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Week 1 Handout A03: Amanda Rajapaksa
OH: M 3-4@CLICS /by appt.
Earth’s evolution:

Earth formed ___________ years ago. During the first billion years, inorganic gases such as
____________________(4) were bombarded by UV radiation and heat. These gases combined
with the energy to form simple organic compounds such as _______________,
______________, _________ and ______________. After one billion years, the first
_________________ appeared on Earth; these life forms were _________________ and
confined to aqueous environments because of the sterilizing effects of UV radiation. After 200
million years, the first ________________ appeared on Earth. These life forms were able to
capture and use the energy coming into Earth to create simple organic molecules as well as
____________, which was released as a byproduct.
After about 2 billion years, the accumulation of this gas resulted in two major effects on the
Earth. The first development was that organisms were able to use this gas to produce ATP in a
significantly more efficient manner via _________________. Whereas anaerobic respiration
produced only ___ATP/glucose molecule, this new process produced ____ATP/glucose
molecule. The second effect of the accumulation of oxygen was the formation of
_______________. This UV filter allowed life to move beyond the lower ocean layers and
formed as a result of the following reaction: _________________________
Plant Cell:
The three most distinguishing features of a
plant cell are __________________,
_______________, and ______________.
The plant cell wall is a porous material
composed mainly of ________________
microfibrils. Primary cell walls are common
to all plant cells and are composed of
______________, a polysaccharide of β 1-4
linked glucose molecules, as well as hemi-
cellulose, pectins and proteins. Secondary
cell walls contain ______________ and
provide extra support to specialized plant
cells. Neighboring plant cell walls are held
together by the ____________________, which is made of polysaccharides called ___________.
___________________ are microscopic channels which join the cytoplasmic contents of
adjoining plant cells and allow for easier transport of ions and solutes between cells.
The vacuole is a large storage organelle in plant cells bound by a selectively permeable
membrane known as the ____________________.

Name 3 roles of the vacuole in plant cells:

All plastids derive from proplastids and are characterized by having their own plastid DNA, a
double membrane and the ability to divide by fission. The most common of the plastids is the
chloroplast which contains _______________, and is used for the temporary storage of starches.
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast, with the light reaction occurring ________________
and the dark reaction occurring ____________________. Other important plastids include:
1. Chromoplasts which accumulates the two classes of carotenoid pigments:
____________ and ________________.
2. Amyloplasts which accumulate a polymer of glucose known as _____________;
these plastids are commonly found in potato tubers, roots and seeds.
3. Elaioplasts which are commonly found in seeds and are storage organelles for


Pre-1600s Greeks Believed that plants derived from soil

1771 Joseph Priestly

1780 “restoration of burnt air” required:

1800 Demonstrated that equal volumes of CO2
and O2 were exchanged by plants during
1882 Deduced the action spectrum of
photosynthesis using ______________ and
1900s Studying _____________ bacteria
CO2 + H2S  (CH2O) + S2
1940s: proved with use of _____________
The primary pigment of photosynthesis is _______________, and examples of accessory
pigments include ________________ as well as the carotenoids.

Define absorption spectra:

Define action spectra:

Draw the action spectra for photosynthesis on the following graph:

Name two major effects that the accumulation of oxygen had on the course of evolution:

Color Pigment Lipid Location in Plant

soluble? Cells
Reds/ Oranges/
Blues/ Purples

Codeine, a substance that is found in opium and other poppy saps and used for its analgesic and
antidiarrheal properties, is an example of a secondary metabolite. Based on its structure (see
below), which of the three broad classes of secondary metabolites would this compound fall