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• A brief history • COFDM principles • DVB-T framing structure • COFDM transmission sequence • Countering against echoes and reflections • DVB-T variable parameters

COFDM

• A brief history • COFDM principles • DVB-T framing structure • COFDM transmission sequence • Countering against echoes and reflections • DVB-T variable parameters

**A brief history of COFDM - 1
**

• OFDM grew out of Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM)

– Military HF radio (late 1950’s) – Divides stream into several parallel bit streams – Bit streams used to modulate several carriers

**• OFDM - A special form of MCM
**

– Patent issued in the US in 1970 (number 3,488445) submitted by R.W. Chang in 1966

**• Time domain signals used to ensure subcarrier orthogonality
**

– Major contribution by Shannon in defining waveforms in Euclidean space, allowing definitions of orthogonality – No need for steep band pass filters – Sub-carrier spectra allowed to overlap – Need for real time FFT’s

**• Popular in the 1980’s and used for digital audio broadcasting (DAB)
**

– OFDM + QPSK modulation

**A brief history of COFDM - 2
**

• Various associated bodies

– 1992 DVB (Digital Video Broadcast - voluntary group of 200 companies) 9 DVB-S, DVB-C in 1994 and DVB-T in early 1997 – dTTb (digtial Terrestrial Television broadcast project) 9 Demonstrator to show the feasibility of a commercial receiver – DVBird (Digital Video Broadcast integrated receiver decoder) 9 Technical specifications needed and partitioning of electronic functions – DTG (UK based Digital Terrestrial Group, set up in 1995 to make a working broadcast solution for the UK to meet Government plans) 9 First commercial broadcasts in late 1998 with simulcast and later OnDigital services.

COFDM • A brief history • COFDM principles • DVB-T framing structure • COFDM transmission sequence • Countering against echoes and reflections • DVB-T variable parameters .

Division M .Orthogonal F .What is COFDM ? C .Multiplex .Coded O .Frequency D .

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) Data signals s1(t) Carrier modulation fc1 S1(f) Output signal s2(t) Carrier modulation fc2 S2(f) Σ Sn(f) Transimitter G(t) : sn(t) Carrier modulation fcn Transmitter architecture .

Modulation Code NRZ 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 ASK FSK Quadrature (QAM) phase shift uses a π/2 phase shift. π phase shift is shown here PSK .FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) .

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) FCn Frequency 6817 or 1705 frequencies FC5 FC4 FC3 FC2 FC1 Useful data Continuous frequency transmissions G(t) Tu Tu α 1/(Fc1 .Fc2) Guard interval Time .

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) G(t) time n data symbols over time period T .

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) BPFc1 G(t) Carrier demod Carrier demod s1(t) BPFc2 s2(t) : BPFcn Carrier demod sn(t) Receiver architecture BPF = Band pass filter .

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex) s1(t) Carrier modulation fc1 S1(f) Output signal s2(t) Carrier modulation fc2 S2(f) Σ Sn(f) Transimitter G(t) : sn(t) Carrier modulation fcn ≡ IDFT s(t i ) = 2W N Transmitter architecture S(f k)ej2f t /N f =1 k i k N BPFc1 G(t) Carrier demod Carrier demod s1(t) BPFc2 s2(t) : BPFcn Carrier demod sn(t) ≡ DFT S(f k ) = T N Receiver architecture BPF = Band pass filter s(t i )e−j2f t /N t =1 k i i N .

COFDM • A brief history • COFDM principles • DVB-T framing structure • COFDM transmission sequence • Countering against echoes and reflections • DVB-T variable parameters .

Transmission information 9 Pilot carriers -Channel estimation at receiver. Tx at boosted power levels ¾ Continual .177 in '8K' mode.4 or 6 bits per symbol.524 in '8K' mode.DVB-T framing structure • Fixed number of carriers used 9 Allows receiver to lock onto signal 9 Keeps constant power levels 9 '2K' system in UK (1705 carriers) 9 '8K' also an option (6817 carriers) • Carrier types 9 Data carriers . 121 in '2K' pseudo random within symbol • Modulation used 9 Increases number of bits that can be transmitted 9 Eg each carrier transports 4 bits for QAM-16 . per carrier 9 TPS carriers .2. 45 in '2K' always in same position within symbol ¾ Scattered .

One of 6817 (8k) or 1705 (2k) discrete modulation carriers... Either: Data (6048 or 1 512) Continual pilot (177 or 45) Scattered pilot (524 0r 131) TPS carrier (68 or 17) f OFDM symbol (frequency domain) . 6817 carriers (8K) 1705 carriers (2K) f .DVB-T framing structure Single frequency carrier..

.. 67 t ..DVB-T framing structure OFDM super frame OFDM symbol (time domain) 4 x OFDM frames Ts Guard interval Useful data t OFDM frame ∆ Tu t Tf 0 .

COFDM • A brief history • COFDM principles • DVB-T framing structure • COFDM transmission sequence • Countering against echoes and reflections • DVB-T variable parameters .

.|||||| F * Same as DVB-S .........MPEG-2 Transport stream input 188 188 188 COFDM functional blocks Randomisation* Outer coding* (R/S bytes added) RS 204 204 Outer interleaving* (Forney) PRBS Inner coding* Bit and symbol interleaving .....011001010001.. Time shift and Inverse FFT combination Guard interval insertion GI Analogue conversion Filtering Upconversion Transmission R |||||||............|||||||| I |||||||...|||||||| |||||||........ . |||||||.......................... .....|||||||| R |||||||......|||||| |||||...... ....|||||||| |||||||...|||||||| I Pilots and TPS addition .|||||||| IFFT FIR DAC |||||.|||||||| Amplitude/phase mapping |||||||........

DVB transport stream PROGRAMS PCR_1 TELETEXT_1 PCR_2 TELETEXT_2 VIDEO_2 AUDIO_2 PCR_3 TELETEXT_3 VIDEO_3 AUDIO_3 PCR_4 TELETEXT_4 VIDEO_4 AUDIO_4 ES VIDEO_1 AUDIO_1 TP TP1_1 TP1_2 TP1_3 TP2_1 TP2_2 TP2_3 TP3_1 TP3_2 TP3_3 TP4_1 TP4_2 TP4_3 TRANSPORT MUX TRANSPORT STREAM TP1_1 TP2_1 TP1_2 TP4_1 TP3_1 TP2_2 TP2_3 TP1_3 TP4_2 .

Data scrambling Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) Energy dispersal to ensure adequate binary transitions 1 1 0 2 0 3 1 4 0 5 1 6 0 7 1 8 0 9 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 Initialisation sequence 11 12 13 14 15 Randomized data output Enable (1) Data input .

Solomon and Forney) – Inner coding (Convolution coding) QEF Channel BER < 10-10 Transmitter FEC Receiver FEC Data Data Energy dispersal Outer coding (RS) Forney Interleaving Inner coding (Convolution) .Error correction • Error prone environment hence small packets (188 bytes) with additional error correction data (16 bytes) – Known as Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Also known as channel coding – Two main parts: – Outer coding for burst errors (Reed .

Outer coding • Reed Solomon – – – – Operates over individual packets Corrects up to 8 erroneous bytes per packet Non correctable flag for > 8 byte errors Bandwidth overhead is 8% • Forney convolution interleaving – Increases efficiency of the RS coding – Spreads errors over a greater area .

3/4. 7/8) • Puncture rate impact on data rate – Puncture rate of 3/4 means 1 out of 4 bits is removed – Data rate becomes: (1/2)*(4/3) = 2/3 of original (ie code rate is 2/3) No puncturing data rate is halved since convolution encoder produces two identical streams Every 4th bit removed .Inner coding • Convolution coding – 2 identical streams produced from outer coded stream – Output stream formed from combination of these new streams – Not all simultaneous bits taken .hence rate defined (DVB-T code rates: 1/2. 2/3. 5/6.

4 or 6 bit words are mapped onto the OFDM carriers – 1512 for 2k mode or 6048 for 8K mode . 16-QAM and 64-QAM respectively • Symbol interleaving – The 2. 4 or 6 streams for QPSK.Bit and Symbol Interleaving • Bite-wise interleaving – Inner coder has two output streams – Bit wise interleaver produces 2.

Amplitude and Phase Mapping (example) 12 phases / 3 amplitudes 2 amplitudes appear on 4 phases 1 amplitude appears on 8 phases I 16-QAM Q .

524 in 8k mode 9 Transmitted at increased power levels 9 Used in conjunction with continual pilots to estimate the channel distortion . 177 in 8k mode 9 Transmitted at increased power levels 9 Used to estimate the channel characteristics and therefore make corrections – Scattered pilots 9 Located as a pre-defined pattern such that there is an equal number per symbol 9 131 in 2K mode.Pilots and TPS addition • Pilots – Continual pilots 9 Always in the same place within the OFDM symbol 9 45 in 2k mode.

Pilots and TPS addition • TPS (Transmission Parameter Signalling) – – – – – – – Type of modulation used Hierarchy information Guard interval Inner code rates Transmission mode (ie 2k or 8k) Frame number within a super frame (ie 0 to 3) DPSK (Differential Phase Shift Keying) modulation used due to robustness .

DFT at receiver – – – – FFT actually used (computational algorithm) for summing operation FFT’s must be powers of 2.IFFT. sampled and output .53 ms N2 N 2 log N • Complex to real conversion – Q (real) and I (Imaginary) are added. time shift and combination • IDFT at transmitter. hence ‘2k’ or ‘8k’ modes Much faster that normal DFT Eg if 8k point DFT takes 670 ms then the FFT takes .

Guard Interval Insertion • Replication of end of symbol placed at beginning Main signal ∆ ∆ Useful symbol Copy of end of symbol ∆ t Also means receiver can identify start of symbol using a correlation function .

Transmission • D/A conversion • Filtering • Upconversion and transmission Video luminance carrier FM sound carrier NICAM COFDM carrier 7.Final stages .25 MHz 526 MHz 530 MHz +/.61 MHz Video picture information Analogue transmission Digital transmission f 518 MHz 519.1/6 Mhz (Centre) CH28 CH27 Example: UK transmission in channel 28 .

............. ..|||||||| R |||||||....|||||||| IFFT FIR DAC |||||......|||||||| I |||||||.... |||||||.........011001010001.......|||||| F * Same as DVB-S ...MPEG-2 Transport stream input 188 188 188 COFDM functional blocks Randomisation* Outer coding* (R/S bytes added) RS 204 204 Outer interleaving* (Forney) PRBS Inner coding* Bit and symbol interleaving .......................|||||| |||||.|||||||| I Pilots and TPS addition ....|||||||| Amplitude/phase mapping |||||||........ Time shift and Inverse FFT combination Guard interval insertion GI Analogue conversion Filtering Upconversion Transmission R |||||||..... ....|||||||| |||||||..|||||||| |||||||..... .

Orthogonal F .Division M .Coded O .What is COFDM ? C .Frequency D .Multiplex .

Orthogonality • Definition possible due to signals being described as vectors • Spacing between carriers is minimised – Results close to theoretical maximum are achieved (∆f ∝1/Τ) – Expensive in analogue FDM due to costly band pass filters 1/T fk fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 fk+4 .

Countering against echoes and reflections • Repetition of signal to counter echoes – Echoes caused by – Moving receiver – Moving transmitter – Reflection from moving or static objects – Single Frequency Networks (SFN’s) COFDM transmitter Reflected signal Direct signal Building Set top box Distant signal Direct signal Set top box COFDM transmitter 1 COFDM transmitter 2 .

delay Guard interval t ∆ Useful data Delayed signal t .1 km Guard interval ∆ Useful data Main signal Max.Countering against echoes and reflections • Echo length is easily calculated – Assuming 2k Mode with Guard interval 1/32 – 1/32 of the symbol transmits in 7 us – Maximum delay = 7 us – Distance = 3 x 108 m/s x 7 us – Distance = 2.

64-QAM • Guard Interval: 1/4. 7/8 • Hierarchical modes • Selection of transmission bandwidth (6/7/8 MHz) . 1/8. 5/6.DVB-T variable parameters • Carrier mode: 2k or 8k • Type of modulation: QPSK. 2/3. 3/4. 1/64 • Inner code rate: 1/2. 16-QAM. 1/16.

91 22.59 18.56 12.81 8.56 23.59 22.64 7.98 6.10 20.10 24.05 10.93 19.68 11.88 26.29 8.25 11.56 19.42 26.43 19.61 17.35 16.13 27.12 24.27 14.88 27.16 31.46 8.93 16.11 18.13 1/8 5.71 15.39 24.11 21.27 30.65 29.85 7.22 9.37 8.76 10.59 17.52 20.06 14.05 10.35 29.74 1/32 6.53 7.75 16.03 8.71 9.04 9.49 17.95 13.03 1/16 5.09 18.42 14.06 16.29 9.67 QPSK 3/4 5/6 7/8 1/2 2/3 16-QAM 3/4 5/6 7/8 1/2 64-QAM 2/3 3/4 5/6 7/8 .DVB-T variable parameters Useful data rate (M bits / sec) Modulation Code rate 1/2 2/3 Guard interval 1/4 4.14 30.78 9.

DVB-T variable parameters • Significance of mode and guard interval – ‘8k’ system allows good reception with long multi-path echoes – ‘8k’ system is therefore suitable for single frequency networks (SFN’s) – ‘2k’ system more suited to multi frequency or single transmitter networks – A larger guard interval implies a lower bit-rate efficiency – The guard interval value is therefore a trade-off between bit-rate and network tolerance to echoes and reflections .

DVB-T hierarchy coding I 64 QAM constellation Q Low priority carriers .

DVB-T hierarchy coding I In poor S/N ratio conditions 16 64-QAM constellation points can be demodulated as one QPSK constellation point Q High priority carriers .

mobile. low end.DVB-T hierarchy coding • Transmission of the same or different data for: – Same or different program can be transmitted in HD and SD + greater error recovery – Poor reception areas can view SD if HD not possible • Transmission of different resolutions / characteristics: – Reception by different cost receivers (high end. portable) • Other data can be transmitted related to the program .

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