Sie sind auf Seite 1von 383

LECTURE NOTES

ON QUANTUM MECHANICS

Dr. Shun-Qing Shen

Department of Physics

The University of Hong Kong

September 2004

CT Contents

 

0.1

General Information

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xii

1

Fundamental Concepts

 

1

1.1 Relation between experimental interpretations and theoretical inferences

2

 

1.1.1 Experimental facts

 

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2

1.1.2 Theoretical development

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2

 

1.2 Materials from Britannica Online

 

3

 

1.2.1 Photoelectric eect

 

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3

1.2.2 Frank-Hertz experiment

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7

1.2.3 Compton eect

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7

 

1.3 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

 

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11

 

1.3.1 The Stern-Gerlach experiment

 

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1.3.2 Sequential Stern-Gerlach Experiment

 

14

1.3.3 Analogy with Polarization of Light

 

16

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

1.4 Dirac Notation and Operators

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16

1.5 Base kets and Matrix Representation

 

21

1.5.1 Eigenkets of an Observable

 

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21

1.5.2 Eigenkets as Base kets:

 

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22

1.5.3 Matrix Representation:

 

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24

1.6 Measurements, Observables & The Uncertainty Relation

 

26

1.6.1 Measurements

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26

1.6.2 Spin1/2 system

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27

1.6.3 Probability Postulate .

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29

1.6.4 S and S

30

1.6.5 The Algebra of Spin Operators

 

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33

1.6.6 Algebra of the Pauli matrices

 

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34

1.6.7 Observable

34

1.7 Change of Basis

37

1.7.1 Transformation Operator

 

38

1.7.2 Transformation Matrix

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39

1.7.3 Diagonalization

 

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41

1.8 Position, Momentum, and Translation

 

43

1.8.1 Continuous Spectra

 

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43

1.8.2 Some properties of the

 

44

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

 

1.8.3 Position Eigenkets and Position Measurements

 

45

1.8.4 Translation

47

 

1.9

The Uncertainty Relation

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52

2

Quantum Dynamics

 

62

2.1 Time Evolution and the Schrödinger Equation

 

62

 

2.1.1 Time Evolution Operator

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62

2.1.2 The Schrödinger

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65

2.1.3 Time Dependence of Expectation Value: Spin

 

69

 

2.2 The Schrodinger versus the Heisenberg Picture

 

72

 

2.2.1 Unitary operators

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72

2.2.2 Two Approaches

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73

2.2.3 The Heisenberg Equation of

 

75

2.2.4 How to construct a Hamiltonian

 

76

 

2.3 Simple Harmonic Oscillator.

 

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78

 

2.3.1 Eigenvalue and eigenstates

 

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78

2.3.2 Time Development of the Oscillator

 

85

2.3.3 The Coherent State

 

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87

 

2.4 Schrodinger Wave Equation: Simple Harmonic Oscillator

 

89

2.5 Propagators and Feynman Path Integrals

 

91

 

2.5.1

Propagators in Wave

 

91

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

 

2.5.2 Propagator as a Transition Amplitude

 

97

2.5.3 Path Integral as the Sum Over Paths

98

2.5.4 Feynman’s Formalism

 

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99

2.6 The Gauge Transformation and Phase of Wave Function

 

102

2.6.1 Constant Potential

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102

2.6.2 Gauge Transformation in Electromagnetism

 

105

2.6.3 The Gauge Transformation .

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108

2.6.4 The Aharonov-Bohm Eect

 

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111

2.6.5 Magnetic Monopole

 

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114

2.7 Interpretation of Wave Function.

 

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116

2.7.1 What’s Ψ ()?

 

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116

2.7.2 The Classical Limit

 

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119

2.8 Examples

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121

2.8.1 One dimensional square well potential

 

121

2.8.2 A charged particle in a uniform magnetic eld

 

125

3

Theory of Angular Momentum

 

128

3.1

Rotation and Angular Momentum

 

128

3.1.1 Finite versus innitesimal rotation

 

129

3.1.2 Orbital angular momentum

 

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136

3.1.3 Rotation operator for spin 1/2 .

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138

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

3.1.4

Spin precession revisited

 

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140

3.2 Rotation Group and the Euler Angles

 

141

3.2.1 The Group Concept

 

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141

3.2.2 Orthogonal Group

 

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142

3.2.3 “Special”?

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143

3.2.4 Unitary Unimodular Group

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144

3.2.5 Euler Rotations

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145

3.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenkets of Angular Momentum

 

149

3.3.1

Representation of Rotation Operator

 

157

3.4 Schwinger Oscillator Model.

 

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158

3.4.1 Spin 1/2 system

 

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162

3.4.2 Two-spin—1/2 system .

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163

3.4.3 Explicit Formula for Rotation

 

166

3.5 Combination of Angular Momentum and Clebsh-Gordan Coecients . 168

3.5.1

Clebsch-Gordan coecients

 

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171

3.6 Spin Correlation Measurements and Bell’s Inequality

 

178

3.6.1 Spin singlet state

 

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180

3.6.2 Einstein’s Locality Principle and Bell’s inequality

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182

3.6.3 Quantum Mechanics and Bell’s Inequality

 

184

3.7 PROBLEM

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185

 

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

4

Symmetries in Physics

 

187

4.1 Symmetries and Conservation Laws

 

188

 

4.1.1 Symmetry in Classical Physics

 

188

4.1.2 Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics

 

189

4.1.3 Degeneracy

 

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191

4.1.4 Symmetry and symmetry breaking

 

191

4.1.5 Summary: symmetries in physics

 

195

4.2 Discrete Symmetries

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197

 

4.2.1 Parity

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197

4.2.2 The Momentum Operator

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199

4.2.3 The Angular Momentum .

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200

4.2.4 Parity

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201

4.2.5 Lattice Translation

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204

4.2.6 A more realistic example: a 1D system

 

206

4.3 Permutation Symmetry and Identical Particles

 

208

 

4.3.1 Identical particles .

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208

4.3.2 The helium atom

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214

4.4 Time Reversal .

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214

 

4.4.1 Classical cases

 

215

4.4.2 Time reversal operator Θ

 

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217

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

 

4.4.3

Time reversal for a spin 1/2 system

 

219

5

Approximation Methods for Bound States

 

223

5.1 The Variation Method

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224

 

5.1.1 Expectation value of the energy

 

224

5.1.2 Particle in a one-dimensional innite square well

 

226

5.1.3 Ground State of Helium Atom

 

227

5.2 Stationary Perturbation Theory: Nondegenerate Case

 

230

 

5.2.1 Statement of the Problem

 

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230

5.2.2 The Two-State Problem

 

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231

5.2.3 Formal Development of Perturbation

 

233

5.3 Application of the Perturbation Expansion

 

237

 

5.3.1 Simple harmonic oscillator

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237

5.3.2 Atomic hydrogen

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240

5.3.3 Van der Waals’ interaction .

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243

5.4 Stationary Perturbation Theory: Degenerate Case

 

244

 

5.4.1 Revisited two-state problem

 

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245

5.4.2 The basic procedure of degenerate perturbation theory

 

247

5.4.3 Example: Zeeman Eect

 

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249

5.4.4 Spin-Orbit interaction

 

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251

5.4.5 Example: First Order Stark Eect in Hydrogen

 

252

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CONTENTS – MANUSCRIPT

5.5 The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation

254

5.6 Time-dependent Problem: Interacting Picture and Two-State Problem 255

 

5.6.1 Time-dependent Potential and Interacting Picture

 

255

5.6.2 Time-dependent Two-State Problem

 

257

5.7 Time-dependent Perturbation Problem

 

261

5.7.1 Perturbation Theory

 

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261

5.7.2 Time-independent perturbation

 

263

5.7.3 Harmonic perturbation

 

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264

5.7.4 The Golden Rule

 

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