70,000 including unlicensed operators (AITD, 1996). According to another estimate, there are two million bicycles in Delhi and the number of cycle rickshaws and carts together account for 116,000 (IRI, 1997). The uncertainty in the actual number of cycles, cycle rickshaws and carts springs from the fact that they do not have to be registered; nevertheless the above estimates provide an indication to prominence of these modes on streets of Delhi. 2.9. Energy Demand and Consumption by Transportation in Delhi
8198 13890

2.6. Impact on Delhis Transportation due to Common-Wealth Games (2010) A study has been carried out at SPA, New Delhi, in connection with estimating the travel demand for the proposed Common Wealth Games to be held in 2010. Based on this study it has been proposed that a large number of additional buses would be required to meet the demand the transport needs of city during the games. This would then have to be adequately supported by a well integrated metro system, which could to a great extent reduce the traffic load from the roads. Fig. 1 and Table 4 indicate the additional number of buses to be required with and without MRTS operation. It can be seen from the table that road based systems without MRTS operation, would require additional buses of the order of 8610 by the year 2010, as compared to the number of buses required, in system where metro would be operational.

Fig. 1. Year wise Requirement of Buses; With or Without Metro TABLE 4. COMPARISON OF REQUIREMENT WITHOUT MRTS Year 1995 1997 1999 2001 2002 2003* 2005 2010 * Base Year of Study Without MRTS 3480 2727 5783 5182 3286 8112 11140 22500




The Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), New Delhi has developed a simulation model for evolving a policy framework to analyze transportation energy



demand and emissions for intra-city commuter traffic in Delhi (Bose, 1998; SEI-B, 1993). The framework is simple and flexible, and can simulate quantity of fuel demand and related emissions for a given travel demand, under alternative strategies. Energy demand estimates to meet the passenger travel demand are obtained from the model under different alternative scenarios. The energy savings potential is higher with the improvement in public transport system, as compared to a cleaner fuel-technology scenario as can be seen in Fig 2. T h o u s a n d t o n n e DN S2 S1 S3

2.10. Emissions by Vehicles Table below gives the average mass emission factors of different range of vehicle technologies, which are either in use or are being considered for introduction by the city government. These emission factors are multiplied with the estimated energy demand by different technologies to derive the trend of pollution load between the period 1990 and 2011, as presented in Table 5 & Table 6, respectively. Figure 3 shows this trend for CO, HC, NOx, SO2 , TSP , Pb and CO2 under DN and alternate scenarios. S1 : public transport system S2 : Promotion of cleaner fuel and improved technology Reduction in congestion through the improvement of S3 : (S1+S2) DN : Do nothing scenario

Fig. 2. Increasing Energy Demand for Transportation in Delhi TABLE 5. MASS EMISSION FACTORS




Technology 2 wheeler : 2-stroke 2 wheeler : 4-stroke 2 wheeler : 4-stroke 3 wheeler : 2-stroke 3 wheeler Car : old model Car: new model Car:catalytic conv. Car Car Taxi Taxi Taxi Bus Bus

Fuel G G UG b G PC G G UG Dd NGe G D NG D NG

Mass emission factors under a typical Indian driving cycle (gm/km) CO 8.3 8.3 2.4 12.25 (0.156)f 28.9 9.5 2.6 1.1 (0.224) 28.9 1.1 (0.224) 12.7 (0.224) HC 5.18 0.72 0.72 7.65 (4.68) 6.2 1.5 0.3 0.28 0 6.2 0.28 0 2.1 0 NO 3 0.1 0.39 0.72 0.1 (2.465) 2.7 1.9 0.6 1.4 (3.52) 2.7 1.4 (3.52) 21 (3.52) SO 2 0.5 0.08 0.08 0.5 0 0.33 0.25 0.08 0.6 0 0.33 0.6 0 2 0 TSP 0.0473 0.0323 0.0323 0.1030 0 0.2229 0.1483 0.1421 0.9326 0 0.2229 0.9326 0 2.5039 0 Pb 0.0034 0.0023 0 0.0073 0 0.0159 0.0106 0 0 0 0.0159 0 0 0 0

Source: (Bose, 1998) aGasoline; bDiesel; cPropane; dDiesel; eCompressed Natural Gas; femission factors in parentheses are expressed in 10-3kg/m3.




Pollutant CO HC NO 2 SO 2 TSP Pb CO 2 Source: (Bose, 1998)

1990/91 132.31 53.79 22.49 3.03 6.03 0.078 1523.90

1995/96 169.47 70.20 30.00 4.11 8.11 0.102 2039.00

2000/01 193.76 81.96 40.16 6.01 10.30 0.111 2774.83

2005/06 191.91 80.63 50.42 8.03 11.59 0.104 3449.66

2010/11 200.62 82.48 65.56 10.49 13.39 0.098 4275.30



Fig. 3. Trend in Energy Consumption under Alternate Situations in Delhi

Note: - DN: -Do nothing scenario




After having critically reviewed the various traffic problems in the transportation sector of Delhi Master Plan, the key emerging issues to be addressed are as follows: Non-intensive land utilization with respect to major transport corridors, MRTS to alter travel characteristics in the city. Utilization and Integration of Ring Rail system with the city transport network Restructuring of land use along Ring Rail and proper feeder services. Access control on Ring Road and Outer Ring Road. To identify new / alternate road alignments to reduce traffic congestion on the existing routes as Urban Relief Roads & passing relief points. Out of four proposed directional metropolitan passenger terminals by MPD 2001 East Delhi only one is partly functional i.e. Anand Vihar. One truck terminal on G.T. Road (NH-1) is functional remaining three are yet to be developed. Absence of bicycle facilities on major bicycle corridors. Absence of comprehensive parking policies for the city. Absence of Bye-pass orbital links for road and rail-based traffic. To shift more personal vehicular trips to MRTS and make roads comparatively less congested. Lack of Integration between Road Based and Rail Based Terminal, such as Nizamuddin with SaraiKale Khan and Delhi Railway station with ISBT.

significance and importance for creation of sustainable transport system. Table 7 presents the different types of eco-friendly vehicles conducive for the development of sustainable transport system.
TABLE 7. THE TYPE AND OWNERSHIP OF VARIOUS TYPES OF ECO-FRIENDLY MODES Bicycles Cycle-Rickshaw Battery-powered vehicle Solar-powered vehicle CNG operated Car, Taxi, Auto-Rickshaw Trolley bus, CNG operated Bus Tram Light-trail transit Metro Personalized Vehicle and IPT Mass Transport Personalized Vehicle

Battery powered vehicles are operating in certain places in Delhi. Major difficulty of this type of vehicle is the heavy dead load as compared to the total weight of the vehicle and offers low-intensity of electricity charges. Research and development are presently on full swing in developed countries to find its commercial application. It is believed that this type of vehicle would be of greater demand in near future, which would replace the prevailing personalized gasoline driven vehicles. Trolley buses have also made substantial impact in many countries in general and Nepal in particular. This system can be explored to replace the existing diesel driven buses. Subsequently the role of CNG operated buses has been recognized in Delhi, and it is playing an important role in minimizing air pollution. CNG based intermediate public transport has also be considered seriously in Delhi as a part of environment friendly mode of transport. Tram can also play an important role in the overall transport system. Last and costliest option is the Metro. From the examples of London, Paris, New York, Chicago, Tokyo, Moscow and Toronto, some of the developing countries are also attempting to develop this Metro system. In order to minimize the cost of construction, it would be worth considering locating the railway tracks at ground levels or above ground levels. This system capacity could be enhanced to 80,000 passengers per hour per

4.1. An Approach for Environment Friendly Transport In view of the major role of prevailing modes of transport and its impact on the environment, the following modes can be examined which could be of great


SARKAR & BOSE ON System for intra-city passenger movement consists of underground, surface and elevated sections. The D.M.R.C. has drawn up proposals for various MRTS

direction, and hence it is a major consideration for Delhi Metro System. Table 8 gives the transit system characteristics for different public transport modes.

TABLE 8. TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS System Characteristics Vehicle capacity Vehicle per train Lane/Track capacity (Passenger/hr Journey speed km/ph) Journey speed km/ph Buses 120 16,000 (15-30) Tram 100-120 (1-2) 20,000 (10-25) LRT 200-300 (3-6) 25,000 (15-25) Metro 300-375 (4-10) 70,000 (30-35)

Source: Urban Transit System Guidelines for examining options by Alan Armstrong Wright.


There are a number of transport proposal envisaged in the Delhi Master Plan 2021, to meet the growing challenges in the transport sector. The transport proposals envisaged in the Master Plan 2021 are not amply supported by any detailed comprehensive transportation studies including the regional level. A little or no effort has been made to develop any comprehensive land use transport models to appreciate the future transport scenarios. The proposal primarily include, the development of MRTS network up to a length of 245 km, planning and development of various master plan roads, modernization of air and railway terminals, construction of various flyovers in order to make RingRoad and Outer Ring-Road signal free. Further Road connecting Dwarka and Rohini from NH8, North East corridor of NHAI connecting NH1 and Wazirabad Road to Gaziabad (Master Plan Road No. 59) would also be developed, while various improvements are being planned along NH8. Planning of cycle track on different routes in general and along the existing drain (nala) in particular is also being incorporated into the plan. Mass Rapid Transit System One of the important developments in transport sector is the commissioning of 68 km of metro corridor connecting Shahdara to Rithala and ISBT to VishwaVidyalaya, in the 1st phase of MRTS programme and the recent inauguration of another section of Metro line, connecting Dwarka with Barakhamba road. A total of 245 km length of MRTS is envisaged to be developed in the four phases up to a period of 2020.

Routes in Delhi. Work is under progress at full swing. Fig. 4 presents the first two phases for the development of the Metro-network in Delhi, upo to a period 2010, covering a total length of around 104 km. It is extremely important to develop an integrated mass transit system by considering Metro as line haul supported by feeder service. Integration between MRTS and buses would not only be confined in terms of physical integration of transport interchange facilities but also would work out the logistics for minimization of transport cost of public transport users through single ticket mechanism. So far a full scale of integration of public transport system has not been achieved in Delhi. The development of the total metro network would accrue the following benefits: Reduction in 21.82 lakh passenger trips from the roads of Delhi, which would have transferred onto Metro 2,600 less buses on the roads Increase in the average speed of buses from 10.5 km/h to 14 km/h Saving of 2 million man hours per day due to reduced travel time Saving in fuel costs, worth Rs. 5 billion per year Comfortable and safe traveling for the commuters Reduction in atmospheric pollution levels by 50 per cent Reduction in accident rates Improvement in overall quality of life



Fig. 4. Phase-wise Development Strategy for Metro

Modernization of Nizamuddin, Old and New Delhi Railway Station (provision of second entry to all the stations). Development of New Railway line i) Rewari to Bhiwadi, ii) From Rohtak to Hansi To implement Road - cum - Rail terminal by integrating ISBT & Delhi Railway Station. The International Airport to be linked to other parts of Delhi and its urban extension facilitating fast movement Alignment Planning and implementation of master plan roads. Design of Intersection and the design of master plan road intersections.

Flyovers Formulation of plan proposals are done by road owning agencies viz DDA, MCD, NDMC, PWD, DTTDC also contributes in the implementation. DDA being the planning Authority approves the plans. Approval of DUAC is also required before implementation. During Asiad 1982 seven grade separators on different roads and railway lines were envisaged after that planning of flyover came to stand still. Again in last five years about 47 grade separators on different master plan roads and railway lines have been planned, out of these 47 grade separators 20 have already been completed, 16 are under construction and rest 11 flyovers are in the pipe line. With the completion of these flyovers ring road and outer ring road would become signal free. Multi Level Parking Formulation of policy framework for multi level parking is envisaged. An experimental project in Nehru Place with private partnership is under implementation.


SARKAR & BOSE ON level in Delhi is supposed to have declined considerably. What is required to be done at this stage, to refine the raw CNG into an acceptable proposition, so that CNG operated vehicles does not cause any harm to the society. 6. An attempt should be made to integrate metro system with the city buses, by introducing an integrated fare schemes so as to promote the public transport system. 7. Ring Railway and its spurs should be developed with dedicated corridors for commuter traffic. 8. Without restructuring the land uses along the Ring Road and Metro corridor, the growth of personalized vehicles can not be minimized. It therefore calls for proper densification along the ring and metro corridors. As this aspect has been neglected for a long time, this needs to be addressed immediately. 9. The study should be initiated to link nearby satellite towns in NCR with development of metro corridors. 10. In order to cope up with the future travel demand we have to be careful in deciding the future transportation systems. It is extremely important to develop sustainable transportation system, namely NMT, battery and CNG operated road based vehicles and LRT and Metro system should be encouraged to find its role in future transport scenario. 11. Various transport related proposals as envisaged so far need to tested on grounds by developing detailed land use transport models with a view to assessing their future impact on environment. 12. As Traffic and Transport Planning exercise is a continuous process, a detailed comprehensive transportation study at regional level focusing Delhi Urban Area as nodal activity zone is required to be conducted not only to meet the growing challenges in future, but also to ensure better quality of life with the development of environment friendly sustainable transport system.

In view of the prevailing traffic and transportation situation in Delhis urban area, it is imperative to develop possible sustainable traffic scenario for the horizon year 2021. If the increasing traffic and transportation problems are not taken into consideration in the right perspective, there is going to be a tremendous impact on the society in terms of continued traffic congestion on the roads, excessive air pollution and traffic noise by road based vehicles and increased number of road accidents. After having had a critical appreciation of traffic and transportation characteristics in Delhis urban area, the study is conclusive with the following: 1. Major arterial roads in general and Ring Road in particular, should be fully access controlled either though area traffic control or with the help of grade separated facilities. 2. An attempt should be made to evolve TSM (Transportation System Management) techniques in some of the critical areas of Delhi, in order to ensure smooth and safe movement of traffic. The TSM should include application of ATC (Area Traffic Control), Corridor Synchronization and Management, Routing & Scheduling of buses coupled with Restraint Management Schemes. 3. In order to minimize the increasing traffic congestion; the commissioning of metro, with respect to its 1st phase of programme has been a welcome move. Effort should be made to develop the comprehensive metro network as planned by DMRC, covering most parts of the city. It is observed that a significant portion of the southern part of Delhi Urban Area has not been covered with metro network. A feasibility of a Metro corridor along the Outer Ring Road connecting IIT, Swaminagar, Nehru Place and Okhla need to be carried out. 4. While developing better transportation system in terms of construction of metro, improvement of bus transit service, with emphasis to the orderly flow of personalized mode of transport, an effort should be placed to encourage NMT, w.r.t., bicycle and cyclerickshaw, ensuring that it does not create any hindrance with the fast moving vehicles. 5. The policy adapted by Delhi government for switching over from gasoline to CNG based vehicles has been a welcome move. As a result the pollution

1. 2nd Sem. 2003-2004, Dept. of Transport Planning, Draft Report of Transport Plan For Commonwealth Games: Delhi, 2010, School of Planning And Architecture, New Delhi, 2004.



2. Bose, Saikat; Ranganathan. N & Sarkar, P.K., Development of Parking Policies in Residential Areas of Delhi; The Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi; Vol. XXV, No.3; JulySeptember, 2003. 3. Bose, Rajat; Prof (Dr.) Sarkar, P.K. & Dr. Maitri, V., Cycle Rickshaws A Sustainable Mode of Transport, Case Study Walled City, Delhi; Indian Highways, October, 2004. 4. RITES Ltd.; Revised Master Plan for Delhi MRTS, Final Report; May 2002.

5. Bose, Ranjan Kumar, Towards Better Urban Transport Planning Problems and Policies, Case of Delhi; Presentation at the workshop on Challenges and opportunities for concerted action between Asia and Europe in urban transport; Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Athens, Greece; September 1999. 6. 7. 8.